WorldWideScience

Sample records for public lands protection

  1. 77 FR 58864 - Public Land Order No. 7801; Withdrawal of Public Lands for Protection of Proposed Expansion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... status quo of the lands and mineral estate included in the proposed training land acquisition/airspace... laws, and the mineral material laws, to protect the status quo of the lands pending action on an... Palms; CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This...

  2. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A.; Echeverria, Cristian M.; Moya, Danisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others. PMID:26848856

  3. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Arriagada

    Full Text Available Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation, biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general, among others.

  4. 78 FR 40499 - Public Land Order No. 7818; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Protection and Preservation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Mexico, and Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This... geothermal leasing, and mineral material sales. DATES: As of: June 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., 775- 861-6400. New Mexico State Office, 301 Dinosaur Trail, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508,...

  5. Protection of Urban Lands: Advances in Medellin’s Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Atehortúa-Arredondo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of land ownership protection in this country is an issue that must be faced by those who have as part of their responsibilities the recognition, the restitution and the reparation of victims of forced displacement. One of the points that must be analyzed is the protection of ownership of urban lands, a subject falling under municipal responsibility. The development of a public policy by the City of Medellín for the protection of such lands is a significant advance for the creation of protocols and for the return of rights to those who have adandoned their lands because of violence or who have been divested of their homes in urban areas.

  6. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  7. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  8. Protecting women's rights to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoko, J

    2000-07-01

    This article examines the efficacy of the 1998 Land Act in protecting women's right to land in Uganda. The Land Act introduced individual ownership to encourage a more productive use of land, based on the principles of economic liberalization. It converted customary ownership through the creation of written deeds. Traditionally, women's land use was protected under customary law, in which elders assumed the role of protectors, however, the passage of the Land Act changed this. It did not recognize the role of elders as protectors. To this effect, men automatically assumed that role because of the presumption that women did not own the land making them individual owners of the land. Therefore, because of the law's limitations, women have lost ownership, and are more disadvantaged by the higher incidences of divorce and the fact that wives rarely inherit. It is for this reason that the Oxfam worked with the Uganda Land Alliance to lobby the government to ensure that the Act protected women's right as much as possible.

  9. Public and Conservation Trust Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A 1:100,000 polygon features class representing public, conservation and trust land ownership in the state of California. Developed for the California Resources...

  10. 77 FR 60458 - Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills Training Area; MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills... laws, for a period of 5 years. This withdrawal will protect the Limestone Hills Training Area in... hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Limestone Hills Training Area withdrawal will maintain the...

  11. Protecting Timber Supply on Public Land in Response to Catastrophic Natural Disturbance: A Principal-Agent Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophic natural disturbance creates a dilemma for the public forestland owner desiring to retain growing stock and salvaging some, if not all, of the damaged timber. If logging on public forestlands is conducted by private forest companies under various tenure arrangements, attainment of the

  12. Analysis on Farmers’ Land Right Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Land is the fundamental income sources of farmers. However, farmers stay at disadvantaged statge in the political, economic and social aspects. Their land is exploited and occupied, which facilitates the rapid development of economy, as well as brings the gap between the poor and the rich and the inharmonious disputes. The necessity for protecting the land right of farmers under the new situation is expounded, covering the necessity of carrying out the relevant agricultural policies; the necessity of improving rural economic status and narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas; the necessity of reducing land disputes and constructing harmonious society. The violation of farmers’ land rights is analyzed from two aspects. The first one is the violation of farmers’ land right in land tenure section, which includes the lack of ecological compensation system the lack of contract operation right; the second one is the violation of farmers’ land right in land transfer section, including the absence of land requisition system, substandard land contract and land transfer and the limitation of house stead circulation; the third one is the vacant of land development right affects farmers’ share of enjoying the added value of land. The countermeasures for protecting farmers’ land rights are put forward. The first one is clarify land property; the second one is normalize and perfect land requisition system; the third one is appropriately loosen rural land transfer policies; the fourth one is establish ecological compensation and land development right compensation system.

  13. PUBLIC ACCESS TO PRIVATE LAND IN SCOTLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Carey Miller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to understand the radical reform of Scottish land law in its provision for a general right of public access to private land introduced in 2003 as part of land reform legislation, an important aspect of the initial agenda of the Scottish Parliament revived in 1999. The right is to recreational access for a limited period and the right to cross land. Access can be taken only on foot or by horse or bicycle. As a starting point clarification of the misunderstood pre-reform position is attempted. The essential point is that Scots common law does not give civil damages for a simple act of trespass (as English law does but only a right to obtain removal of the trespasser. Under the reforms the longstanding Scottish position of landowners allowing walkers access to the hills and mountains becomes a legal right. A critical aspect of the new right is that it is one of responsible access; provided a landowner co-operates with the spirit and system of the Act access can be denied on the basis that it is not being exercised responsibly. But the onus is on the landowner to show that the exercise of the right is not responsible.Although the right applies to all land a general exception protects the privacy of a domestic dwelling. Early case law suggests that the scope of this limit depends upon particular circumstances although reasonable 'garden ground' is likely to be protected. There are various particular limits such as school land.Compliance with the protection of property under the European Convention on Human Rights is discussed. The article emphasises the latitude, open to nations, for limitations to the right of ownership in land in the public interest. The extent of the Scottish access inroad illustrates this. This leads to the conclusion that 'land governance' – the subject of the Potchefstroom Conference at which the paper was initially presented – largely remains a matter for domestic law; the lex situs concept is alive

  14. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  15. Bavarian Land Office for Environmental Protection. 1996 annual report and abstracts of publications; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz. Taetigkeitsbericht 1996 und Kurzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The annual report informs about the activities of the Bavarian Land Office for Environmental Protection in the following fields: clean air policy, waste management, management of soil pollution and remedial action, nuclear energy and radiation protection, nature conservation and landscape conservation, LfU laboratory, environmental hygiene, and data processing (SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht beschreibt die Taetigkeiten des Bayerischen Landesamtes fuer Umweltschutz auf folgenden Gebieten: Immissionsschutz, Abfallwirtschaft, Altlasten und Bodenschutz, Kernenergie und Strahlenschutz, Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, Zentrallabors und Umwelthygiene, sowie Datenverarbeitung. (SR)

  16. Modes for Agricultural Land Protection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaojia; CAO; Xianshu; LI

    2013-01-01

    The main problem of agricultural land protection in China is the single farmland protection mode insuring arable land area only by issuing indicators,which brings great pressure to farmland’s production and service function. Through establishing the corresponding relationship between food structure and some land use types,this paper points out that there is asymmetry between farmland area and per capita food consumption structure in China in recent years. Based on the above study,the paper proposes four types for agricultural land production, namely subsistence,fairly well-off,ecological and discrete type. Finally,it concludes that establishing rational type for agricultural land protection and implementing diverse farmland protection modes is the trend of farmland protection in China in the future.

  17. 76 FR 21914 - Public Land Order No. 7762; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6845; New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Order No. 6845 (56 FR 14865 (1991)), which withdrew 200 acres of public land from settlement, sale... to continue protection of the archaeological values at the Arroyo del Tajo Pictograph Site in Socorro... this extension to continue protection of the archaeological values at the Arroyo del Tajo...

  18. Land Protection Plan: Swan Valley Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Swan Valley Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to the...

  19. Land Protection Plan: Dakota Grassland Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Dakota Grassland Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to the...

  20. Public Incentives for Conservation on Private Land

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, Jordan; Sahan, Dissanayake; Lynne, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation resulting from land development has motivated considerable public and private expenditures on land conservation initiatives. In addition to direct expenditures related to the procurement of conservation land, legislators have also put in place incentives aimed at encouraging private landowners to voluntarily donate conservation easements. Many landowners have taken advantage of these incentives, as private land held under conservation easement increased n...

  1. Incorporating private lands in conservation planning: protected areas in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah F; Gaston, Kevin J

    2008-06-01

    Evaluations of the effectiveness of protected areas often report their inadequate representation of regional variation in environmental conditions, land cover, and biological diversity. One frequent contributory explanation is the heavy reliance placed upon the designation of public as opposed to private lands for statutory protection. Given that protected area designation in Britain has no such constraint, and indeed that more than half of such areas are on private lands, we tested the a priori assumption that within this region the representation of environmental conditions and land cover within statutory protected areas would be more equitable. Despite the reduction in land ownership constraints on where protected areas can be established, a marked bias in protected area coverage remains. Protected areas in Britain tend toward regions of higher elevation, soils of lower economic potential, and coastal/estuarine habitat and fail adequately to represent areas of lower elevation and woodland habitats. Improving the current situation requires not only a more systematic approach to site selection, but a more equitable and diverse portfolio of incentives for private landowners to facilitate the decision to manage sites for conservation.

  2. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  3. Lease of agricultural land in public ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the legal norms which regulate leasing of agricultural land in public ownership. The basic hypothesis is that the main goal of land leasing should be to achieve an efficient allocation and maximization of public rental income. It was concluded that we should eliminate all restrictions that serve as barriers to market allocation. These include provisions that restrict some groups from participating in the land lease auctions, then the preemptive right of lease, as well as the ban on subleasing. It also criticizes the application of the principles of affectation, or restriction of freedom of local governments in the use of funds received from land leasing.

  4. The Plights and Solutions of the Farmers’ Land Rights Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The current plights of farmers’ land rights in China are analyzed.They cover the vain installation of the security of farmers’ land rights,vain position of the dominant role played by rural collective land,incomplete functions of rural collective land and the inadequate material assistance of farmers.The solutions for ensuring the security of farmers’ land rights are put forward,in the first place,perfecting the legislation of guaranteeing farmers’ land rights.In the second place,scientifically installing the rural land rights,which covers the following aspects,such as,clearly defining that the collective ownership of rural land belongs to farmers in law;clearly defining the main body of rural land property and eliminating the shortage of property rights;demarcating the range of public interests and clearly stipulating the reasonable compensation of main body of land expropriation.In the third place,villagers’ autonomy should be perfected.In the forth place,standardizing the system of land expropriation,which includes the two aspects of normalizing the land transference procedure and the control of collecting land tax,and establishing fair compensation standard and normalizing land compensation procedure.In the fifth place,strengthening land transference and judiciary,and enforcing supervision;in the sixth place,accelerating the development of peasants’ cooperative economic organizations and cultivating peasants’ rights keeping organization.Through the discussion on the plights and solutions of farmers’ land rights protection,the coordination of rural and urban development will be realized and a harmonious society will be built.

  5. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  6. Legal protection of land from pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.

  7. 浅谈图书馆知识公地的保护%A Brief Discussion on the Protection of the Library as the Public Intellectual Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贠建农; 贠德政

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the socialist legal system in China continues to be perfected, and citizens' awareness of intellectual property rights is enhanced. On one hand, intellectual works are protected, and on the other hand, the areas of public intellectual works are shrinking. As the source of works, the library is also suffering from impact and test.%目前,我国社会主义法制不断完善,公民知识产权意识的增强,知识作品一个方面受到保护,另一方面公有知识作品领域面临萎缩,图书馆也正经受着冲击和考验。

  8. 75 FR 26788 - Public Land Order No. 7742; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository; UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7742; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository; UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order....

  9. 78 FR 58555 - Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land... to protect the recreational uses and improvements at the Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds within the... and improvements within the Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds. Order By virtue of the authority vested...

  10. 75 FR 77658 - Public Land Order No. 7755; Withdrawal of Public Lands and Reserved Federal Minerals for the Ash...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...: 14X1109] Public Land Order No. 7755; Withdrawal of Public Lands and Reserved Federal Minerals for the Ash... public lands within the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge boundary to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge boundary. Non-Federal lands within the Refuge boundary...

  11. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  12. Public Lands and Other Managed/Preserved Areas (ECO_RES.SIGECO_SITES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The SIGECO_SITES map layer consists of boundary polygons of public lands and other managed or preserved areas in EPA Region 7 states (i.e., federal, state and other...

  13. 77 FR 58867 - Public Land Order No. 7799; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Rock Springs Administrative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7799; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Rock Springs... the Rock Springs Administrative Site addition. DATES: Effective Date: September 24, 2012. FOR FURTHER... the Rock Springs Administrative Site addition. The land has been and will remain open to...

  14. Land Expropriation and Constitutional Protection of Farmers’ Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons for many social tragedies resulted from land expropriation in China is failure of the constitution to bring into play its due functions in standardizing land expropriation power of the government and protecting farmers’ rights.In the existing land expropriation system,government is not only a policy maker of land expropriation,but also a "referee" of dispute over land expropriation.Government’ land expropriation power and land-expropriated farmers’ rights become out of balance.As a result,some local governments do not attach importance to farmers’ rights,making land-expropriated farmers dissatisfied and consequently leading to some social tragedies unfavorable for harmony and stability.To fundamentally settle disputes over land expropriation and realize win-win of farmers’ right and state interest,it should bring into full play functions of the constitution through protecting farmers’ right to participate in land expropriation and establishing constitution evaluation mechanism.

  15. Land Protection Plan for Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This land protection plan for Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge was prepared to guide Refuge staff in future actions that are necessary to protect the wildlife...

  16. Land Protection Plan : Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge covers problems/needs, program objectives, resource protection alternatives reviewed, summary of...

  17. Land system reform should protect farmers’ interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守英

    2009-01-01

    |Editorial Note|Land has become an issue of increasing social concern as demand continues to surge in the midst of economic development,urbanization and industrialization.The crux of the issue is the land regime. China has a unique dualistic land regime under which the land market has not been well developed.Based on a review and commentary of the existing land polices,this article elaborates on the deficiencies inherent in China’s dualistic land rights system and land market and offers policy recommendations for promoting land system reform and market development.This study will help us gain an in-depth understanding of the problems in China’s land regime.

  18. Land and Forest Degradation inside Protected Areas in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Reymondin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using six years of remote sensing data, we estimated land and forest degradation inside 1788 protected areas across 19 countries in Latin America. From 2004–2009, the rate of land and forest degradation increased by 250% inside the protected areas, and the land and forest degradation totaled 1,097,618 hectares. Of the protected areas in our dataset, 45% had land and forest degradation. There were relatively large variations by major habitat type, with flooded grasslands/savannas and moist broadleaf forest protected areas having the highest rates of degradation. We found no association between a country’s rate of land and forest degradation inside protected areas and Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita, GDP growth, or rural population density. We found significant, but weak, associations between the rate of land and forest degradation inside protected areas and a country’s protected area system funding, the size of the protected area, and one International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN management category. Our results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity in the variables impacting land and forest degradation inside protected areas in Latin America, but that the targeting of protected area investments on a continental scale is plausible.

  19. 77 FR 60277 - National Public Lands Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... volunteering to care for our public lands. Cities and communities across our country will join together to restore the lands and waters we share, and families nationwide will explore the natural splendor that... always have, our public lands remain places of irreplaceable beauty. Through the America's Great...

  20. Using social media to discover public values, interests, and perceptions about cattle grazing on park lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sheila J

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, Flickr(TM) that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  1. Using Social Media to Discover Public Values, Interests, and Perceptions about Cattle Grazing on Park Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sheila J.

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, FlickrTM that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  2. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  3. The Conservation Contributions of Conservation Easements: Analysis of the San Francisco Bay Area Protected Lands Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adena R. Rissman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation easements have emerged as an important tool for land trusts and government agencies aiming to conserve private land in the United States. Despite the increase in public investment in conservation easement acquisitions, little is known about their conservation outcomes, particularly at a landscape scale. The nine-county San Francisco Bay Area exemplifies a complex conservation context: 190 organizations hold 24% of the land base in some type of protection status. Using a detailed protected lands database, we compared the contributions of conservation easements and fee-simple protected areas to ecological, agricultural, and public recreation benefits. We found that conservation easements were more likely to conserve grasslands, oak woodlands, and agricultural land, whereas fee-simple properties were more likely to conserve chaparral and scrub, redwoods, and urban areas. Conservation easements contributed to open space connectivity but were unlikely to be integrated into local land-use plans or provide public recreation. In particular, properties held by land trusts were less likely to allow for public recreation than were public lands. Conservation easements held by land trusts and special districts complemented fee-simple lands and provided greater conservation of some ecological communities and agricultural lands than fee-simple properties. Spatial databases of protected areas that include conservation easements are necessary for conservation planning and assessment.

  4. Your Family Land: Legacy or Memory? An Introduction to the Family Land Protection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2008-01-01

    If you have this perspective, protecting your land from development is a task you certainly can accomplish. Virtually every situation is workable and every problem can be solved. It does require some planning and decisionmaking; however, so the sooner you start the better. Experience has shown that the number one obstacle to the protection of family land...

  5. Land Protection Plan: Sangre de Cristo Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Sangre de Cristo Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to the...

  6. Land Protection Plan: Sangre de Cristo Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan (LLP) discusses the need for acquiring additional acres within the boundary of the San Luis Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex. The...

  7. Land Protection Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Land Protection Plan is to provide landowners with a brief document that details the Service's potential acquisition methods, policy, and...

  8. Land protection plan: Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This land protection plan was the result of several years of planning by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the State of New Jersey, local governments, and...

  9. Land Protection Plan: Rocky Mountain Front Conservation Area Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Rocky Mountain Front Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to...

  10. Land Protection Plan: Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan (LLP) describes the priorities for acquiring additional acres within the boundary of the Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District. The...

  11. Land Protection Plan: Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to the...

  12. PUBLIC DOMAIN PROTECTION. USES AND REUSES OF PUBLIC DOMAIN WORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Adriana LUPAȘCU

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to highlight the necessity of an awareness of the right of access to the public domain, particularly using the example of works whose protection period has expired, as well as the ones which the law considers to be excluded from protection. Such works are used not only by large libraries from around the world, but also by rights holders, via different means of use, including incorporations into original works or adaptations. However, the reuse that follows these uses often on...

  13. Investigating public decisions about protecting wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzner, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative analyses of species protection decisions taken by public authorities regularly show that ecological factors, such as the probability of extinction, often play a minor role in the decision-making process. The taxonomy of the species or its potential conflict with economic development is a more powerful factor. This paper presents quantitative empirical research on the protection of wetlands in Austria. Econometrically estimated models show that geographical and ecological factors (such as the size of the area, elevation and importance for biodiversity) play a significant role in the protection of wetlands. Additional influences include conflict variables encoding the negative effects of the primary economic sector (agriculture) or tourism.

  14. ICRP PUBLICATION 120: Radiological protection in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, C; Miller, D L; Bernardi, G; Rehani, M M; Schofield, P; Vañó, E; Einstein, A J; Geiger, B; Heintz, P; Padovani, R; Sim, K-H

    2013-02-01

    Cardiac nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomography (CT), interventional cardiology procedures, and electrophysiology procedures are increasing in number and account for an important share of patient radiation exposure in medicine. Complex percutaneous coronary interventions and cardiac electrophysiology procedures are associated with high radiation doses. These procedures can result in patient skin doses that are high enough to cause radiation injury and an increased risk of cancer. Treatment of congenital heart disease in children is of particular concern. Additionally, staff(1) in cardiac catheterisation laboratories may receive high doses of radiation if radiological protection tools are not used properly. The Commission provided recommendations for radiological protection during fluoroscopically guided interventions in Publication 85, for radiological protection in CT in Publications 87 and 102, and for training in radiological protection in Publication 113 (ICRP, 2000b,c, 2007a, 2009). This report is focused specifically on cardiology, and brings together information relevant to cardiology from the Commission's published documents. There is emphasis on those imaging procedures and interventions specific to cardiology. The material and recommendations in the current document have been updated to reflect the most recent recommendations of the Commission. This report provides guidance to assist the cardiologist with justification procedures and optimisation of protection in cardiac CT studies, cardiac nuclear medicine studies, and fluoroscopically guided cardiac interventions. It includes discussions of the biological effects of radiation, principles of radiological protection, protection of staff during fluoroscopically guided interventions, radiological protection training, and establishment of a quality assurance programme for cardiac imaging and intervention. As tissue injury, principally skin injury, is a risk for fluoroscopically guided interventions

  15. Balancing housing growth and land conservation: Conservation development preserves private lands near protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Sarah E. Reed; Liba Pejchar; Jessica Salo

    2017-01-01

    Housing development has emerged as a primary driver of land-use change around the world. In the United States, there is particular concern about low-density residential development on rural lands, which often occurs in places with abundant natural amenities. Conservation development (CD), housing development that incorporates protected open space, has emerged as a tool...

  16. Windfalls for wilderness: land protection and land value in the Green Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer Phillips

    2000-01-01

    Land is a composite good, the price of which varies with its characteristics, including proximity to amenities. Using data from sales of land near Green Mountain National Forest wilderness areas in a hedonic price model, a positive relationship between proximity to protected wilderness and market values is revealed. The applications of this result include improved...

  17. 77 FR 55496 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Public Lands in Eastern Lassen County, California, and Western...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    .... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that BLM-managed public lands in the area affected by the Rush Fire in... with fire suppression and resource protection and State, local and Federal officials involved with enforcement. This closure is necessary to protect public health and safety. DATES: The temporary closure...

  18. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  19. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Townships

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System grid that are referenced by their tier and range numbers, and are normally...

  20. 78 FR 60177 - National Public Lands Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... lives, and bolstering our economy. Today, as we mark the 20th anniversary of National Public Lands Day, let us pledge to maintain these open spaces. And let us pass forward the opportunity to experience...

  1. Accounting for heterogeneity of public lands in hedonic property models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte Ham; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis; Robin M. Reich

    2012-01-01

    Open space lands, national forests in particular, are usually treated as homogeneous entities in hedonic price studies. Failure to account for the heterogeneous nature of public open spaces may result in inappropriate inferences about the benefits of proximate location to such lands. In this study the hedonic price method is used to estimate the marginal values for...

  2. 76 FR 81906 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding a Competitive Process for Leasing Public Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... renewable energy resources. In Section 211 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), Congress declared that... guidelines for the administration and protection of the public lands and their resources, and directs that... order to foster the growth and development of the renewable energy sector of the economy and to...

  3. 76 FR 5398 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Selected Public Lands in La Paz County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...-330-07-02] Notice of Temporary Closure of Selected Public Lands in La Paz County, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of... its administration in La Paz County, Arizona. This action is being taken to protect persons, property... under the guidance of the La Paz County Emergency Medical Services and Fire, or the Arizona...

  4. Public-private provision of protection measures against natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazards threaten human lives as well as economic values of a society. Due to an increasing population density, augmenting property holdings in congested areas as well as higher frequencies of catastrophic events, the damage potential associated with natural hazards is growing. In order to safeguard societal assets against this threat, active and passive protection measures can be established. While passive protection measures provide for this type of risk by means of thorough land use planning, active protection measures aim at improving safety through technical or biological protective systems and structures. However, these provisions are costly and need to be handled prudentially. In most European countries protection measures against natural hazards are provided by the public. Specific governmental funds have been set up for the establishment of preventive systems as well as for damage compensation payments after the occurrence of catastrophic events. Though, additional capital is urgently needed in order to facilitate the realisation of all necessary projects in this field and to provide for maximal safety. One potential solution for such financial deficiencies can be found in Public Private Partnerships (PPP). PPPs have been implemented as attractive concepts for the funding of diverse projects in the fields of e.g. road construction, municipal, health and social services. In principle, they could also provide alternative funding solutions for the establishment of crucial protective infrastructure in respect of natural hazards, adding private financial means to the currently available public funds. Thereby, the entire capacities for catastrophe funding could be enhanced. Beside PPPs, also alternative funding mechanisms such as the emission of catastrophe bonds, contingent credit lines or leasing arrangements may enhance available capacities for the financing of protection measures. This contribution discusses innovative solutions for the funding of

  5. 77 FR 47089 - Public Land Order No. 7795; Withdrawal of Public Lands, Clear Creek Serpentine Area of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Area of Critical Environmental Concern; California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... the Clear Creek Serpentine Area of Critical Environmental Concern. In addition, approximately 3,889... temporary closure of the public lands in the Clear Creek ] Serpentine Area of Critical Environmental...

  6. Trends in land use and land cover change in the protected and communal areas of the Zambezi Region, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwi, Jonathan Mutau; Kaetsch, Christoph; Graz, Friedrich Patric; Chirwa, Paxie; Manda, Samuel

    2017-05-01

    Land management decisions have extensively modified land use and land cover in the Zambezi Region. These decisions are influenced by land tenure classifications, legislation, and livelihoods. Land use and land cover change is an important indicator for quantifying the effectiveness of different land management strategies. However, there has been no evidence on whether protected or communal land tenure is more affected by land use and land cover changes in southern Africa and particularly Namibia. Our study attempted to fill this gap by analyzing the relationship between land use and land cover change and land tenure regimes stratified according to protected and communal area in the Zambezi Region. Multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery were used to determine the temporal dynamics of land use and land cover change from 1984 to 2010. The landscape showed distinctive modifications over the study period; broad trends include the increase in forest land after 1991. However, changes were not uniform across the study areas. Two landscape development stages were deduced: (1) 1984-1991 represented high deforestation and gradual increase in shrub land; (2) 1991-2000 and 2000-2010 represented lower deforestation and slower agropastoral expansion. The results further show clear patterns of the dynamics, magnitude, and direction of land use and land cover change by tenure regime. The study concluded that land tenure has a direct impact on land use and land cover, since it may restrict some activities carried out on the land in the Zambezi Region.

  7. Withdrawal of Public Lands for Wildlife Purposes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A recent BLM survey has determined that the 45.33-acre Pig Island, located in St. Joseph Bay, Gulf County, Florida, is public domain. The island has an unusual...

  8. Occupant Protection during Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jones, J. A.; Granderson, B. K.; Somers, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    The constellation program is evaluating current vehicle design capabilities for nominal water landings and contingency land landings of the Orion Crew Exploration vehicle. The Orion Landing Strategy tiger team was formed to lead the technical effort for which associated activities include the current vehicle design, susceptibility to roll control and tip over, reviewing methods for assessing occupant injury during ascent / aborts /landings, developing an alternate seat/attenuation design solution which improves occupant protection and operability, and testing the seat/attenuation system designs to ensure valid results. The EVA physiology, systems and Performance (EPSP) project is leading the effort under the authority of the Tiger Team Steering committee to develop, verify, validate and accredit biodynamics models using a variety of crash and injury databases including NASCAR, Indy Car and military aircraft. The validated biodynamics models will be used by the Constellation program to evaluate a variety of vehicle, seat and restraint designs in the context of multiple nominal and off-nominal landing scenarios. The models will be used in conjunction with Acceptable Injury Risk definitions to provide new occupant protection requirements for the Constellation Program.

  9. Indigenous lands, protected areas, and slowing climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor H Ricketts

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent climate talks in Copenhagen reaffirmed the crucial role of reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD. Creating and strengthening indigenous lands and other protected areas represents an effective, practical, and immediate REDD strategy that addresses both biodiversity and climate crises at once.

  10. Public Land Conveyance Records, Public Land Records, Published in 1997, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Land Conveyance Records dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  11. Estimating the effect of protected lands on the development and conservation of their surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I; Yuan-Farrell, Chris; Fievet, Charles; Moeller, Matthias; Kareiva, Peter; Foster, David; Gragson, Ted; Kinzig, Ann; Kuby, Lauren; Redman, Charles

    2007-12-01

    The fate of private lands is widely seen as key to the fate of biodiversity in much of the world. Organizations that work to protect biodiversity on private lands often hope that conservation actions on one piece of land will leverage the actions of surrounding landowners. Few researchers have, however, examined whether protected lands do in fact encourage land conservation nearby or how protected lands affect development in the surrounding landscape. Using spatiotemporal data sets on land cover and land protection for three sites (western North Carolina, central Massachusetts, and central Arizona), we examined whether the existence of a protected area correlates with an increased rate of nearby land conservation or a decreased rate of nearby land development. At all sites, newly protected conservation areas tended to cluster close to preexisting protected areas. This may imply that the geography of contemporary conservation actions is influenced by past decisions on land protection, often made for reasons far removed from concerns about biodiversity. On the other hand, we found no evidence that proximity to protected areas correlates with a reduced rate of nearby land development. Indeed, on two of our three sites the development rate was significantly greater in regions with more protected land. This suggests that each conservation action should be justified and valued largely for what is protected on the targeted land, without much hope of broader conservation leverage effects.

  12. Land protection plan Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge proposed Buena Vista addition [2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Land Protection Plan, as part of the Environmental Assessment, Land Protection Plan and Conceptual Management Plan for the proposed Buena Vista addition to the...

  13. Public protection – reliable allergen risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, V.; Popov Raljić, J.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    Consumers with potentially fatal food allergies are dependent on correct product labelling to protect their health. The food industry is responsible for providing every detail consumers need to make informed decisions. Considering public health, food suppliers have to monitor the presence of allergens, prevent cross-contamination and label products accurately. Allergen labelling of food products, drinks and non pre-packed food and drink products is clearly defined with legal regulations. To achieve this, a complete understanding of each product’s allergenic ingredients is needed and cross-contamination of food with allergens must be avoided. Raw materials need to be checked, every ingredient must be verified and every single allergen has to be stipulated. A mislabeled product could be recalled at potential cost, financially damaging business and at the same time, negatively impacting brand and reputation.

  14. Applying the ecosystem services concept to public land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Marisa J. Mazzota; Thomas A. Spies; Mark E. Harmon

    2013-01-01

    We examine challenges and opportunities involved in applying ecosystem services to public land management with an emphasis on national forests in the United States. We review historical forest management paradigms and related economic approaches, outline a conceptual framework defining the informational needs of forest managers, and consider the feasibility of its...

  15. 78 FR 24230 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification of Public Lands in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... 120 acres of public land in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The Sweetwater County Solid Waste District 2... the public land laws, including the general mining laws, except for conveyance under the R&PP Act...

  16. Professional regulation, public protection and nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David C; González-Jurado, Máximo Antonio; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Nurse mobility, developments such as health tourism and the rapid expansion of health systems have increased the need for regulatory bodies to reach beyond their normal stakeholder groups so as to familiarize themselves with the legislation of other jurisdictions. A systematic examination of a cross-section of nursing legislation, to ascertain the degree of consistency in the number of definitions specified as well as their underlying structure, was conducted to identify opportunities to strengthen public protection and reduce barriers to freedom of movement. A purposeful sample of legislation, drawn to maximize differences, was subjected to documentary analysis to identify possible relationships between the variables of interest and the way terms and processes were defined in fourteen nurse practice acts. Potential relationships were identified between factors such as geographic region, legal tradition, administrative approach, regulatory model and economic status and the number and approaches used to specify definitions. A major weakness in the precision of definitions was discovered. Several international organizations have started to develop lexicons but all have weaknesses. By drawing upon these lexicons a more comprehensive and precise dictionary could be formulated to support the development of next-generation nurse practice acts. Current legislation lacks precision and, within the context of increased mobility of nurses, there is an urgent need to develop an authoritative source of definitions that can contribute to increasing public safety as well as reducing delays in the freedom of movement of nurses from one jurisdiction to another.

  17. 60 FR 12968 - Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, Idaho AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Sale of public lands in Owyhee County. SUMMARY: The following-described public land...

  18. 75 FR 43200 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Public Lands Administered by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... geographic regions; or (3) Have significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment.... Containing 240,555 acres of public land, more or less. IV. Procedural Matters Executive Order 12866... have an effect of $100 million or ] more on the economy. These rules will not adversely affect in...

  19. The influence of protected natural and cultural heritage on land management/market: The case of Slovenian natural protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisec Anka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on finding problems in land use domain in the areas of protected natural and cultural heritage. In the paper, the influence of special regulation in the natural and cultural protected areas on land management is presented. The paper gives an overview on history of cultural heritage and nature protection initiatives in Slovenia and provides a review on basic EU and international initiatives, conventions in this field. For the case of Slovenian rural land market, it highlights the problem of complex institutional regulations relating to land management in the protected areas, which affect mostly local people. Here, the impact of the protected regimes, the case of pre-emption right, on land management and consequently spatial development in local communities is stressed, which is an important topic in particular in less developed regions since restriction of land use often means more complex, costly and time lasting procedures in land management and less opportunities as the consequence.

  20. Issues in public health: assuaging concern from contaminated land resulting from land use dynamics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H

    2001-01-01

    The anthropogenic disturbance of pristine natural areas caused by land use and transformation from one use to another as a result of increased pressure from demographic changes and the economics of this shrinking resource can result in adverse health hazards for the community. This paper appraises the consequential impact of land use dynamics, its assessment and measures required to assuage this overlooked public health issue. The anthropogenic impact from land use in Malaysia from the industrial sector alone points toward the potential capacity to cause adverse health hazards. A deficiency in assessing this impact due to limited information has resulted in the inability to establish the extent of this problem. Several necessary measures to establish the extent of the problem involving ways to characterise contaminated land and the evolution of a strategy to resolve it are discussed.

  1. Transfer and Transition: Interagency Coordination for Managing Public Lands at UMTRCA Title II Sites in Wyoming – 16614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, David S. [U.S. Dpartment of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Vanek, Tim [U.S.Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Ribeiro, Tracy [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Bahrke, Cheri [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-06

    By the end of fiscal year 2025, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is anticipating adding 17 sites remediated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) to the current inventory of 90 sites that it manages. Among the new sites are ones where federal public lands occur within the proposed long-term care boundary, the boundary determined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and LM as necessary to maintain site protectiveness for the entombed uranium mill tailings and residual groundwater contamination. For these sites, public land withdrawals for land and minerals will need to be established. LM’s primary mission at UMTRCA sites is to protect the public and the environment from exposure to contamination at the sites. For the sites with public lands or federally controlled minerals that will be transferring to LM, the Office will apply to the Department of the Interior (DOI) Bureau of Land Management (BLM) for new, public land and mineral withdrawals. At most current LM UMTRCA sites that involved public lands and minerals, DOI granted DOE “full administrative jurisdiction” and permanent withdrawals. Hence, these withdrawals are, permanently, no longer subject to public land, mining, and mineral-leasing laws and regulations. LM is coordinating with DOI/BLM in Wyoming to permanently withdraw full and partial jurisdiction at future UMTRCA Title II sites in that state. This approach would allow LM to fully administer surface lands and minerals, where necessary, and DOI and LM to administer surface lands and leasable minerals where it would not jeopardize sites’ radiological safety and long-term public and environmental protection. This “shared-jurisdiction approach” will meet LM’s strategic goal of protecting human health and the environment but also allow BLM to fulfill their mission to “manage and conserve the lands under the mandate of multiple-use and sustained yield.” In addition, LM

  2. 78 FR 58555 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Stateline Solar Farm, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Solar Energy right-of-way (ROW) application and provide for the orderly administration of public lands and avoid conflicts between renewable energy generation and mining claims. The public land contained... identified public lands located in the State of California for 2 years from appropriation pursuant to public...

  3. 77 FR 8895 - Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... protect a capital investment in the recreation area of approximately $750,000 in Federal funds. DATES... INFORMATION: The United States Forest Service will manage the land to protect the capital investment...

  4. The USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative: Protecting and restoring the environment near abandoned mine lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is part of a larger strategy of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to clean up Federal lands contaminated by abandoned mines.Thousands of abandond hard-rock metal mines (such as gold, copper, lead, and zinc) have left a dual legacy across the Western United States. They reflect the historic development of the west, yet at the same time represent a possible threat to human health and local ecosystems.Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) are areas adjacent to or affected by abandoned mines. AML's often contain unmined mineral deposits, mine dumps (the ore and rock removed to get to the ore deposits), and tailings (the material left over from the ore processing) that contaminate the surrounding watershed and ecosystem. For example, streams near AML's can contain metals and (or) be so acidic that fish and aquatic insects cannot live in them.Many of these abandoned hard-rock mines are located on or adjacent to public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, and U.S. Forest Service. These federal land management agencies and the USGS are committed to mitigating the adverse effects that AML's can have on water quality and stream habitats.The USGS AML Initiative began in 1997 and will continue through 2001 in two pilot watersheds - the Boulder River basin in southwestern Montana and the upper Animas River basin in southwestern Colorado. The USGS is providing a wide range of scientific expertise to help land managers minimize and, where possible, eliminate the adverse environmental effects of AML's. USGS ecologists, geologists, water quality experts, hydrologists, geochemists, and mapping and digital data collection experts are collaborating to provide the scientific knowledge needed for an effective cleanup of AML's.

  5. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... for its educational and scientific values. DATES: Effective Date: June 6, 2011. FOR FURTHER... requires this extension to continue protection of the educational and scientific values of the Rattler...

  6. 76 FR 61737 - Public Land Order No. 7782; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6880; Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... scientific and ecological research values, and the investment of Federal funds at the Pringle Falls... the protection of the scientific and ecological research values, along with the investment of Federal...

  7. 76 FR 52346 - Public Land Order No. 7775; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6870; Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... extension is necessary to continue protection of the scientific and ecological research values at the... the scientific and ecological research values at the Steamboat Mountain Research Natural Area. The...

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Public Land Survey System of the United States 201011 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  9. Public Land Survey System of Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2003) [plss_la_usgs_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  10. Land protection plan Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge proposed Buena Vista addition [2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan (LPP) describes the resource protection needs and habitat protection methods the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) would use for the...

  11. Land protection plan Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge proposed Buena Vista addition [2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan (LPP) describes the resource protection needs and habitat protection methods the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) would use for...

  12. Protective sustainability of ecosystems using Department of Energy buffer lands as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2007-11-01

    State and federal agencies are faced with protecting human health and the environment for a range of hazardous sites, including nuclear waste storage facilities. At some sites, nuclear materials must be stored for the foreseeable future because no technology currently exists for safe treatment and disposal. Using Department of Energy (DOE) lands as a case study, this article examines the meaning of protective sustainability for ecosystems and proposes a tiered approach to such protection with stakeholder participation during all phases. The approach includes: (1) governmental, institutional and public support to maintain the system, (2) agreement on the ecosystem to sustain, (3) agreement on the goods and services that the ecosystem should provide, (4) methods of monitoring the status of the ecosystem (usually involving bioindicators), (5) methods of evaluating the trends and changes within that system, and (6) methods of managing or restoring components of the ecosystem (response and corrective actions). The latter three steps are those normally considered for management and maintenance of healthy ecosystems, and figure prominently in natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). However, the former three are necessary components for sustainability. Regardless of technologies or technical expertise, the ecosystem will not be protected sustainably unless there is governmental, institutional, and public support for its protection, as well as consensus about the features of the ecosystem to be protected. While the selection of a preferred ecosystem at DOE sites will likely occur as part of remediation/restoration/NRDA, decisions about ecosystem services and human use on buffer lands can be revisited periodically. Monitoring is an integral part of evaluating continued health and safety of the ecosystem and its component parts, and such data should then be used to evaluate status and trends. These evaluations, however, will be most useful when they include hypothesis

  13. 70 FR 9098 - Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee... located in Owyhee County, Idaho is suitable for direct sale to Owyhee County under Sections 203 and 209...

  14. 63 FR 43413 - Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, Idaho AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 77 FR 75654 - Notice of Temporary Closures on Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closures on Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID AGENCY... are in effect on public lands administered by the Owyhee Field Office, Bureau of Land Management (BLM... contact Loretta Chandler, Owyhee Field Office Manager at 20 First Ave. West, Marsing, Idaho, 83639,...

  16. 75 FR 51841 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... the appraised fair market value, approximately 800 acres of public lands in Churchill County, Nevada... lands in Churchill County, Nevada, proposed for sale are located 65 miles northeast of Fallon,...

  17. 77 FR 61023 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA AGENCY... proposed for direct sale in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the Federal Land Policy and Management... isolated from other public lands in the region. The BLM is proposing a direct sale to John and Tina...

  18. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  19. 75 FR 444 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ....LXSS007B0000; CACA 49825] Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA AGENCY... INFORMATION: The following described public land is being proposed for direct sale to the Trustees in... purpose. The BLM is proposing a direct sale because the public lands lack legal access and are...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference, see § 1915.5); (2) Automatic sprinkler systems according to NFPA 25-2002 Standard for the... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915... Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  1. Problems and Solutions of Protecting Rights and Interests of Land-expropriated farmers during Urbanization--A Case Study of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses existing problems in protecting rights and interests of land-expropriated farmers’ during urbanization,such as those farmers’ failure to obtain benefits from land increment,difficult employment and imperfect social security system.Reasons for losses of farmers’ rights and interests mainly include defects in land management and expropriation system,and uncoordinated development of urbanization and industrialization.However,the basic reason is urban and rural dual economic structure.On the basis of these situations,it puts forward solutions to protecting rights and interests of land-expropriated farmers:let land-expropriated farmers share land-increment benefits from land marketization;establish effective employment security system and perfect social security system,to make land-expropriated farmers share supply of public goods equal between rural and urban areas,and realize the inclusive growth balancing urban and rural areas.

  2. 68 FR 27583 - Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, Idaho; Termination of Desert Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-20

    ...-03-003] Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, Idaho; Termination of Desert.... ACTION: Notice and sale of public land in Owyhee County. SUMMARY: This notice terminates a suitable..., Owyhee County, Idaho T. 7 S., R. 6 E., section 7: Lot 6 Containing +/- 0.96 acres. The patent,...

  3. Land use change around protected areas: management to balance human needs and ecological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth; Hansen, Andrew; Turner, B L; Reid, Robin; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-06-01

    Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

  4. Satellite monitoring of land-use and land-cover changes in northern Togo protected areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fousseni Folega; Chun-yu Zhang; Xiu-hai Zhao; Kperkouma Wala; Komlan Batawila; Hua-guo Huang; Marra Dourma; Koffi Akpagana

    2014-01-01

    Remote-sensing data for protected areas in northern Togo, obtained in three different years (2007, 2000, and 1987), were used to assess and map changes in land cover and land use for this drought prone zone. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was applied to the images to map changes in vegetation. An unsupervised classification, followed by classes recoding, filtering, identifications, area computing and post-classification process were applied to the composite of the three years of NDVI images. Maximum likelihood classification was applied to the 2007 image (ETM+2007) using a supervised classification process. Seven vegetation classes were defined from training data sets. The seven classes included the following biomes:riparian forest, dry forest, flooded vegetation, wooded savanna, fallows, parkland, and water. For these classes, the overall accuracy and the overall kappa statistic for the classi-fied map were 72.5% and 0.67, respectively. Data analyses indicated a great change in land resources;especially between 1987 and 2000 proba-bly due to the impact of democratization process social, economic, and political disorder from 1990. Wide-scale loss of vegetation occurred during this period. However, areas of vegetation clearing and regrowth were more visible between 2000 and 2007. The main source of confusion in the contingency matrix was due to heterogeneity within certain classes. It could also be due to spectral homogeneity among the classes. This research provides a baseline for future ecological landscape research and for the next management program in the area.

  5. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  6. Public investment does not crowd out private supply of environmental goods on private land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David H; Kyle, Garreth; Morris, William K; Smith, F Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In landscapes where private land tenure is prevalent, public funds for ecological landscape restoration are sometimes spent subsidising the revegetation of cleared land, and the protection of remnant vegetation from livestock. However, the total area treated may be unclear because such projects are not always recorded, and landholders may undertake similar activities without subsidisation. In the absence of empirical data, in the state of Victoria, Australia, a reporting assumption has been employed that suggests that wholly privately funded sites match publicly subsidised sites on a hectare for hectare basis (a so-called "x2" assumption). Conversely, the "crowding out" theory of investment in public goods such as environmental benefits suggests that public investment may supplant private motivation. Using aerial photography we mapped the extent of revegetation, native vegetation fencing and restoration on 71 representative landholdings in rural south-eastern Australia. We interviewed each landholder and recorded the age and funding model of each site. Contrary to the local "x2" reporting assumption, about 75% of the total area of the 412 sites was from subsidised sites, and that proportion was far higher for the period after 1997. However, rather than displacing unsubsidised activity, our modelling showed that landholders who had recently been subsidised for a project were more likely to have subsequently completed unsubsidised work. This indicates that, at least in terms of medium-term economic impact, the large increase in public subsidies did not diminish privately funded activity, as might be expected according to the theory of crowding out.

  7. Wildlife Conservation and Private Protected Areas: The Discrepancy Between Land Trust Mission Statements and Their Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Ashley A.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Stedman, Richard C.; Cosbar, Emily A.; Wood, Eric M.

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, land trusts in the U.S. had protected nearly 50 million acres of land, with much of it providing habitat for wildlife. However, the extent to which land trusts explicitly focus on wildlife conservation remains largely unknown. We used content analysis to assess land trust involvement in wildlife and habitat conservation, as reflected in their mission statements, and compared these findings with an organizational survey of land trusts. In our sample of 1358 mission statements, we found that only 17 % of land trusts mentioned "wildlife," "animal," or types of wildlife, and 35 % mentioned "habitat" or types. Mission statements contrasted sharply with results from a land trust survey, in which land trusts cited wildlife habitat as the most common and significant outcome of their protection efforts. Moreover, 77 % of land trusts reported that at least half of their acreage protected wildlife habitat, though these benefits are likely assumed. Importantly, mission statement content was not associated with the percentage of land reported to benefit wildlife. These inconsistencies suggest that benefits to wildlife habitat of protected land are recognized but may not be purposeful and strategic and, thus, potentially less useful in contributing toward regional wildlife conservation goals. We outline the implications of this disconnect, notably the potential omission of wildlife habitat in prioritization schema for land acquisition and potential missed opportunities to build community support for land trusts among wildlife enthusiasts and to develop partnerships with wildlife conservation organizations.

  8. 79 FR 32979 - Notice of Temporary Closures on Public Lands in Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closures on Public Lands in Owyhee County, Idaho AGENCY... routes crossing public lands located in Owyhee County, Idaho. The affected routes are found in: T. 7...

  9. 81 FR 23746 - Temporary Road Closure on Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Temporary Road Closure on Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of... 1-mile road segment that crosses public lands located in Owyhee County, Idaho, approximately 5 miles... the Owyhee Field Office, 20 First Avenue West, Marsing, Idaho, 83639. National Environmental...

  10. 76 FR 62831 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA AGENCY... INFORMATION: The following parcel of public land is being proposed for direct sale to the County of Shasta in... the appraised fair market value of $176,000. DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale...

  11. 75 FR 71143 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID AGENCY.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following described public land is being proposed for direct sale to the Animal... Animal Shelter. Regulations contained in 43 CFR 2711.3-3 permit direct sales when a competitive sale...

  12. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following public land is proposed for direct sale... appraised fair market value of $25,000. DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale must be...

  13. 76 FR 2413 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Lawrence County, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Lawrence County, SD... public land is being proposed for direct sale to Keith Sauls in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of... proposing a direct sale to the homeowner, in accordance with 43 CFR ] 2711.3-3, to resolve...

  14. 75 FR 80841 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Kern County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Kern County, CA AGENCY... proposed for direct sale to Kern County in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the Federal Land Policy... direct sale because Kern County wishes to secure the land for a buffer zone for their existing...

  15. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  16. Postfire management in forested public lands of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschta, R.L.; Rhodes, J.J.; Kauffman, J.B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Minshall, G.W.; Frissell, C.A.; Perry, D.A.; Hauer, R.

    2004-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the western United States evolved over many millennia in response to disturbances such as wildfires. Land use and management practices have altered these ecosystems, however, including fire regimes in some areas. Forest ecosystems are especially vulnerable to postfire management practices because such practices may influence forest dynamics and aquatic systems for decades to centuries. Thus, there is an increasing need to evaluate the effect of postfire treatments from the perspective of ecosystem recovery. We examined, via the published literature and our collective experience, the ecological effects of some common postfire treatments. Based on this examination, promising postfire restoration measures include retention of large trees, rehabilitation of firelines and roads, and, in some cases, planting of native species. The following practices are generally inconsistent with efforts to restore ecosystem functions after fire: seeding exotic species, livestock grazing, placement of physical structures in and near stream channels, ground-based postfire logging, removal of large trees, and road construction. Practices that adversely affect soil integrity, persistence or recovery of native species, riparian functions, or water quality generally impede ecological recovery after fire. Although research provides a basis for evaluating the efficacy of postfire treatments, there is a continuing need to increase our understanding of the effects of such treatments within the context of societal and ecological goals for forested public lands of the western United States.

  17. 78 FR 3027 - Notice of Temporary Closures of Public Lands in La Paz County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ...-10-05] Notice of Temporary Closures of Public Lands in La Paz County, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Lake Havasu Field Office in La Paz County, Arizona. This action is being taken to help ensure public... the La Paz County Emergency Medical Services and Fire, the Arizona Department of Public Safety, or...

  18. 76 FR 59157 - Public Land Order No. 7783; Extension of Withdrawal Created by Subtitle A of Public Law 104-201; CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Public Law 104-201; CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of a withdrawal created by Subtitle A of Public Law 104-201 for an additional 15-year period. Subtitle A of Public Law 104-201 withdrew 3,133 acres of public lands and...

  19. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heat-related mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variations in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with land surface temperature (LST) estimates derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the assessment of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. We will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  20. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heatrelated mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the consideration of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we also developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. In this paper, we will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  1. Protection reduces loss of natural land-cover at sites of conservation importance across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Alison E; Eshiamwata, George W; Donald, Paul F; Balmford, Andrew; Bertzky, Bastian; Brink, Andreas B; Fishpool, Lincoln D C; Mayaux, Philippe; Phalan, Ben; Simonetti, Dario; Buchanan, Graeme M

    2013-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that protected areas are key in reducing adverse land-cover change, but their efficacy remains difficult to quantify. Many previous assessments of protected area effectiveness have compared changes between sets of protected and unprotected sites that differ systematically in other potentially confounding respects (e.g. altitude, accessibility), have considered only forest loss or changes at single sites, or have analysed changes derived from land-cover data of low spatial resolution. We assessed the effectiveness of protection in reducing land-cover change in Important Bird Areas (IBAs) across Africa using a dedicated visual interpretation of higher resolution satellite imagery. We compared rates of change in natural land-cover over a c. 20-year period from around 1990 at a large number of points across 45 protected IBAs to those from 48 unprotected IBAs. A matching algorithm was used to select sample points to control for potentially confounding differences between protected and unprotected IBAs. The rate of loss of natural land-cover at sample points within protected IBAs was just 42% of that at matched points in unprotected IBAs. Conversion was especially marked in forests, but protection reduced rates of forest loss by a similar relative amount. Rates of conversion increased from the centre to the edges of both protected and unprotected IBAs, but rates of loss in 20-km buffer zones surrounding protected IBAs and unprotected IBAs were similar, with no evidence of displacement of conversion from within protected areas to their immediate surrounds (leakage).

  2. 76 FR 4027 - Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... rights afforded persons at 7 CFR parts 11 and 614 must be exhausted. Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 Pursuant to section 304 of the Federal Crop Insurance... million in FY 2012. 2. Land Eligibility--Compensate landowners for more forest land acreage and ensure...

  3. 75 FR 17954 - Noncompetitive Lease of Public Land; Josephine County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Noncompetitive Lease of Public Land; Josephine County, Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of... available for wildlife rehabilitation and education activities through a non-competitive (direct) lease to.... The lease would be issued pursuant to Section 302(b) of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act...

  4. 78 FR 39767 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID AGENCY... proposed for direct sale to PORR in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the Federal Land Policy and... best be served by modified competitive bidding or direct (non-competitive) sale. In this instance,...

  5. 76 FR 16811 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Clara County, CA... public land are proposed for direct sale to the Santa Clara County Open Space Authority (Authority) in... parcels, isolated from other public lands. The BLM is proposing a direct sale to the Authority because...

  6. 78 FR 53780 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Doña Ana County, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Do a Ana County, NM... business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The public land described below is proposed for direct sale to... part of the public land because the parcels are small and isolated. The BLM is proposing a direct...

  7. The Problematic of Small-Scale Land Acquisition (Less than 5 Hectares for Public Interest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Okhtalia Setiabudhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land acquisition for public interest development is stipulated in Act No. 2 of 2012 concerning Land Acquisition for Development of Public Interest. One arrangement of land acquisition in legal substances that have been formed are small-scale land acquisition (less than 5 hectares, but it is still governed by very vague and thus susceptible to the multi-interpretation and raises doubts in its implementation. This paper discusses the problematic that arise due to unclear regulations concerning small-scale land acquisition and to provide solutions to these problems. Based on the discussion the authors concluded first, the problematic of small-scale land acquisition is the arrangement of land acquisition that is so vague that there is no clarity regarding the procedures for determining of location, the phase of land acquisition, which excludes public consultation, there is no regulation regarding preventive measures against the impact for the community around location of land acquisition. Second, the solution could be found to this problem is a regulation of small-scale land acquisition should ideally be regulated more comprehensively considering that small-scale land acquisition allows the emergence of adverse effects for the community around location of land acquisition so that the stages of planning and preparation that is set for the large-scale land acquisition is similarly applied for small-scale.

  8. 76 FR 29785 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification; Lease of Public Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...] Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification; Lease of Public Land in...: Interested parties may submit written comments regarding the proposed classification and lease of this public... available for lease until after the classification becomes effective. Authority: 43 CFR 2741.5. Terry...

  9. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  10. Using Eminent Domain Powers to Acquire Private Lands for Protected Area Wildlife Conservation: A Survey under Kenyan Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Sifuna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Under Kenyan law, the provisioning for eminent domain is in the Constitution, as well as in legislation. Exercising these powers, the State may compulsorily acquire private lands, provided the acquisition is for a public good and compensation is given. Generally, eminent domain is a fairly contentious legal issue: the law on the one part guarantees the sanctity of private property and, on the other, allows the government to expropriate such property even against the will of the landowner. With regard to land, the State has a legal obligation to respect and protect privately owned lands, and a corresponding moral obligation to ensure that land is available to sustain other forms of life as well. While Kenya's wildlife estate is slightly less than eight per cent of the total land area, it is fast shrinking due to an increasing human population and human activities. As such, the wildlife sector has a bleak future unless the trend is reversed. One way of doing this is by using the powers of eminent domain to acquire private lands for purposes of creating and expanding the wildlife protected areas and their support zones. However, for this manner of acquisition to be desirable and advisable, it has to be fair, humane, democratic and honest. This is to ensure that conservation does not violate the rights of people or undermine livelihoods. Incidentally, the process of eminent domain in Kenya is bereft of these attributes and tends to be draconian and militaristic. The paper critically examines the potential of using eminent domain for acquiring lands for protected area conservation and makes recommendations for reforms.

  11. 76 FR 58807 - An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can... Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning can Incorporate Climate Change... decision making. As part of a portfolio of adaptation strategies, land protection may become more...

  12. 78 FR 45270 - Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Jackson County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... amended August 2, 2002) as Land Tenure Zone 3 lands, which are suitable for sale or exchange. Land Tenure... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Jackson County, Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty...

  13. Explicitly Accounting for Protected Lands within the GCAM 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2012-05-01

    The Global Change Assessment Model Version 3.0 defines three different levels of “Protected Lands” within the agricultural and landuse component. These three different scenarios effectively cordon off 3.5% (5.0 million km2) of the Earth’s terrestrial lands in the de minimus Protected Land Scenario, 5.0% (7.20 million km2) in the Core Protected Land Scenario, and 8.2% (11.8 million km2) in the Expanded Protected Land Scenario. None of these scenarios represents the “right” level of Protected Lands for the planet today or tomorrow. Rather, the goal is to create a range of scenarios that can be used in modeling human responses to climate change and the impact those would have on managed and unmanaged terrestrial lands. These scenarios harness the wealth of information in the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre’s World Database on Protected Areas and its categories of explicit degrees of protection.

  14. Land Protection Plan : Proposed Acquisition to Establish Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan presents the most desirable alternatives for consideration in implementing action to acquire approximately 14,075 acres of privately owned...

  15. Protecting Public Trust: An Archival Wake-Up Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Jason G.

    2010-01-01

    While archivists and their repositories depend a great deal on public trust, they do little to cultivate or protect it. All too often, the archival community is passive where it should be fiercely proactive. This article aims to show archivists how they can build on the trust they have and avoid many of the problems that have plagued the archival…

  16. Public Participation in Land Use Planning:Values and Case Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Objective:we want to explore values and methods of public participation in land use planning through analysis on values of public participation and case of Ji’an County in Jiangxi Province.Methods:document and data method,case analysis method,qualitative and quantitative combined methods.Results:public participation in land use plays a positive role in improving science and practice of planning.Conclusions:preparation and implementation of land use planning should manifest human-oriented,public participation,wisdom of the masses,scientific demonstration,and democratic decision-making.

  17. Wind Power Siting: Public Acceptance and Land Use; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-06-17

    Suzanne Tegen presented this information as part of the June 17, 2015 WINDExchange webinar: Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges III: Public Acceptance and Land Use. This presentation provides an overview of current NREL research related to wind energy deployment considerations, the DOE Wind Vision as it relates to public acceptance and land use, why public acceptance of wind power matters, where the U.S. wind resource is best, and how those rich resource areas overlay with population centers.

  18. THE NATURE OF LAND OWNERSHIP AND THE PROTECTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    dominantly influences our real property law in Nigeria and other common law jurisdictions such as the Bahamas and ..... dominium (or direct ownership of the land itself), which was part of the European heritage ... tenurial framework. ..... persons, in negative language his right to the enjoyment, management and disposal of ...

  19. Land-use protection for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Alexander; Humpenöder, Florian; Weindl, Isabelle; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Bonsch, Markus; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Müller, Christoph; Biewald, Anne; Rolinski, Susanne; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Dietrich, Jan Philipp

    2014-12-01

    Land-use change, mainly the conversion of tropical forests to agricultural land, is a massive source of carbon emissions and contributes substantially to global warming. Therefore, mechanisms that aim to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation are widely discussed. A central challenge is the avoidance of international carbon leakage if forest conservation is not implemented globally. Here, we show that forest conservation schemes, even if implemented globally, could lead to another type of carbon leakage by driving cropland expansion in non-forested areas that are not subject to forest conservation schemes (non-forest leakage). These areas have a smaller, but still considerable potential to store carbon. We show that a global forest policy could reduce carbon emissions by 77 Gt CO2, but would still allow for decreases in carbon stocks of non-forest land by 96 Gt CO2 until 2100 due to non-forest leakage effects. Furthermore, abandonment of agricultural land and associated carbon uptake through vegetation regrowth is hampered. Effective mitigation measures thus require financing structures and conservation investments that cover the full range of carbon-rich ecosystems. However, our analysis indicates that greater agricultural productivity increases would be needed to compensate for such restrictions on agricultural expansion.

  20. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Settler's Grove of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars Botanical and Recreation Area; ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... one of the few remaining stands of old- growth western red cedar trees in the Settler's Grove of... protection of the Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars Botanical and Recreation Area. ] Order By virtue of...

  1. Terrestrial Species in Protected Areas and Community-Managed Lands in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Velho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas (including areas that are nominally fully protected and those managed for multiple uses encompass about a quarter of the total tropical forest estate. Despite growing interest in the relative value of community-managed lands and protected areas, knowledge about the biodiversity value that each sustains remains scarce in the biodiversity-rich tropics. We investigated the species occurrence of a suite of mammal and pheasant species across four protected areas and nearby community-managed lands in a biodiversity hotspot in northeast India. Over 2.5 years we walked 98 transects (half of which were resampled on a second occasion across the four paired sites. In addition, we interviewed 84 key informants to understand their perceptions of species trends in these two management regimes. We found that protected areas had higher overall species richness and were important for species that were apparently declining in occurrence. On a site-specific basis, community-managed lands had species richness and occurrences comparable to those of a protected area, and in one case their relative abundances of mammals were higher. Interviewees indicated declines in the abundances of larger-bodied species in community-managed lands. Their observations agreed with our field surveys for certain key, large-bodied species, such as gaur and sambar, which generally occurred less in community-managed lands. Hence, the degree to which protected areas and community-managed lands protect wildlife species depends upon the species in question, with larger-bodied species usually faring better within protected areas.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Protected Lands for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset shows the percentage of Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) that is included in the USGS National Gap Analysis Program (GAP)...

  3. 77 FR 52055 - Notice of Public Meeting: Resource Advisory Council to the Boise District, Bureau of Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... 25 grazing permits in western Owyhee County. Implementation of the Omnibus Public Lands Management Act of 2009, Subpart F-Owyhee Public Land Management will be reviewed. Each field manager will...

  4. 72 FR 46509 - Notice of Realty Action; Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-20

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Owyhee....55 acre parcel of public land in Owyhee County, Idaho is being considered for non-competitive (direct) sale to Owyhee County under the provisions of the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976, at...

  5. 77 FR 7601 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Pattern Energy Group Ocotillo Express Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Pattern Energy Group Ocotillo Express Wind Energy Project, Imperial County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... energy right-of-way (ROW) application for the Ocotillo Express Wind Project. The public land contained...

  6. 78 FR 47004 - Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given to change the dates of the seasonal closure of public land in the Bald Ridge Area that was...

  7. 75 FR 67393 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Barbara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Barbara County... following 7 parcels of public land are proposed for direct sale to the adjacent land owners in accordance..., and due to the shape of the parcels have no independent utility. The BLM is proposing a direct sale...

  8. 76 FR 11264 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Shoshone County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Shoshone County... Register announcing the proposed direct sale and segregation of 5.07 acres of public land in Shoshone... by direct sale to Sunshine in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the Federal Land Policy...

  9. 75 FR 28650 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following described public land is being proposed for direct sale... small isolated parcel of land which lacks legal access. The BLM is proposing a direct sale to...

  10. 78 FR 7810 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Lands in Sheridan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Lands... acres in Sheridan County, Wyoming, for direct sale under the provisions of the Federal Land Policy... public land in Sheridan County, Wyoming, is being considered for direct sale under the authority...

  11. 33 CFR 263.25 - Authority for emergency streambank and shoreline protection of public works and nonprofit public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... streambank and shoreline protection of public works and nonprofit public services (Section 14). 263.25... and shoreline protection of public works and nonprofit public services (Section 14). (a) Legislative... year, for the construction, repair, restoration, and modification of emergency streambank and...

  12. 76 FR 64969 - Notice of Final Supplementary Rules Concerning Fireworks on Public Land in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... precautions to enhance public awareness, provide proactive pre-suppression efforts, and implement fire... of conduct for public use of a limited area of public lands. National Environmental Policy Act The... not required to prepare an environmental assessment or an environmental impact statement for the Final...

  13. How Does Land Development Promote China’s Urban Economic Growth? The Mediating Effect of Public Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xianwei Fan; Dan Zheng; Minjun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial studies emphasized the close relationship among land development, public infrastructure, and urban economic growth, the mediating effect of public infrastructure remains unexplored...

  14. 75 FR 65649 - Notice of Realty Action: Segregation To Consider Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Blaine County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... 2003 Amendments to the BLM Shoshone Field Office Land Use Plans for Land Tenure Adjustment and Areas of... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Segregation To Consider Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Blaine County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty...

  15. Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect coral reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa J Klein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs have exceptional biodiversity, support the livelihoods of millions of people, and are threatened by multiple human activities on land (e.g. farming and in the sea (e.g. overfishing. Most conservation efforts occur at local scales and, when effective, can increase the resilience of coral reefs to global threats such as climate change (e.g. warming water and ocean acidification. Limited resources for conservation require that we efficiently prioritize where and how to best sustain coral reef ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we develop the first prioritization approach that can guide regional-scale conservation investments in land- and sea-based conservation actions that cost-effectively mitigate threats to coral reefs, and apply it to the Coral Triangle, an area of significant global attention and funding. Using information on threats to marine ecosystems, effectiveness of management actions at abating threats, and the management and opportunity costs of actions, we calculate the rate of return on investment in two conservation actions in sixteen ecoregions. We discover that marine conservation almost always trumps terrestrial conservation within any ecoregion, but terrestrial conservation in one ecoregion can be a better investment than marine conservation in another. We show how these results could be used to allocate a limited budget for conservation and compare them to priorities based on individual criteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Previous prioritization approaches do not consider both land and sea-based threats or the socioeconomic costs of conserving coral reefs. A simple and transparent approach like ours is essential to support effective coral reef conservation decisions in a large and diverse region like the Coral Triangle, but can be applied at any scale and to other marine ecosystems.

  16. Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carissa J; Ban, Natalie C; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beger, Maria; Game, Edward T; Grantham, Hedley S; Green, Alison; Klein, Travis J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Treml, Eric; Wilson, Kerrie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-08-30

    Coral reefs have exceptional biodiversity, support the livelihoods of millions of people, and are threatened by multiple human activities on land (e.g. farming) and in the sea (e.g. overfishing). Most conservation efforts occur at local scales and, when effective, can increase the resilience of coral reefs to global threats such as climate change (e.g. warming water and ocean acidification). Limited resources for conservation require that we efficiently prioritize where and how to best sustain coral reef ecosystems. Here we develop the first prioritization approach that can guide regional-scale conservation investments in land- and sea-based conservation actions that cost-effectively mitigate threats to coral reefs, and apply it to the Coral Triangle, an area of significant global attention and funding. Using information on threats to marine ecosystems, effectiveness of management actions at abating threats, and the management and opportunity costs of actions, we calculate the rate of return on investment in two conservation actions in sixteen ecoregions. We discover that marine conservation almost always trumps terrestrial conservation within any ecoregion, but terrestrial conservation in one ecoregion can be a better investment than marine conservation in another. We show how these results could be used to allocate a limited budget for conservation and compare them to priorities based on individual criteria. Previous prioritization approaches do not consider both land and sea-based threats or the socioeconomic costs of conserving coral reefs. A simple and transparent approach like ours is essential to support effective coral reef conservation decisions in a large and diverse region like the Coral Triangle, but can be applied at any scale and to other marine ecosystems.

  17. The Effects of Governmental Protected Areas and Social Initiatives for Land Protection on the Conservation of Mexican Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Ochoa, Leticia; Urbina-Cardona, J. Nicolás; Vázquez, Luis-Bernardo; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Bezaury-Creel, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, biodiversity conservation gap analyses have been focused on governmental protected areas (PAs). However, an increasing number of social initiatives in conservation (SICs) are promoting a new perspective for analysis. SICs include all of the efforts that society implements to conserve biodiversity, such as land protection, from private reserves to community zoning plans some of which have generated community-protected areas. This is the first attempt to analyze the status of conservation in Latin America when some of these social initiatives are included. The analyses were focused on amphibians because they are one of the most threatened groups worldwide. Mexico is not an exception, where more than 60% of its amphibians are endemic. We used a niche model approach to map the potential and real geographical distribution (extracting the transformed areas) of the endemic amphibians. Based on remnant distribution, all the species have suffered some degree of loss, but 36 species have lost more than 50% of their potential distribution. For 50 micro-endemic species we could not model their potential distribution range due to the small number of records per species, therefore the analyses were performed using these records directly. We then evaluated the efficiency of the existing set of governmental protected areas and established the contribution of social initiatives (private and community) for land protection for amphibian conservation. We found that most of the species have some proportion of their potential ecological niche distribution protected, but 20% are not protected at all within governmental PAs. 73% of endemic and 26% of micro-endemic amphibians are represented within SICs. However, 30 micro-endemic species are not represented within either governmental PAs or SICs. This study shows how the role of land conservation through social initiatives is therefore becoming a crucial element for an important number of species not protected by

  18. 78 FR 10248 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... be published in the Federal Register 30 days before modifying the land-use assurance that...

  19. 78 FR 73919 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... 30 days before modifying the land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for...

  20. 78 FR 63279 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... before modifying the land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical...

  1. 78 FR 59753 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical purpose. The property...

  2. 78 FR 22595 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical purpose. The subject...

  3. 75 FR 8645 - Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Forest Service Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule... to developing a new Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule (planning rule) through a... roundtables. Summaries of each session will be produced and posted on the planning rule Web site as part of...

  4. Public land in the Roman Republic : a social and economic history of the ager publicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roselaar, Saskia Tessa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses ager publicus, a kind of public land specific to the Roman Republic. Although many works have been devoted to this kind of land, there is as yet no book which investigates in depth its role in the society, economy, and politics of the Roman Republic. Many aspects of the history

  5. 75 FR 77655 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Saguache, Alamosa, Rio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, within the TMP, and under the management of... acres of public lands within Saguache, Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, in...

  6. 75 FR 22625 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Land in Jerome County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Land in Jerome County, ID AGENCY... for direct (non-competitive) sale to Todd and Bridget Buschhorn under the provisions of the Federal...: In order to ensure consideration in the environmental analysis of the proposed sale, comments must...

  7. 76 FR 29784 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID... being proposed for direct sale to Todd and Bridget Buschhorn in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of..., and is not needed for any other Federal purposes. The direct sale will allow for the subject parcel...

  8. 75 FR 13303 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA... proposed for direct sale to the City of Palm Springs in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the Federal... amended, and is not needed for any other Federal purpose. The BLM is proposing a direct sale because...

  9. 78 FR 40503 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Pima County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Pima County, AZ AGENCY... approximately 5.96 acres in Pima County, Arizona. The parcel is being proposed for noncompetitive direct sale to... market value (FMV) of $83,440. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed direct sale must be received by...

  10. 78 FR 71641 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Graham County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Graham County, AZ AGENCY... Management (BLM), Safford Field Office (SFO), is considering a noncompetitive direct sale of approximately 15...: Written comments concerning the proposed direct sale should be sent to Scott Cooke, Field Manager,...

  11. 76 FR 24513 - Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse... Management to continue to be managed as part of the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area. DATES... Resource Act of 2008 (43 U.S.C. 1787), which created the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural...

  12. 75 FR 36677 - Temporary Closure to All Public Use on Public Land in Doña Ana County, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Temporary Closure to All Public Use on Public Land in Do a Ana County, NM... vicinity of the Community Pit No.1 in Do a Ana County, New Mexico. DATES: This closure is effective on June.../ 4\\, E\\1/2\\SW\\1/4\\SE\\1/4\\, S\\1/2\\N\\1/2\\SE\\1/4\\SE\\1/4\\, S\\1/2\\SE\\1/ 4\\SE\\1/4\\. Do a Ana County,...

  13. Prevention of infectious diseases by public vaccination and individual protection

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiao-Long; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In the face of serious infectious diseases, governments endeavour to implement containment measures such as public vaccination at a macroscopic level. Meanwhile, individuals tend to protect themselves by avoiding contacts with infections at a microscopic level. However, a comprehensive understanding of how such combined strategy influences epidemic dynamics is still lacking. We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model with imperfect vaccination on dynamic contact networks, where the macroscopic intervention is represented by random vaccination of the population and the microscopic protection is characterised by susceptible individuals rewiring contacts from infective neighbours. In particular, the model is formulated both in populations without and then with demographic effects. Using the pairwise approximation and the probability generating function approach, we investigate both dynamics of the epidemic and the underlying network. For populations without demography, the emerging degree correla...

  14. Tough Textiles Protect Payloads and Public Safety Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to create the Mars Pathfinder s mission-critical airbags in the 1990s, NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory collaborated with New Ipswich, New Hampshire s Warwick Mills Inc. to weave multi-layer textiles for the airbags for both Pathfinder and the Mars Exploration Rovers. Warwick Mills applied techniques from the collaboration to its puncture- and impact-resistant TurtleSkin product line. The company's metal flex armor (MFA) vests offer stab protection comparable with rigid steel plates and over 50,000 of the vests have sold. The SoftPlate body armor offers protection from handgun bullets, and like the MFA, is designed to be more comfortable than rigid vests. International public safety and military customers are now benefiting from the TurtleSkin products.

  15. Geopressured-geothermal resource development on public free school lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The study's findings and recommendations are based upon analysis of the following: financial and economic feasibility of geopressured-geothermal resource development; possible ecological, social, and economic impacts of resource development on PFSL; and legal issues associated with resource development. The results of the analysis are summarized and are discussed in detail in a series of four technical papers which accompany this volume. Existing rules of the General Land Office (GLO), the School Land Board (SLB), and the Railroad Commission of Texas (RRC) were reviewed in light of the above analysis and were discussed with the agencies. The study's recommendations resulted from this analytical and review process; they are discussed. The preliminary draft rules and regulations to govern resource development on PFSL are presented in Appendix A; the accompanying forms and model lease are found in Appendix B.

  16. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Guochun; Pan, An; Chen, Fengying; Zheng, Chunli

    2016-11-01

    As increasing demand for green energy and high-tech devices grows, so does the rising prospecting of rare earth metals required for their production. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth element (REE) mining as well as emerging pollutants is urgently required to achieve sustainable development. This study mapped Earth's hidden REE deposits to identify potential contamination hotspots with the aim of preventing its deleterious effects on the environment. We worry that there would be widespread tailing facilities concomitant with serious pollutions, such as the Bayan Obo tailings site, and argue that a tradeoff between the underground REE exploration and environment conservation should be reached as soon as possible.

  17. Public protection from electromagnetic fields of industry frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimieras Vytautas Maceika

    2006-01-01

    Lithuania introduced normative of public protection from 50 Hz frequency electric field. It proposed permissible intensity of this field – 0,5 kV/m inside buildings and 1 kV/m in their territory. Separate normative is prepared for industry frequency electric and magnetic fields in work places. Permitted values of fields depend on exposure duration, but cannot exceed 25 kV/m and 5,1 kA/m. Russian, Swedish and American scientists declare that long time exposure of 50 Hz magnetic field with inte...

  18. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  19. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  20. 75 FR 80839 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lane County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... value pursuant to 43 CFR 2720.0-6 and 2720.2(a). Acceptance of the sale offer will constitute an... from all forms of appropriation under the public land laws, including the general mining and mineral leasing laws, except the sale provisions of the FLPMA. Upon publication of this Notice of Realty...

  1. Malaria Knowledge, Concern, Land Management, and Protection Practices among Land Owners and/or Managers in Lowland versus Highland Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Pinault

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To control malaria effectively, it is essential to understand the current knowledge, beliefs, concerns, land management practices, and mosquito bite protection methods in use by citizens. This study presents a comparative, quantitative, interview-based study of land owners and/or managers (=262 in the Ecuadorian lowlands (presently considered malarious (=131 and highlands (potentially malarious in the future (=131. Although respondents had a strong understanding of where the disease occurs in their own country and of the basic relationship among standing water, mosquitoes, and malaria, about half of respondents in potential risk areas denied the current possibility of malaria infection on their own property. As well, about half of respondents with potential anopheline larval habitat did not report its presence, likely due to a highly specific definition of suitable mosquito habitat. Most respondents who are considered at risk of malaria currently use at least one type of mosquito bite prevention, most commonly bed nets.

  2. Resolving the conflict between ecosystem protection and land use in protected areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation.

  3. Correlation between Land Use and Urban Public Transport: Case Study of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Investment in the transport system with the aim of fostering attractiveness and land use in urban structures is of great interest for planners and investors. Investment in urban public transport would especially contribute to revitalising distinct city areas. The samples of high population density and diversified area use are organised around accessible means of urban public transport.The main objective of this case study was to find an adequate model for the solution of urban public transport on the location Novi Jelkovec in Zagreb after the construction of a new urban settlement, with the aim to revitalise the peripheral parts of the city. The theoretical assumption on the influence of better organised transport on land use is hereby researched through the example of correction of timetables and reduction of travelling time between nodes on the line in the Novi Jelkovec settlement. In preparing this paper the following methods were used: analysis and synthesis, mathematical and statistical methods, methods of interviewing. The theory of correlation of land use and urban public transport is based on models that develop the “compact city”. The obtained research results confirm the significance of the correlation between urban land use and urban public transport. It can be concluded that this paper proves the influence of the correlation between land use and urban public transport on the concrete example of Novi Jelkovec. Its implementation could result in solving the concrete traffic problem and along with it a faster urbanisation of the new settlement.

  4. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Beaumont

    Full Text Available The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5. The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  5. 76 FR 16810 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot Springs County, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Springs County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action. SUMMARY: A 10-acre parcel of public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming is being considered for non... following described public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming has been examined and found suitable for...

  6. 78 FR 7809 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Land in Campbell County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... in Campbell County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action... acres of public land in Campbell County, Wyoming, at not less than the appraised fair market value to... following-described public land in Campbell County, Wyoming, is proposed for direct sale, subject to the...

  7. 78 FR 32688 - Notice of Realty Action, Segregation Terminated, Direct Sale of Public Land in San Bernardino...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action, Segregation Terminated, Direct Sale of Public Land in...: The following public land is proposed for direct sale in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the... interest would best be served by a direct sale to the California Department of Transportation. A portion...

  8. 77 FR 33235 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Becker County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Becker... parcels of public land totaling 1 acre in Becker County, Minnesota. The sale will be subject to the... area described contains 0.50 acres in Becker County, and is proposed for sale to the...

  9. 76 FR 72972 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County... approximately 23.42 acres, more or less, in Santa Clara County, California. The public land would be sold for... described contains 23.42 acres, more or less, in Santa Clara County, California. Appraised fair market...

  10. 63 FR 55403 - Notice of Realty ActionIDI-32281; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action--IDI-32281; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee... Owyhee County, Idaho has been examined and through the pubic-supported land use planning process has been... land by direct sale to Owyhee County for solid waste disposal purposes. Their refusal or failure to...

  11. Towards protecting the Great Barrier Reef from land-based pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Thorburn, Peter; Schaffelke, Britta; Whitten, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an iconic coral reef system extending over 2000 km along the north-east coast of Australia. Global recognition of its Outstanding Universal Value resulted in the listing of the 348 000 km(2) GBR World Heritage Area (WHA) by UNESCO in 1981. Despite various levels of national and international protection, the condition of GBR ecosystems has deteriorated over the past decades, with land-based pollution from the adjacent catchments being a major and ongoing cause for this decline. To reduce land-based pollution, the Australian and Queensland Governments have implemented a range of policy initiatives since 2003. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of existing initiatives to reduce discharge of land-based pollutants into the waters of the GBR. We conclude that recent efforts in the GBR catchments to reduce land-based pollution are unlikely to be sufficient to protect the GBR ecosystems from declining water quality within the aspired time frames. To support management decisions for desired ecological outcomes for the GBR WHA, we identify potential improvements to current policies and incentives, as well as potential changes to current agricultural land use, based on overseas experiences and Australia's unique potential. The experience in the GBR may provide useful guidance for the management of other marine ecosystems, as reducing land-based pollution by better managing agricultural sources is a challenge for coastal communities around the world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 78 FR 77488 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification of Public Land in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification of... County, New Mexico, and found them suitable for classification for conveyance under the provisions of the... under an R&PP Act lease, and the City of Truth or Consequences proposes to continue its use for...

  13. Expanding vulnerability assessment for public lands: The social complement to ecological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. McNeeley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, federal land management agencies in the United States have been tasked to consider climate change vulnerability and adaptation in their planning. Ecological vulnerability approaches have been the dominant framework, but these approaches have significant limitations for fully understanding vulnerability in complex social-ecological systems in and around multiple-use public lands. In this paper, we describe the context of United States federal public lands management with an emphasis on the Bureau of Land Management to highlight this unique decision-making context. We then assess the strengths and weaknesses of an ecological vulnerability approach for informing decision-making. Next, we review social vulnerability methods in the context of public lands to demonstrate what these approaches can contribute to our understanding of vulnerability, as well as their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we suggest some key design principles for integrated social-ecological vulnerability assessments considering the context of public lands management, the limits of ecological vulnerability assessment, and existing approaches to social vulnerability assessment. We argue for the necessity of including social vulnerability in a more integrated social-ecological approach in order to better inform climate change adaptation.

  14. Making Ground, Losing Space: Land Reclamation and Urban Public Space in Island Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehøj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article foregrounds urban public space by considering land reclamation in island cities. Land reclamation is nearly ubiquitous in the urban development of coastal cities, and island cities in particular are subject to exceptionally dense urbanisation and thus exceptionally strong conflict over urban space. Drawing upon theories at the intersection of the land and the sea (liquid, archipelago, and aquapelago spatiality, we analyse socially problematic aspects of the creation of new urban space through land reclamation. Land reclamation occurs in island cities such as Bahrain, Copenhagen, Dubai, Hong Kong, Macau, New York City, and Xiamen in order to construct space for urban industrial, residential, and leisure functions while avoiding the social conflict that often accompanies urban renewal efforts. However, whether in the case of publically accessible leisure parks or secessionary island enclaves for the ultra-rich, land reclamation processes serve powerful societal forces and represent the capture of urban space for elite interests. This reduces the prospects for urban public space and limits the horizons for the development of more socially just future cities. The transformation of unclaimed fluid space into solid private space is a relative form of accumulation by dispossession, even if the public has never been aware of what it possessed.

  15. Paradox of Arable Land Protection in China and Exploration for Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The protection of arable land in China is facing unprecedented challenges in the process of rapid urbanization. On the one hand, about 13 to 15 million farmers enter cities annually, resulting inevitably in the expansion of urban areas. On the other

  16. Managing United States public lands in response to climate change: a view from the ground up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenwood, Mikaela S; Dilling, Lisa; Milford, Jana B

    2012-05-01

    Federal land managers are faced with the task of balancing multiple uses and goals when making decisions about land use and the activities that occur on public lands. Though climate change is now well recognized by federal agencies and their local land and resource managers, it is not yet clear how issues related to climate change will be incorporated into on-the-ground decision making within the framework of multiple use objectives. We conducted a case study of a federal land management agency field office, the San Juan Public Lands Center in Durango, CO, U.S.A., to understand from their perspective how decisions are currently made, and how climate change and carbon management are being factored into decision making. We evaluated three major management sectors in which climate change or carbon management may intersect other use goals: forests, biofuels, and grazing. While land managers are aware of climate change and eager to understand more about how it might affect land resources, the incorporation of climate change considerations into everyday decision making is currently quite limited. Climate change is therefore on the radar screen, but remains a lower priority than other issues. To assist the office in making decisions that are based on sound scientific information, further research is needed into how management activities influence carbon storage and resilience of the landscape under climate change.

  17. RESEARCH: Theory in Practice: Applying Participatory Democracy Theory to Public Land Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moote; Mcclaran; Chickering

    1997-11-01

    / Application of participatory democracy theory to public participation in public land planning, while widely advocated, has not been closely examined. A case study is used here to explicate the application of participatory democracy concepts to public participation in public land planning and decision making. In this case, a Bureau of Land Management resource area manager decided to make a significant shift from the traditional public involvement process to a more participatory method-coordinated resource management (CRM). This case was assessed using document analysis, direct observation of CRM meetings, questionnaires, and interviews of key participants. These sources were used to examine the CRM case using participatory democracy concepts of efficacy, access and representation, continuous participation throughout planning, information exchange and learning, and decision-making authority. The case study suggests that social deliberation in itself does not ensure successful collaboration and that establishing rules of operation and decision making within the group is critical. Furthermore, conflicts between the concept of shared decision-making authority and the public land management agencies' accountability to Congress, the President, and the courts need further consideration.KEY WORDS: Case study; Coordinated resource management; Public participation; Administrative discretion; Representation; Consensus; Collaboration

  18. 72 FR 21045 - Notice of Emergency Temporary Closure of Certain Public Lands, to Motorized Vehicles, in Owyhee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-27

    ... Vehicles, in Owyhee County ID, Under Sailor Cap Emergency and Rehabilitation Plan AGENCY: Bureau of Land... and extend, modify, or rescind the order at that time. This order affects public lands in...

  19. Application of Public-Private Partnership in Land Degradation Control and A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviewed the background of public-private partnership (PPP) development, described PPP concept, characteristics and basic models, and analyzed the necessity and feasibility to develop land degradation control PPP. Then the experiences that Elion Resources Group in Inner Mongolia has accumulated in Kubuqi Desert control and development as well as the revelations were summarized with the hope to provide reference for establishing land degradation control PPP in arid area of western region.

  20. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information. This report is a review of decision-making processes of selected land protection prog...

  1. Pemanfaatan Frekuensi Untuk Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penanganan kejadian yang terkait dengan Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR di Indonesia yang merupakan negara yang rawan terhadap bencana dan permasalahan sosial membutuhkan komunikasi yang intensif. Penelitian ini mengkaji mengenai kondisi pemanfaatan frekuensi PPDR di Indonesia dan strategi pengembangan ke depannya dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem komunikasi pada instansi PPDR di Indonesia tidak mendukung interoperabilitas dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang terkoordinasi. Selain itu, pita frekuensi yang digunakan merupakan pita sempit yang tidak mendukung aplikasi video dan data kecepatan tinggi yang dibutuhkan dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang lebih efektif. Oleh karena itu, dalam perencanaan alokasi frekuensi ke depannya, pemerintah perlu mengintegrasikan pita lebar ke dalam perencanaan sistem Government Radio Network (GRN.

  2. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-03

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  3. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Hoffacker, Madison K.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Wu, Grace C.; Allen, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in “Compatible” areas. The majority of “Incompatible” USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  4. Protection of Collective Rights of Rural Members in the Process of Land Transfer under Shareholding Cooperative Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the legal definitions of land transfer under shareholding cooperative systems,rural groups,collective rights of members,and this paper discloses the necessity of protecting the collective rights of members.In terms of qualification definition of members,rights of fetus,married daughters and sons in law cannot be guaranteed.In terms of rights protection,partial rights cannot be assured,power of personal stake inthe collective members is imperfect which results in inadequate,unbalanced,shaky and unpunctuated benefits.Based on objective and subjectivecauses,the democratic management rights of members in land transfer process have been weakened or even deprived,the protection of the basiclife is hard to realize.The paper proposes that it is necessary to build the social protection mechanisms of rural land shareholding cooperative sys-tems.The first is to treat those members that own land,attending the shareholding cooperation but having not taken part in the land transfer proces-sion as the protection objects.The second is in the procession of land transfer,making it clear the compensation standards of land transfer,estab-lishing the intermediate agencies of land transfer and performing the collective economic organizing functions.The third is that the account capital ofsocial protection is contributed together by personal member,the land users(shareholding cooperative companies) and government.The fourth isto pay more attention to the added value and safety management of capital operation.

  5. 76 FR 81526 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification of Public Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... United States if any such portion has been used for solid waste disposal or for any other purpose which... settlement, sale, location and entry under the general land laws, including the United States mining laws...

  6. How Does Land Development Promote China’s Urban Economic Growth? The Mediating Effect of Public Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Xianwei Fan; Dan Zheng; Minjun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial studies emphasized the close relationship among land development, public infrastructure, and urban economic growth, the mediating effect of public infrastructure remains unexplored. Using panel data of 253 prefecture-level Chinese cities from 1999 to 2012, we empirically conduct a mediating effect analysis to examine how land development promotes urban economic growth. It is found that land development has a positive impact on public infrastructure, whereas the constructi...

  7. Checklist and "Pollard Walk" butterfly survey methods on public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ronald A.; Austin, Jane E.; Newton, Wesley E.

    1998-01-01

    Checklist and “Pollard Walk” butterfly survey methods were contemporaneously applied to seven public sites in North Dakota during the summer of 1995. Results were compared for effect of method and site on total number of butterflies and total number of species detected per hour. Checklist searching produced significantly more butterfly detections per hour than Pollard Walks at all sites. Number of species detected per hour did not differ significantly either among sites or between methods. Many species were detected by only one method, and at most sites generalist and invader species were more likely to be observed during checklist searches than during Pollard Walks. Results indicate that checklist surveys are a more efficient means for initial determination of a species list for a site, whereas for long-term monitoring the Pollard Walk is more practical and statistically manageable. Pollard Walk transects are thus recommended once a prairie butterfly fauna has been defined for a site by checklist surveys.

  8. Public Regulation of the Use of Private Land : Opportunities and Challenges in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Sifuna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Kenya land is not only one of the most valuable belongings of any person, but a natural heritage that sustains all life forms and one that has to pass on from generation to generation by inheritance. Besides, land is a rather sensitive and emotive issue, for instance, having been central issue in the struggle for independence from colonialism. It is imperative therefore that land be used efficiently and responsibly to ensure it is available to posterity and in a form equitable and beneficial to the present as well as the future generations. Despite its importance, however, land in Kenya is a scarce resource that has to be available to competing uses and needs. It is also a resource whose use may result in environmental harm and degradation, jeopardise the interests of future generations in such land or negatively impact on its various uses. To ensure its efficient use and appropriate distribution of its benefits in the country, there is need for regulation of the use of any land irrespective of its regime of tenure in the public interest-whether is under state ownership, community (communal ownership or private ownership. The power to regulate the use of private land is generally vested in state and is usually exercised by public institutions and officers on behalf of the state and for the citizenry. Indeed a legitimate government especially that which has been popularly and democratically elected by the people is a custodian of the public interest and welfare of the citizens, with the mandate to act on their behalf. Apart from state and governmental entities, this regulation is also exercised by local management institutions, most of which are informal. Despite its beneficial value in terms of promoting the public good, the exercise of the power of public regulation of private land in Kenya faces numerous challenges. Indeed this power if properly employed can not only enforce and promote the public good but ensure sustainable land use

  9. Responding to Public Health Emergencies on Tribal Lands: Jurisdictional Challenges and Practical Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Justin B

    2015-01-01

    Response to public health emergencies on tribal lands poses a unique challenge for state and tribal public health officials. The complexity and intensely situation-specific nature of federal Indian jurisprudence leaves considerable question as to which government entity, state or tribal, has jurisdiction on tribal lands to undertake basic emergency measures such as closure of public spaces, quarantine, compulsory medical examination, and investigation. That jurisdictional uncertainty, coupled with cultural differences and an often troubled history of tribal-state relations, threatens to significantly impede response to infectious disease outbreaks or other public health emergencies on tribal lands. Given that tribal communities may be disproportionately impacted by public health emergencies, it is critical that tribal, state, and local governments engage with each other in coordinated planning for public health threats. This Article is offered as a catalyst for such planning efforts. The Article identifies some of the most pressing jurisdictional issues that may confront governments responding to a public health emergency on tribal lands, with the aim of highlighting the nature of the problem and the need for action. The Article goes on to examine the most promising means of addressing jurisdictional uncertainty: intergovernmental agreements. Already utilized in many areas of shared interest between tribe and state, intergovernmental agreements offer neighboring state, local, and tribal governments a vehicle for delineating roles and authorities in an emergency, and may lay the groundwork for sharing resources. The Article surveys various representative tribal public health intergovernmental agreements, and concludes with suggestions for tribes and state or local governments looking to craft their own agreements.

  10. The Public Value of Urban Vacant Land: Social Responses and Ecological Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews scholarly papers and case studies on urban vacant land to gain a stronger understanding of its public value in terms of the ecological and social benefits it can bring. This literature review offers a conceptual overview of the potential benefits of vacant land with the goal of addressing gaps in knowledge about vacant land and to provide suggestions to planners and designers on how vacant properties can be integrated with other green infrastructure in cities. There are many opportunities to redevelop vacant land to enhance its ecological and social value, and many design professionals and scholars are becoming interested in finding new ways to exploit this potential, especially with regard to planning and design. A better appreciation of the public value of urban vacant land is vital for any effort to identify alternative strategies to optimize the way these spaces are utilized for both short-term and long-term uses to support urban regeneration and renewal. This study will help planners and designers to understand and plan for urban vacant land, leading to better utilization of these spaces and opening up alternative creative approaches to envisioning space and landscape design in our urban environments.

  11. Provincial-level Land Consolidation and Ecological Environment Protection Based on the Perspective of Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chen; LIU Xin-feng; PENG Zhe; SI Tao; YANG Lin-li

    2012-01-01

    Based on the understanding of current land ecological environment in Anhui Province,we mainly analyze the relationship between land consolidation planning and ecological environment,and point out the problems concerning ecological environment,such as great soil erosion,serious soil pollution,frequent geological disasters in local areas,and forest vegetation destruction.We divide the key ecological function conservation areas into the following areas:River Source Area,River and Flood Regulation and Storage Area,Key Water Conservation Area,Wind-preventing and Sand-fixing Area,Soil and Water Conservation Area.Finally we put forth the ecological security strategy for promoting land consolidation and ecological environmental protection.

  12. The workers and public radiation protection; La radioprotection des travailleurs et du public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), Lab. d' Analyses Medicales et de Radiotoxicologie, SCAST, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Roupioz, A. [Electricite de France (EDF Industrie), DPN, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Rabu, B. [CEA Cadarache, Lab. de Transfert de Contamination, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Six texts develop the question of the radiation protection of workers and public. Monitoring of the exposure risk to alpha emitters during the unit outage of nuclear power plant of Cattenom is the first one, the second article concerns the ALARA approach applied to the yard that controls the welding of vapor generators of the Phenix reactor. The third one treats the evaluation of impact in environment of tritium releases associated to a fusion reactor accident. Some systems of radiological detection are studied, the notion of dose constraint is discussed, and what about the cooperation around nuclear and non nuclear installations. (N.C.)

  13. Can you manage wildlife in alienated lands? Tenure conflicts in protected forests in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbadebo J. Osemeobo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the protected forests in Nigeria were forcefully reserved without the consent of indigenous landowners. With increase in population lands outside reservation areas are in short supply to meet legitimate needs of the people. The study investigates how wildlife management has thrived amidst land use conflicts. Data were derived through a cross-sectional survey. Results of data analyses indicated that: (i wildlife cannot be successfully managed and sustained in alienated forestlands; and (ii conflict in protected forest management cannot be resolved at moment. New forms of ownership and people oriented right-based management that accounts for the culture and traditions of the people should be put in place by the Ministries of Environment.

  14. Connecting climate social adaptation and land use change in internationally adjoining protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodríguez Solórzano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of climate adaptation strategies to address social problems derived from climate change is pressing. Yet, in addition to providing means to minimise the impact of climate variability and change on livelihoods, climate adaptation strategies might exacerbate environmental change and cause negative social impacts. Systematic research has not addressed the impacts of adaptation on environmental change. In this paper, I focus on land use change as a specific type of environmental change and on three adaptation strategies: diversification, pooling and out-migration. I analyse the influence of adaptation strategies on land use change by drawing on interviews with the managers of 56 internationally adjoining protected areas in 18 countries in the Americas. The findings indicate that the impact of adaptation depends on the adaptation strategy people choose. When people out-migrate, land use change increases. Community elite control for decision-making, shorter distances between communities and markets and more communities in and around the protected areas also increase land use change. These findings show that adaptation can be a driver of further environmental change, and thus further study is needed to understand the likely impacts of adaptation on conservation.

  15. 78 FR 41822 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical purpose. The property was acquired...

  16. 78 FR 79059 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical purpose. The property was...

  17. 78 FR 41823 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance AGENCY... assurance that requires the property to be used for an aeronautical purpose. The two parcels proposed to...

  18. 77 FR 54608 - Public Land Order No. 7796; Partial Withdrawal Revocation and Transfer of Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Public Law 111-11, 123 Stat. 1449 (2009), and subject to valid existing rights, administrative... Administrative Jurisdiction, Kirtland Air Force Base; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... withdrawn. This order also transfers administrative jurisdiction to the Department of Energy to allow for...

  19. 75 FR 39705 - Notice of Temporary Closures on Public Lands in Northwestern Elko County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Office, Elko, Nevada within the Owyhee, Rock Creek, and Little Humboldt Wild Horse Herd Management Areas... effect on the Owyhee, Rock Creek and Little Humboldt Wild Horse HMAs from 12:01 a.m. PST on Tuesday, July... INFORMATION: This temporary closure affects public land in the Owyhee, Rock Creek and Little Humboldt...

  20. 77 FR 77005 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and... Secretary of the Interior initiated a review of the Federal Subsistence Management Program. An...

  1. 78 FR 66885 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest... determination process. These comments will be used by the Board, coordinating with the Secretaries of the... to improve the rural determination process. DATES: Comments: The comment period for the...

  2. 77 FR 67023 - Notice of Temporary Closure on Public Lands in Mesa County, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This temporary closure affects public lands burned in the Pine Ridge... necessary due to the severe intensity of the Pine Ridge Fire. The fire destroyed much of the natural.... The BLM spread a quick germinating, hybrid annual seed and plans to disperse native species seeds...

  3. 77 FR 13145 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Esmeralda County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... 4500022284; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Esmeralda County, Nevada... Management (BLM) has examined and found suitable for disposal utilizing direct sale procedures, one parcel of... non-competitive (direct) sale to Esmeralda County under the provisions of Sections 203 and 209 of...

  4. 75 FR 35832 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... incurred by the United States; (4) Releases or threatened releases of solid or hazardous waste(s) and/or... actions related in any manner to said solid or hazardous substances or wastes; or (6) Natural resource... the public land laws, including the mining laws, except the sale provisions of FLPMA. Until completion...

  5. The Role of Institutions of Higher Education in Sustainability: The Comprehensive, Public, Land-Grant University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Pellicane

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a background discussion of the importance of sustainability in the 21st century, the issues surrounding how we learn, the role of science, and the importance of interdisciplinarity with respect to ecological and socio-economic sustainability. Furthermore, background information is provided about the history and origins of the American public, land...

  6. The cost of acquiring public hunting access on family forests lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder; Joesph M. Schertz; Steven J. Taff

    2008-01-01

    To address the issue of declining access to private forest land in the United States for hunting, over 1,000 Minnesota family forest owners were surveyed to estimate the cost of acquiring non-exclusive public hunting access rights. The results indicate landowner interest in selling access rights is extremely modest. Using binary logistic regression, the mean annual...

  7. 78 FR 15044 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Pinal County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Indian Community (Community) at not less than the appraised fair market value (FMV). The sale will be... sent to Penny Foreman, Acting Field Manager, LSFO, Phoenix ] District Office, 21605 North 7th Avenue...: The following parcel of public land is proposed for direct sale to the Community and is...

  8. 3 CFR 8423 - Proclamation 8423 of September 25, 2009. National Public Lands Recognition Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... old, to celebrate the majesty of our open spaces and devote our collective efforts to conserving our... natural treasures, America's public lands are an indispensable component of American life. As we work to... stewardship through their service. Dedicated to improving all aspects of our natural environment, this...

  9. Pesticide assessment: Protecting public health on the home turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Meg; Walker, C Robin; van der Jagt, Richard Hc; Claman, Paul

    2006-04-01

    Pesticide regulation is examined in the context of Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency's assessment of the chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for turf. 2,4-D is the most common herbicide used to kill weeds in grass.The medical literature does not uniformly indicate harms from herbicides. However, the balance of epidemiological research suggests that 2,4-D can be persuasively linked to cancers, neurological impairment and reproductive problems. These may arise from 2,4-D itself, from breakdown products or dioxin contamination, or from a combination of chemicals.Regulators rely largely on toxicology, but experiments may not replicate exposures from 2,4-D application to lawns because environmental breakdown products (eg, 2,4-dichlorophenol) may not accumulate and selected herbicides are possibly less contaminated. Dioxins are bioaccumulative chemicals that may cause cancer, harm neurological development, impair reproduction, disrupt the endocrine system and alter immune function. No dioxin analyses were submitted to the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, and the principal contaminants of 2,4-D are not among the 17 congeners covered in pesticide regulation. Independent assessment of all dioxins is needed, in tissues and in the environment.The 2,4-D assessment does not approach standards for ethics, rigour or transparency in medical research. Canada needs a stronger regulator for pesticides. Potentially toxic chemicals should not be registered when more benign solutions exist, risks are not clearly quantifiable or potential risks outweigh benefits. Until landscaping pesticides are curtailed nationally, local bylaws and Quebec's Pesticide Code are prudent measures to protect public health. Physicians have a role in public education regarding pesticides.

  10. 78 FR 76854 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Sheridan County, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in... Sheridan County, Wyoming, to Farmland Reserve, Inc. (FRI) under the direct sale provisions of the Federal... land on file with the BLM. The proposed direct sale is in conformance with the BLM Buffalo...

  11. 78 FR 8188 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Land in Carbon County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Land.... SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is considering the (non- competitive) direct sale of 280... Carbon County, Utah, are proposed for direct sale, subject to the applicable provisions of Sections...

  12. Participatory processes for public lands: Do provinces practice what they preach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren F. Miller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we analyze the current spaces for public participation in Crown (public land management through a comparative study that focuses on the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. We define spaces for public participation as opportunities for meaningful public involvement in the decision-making arena of forest management. We examine the experiences of public participation in these provinces in an exploratory study comparing perceptions of participatory processes and outcomes of the processes in these two provinces based on 15 years (1999-2014 of informant experience. The objective is to understand more fully the barriers and bridges to meaningful public participation and relate these perceptions to on-the-ground implementation. A primary goal is to understand how, over time, processes with unsatisfying outcomes shape the perceptions of the participants. Rather than focusing on one particular participatory process, this comparative study assesses participation over time to identify the limitations in the participatory environments of these two provinces. We take a qualitative research approach using semistructured interviews with 42 forestry stakeholders, combined with participant observation and document analysis. This research reveals: (1 the importance of historical and cultural context as ongoing power imbalances shape the current dialogue and spaces for participation; (2 periods of robust and sound attempts at public participation in both provinces, with disappointments in implementation giving rise to a sense of futility, a closed system, and mistrust of government and industry over time; (3 a system of privileged access in opposition to the ideals of deliberative democracy and an equitable decision-making process; (4 in New Brunswick, public land policy implementation that is not reflective of participatory processes or of interests outside government and industry; (5 in Nova Scotia, recent efforts to incorporate values

  13. A comparative assessment of land cover dynamics of three protected forest areas in tropical eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud

    2010-02-01

    Processes of deforestation, known to threaten tropical forest biodiversity, have not yet been studied sufficiently in East Africa. To shed light on the patterns and causes of human influences on protected forest ecosystems, comparisons of different study areas regarding land cover dynamics and potential drivers are needed. We analyze the development of land cover since the early 1970s for three protected East African rainforests and their surrounding farmlands and assess the relationship between the observed changes in the context of the protection status of the forests. Processing of Landsat satellite imagery of eight or seven time steps in regular intervals results in 12 land cover classes for the Kakamega-Nandi forests (Kenya) and Budongo Forest (Uganda) whereas ten are distinguished for Mabira Forest (Uganda). The overall classification accuracy assessed for the year 2001 or 2003 is similarly high for all three study areas (81% to 85%). The time series reveal that, despite their protection status, Kakamega-Nandi forests and Mabira Forest experienced major forest decrease, the first a continuous forest loss of 31% between 1972/1973 and 2001, the latter an abrupt loss of 24% in the late 1970s/early 1980s. For both forests, the temporally dense time series show short-term fluctuations in forest classes (e.g., areas of forest regrowth since the 1980s or exotic secondary bushland species from the 1990s onwards). Although selectively logged, Budongo Forest shows a much more stable forest cover extent. A visual overlay with population distribution for all three regions clearly indicates a relationship between forest loss and areas of high population density, suggesting population pressure as a main driver of deforestation. The revealed forest losses due to local and commercial exploitation further demonstrate that weak management impedes effective forest protection in East Africa.

  14. Protected areas in South Asia have not prevented habitat loss: a study using historical models of land-use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie E; Boakes, Elizabeth H; McGowan, Philip J K; Mace, Georgina M; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system.

  15. Public Protection from Electromagnetic Fields of Industry Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimieras Vytautas Maceika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania introduced normative of public protection from 50 Hz frequency electric field. It proposed permissible intensity of this field – 0,5 kV/m inside buildings and 1 kV/m in their territory. Separate normative is prepared for industry frequency electric and magnetic fields in work places. Permitted values of fields depend on exposure duration, but cannot exceed 25 kV/m and 5,1 kA/m. Russian, Swedish and American scientists declare that long time exposure of 50 Hz magnetic field with intensity more than 0,2-0,3 µT is dangerous for carcinogenic risk. International Agency for research on Cancer (IARC initiated a program to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of low frequency electromagnetic fields to humans and till 2002 year collected a lot of information for different countries with quantitative analysis of epidemic data. Standardized incidents ratio (SIR was proposed for evaluation of leukaemia in humans and especially children. Exposure of children in magneticfields > 0,4 µT showed a twofold SIR increasing. Data concerning the subject of an evaluation did not disclose inadequate evidence in humans and experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of magnetic fields of industry frequency, but they are classified as “possibly carcinogenic to humans”.

  16. Land revenues, schools and literacy: a historical examination of public and private funding of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Latika

    2010-01-01

    Despite the centralised nature of the fiscal system in colonial India, public education expenditures varied dramatically across regions with the western and southern provinces spending three to four times as much as the eastern provinces. A significant portion of the inter-regional difference was due to historical differences in land taxes, an important source of provincial revenues in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The large differences in public spending, however, did not produce comparable differences in enrollment rates or literacy in the colonial period. Nonetheless, public investments influenced the direction of school development and perhaps the long run trajectory of rural literacy.

  17. 76 FR 68784 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ....EU0000; CACA 50168 12] Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA....html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following parcel of public land is being proposed for direct sale... legal access. The BLM is proposing a direct sale to Mariposa Peak, LLC. Mariposa Peak, LLC, owns...

  18. 76 FR 16812 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA AGENCY... approximately 9.27 acres in Santa Clara County, California, for not less than the appraised fair market value of..., more or less, in Santa Clara County. The public land was originally identified as suitable for...

  19. A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Land Use in Public Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. King

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health researchers have identified numerous health implications associated with land use. However, it is unclear which of multiple methods of data collection most accurately captures land use, and “gold standard” methods vary by discipline. Five desirable features of environmental data sources are presented and discussed (cost, coverage, availability, construct validity, and accuracy. Potential accuracy issues are discussed by using Kappa statistics to evaluate the level of agreement between data sets collected by two methods (systematic social observation [SSO] by trained raters and publicly available data from aerial photography coded using administrative records from the same blocks in Chicago, Illinois. Significant Kappa statistics range from 0.19 to 0.60, indicating varying levels of intersource agreement. Most land uses are more likely to be reported by researcher-designed direct observation than in the publicly available data derived from aerial photography. However, when cost, coverage, and availability outweigh a marginal improvement in accuracy and flexibility in land-use categorization, coded aerial photography data may be a useful data source for health researchers. Greater interdisciplinary and interorganization collaboration in the production of ecological data is recommended to improve cost, coverage, availability, and accuracy, with implications for construct validity.

  20. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  1. Public urged to apply for land ownership. [Directive No. 03 of 3 May 1989 from Cambodia Council of Ministers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    This Cambodian Directive implements a decision on the tenure and use of land adopted by the Second National Conference of party cadres in April 1989. The decision provides the following: "All land in the State of Cambodia is state property. The State shall take measures to effectively improve land ownership and its usage by allotting land to people for dwelling and utilization. On the granting of rights to ownership of land, the State shall reallocate land occupied since liberation day on 7 January 1979 in conformity with the cadastral regulations. Land will be divided into four categories, namely land for building houses, farm land for production and exploitation, land for forest reserves and agriculture, and land kept for state use. The State prohibits the appropriation of all categories of unoccupied land for which taxes have been paid for future sale or rent." The Directive adds that no one may claim ownership of land before 1979; land newly reclaimed or about to be cleared must first be examined by the Agriculture Minister; and each family has a right to own 3 categories of land. The State will issue temporary land ownership certificates upon application by the public through the district People's Committee. Applications should be submitted by 30 June 1990.

  2. Nantucket, Ma. Climate Protection Action Plan: A Public Outreach Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, C.; Stephenson, A.; Petsch, S.

    2009-12-01

    As communities and municipalities gain a better understanding of climate change, they are exploring the ways in which to work towards adaptation and mitigation. One strategy that the Island of Nantucket, Massachusetts turned toward is the drafting of a Climate Protection Action Plan (CPAP). The CPAP was developed during the summer of 2009 to meet three goals: (1) assist the Town of Nantucket in creating a framework to help them reduce CO2 emissions; (2) educate the municipality and community in techniques that promote energy efficiency and sustainability on the island; and (3) document past, present and future approaches adopted by the Town towards emissions reduction and energy sustainability. In particular, this project focused on using local strengths and natural resources identified by island stakeholders that may help the island to mitigate carbon emissions and adapt to climate change.. Drafting the CPAP provided community members and politicians with an opportunity to become better educated in the science of climate change and to learn how climate change will affect their community. On the island of Nantucket, leaders in the religious, civic, and political communities were brought into a conversation about how each group could contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A geosciences graduate student was brought into the CPAP team as a climate fellow to facilitate this conversation. This provided the foundation for stakeholder recommendations incorporated into the CPAP. This capacity-building model served as an effective way to create an informal learning environment about climate change that allowed members of the island community to directly participate in developing their locally appropriate climate protection strategy. The draft CPAP developed through this study and presented to the Town of Nantucket comprises assessments and recommendations in public research and education; building and energy efficiency; transportation; renewable energy; and carbon

  3. Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge (Proposed) Quitman, Tallahatchie, and Grenada Counties, Mississippi, Draft Environmental Assessment and Land Protection Plan.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Draft Land Protection Plan and Environmental Assessment for Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge contains the necessary supporting documentation to establish...

  4. The potential role for management of U.S. public lands in greenhouse gas mitigation and climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia P; Cooley, David M; Galik, Christopher S

    2012-03-01

    Management of forests, rangelands, and wetlands on public lands, including the restoration of degraded lands, has the potential to increase carbon sequestration or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions beyond what is occurring today. In this paper we discuss several policy options for increasing GHG mitigation on public lands. These range from an extension of current policy by generating supplemental mitigation on public lands in an effort to meet national emissions reduction goals, to full participation in an offsets market by allowing GHG mitigation on public lands to be sold as offsets either by the overseeing agency or by private contractors. To help place these policy options in context, we briefly review the literature on GHG mitigation and public lands to examine the potential for enhanced mitigation on federal and state public lands in the United States. This potential will be tempered by consideration of the tradeoffs with other uses of public lands, the needs for climate change adaptation, and the effects on other ecosystem services.

  5. Protected Areas, State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation Land , Maryland Environmental Trust , County Conservation Land, Agriculture Preservation Easement, Agriculture Preservation District, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Protected Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation...

  6. Reinforce the radiation protection of the health personnel, patients and public; Renforcer la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants. Des professionnels de sante, des patients et du public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    One of the missions of the IRSN is the public radiation protection. In this context and in order to inform the public, this press document presents the actions of the IRSN in the occupational safety, the patients and the public, with a special interest to the Chernobyl accident consequences in France. The prevention policy against the radon, implemented by the Institute is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  7. Adapative Management of Protected Areas under Land Use and Climate Changes in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Kreft, Holger; Klaus, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the potential impacts of future land use and climate change scenarios on mammal distributions in northern Thailand and to priority new protected areas to minimize the predicted impacts. Occurrence data of 17 selected mammals were obtained from a nationwide inventory during 2004-2006. Current and predicted future bioclimatic variables in 2050 were extracted from global datasets. In addition, the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) was used to generate suitable habitats. In addition, the vulnerability matrix and the gravity model were employed to define risk species and additional protected areas, respectively. The results revealed that future climatic conditions would favor species inhabiting dense habitats. However, most species were predicted to lose suitable habitat if the remaining forest cover declines from the current level of 57% to 50% in 2050. When land use and climate changes were combined, the predicted impacts were more severe. Most species would lose suitable habitats and the average shift in distribution was greater than 40%. Centers of current mammal richness and in the future were predicted in large and contiguous protected forests but the percentage of moderate-very high concentrations would decrease marginally in the future. By increasing additional protected areas of 1,861 km2 from the current plan (from 31.4% to 32.5%) in the vulnerable areas, the predicted impacts on mammal distributions will be significantly decreased. This research demonstrates that spatially explicit models and protected areas are effective means to contribute to conservation planning at current and future dynamic threats.

  8. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-05

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. 76 FR 34994 - Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax-Public Engagement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax--Public Engagement Workshop AGENCY: Office of... Biodefense Science Board's (NBSB) Anthrax Vaccine (AV) Working Group (WG) will hold a public engagement workshop on July 7, 2011, to discuss vaccine to protect children from anthrax. This meeting is open to the...

  10. 76 FR 14014 - Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Trade... pertaining to motor vehicle sales and leasing, the FTC is hosting a series of public roundtables in 2011. The... interested parties to discuss consumer protection issues in connection with motor vehicle sales and...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  12. 30 CFR 280.70 - What data and information will be protected from public disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public disclosure? In making data and information available to the public, the RD will follow the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What data and information will be protected from public disclosure? 280.70 Section 280.70 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE,...

  13. Public Participation in Environmental Protection%浅析环境保护公众参与

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长军

    2015-01-01

    Public participation in environmental protection is a fundamental right of citizens and is an effective measure to promote environmental protection. Starting from the meaning of public participation in environmental protection system, the paper analyzes the current situation of public participation in environmental protection in China, and puts forward some suggestions of perfecting China's public participation in environmental protection.%环境保护公众参与是法律给予公民的基本权利,是促进环境保护工作的有效措施。本文从环境保护公众参与制度的涵义出发,分析了我国环境保护公众参与的现状,提出了完善我国环境保护公众参与的建议。

  14. 77 FR 3000 - Notice of Public Meeting: Resource Advisory Council to the Boise District, Bureau of Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... permits in western Owyhee County. An update will also be given on accomplishments during FY 2011 and plans...--Owyhee Public Land Management. Each field manager will discuss progress being made on priority actions...

  15. Public Land Conveyance Records, Published in Not Provided, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Insurance Adjuster.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Land Conveyance Records dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of Not...

  16. 77 FR 47090 - Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Washington County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Washington County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of... publication of this notice. Electronic mail (email) will also be accepted and should be sent to...

  17. 63 FR 59842 - Notice of Realty Action-IDI-32281; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action-IDI-32281; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID Correction In notice document 98-27697, beginning on page 55403, in the issue of Thursday,...

  18. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Fremont County, Idaho, Upper Snake Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Snake Field Office Under the Federal Lands Enhancement Act AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), the Upper Snake Field Office will begin collecting fees for the day use area and a fee for use of the... collection at this site. Six months after the publication of this notice, the Upper Snake Field Office...

  19. 76 FR 50492 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Benito County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Benito County, CA... is proposed for direct sale to Windfield Ranch, LLC, the adjoining landowner, in accordance with... lacks legal access. The BLM is proposing a direct sale to Windfield Ranch, LLC, the owner of...

  20. 78 FR 24231 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Josephine County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Josephine..., Oregon, by direct sale procedures to Joan Conklin for the approved appraised fair market value of $300...) and regulations at 43 CFR subparts 2710 and 2720, this conveyance will be made by direct...

  1. 75 FR 21037 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Boulder County, Colorado. The parcels are being considered for direct sale to parties at no less than the... contained in 43 CFR 2711.3- 3 make allowances for direct sales when a competitive sale is inappropriate...

  2. 77 FR 24978 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Washakie County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in..., Wyoming, by non- competitive (direct) sale to the town of Ten Sleep under the provisions of the Federal... County, Wyoming, is proposed for direct sale under the authority of Section 203 of the FLPMA, (43...

  3. 75 FR 60478 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Fe County, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Fe County, NM... Management (BLM) has determined that 2.96 acres located in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, is suitable for...., Fractional sec. 29, lot 10. The area described contains 2.96 acres, more or less, in Santa Fe...

  4. Climate Change and Western Public Lands: a Survey of U.S. Federal Land Managers on the Status of Adaptation Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli M. Archie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated consequences pose an increasing risk to public lands in the western United States. High-level mandates currently require federal agencies to begin planning for adaptation, but the extent to which these mandates have resulted in policies being implemented that affect on the ground practices is unclear. To examine the status of adaptation efforts, we conducted an original survey and semistructured interviews with land managers from the four major federal land management agencies in the U.S. states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The survey was designed to examine current planning for adaptation on public lands and how it differs from prior planning, the major challenges facing land managers in this region, the major barriers preventing managers from planning for adaptation, and the major hurdles associated with implementing adaptation plans. Our results show that some adaptation planning is currently taking place, but that few adaptation projects have made it to the implementation phase. Overall, respondents considered lack of information at relevant scales, budget constraints, lack of specific agency direction, and lack of useful information to be the most common barriers to adaption planning. Budget constraints, lack of perceived importance to the public, and lack of public awareness or demand to take action were reported to be the biggest hurdles to implementation of adaptation projects. Agencies showed differing levels of adaptation activity, and reported different barriers to adaptation and hurdles to implementation. Reasons for the differences and implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  5. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps that i...

  6. Protecting Pregnant Pennsylvanians: Public Funding of Crisis Pregnancy Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan McElroy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a brief overview of the history of CPCs in the United States and the “abortion alternatives” program in Pennsylvania, this Note examines possible legal claims in terms of legal standards and likelihood of success. The results of a Right to Know (“RTK” request directed toward the Pennsylvania DPW, including both what the DPW offered to produce and what it refused to produce, will supplement this evaluation of possible legal claims. This Note also proposes Public policy recommendations aimed at eliminating the DPW’s liability for these claims in the interest of preventing abusive tactics by CPCs and conserving public funds. Finally, this Note compares the relative benefits and disadvantages of legislative and regulatory reform to those of litigation. Either litigative or legislative action is necessary to prevent publically funded CPCs from inflicting further harm on pregnant Pennsylvanians.

  7. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  8. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  9. From Public to Private Standards for Tropical Commodities: A Century of Global Discourse on Land Governance on the Forest Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Byerlee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and commodity exports have a long history in affecting land use changes and land rights on the tropical forest frontier. This paper reviews a century of social and environmental discourse around land issues for four commodities grown in the humid tropics—rubber, cocoa, oil palm and bananas. States have exercised sovereign rights over land and forest resources and the outcomes for deforestation and land rights of existing users have been quite varied depending on local institutional contexts and political economy. In the current period of globalization, as land use changes associated with tropical commodities have accelerated, land issues are now at center stage in the global discourse. However, efforts to protect forests and the rights of local communities and indigenous groups continue to be ad hoc and codification of minimum standards and their implementation remains a work in progress. Given a widespread failure of state directed policies and institutions to curb deforestation and protect land rights, the private sector, with the exception of the rubber industry, is emphasizing voluntary standards to certify sustainability of their products. This is an important step but expectations that they will effectively address concerns about the impact of tropical commodities expansion might be too high, given their voluntary nature, demand constraints, and the challenge of including smallholders. It is also doubtful that private standards can more than partially compensate for long standing weaknesses in land governance and institutions on the forest frontier.

  10. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  11. 75 FR 25281 - Food Protection Workshop; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... about food safety, food defense, the regulations authorized by the Public Health Security and..., visit http://www.uark.edu/ua/foodpro/Workshops/Food_Safety_Defense_Workshop.html or contact Steven C... visit http://www.uark.edu/ua/foodpro/Workshops/Food_Safety_Defense_Workshop.html to register online...

  12. [Clothing in the protection of public safety and security forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciari, T

    2006-01-01

    The Ministerial Decree 19 February 1992 indicates the characteristics of the equipment and of the different uniforms adopted by the Italian Police Forces. The paper describes the occupational risks (due to physical, chemical and biological agents) and the protective equipments of particular police activities and specialties: urban and road police, air and naval units, shooting instructors, laboratory technicians (scientific police), mechanic repair and maintenance, units working with dogs or horses.

  13. Fundamentals of accounting support for economic mechanism for protection and sustainable use of land resources in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapchuk T.P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problems of agricultural land accounting are investigated with the aim of developing methodological approaches for reliable accounting of land resources transactions that will become the basis for improving control procedures for land conservation and protection. One of the most important priorities of state policy, the condition for stability and development of the country’s national economy is a scientifically grounded land use policy, which serves as an economic indicator of the development of the state and one of the ways to overcome the financial and economic crisis in the country when it occurs. World practice has shown that the only universal exchange equivalent in the way of overcoming the economic crisis of any state is natural resources, and one of the significant, practically reproducible resources is land. Depending on the categories of lands, they may be subject to both ownership rights and full ownership. However, this property right remains inadequate, as owners of land plots cannot use them freely (sell, transfer, inherit, give, etc.. This refers to the agricultural land, for sale of which a moratorium has been established banning alienation and changing the purpose of agricultural land up to 2017, inclusive.

  14. Public Goods, Environmental Protection,and the Development Paradigm in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhou

    2004-01-01

    Ecological environment protection will and should not stop as regional public goods;instead, it has been gradually regarded as global public goods. That is why the responsibility of environment protection belongs to public institutions: government organizations (GO) and non-government organizations (NGO). The ecological environment protection problems in China's rural areas stem from the absence of government responsibilities with regard to consensuses on issues of rural public goods that are basically sourced from two superstitions on the government's development paradigm: one is attaching too much importance on economic growth; the other is relying entirely on market resource-allocation capacity. These two superstitions of China "s government obviously lead to the shortage of public goods in rural areas. It is necessary that GO's and NGO's clearly define their specific responsibilities, reflect on the development paradigm; establish a more scientific development model and take concrete actions based on it.

  15. Conservation Benefits of Tropical Multifunctional Land-Uses in and Around a Forest Protected Area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif A. Mukul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competing interests in land for agriculture and commodity production in tropical human-dominated landscapes make forests and biodiversity conservation particularly challenging. Establishment of protected areas in this regard is not functioning as expected due to exclusive ecological focus and poor recognition of local people’s traditional forest use and dependence. In recent years, multifunctional land-use systems such as agroforestry have widely been promoted as an efficient land-use in such circumstances, although their conservation effectiveness remains poorly investigated. We undertake a rapid biodiversity survey to understand the conservation value of four contrasting forms of local land-use, namely: betel leaf (Piper betle agroforestry; lemon (Citrus limon agroforestry; pineapple (Ananas comosus agroforestry; and, shifting cultivation–fallow managed largely by the indigenous communities in and around a highly diverse forest protected area of Bangladesh. We measure the alpha and beta diversity of plants, birds, and mammals in these multifunctional land-uses, as well as in the old-growth secondary forest in the area. Our study finds local land-use critical in conserving biodiversity in the area, with comparable biodiversity benefits as those of the old-growth secondary forest. In Bangladesh, where population pressure and rural people’s dependence on forests are common, multifunctional land-uses in areas of high conservation priority could potentially be used to bridge the gap between conservation and commodity production, ensuring that the ecological integrity of such landscapes will be altered as little as possible.

  16. 40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) water quality criteria shall be based on the following: (i) For aquatic life criteria: The pollutant... quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and propagation of a... maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and...

  17. Effects of pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Henk; Huurne, ter Ellen; Taal, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effect of public service announcements aimed at promoting primary prevention of skin cancer may be limited by superficial cognitive processing. The use of both pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements were evaluated for their potentially beneficia

  18. On China's Protection of Citizens' Right to Be Informed and Construction of Government Information Publicity System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ZHENGQUN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.The Unfolding Situation of the Philosophy of Right to Be Informed in China and Early Construction of Government Information Publicity System The origin of the thought, known as China's protection of right to be informed and the construction of government information publicity system, at least can be traced to the first decade after reform and opening up.

  19. Understanding Climate Adaptation on Public Lands in the Upper Midwest: Implications for Monitoring and Tracking Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt-Depies, Christine M; Knoot, Tricia Gorby; Rissman, Adena R; Sharp, Anthony K; Martin, Karl J

    2016-05-01

    There are limited examples of efforts to systematically monitor and track climate change adaptation progress in the context of natural resource management, despite substantial investments in adaptation initiatives. To better understand the status of adaptation within state natural resource agencies, we utilized and problematized a rational decision-making framework to characterize adaptation at the level of public land managers in the Upper Midwest. We conducted in-depth interviews with 29 biologists and foresters to provide an understanding of managers' experiences with, and perceptions of, climate change impacts, efforts towards planning for climate change, and a full range of actions implemented to address climate change. While the majority of managers identified climate change impacts affecting their region, they expressed significant uncertainty in interpreting those signals. Just under half of managers indicated planning efforts are underway, although most planning is remote from local management. Actions already implemented include both forward-looking measures and those aimed at coping with current impacts. In addition, cross-scale dynamics emerged as an important theme related to the overall adaptation process. The results hold implications for tracking future progress on climate change adaptation. Common definitions or measures of adaptation (e.g., presence of planning documents) may need to be reassessed for applicability at the level of public land managers.

  20. Understanding Climate Adaptation on Public Lands in the Upper Midwest: Implications for Monitoring and Tracking Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt-Depies, Christine M.; Knoot, Tricia Gorby; Rissman, Adena R.; Sharp, Anthony K.; Martin, Karl J.

    2016-05-01

    There are limited examples of efforts to systematically monitor and track climate change adaptation progress in the context of natural resource management, despite substantial investments in adaptation initiatives. To better understand the status of adaptation within state natural resource agencies, we utilized and problematized a rational decision-making framework to characterize adaptation at the level of public land managers in the Upper Midwest. We conducted in-depth interviews with 29 biologists and foresters to provide an understanding of managers' experiences with, and perceptions of, climate change impacts, efforts towards planning for climate change, and a full range of actions implemented to address climate change. While the majority of managers identified climate change impacts affecting their region, they expressed significant uncertainty in interpreting those signals. Just under half of managers indicated planning efforts are underway, although most planning is remote from local management. Actions already implemented include both forward-looking measures and those aimed at coping with current impacts. In addition, cross-scale dynamics emerged as an important theme related to the overall adaptation process. The results hold implications for tracking future progress on climate change adaptation. Common definitions or measures of adaptation (e.g., presence of planning documents) may need to be reassessed for applicability at the level of public land managers.

  1. Transforming Farming Systems on Public Lands in the EAA to Support Everglades Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John [Caloosahatchee River Citizens Association (Riverwatch), LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Ed A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States)

    2010-01-08

    The public purchase of farmlands in the EAA provides an opportunity for transforming farming systems into truly sustainable systems and these can support the Everglades restoration efforts. The concept proposed in this presentation is that by reducing the yield intensity of farms and adding ecosystem services, public farm lands can serve both restoration and the economy more effectively and more efficiently. This working hypothesis will be evaluated by applying systems analysis approaches including life cycle analysis and embodied energy analysis. The rationale for pursuing new approaches ranges from the fact that climate change threats are global, not local, to the fact that eliminating Florida farms and moving production elsewhere yields no net ecological benefit. Historic water flow from Lake Okeechobee to Everglades is shown and the current concept of moving water explained. Southern Flow Way Plan 6 is explained and sustainable farming system in this newly acquired land presented. To determine if an EAA pulse-way strategy would work and meet the sustainability criteria requires integrated analysis of several systems - water budget, soil & water nutrient dynamics, prospects for new sugarcane varieties, soil subsidence and overall energy and carbon budget.

  2. Public Lands, Other, This would include all counties owned by Chippewa County that are not Forest or Park. Most lands obtained through tax deed., Published in 2013, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Public Lands, Other dataset current as of 2013. This would include all counties owned by Chippewa County that are not Forest or Park. Most lands obtained through tax...

  3. Protected areas in South Asia have not prevented habitat loss: a study using historical models of land-use change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie E Clark

    Full Text Available Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system.

  4. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  5. Engaging wider publics with studying and protecting the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Cornelia E.

    2015-04-01

    The ocean is dying. The vast scientific literature diagnoses massive reductions in the biomass of fish and invertebrates from overfishing, increasing destruction of coral ecosystems in the tropics from climate change, extensive dead zones from eutrophication and collapse of marine bird populations from ingesting plastic. Even though Darwin suspected already The scale is becoming apparent only from meta-analyses at regional or even global scales as individual studies tend to focus on one fishery or one type of organisms or geographic location. In combination with deep rooted perceptions of the vastness of the ocean the changes are difficult to comprehend for specialists and the general public alike. Even though more than half of humanity is estimated to live in coastal zones as defined by some, urbanisation is removing about half from regular, more direct exposure. Yet, there is much still to be explored, not only in the deep, little studied, parts. The ocean exercises great fascination on many people heightened since the period of discovery and the mystery of far-flung places, but the days, when Darwin's research results were regularly discussed in public spaces are gone. Rachel Carson's prize-winning and best selling book "The Sea Around Us", some serialised chapters in magazines and condensations in "Reader's Digest" transported the poetic rendering of science again to a wider public. But compared to the diversity of scientific inquiry about the ocean and importance for life-support system earth there is much room for engaging ocean science in the broad sense with larger and diverse publics. Developing new narratives rooted in the best available sciences is among the most promising modes of connecting different areas of scientific inquiry and non-specialists alike. We know at latest since Poincaré's famous dictum that "the facts don't speak". However, contextualised information can capture the imagination of the many and thus also reveal unexpected connections

  6. Managing Carbon on Federal Public Lands: Opportunities and Challenges in Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, Lisa; Kelsey, Katharine C.; Fernandez, Daniel P.; Huang, Yin D.; Milford, Jana B.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-08-01

    Federal lands in the United States have been identified as important areas where forests could be managed to enhance carbon storage and help mitigate climate change. However, there has been little work examining the context for decision making for carbon in a multiple-use public land environment, and how science can support decision making. This case study of the San Juan National Forest and the Bureau of Land Management Tres Rios Field Office in southwestern Colorado examines whether land managers in these offices have adequate tools, information, and management flexibility to practice effective carbon stewardship. To understand how carbon was distributed on the management landscape we added a newly developed carbon map for the SJNF-TRFO area based on Landsat TM texture information (Kelsey and Neff in Remote Sens 6:6407-6422. doi: 10.3390/rs6076407, 2014). We estimate that only about 22 % of the aboveground carbon in the SJNF-TRFO is in areas designated for active management, whereas about 38 % is in areas with limited management opportunities, and 29 % is in areas where natural processes should dominate. To project the effects of forest management actions on carbon storage, staff of the SJNF are expected to use the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) and extensions. While identifying FVS as the best tool generally available for this purpose, the users and developers we interviewed highlighted the limitations of applying an empirically based model over long time horizons. Future research to improve information on carbon storage should focus on locations and types of vegetation where carbon management is feasible and aligns with other management priorities.

  7. 75 FR 36438 - Notice of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the California Desert...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... enhance the safety of visitors, protect public health, protect natural resources, and improve recreation... management area. These supplementary rules will serve as an enforcement tool in minimizing resource impacts... managed by the BLM CDD and its five Field Offices. These rules are designed to protect the environment...

  8. The importance of traceability for public health and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, J D

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1980s, concerns about the safety and quality of food have increased at both governmental and consumer levels. The importance of traceability of animals and animal products has grown as food production and marketing have been removed from direct consumer control. Product traceability, which requires a transparent chain of custody to maintain credibility and to complete information transfer functions, has two components, namely: a unique identification system, and a credible and verifiable mechanism for identity preservation. Traceability systems can be subdivided into the following four categories: country of origin; retail; processor; and farm-to-retail identity. Although the availability of computers and electronic data devices can enhance the speed and accuracy of data acquisition and manipulation, a common set of developmental criteria exists, irrespective of data-handling processes. As data management technologies become more powerful and less costly, product traceability requirements will multiply. Public and private sectors should seize these opportunities to improve public health and quality parameters, or risk a narrowing of their markets.

  9. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  10. Radiological Protection in Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). ICRP Publication 129.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, M M; Gupta, R; Bartling, S; Sharp, G C; Pauwels, R; Berris, T; Boone, J M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide guidance on radiological protection in the new technology of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Publications 87 and 102 dealt with patient dose management in computed tomography (CT) and multi-detector CT. The new applications of CBCT and the associated radiological protection issues are substantially different from those of conventional CT. The perception that CBCT involves lower doses was only true in initial applications. CBCT is now used widely by specialists who have little or no training in radiological protection. This publication provides recommendations on radiation dose management directed at different stakeholders, and covers principles of radiological protection, training, and quality assurance aspects. Advice on appropriate use of CBCT needs to be made widely available. Advice on optimisation of protection when using CBCT equipment needs to be strengthened, particularly with respect to the use of newer features of the equipment. Manufacturers should standardise radiation dose displays on CBCT equipment to assist users in optimisation of protection and comparisons of performance. Additional challenges to radiological protection are introduced when CBCT-capable equipment is used for both fluoroscopy and tomography during the same procedure. Standardised methods need to be established for tracking and reporting of patient radiation doses from these procedures. The recommendations provided in this publication may evolve in the future as CBCT equipment and applications evolve. As with previous ICRP publications, the Commission hopes that imaging professionals, medical physicists, and manufacturers will use the guidelines and recommendations provided in this publication for implementation of the Commission's principle of optimisation of protection of patients and medical workers, with the objective of keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and societal factors, and

  11. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Liu, Yaling; Le Page, Yannick

    2017-07-16

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km(2) of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700-2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001-2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Voluntary Nonmonetary Conservation Approaches on Private Land: A Review of Constraints, Risks, and Benefits for Raptor Nest Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation on private land of the developed world faces several challenges. The costs of land are often high, and the attitudes of landowners towards conservation are variable. Scientists and practitioners need to scan for and adopt cost-effective solutions that allow for the long-term sustainability of conservation measures on private land. In this study, we focus on one of such possible solutions: Working with landowners to implement voluntary nonmonetary conservation. We restrict our focus to protection of raptor nests, but the ideas can be applied to other taxa as well. Through a literature review, we show that a voluntary nonmonetary approach for protecting raptor nests has been so far largely neglected and/or rarely reported in the scientific literature. However, results of a questionnaire sent to BirdLife partners across Europe indicate that this approach is more widely used than it appears from the literature. We show that voluntary nonmonetary approaches may represent useful tools to protect raptor nests on private land. We provide a workflow for implementation of such an approach in raptor nest protection, highlighting benefits, potential risks, and constraints in the application of the strategy. We suggest that a voluntary nonmonetary approach may have great potential for cost-effective conservation, but the risks it may entail should be carefully assessed in each case. There is an urgent need to consider and evaluate novel approaches, such as the one described here, which may constitute missed opportunities for cost-effective conservation.

  13. Land-use impacts on water resources and protected areas: applications of state-and-transition simulation modeling of future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sherba, Jason T; Dick Cameron,

    2015-01-01

    Human land use will increasingly contribute to habitat loss and water shortages in California, given future population projections and associated land-use demand. Understanding how land-use change may impact future water use and where existing protected areas may be threatened by land-use conversion will be important if effective, sustainable management approaches are to be implemented. We used a state-and-transition simulation modeling (STSM) framework to simulate spatially-explicit (1 km2) historical (1992-2010) and future (2011-2060) land-use change for 52 California counties within Mediterranean California ecoregions. Historical land use and land cover (LULC) change estimates were derived from the Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program dataset and attributed with county-level agricultural water-use data from the California Department of Water Resources. Five future alternative land-use scenarios were developed and modeled using the historical land-use change estimates and land-use projections based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios. Spatial land-use transition outputs across scenarios were combined to reveal scenario agreement and a land conversion threat index was developed to evaluate vulnerability of existing protected areas to proximal land conversion. By 2060, highest LULC conversion threats were projected to impact nearly 10,500 km2 of land area within 10 km of a protected area boundary and over 18,000 km2 of land area within essential habitat connectivity areas. Agricultural water use declined across all scenarios perpetuating historical drought-related land use from 2008-2010 and trends of annual cropland conversion into perennial woody crops. STSM is useful in analyzing land-use related impacts on water resource use as well as potential threats to existing protected land. Exploring a range of alternative, yet plausible, LULC change impacts will help to better inform resource

  14. Land-use impacts on water resources and protected areas: applications of state-and-transition simulation modeling of future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara S. Wilson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human land use will increasingly contribute to habitat loss and water shortages in California, given future population projections and associated land-use demand. Understanding how land-use change may impact future water use and where existing protected areas may be threatened by land-use conversion will be important if effective, sustainable management approaches are to be implemented. We used a state-and-transition simulation modeling (STSM framework to simulate spatially-explicit (1 km2 historical (1992‒2010 and future (2011‒2060 land-use change for 52 California counties within Mediterranean California ecoregions. Historical land use and land cover (LULC change estimates were derived from the Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program dataset and attributed with county-level agricultural water-use data from the California Department of Water Resources. Five future alternative land-use scenarios were developed and modeled using the historical land-use change estimates and land-use projections based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios. Spatial land-use transition outputs across scenarios were combined to reveal scenario agreement and a land conversion threat index was developed to evaluate vulnerability of existing protected areas to proximal land conversion. By 2060, highest LULC conversion threats were projected to impact nearly 10,500 km2 of land area within 10 km of a protected area boundary and over 18,000 km2 of land area within essential habitat connectivity areas. Agricultural water use declined across all scenarios perpetuating historical drought-related land use from 2008‒2010 and trends of annual cropland conversion into perennial woody crops. STSM is useful in analyzing land-use related impacts on water resource use as well as potential threats to existing protected land. Exploring a range of alternative, yet plausible, LULC change impacts will help to

  15. Land use planning ballot initiatives in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Eric M. White

    2010-01-01

    Sustaining farm and forest land has been an important goal in the United States because of the role these lands play in the livelihoods of rural residents while also providing desired open space benefits. However, land use policies to protect rural lands often involve a tension between balancing public interests regarding economic and open space goals with the private...

  16. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Smit-Kroner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  17. Tree survival and growth on land reclaimed in accord with Public Law 95-87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, W.R.; Pope, P.E.; Byrnes, W.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Natural Resources

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine survival and growth of black walnut ({ital Juglans nigra} L.) and northern red oak ({ital Quercus alba} L.) 12 yr after planting on a surface-mined site in southern Indiana reclaimed according to specifications of Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. A stocking level adequate to meet the requirements for forest land use (1112 trees/ha, or 450 trees/acre) was attained only for black walnut and only if competing ground cover vegetation was controlled in the tree rows. Height of both tree species was significantly greater when ground cover vegetation was controlled during the first 2 yr, but the growth rate, approximately 10 cm/yr, was very slow. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Brodie, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both sets of objectives. Our

  19. Sustainable Planning of Land Use Changes in farming areas under ecological protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero-García, F.; Montero-Riquelme, F.; Brasa-Ramos, A.; Carsjens, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Land use has been changing in the last decades because of agricultural intensification and land abandonment which implies deterioration in the optimum habitat structure and quality. Habitat degradation and loss, resulting from changes in land use remain significant drivers of biodiversity loss. Thes

  20. Cancer registration, public health and the reform of the European data protection framework: Abandoning or improving European public health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mette Rye; Storm, Hans H

    2015-06-01

    The importance of cancer- and other disease registries for planning, management and evaluation of healthcare systems has been shown repeatedly during the last 50 years. Complete and unbiased population-level analyses on routinely collected, individual data concerning health and personal characteristics can address significant concerns about risk factors for cancer and provide sound evidence about public health and the effectiveness of healthcare systems. The existence of quality controlled and comprehensive data in registries, allowed to be used for quality control, research and public health purposes are taken as granted by most health professionals and researchers. However, the current revision of the European Union (EU) data protection framework suggests a harmonisation of requirements for confidentiality and individual consent to data processing, likely at the expense of proper use of registry data in the health sector. Consequences of excessive confidentiality rules that may lead to missed data linkages have been simulated. The simulations provide one possible explanation for observed heterogeneity among some cancer incidence data. Further, public health, quality control and epidemiological research on large populations can no longer provide evidence for health interventions, if requirements for consent renders research impossible or where attempts to obtain consent from each data subject generates biased results. Health professionals should engage in the on-going debate on the Commission's proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation. The nature and use of registry data in public health research must be explained and known to policy-makers and the public. Use of cancer registry data and other epidemiological activity will terminate abruptly if an unnecessarily strict EU data protection regulation is adopted. Research based interventions, as well as the international recognised standing of cancer registries and register-based research institutions in

  1. Report on residual radioactive materials on public or acquired lands of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    This report identifies sites located on public or acquired lands of the United States containing residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste (excluding waste resulting from the production of electric energy) and was developed in accordance with the provisions of Section 114(b) of Public Law 95-604, "Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978," enacted on November 8, 1978. Additionally, the report specifies which Federal agency has jurisdiction over such sites and, where appropriate data were available, provides a description of the radiological status of each of the sites reported. For purpose of providing a timely report t o t h e Congress, a termination date of May 31, 1979 was established for the receipt, correlation, and analysis of the input data. As of this date, residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste have been identified by six Federal agencies at 48 sites throughout the United States. Table 1 on page vi provides a summary listing of the number of sites under the jurisdiction of each of these reporting agencies. A cross listing in tabular form by affected state is presented in Table 2 on page viii. Of the 48 sites reported, 36 are located i n three western states - Colorado (27 sites), Wyoming (5 sites), and Utah (4 sites). Based upon t h e data submitted, the sites were categorized into three broad radiological status categories -- controlled, unstabilized, and risk to the public. At controlled sites, the residue is stabilized, access t o t h e site is controlled, the s i t e is well monitored, and does not currently constitute a risk to the public. At sites in the unstabilized category, a probability exists for the spread of contamination. Sites in the risk category contain residue which represents a long-term risk to the public under present conditions. Of the 48 reported sites,. 9 (approximately 19%) could be classified in the controlled category; 38 (approximately 79%) were in the unstabilized category and

  2. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  3. [Effects of eco-protection policy on land use/cover in upper reaches of Minjiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Yu; Bu, Ren-Cang; He, Hong-Shi; Chen, Hong-Wei; Han, Wei-Quan

    2010-06-01

    By using CLUE-S model, a scenario analysis was made on the land use/cover change in the upper reaches of Minjiang River from 2000 to 2020, based on the historic development trend and the regulations of policies "natural forest protection" and "grain for green". In 2000-2020, according to the historic development trend, the forestland area (landscape matrix) in the study region would have a continual decrease while the shrub land and grassland areas would be increased, and the landscape pattern would be more fragmental. The implementation of the policies "natural forest protection" and "grain for green" would effectively increase forestland area, being able to reverse the trend of landscape fragmentation and more optimize the landscape pattern.

  4. 76 FR 36954 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Shell Lake Municipal Airport, Shell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Shell Lake Municipal Airport, Shell Lake, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT ACTION: Notice of intent of... to authorize the release of 0.101 acres of the airport property at the ] Shell Lake Municipal...

  5. 77 FR 2603 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Willow Run Airport; Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Willow Run... Willow Run Airport, Detroit, Michigan. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Exhibit ``A'' Part of Section 12, Town... Easterly and Southerly line of the General Motors Corporation, Hydra-Matic Division, Willow Run...

  6. From Outreach to Engaged Placemaking: Understanding Public Land-Grant University Involvement with Tourism Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herts, Rolando D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research project aimed to identify benefits and drawbacks of public land-grant university involvement with tourism planning and development, an emergent form of university-community engagement. Using qualitative methodology, the study's findings led to the codification of levels of university tourism planning and development…

  7. 75 FR 2448 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2011-12 and 2012-13 Subsistence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment, or other units of the government. (b) Whether the... effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based... definition to certain public lands. Likewise, these regulations have no potential takings of private...

  8. 77 FR 40897 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Harney County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... not identify this parcel of public land as suitable for disposal. However, due to the topography and... subject to the requirements of Section 120(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation... including the appraisal, planning and environmental documents, and mineral report are available for review...

  9. 73 FR 2063 - Notice of Emergency Closure of Certain Public Lands to Motorized Vehicles in Twin Falls and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    ... Twin Falls and Owyhee Counties, ID and Elko County, NV, Under Murphy Complex Emergency Stabilization...., access limited to existing roads and trails).'' This order affects public lands in Owyhee and Twin Falls..., NV--18,631 Owyhee County, ID--435,968 Twin Falls County, ID--55,878 A total of approximately...

  10. Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

    Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

  11. 78 FR 11899 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Mateo County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... approximately 80 acres in San Mateo County, California. The public lands would be sold to the Sempervirens Fund... contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a message or question for the above individual. You will receive a reply during...

  12. Building stewardship with recreation users: an approach of market segmentation to meet the goal of public-lands management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po-Hsin Lai; Chia-Kuen Cheng; David Scott

    2007-01-01

    Participation in outdoor recreation has been increasing at a rate far exceeding the population growth since the 1980s. The growing demand for outdoor recreation amenities has imposed a great challenge on resource management agencies of public lands. This study proposed a segmentation framework to identify different outdoor recreation groups based on their attitudes...

  13. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... approximately 3,705 acres of public land in Saguache and Conejos Counties in Colorado. DATES: The BLM will hold... and 12 of T. 34 N., R. 8 E., New Mexico Principal Meridian, Conejos County, Colorado. This parcel lies...., R. 8 E., New Mexico Principal Meridian, Conejos County, Colorado. This parcel lies 3 miles west of...

  14. 77 FR 31037 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    .... LVRWA09A2370; AZA34425] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy... laws, for a period of up to 2 years. This is for the purpose of processing one solar energy right-of... Valley Solar Energy Project in Maricopa County, Arizona. DATES: Effective Date: This segregation...

  15. 77 FR 13142 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified-Competitive Sale of Public Land in Pahrump, Nye County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Modified-Competitive Sale of Public Land in Pahrump, Nye County... in Pahrump, Nye County, Nevada, by modified-competitive, sealed-bid sale at not less than the... INFORMATION: The Nye County Board of Commissioners supports the Spring Mountain Raceway, LLC's request for...

  16. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Recreation Planner, BLM Montana State Office, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, MT 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, (406) 896-5038. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background II... at 72 FR 19958 (April 20, 2007). The rules in the Notice of Camping Limits on Public Lands in...

  17. 77 FR 12874 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona Associated With the Proposed Mohave...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Wind Energy North America's Mohave County Wind Farm Project (Proposed Project). This segregation covers... in the State of Arizona from appropriation under the public land laws, including the mining law, but...: Eddie Arreola, Supervisory Project Manager; Telephone: 602-417-9505; Address: One North Central...

  18. 76 FR 18578 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... proposed sale of public land and the Competitive Sealed Bid Sale, June 1, 2011 Environmental Assessment (EA... Disposal Boundary Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), approved by Record of Decision on December 23, 2004... instrumentality, or political subdivision authorized to hold real property. United States citizenship is...

  19. Using Internet search behavior to assess public awareness of protected wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Lineman, Maurice; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-02-01

    Improving public awareness of protected wetlands facilitates sustainable wetland management, which depends on public participation. One way of gauging public interest is by tracking Internet search behavior (ISB). We assessed public awareness of issues related to protected wetland areas (PWAs) in South Korea by examining the frequencies of specific queries (PWAs, Ramsar, Upo wetland, Sunchon Bay, etc.) using relative search volumes (RSVs) obtained from an Internet search engine. RSV shows how many times a search term is used relative to a second search term during a specific period. Public awareness of PWAs changed from 2007 to 2013. Initially the majority of Internet searches were related to the most well-known tidal and inland wetlands Sunchon Bay and Upo wetlands, which are the largest existing wetlands in Korea with the greatest historical exposure. Public awareness, as reflected in RSVs, of wetlands increased significantly following PWA designation for the wetlands in 2008, which followed the Ramsar 10th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (COP10) meeting. Public interest was strongly correlated to the number of news articles in the popular media, as evidenced by the increase in Internet searches for specific wetlands and words associated with specific wetlands. Correspondingly, the number of visitors to specific wetlands increased. To increase public interest in wetlands, wetland aspects that enhance wetland conservation should be promoted by the government and enhanced via public education. Our approach can be used to gauge public awareness and participation in a wide range of conservation efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Application of a LUTI model for the assessment of land use plans and public transport investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bok, Michiel; Geurs, Karst Teunis; Zondag, Barry; Viegas, J.M.; Macario, R.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated land-use and transport interaction models (LUTI) are praised for their ability to evaluate land-use and transport planning in an integrated and consistent modeling system. However, applications of empirically estimated land use models are rare. This paper will present the application of

  1. 78 FR 22026 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... authorized by Section 3021 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy... lands. Federal land management agencies and State, tribal and local governments acting with the consent of a federal land management agency are eligible recipients. This program was not re-authorized...

  2. 75 FR 65650 - Notice of Closure to Motorized Vehicle Travel on Public Lands in the Big Pole Fire Area in Tooele...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure to Motorized Vehicle Travel on Public Lands in the Big Pole Fire Area in Tooele County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. Simulating Land Use Policies Targeted to Protect Biodiversity with the CLUE-Scanner Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Lesschen, J.P.; Koomen, E.; Perez-Soba, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents an integrated modelling approach for assessing land use changes and its effects on biodiversity. A modelling framework consisting of a macro-economic model, a land use change model, and biodiversity indicator models is described and illustrated with a scenario study for the

  4. RED Versus REDD: The Battle Between Extending Agricultural Land Use and Protecting Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, Peter; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Rimmer, Maureen; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the complex battle between RED and REDD policies and the resulting global consequences on land use, agricultural production, international trade flows and world food prices. A key methodological challenge is the representation of land use and the possibility to convert forestry l

  5. 78 FR 17716 - Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... land administered by the BLM's San Luis Valley Field Office in Saguache and Conejos counties, Colorado... Principal Meridian, Conejos County, Colorado. This parcel lies three miles west of the town of Romeo...

  6. Land subsidence risk assessment and protection in mined-out regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence due to underground mining is an important hazard that causes large damages and threatens to social and economic activities. The China government has started a national project to estimate the risk of land subsidence in the main coal production provinces, such as Heilongjiang, Anhui and Shanxi Provinces. Herein, the investigation methods for land subsidence identification were reported, some types of land settlement are summarized, and some successful engineering measures to mitigate the subsidence are discussed. A Geographical Information System (GIS for land subsidence risk assessment is developed and is based on site investigations and numerrical simulation of the subsidence process. In this system, maps of mining intensity and risk ranks are developed.

  7. A Decision Support System for Land Allocation under Multiple Objectives in Public Production Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco W. Lentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. However, illegal and unplanned logging is exhausting forests rapidly. In 2006, a new forestry law in Brazil (Lei 11,284/2006 established the legal framework to develop state and national public forests for multiple uses. To support public forest planning efforts, we combine spatially explicit data on logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for community use for use within a forest planning optimization model. While generating optimal land use configurations, the model enables an assessment of the market and nonmarket tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities. We demonstrate the model's use for Faro State Forest, a 636,000 ha forest embedded within a large mosaic of conservation units recently established in the state of Pará. The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region.

  8. WHAT ABOUT THE CHIMNEY? ETHNOGRAPHIC REPORTS ABOUT PUBLIC POLICIES AND THE INDIGENOUS LAND OF PANAMBIZINHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of colonization of the region of Mato Grosso is linked to the process of establishment of reservationa (confinement in the locus now known as south of Mato Grosso do Sul. The war daily fought between landowners and indigenous on account of the demarcation of territories claimed by Kaiowá, Guarani and Terena, in our view, cannot be dissociated from the macro-sociological and diachronic context of development of the southern region of the young state of Mato Grosso do Sul. In this scenario, the Indigenous Land of Panambizinho, yet to be regulated, apparently isn’t excused from problems that come from State deeds, given that the means of living destined to the Kaiowá are inhuman. As continuation to the research initiated in 2008, this article contributes through field work to broader discussions about indigenous societies and public policies, having as thread the experience the Kaiowá from Panambizinho had with the governmental iniciative entitled "Carteira Indígena", the arrival of ecological stoves by UNDP and the propositions from the Second Indigenous’ Mental Health Seminar that occurred in Dourados.

  9. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Edwards, Phil; Tonne, Cathryn; Armstrong, Ben G; Ashiru, Olu; Banister, David; Beevers, Sean; Chalabi, Zaid; Chowdhury, Zohir; Cohen, Aaron; Franco, Oscar H; Haines, Andy; Hickman, Robin; Lindsay, Graeme; Mittal, Ishaan; Mohan, Dinesh; Tiwari, Geetam; Woodward, Alistair; Roberts, Ian

    2009-12-05

    We used Comparative Risk Assessment methods to estimate the health effects of alternative urban land transport scenarios for two settings-London, UK, and Delhi, India. For each setting, we compared a business-as-usual 2030 projection (without policies for reduction of greenhouse gases) with alternative scenarios-lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles, increased active travel, and a combination of the two. We developed separate models that linked transport scenarios with physical activity, air pollution, and risk of road traffic injury. In both cities, we noted that reduction in carbon dioxide emissions through an increase in active travel and less use of motor vehicles had larger health benefits per million population (7332 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] in London, and 12 516 in Delhi in 1 year) than from the increased use of lower-emission motor vehicles (160 DALYs in London, and 1696 in Delhi). However, combination of active travel and lower-emission motor vehicles would give the largest benefits (7439 DALYs in London, 12 995 in Delhi), notably from a reduction in the number of years of life lost from ischaemic heart disease (10-19% in London, 11-25% in Delhi). Although uncertainties remain, climate change mitigation in transport should benefit public health substantially. Policies to increase the acceptability, appeal, and safety of active urban travel, and discourage travel in private motor vehicles would provide larger health benefits than would policies that focus solely on lower-emission motor vehicles.

  10. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  11. Building a sustainable land public transportation at Ayer Keroh, Malacca: Perspective view from hang tuah jaya municipal council (HTJMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Loo, Heoy Shin

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable land public transportation (SLPT) aims to promote a better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs. Even though sufficient land public transportation have been provided at Ayer Keroh, Malacca but the level of usage among the community is still low as there is the growth in traffic. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is responsible to identify the most appropriate strategies to manage the issues regarding SLPT in order to support of the Malacca state vision becoming Green Technology State in the year 2020. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the strategies involve in building a SLPT, which may enhance the community's welfare. Thus, the proposed theoretical framework is to demonstrate the strategies towards building a SLPT, which can cater issues within the municipal council area. In this qualitative research, an in-depth focus group have been conducted to obtain the primary data. Thirteen (13) executives from HTJMC involved. This study brings a new paradigm in transforming land public transportation at Ayer Keroh to enhance the community welfare. The result found that land use development as the most significant strategy in SLPT, meanwhile the implementation program is the least strategy involved in building a SLPT at Ayer Keroh. Future research requires more information on the factors of implementing of SLPT so that HTJMC can plan an effective SLPT thorough the demand as the data may indicate numbers of passengers who really support to the implementation of SLPT.

  12. Stakeholders and public involvement for flood protection: traditional river management organisations for a better consideration of local knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Stephan; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to understand how traditional, highly participatory, local organisations for flood protection have been institutionalised into current river management policy, and to what extent this has impacted on wider participatory processes of producing knowledge. Traditionally, flood protection strategies have been based upon scientific knowledge but have often ignored the capacities of local actors to contribute to the development of the policy. Thus, there may be a gap between scientists, stakeholders and the public that favours controversies and leads to opposition to flood protection projects. In order to reduce this gap and to increase incorporation of local knowledge, participatory processes are set up. They are considered as allowing the integration of all the actors concerned by flood risks to discuss their positions and to develop alternative solutions. This is a particularly important goal in the Swiss political system where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project. In order to support implementation of participatory processes, federal funding includes a special grant to cover the additional costs due to these actions. It is considered that, since its introduction in 2008, this grant certainly furthered participatory processes for flood protection projects and fostered water management policy implementation. However, the implication of stakeholders and public in decision-making processes is much well-established than modern river management often assumes. In some regions, flood protection tasks have been traditionally assumed by local organisations such as dyke corporations (DCs). These comprise land and property owners who are DC members and have to participate in flood protection

  13. 29 CFR 553.213 - Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... law enforcement activities. 553.213 Section 553.213 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.213 Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  15. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  16. Application of American Civil Action to Public Interest Action in Environmental Protection of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Suping; Li Yanshun

    2006-01-01

    Economic development has made a negative impact on the environment. However, our proceedings on public interest action are almost blank, causing many of the cases related to the environmental protection to be rejected by the court for the reason that the prosecutors fail to provide enough evidence. Therefore, we can take the U.S. system of civil action for reference to improve our public interest action while employing proxy litigation. The measures can be included as follows: relax the plaintiff qualifications; establish the necessary lead procedures; invert the responsibility of providing evidence.

  17. 43 CFR 6.7 - Domestic patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Domestic patent protection. 6.7 Section 6.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.7 Domestic patent protection. (a) The Solicitor, upon determining that an invention...

  18. Congress, courts, and commerce: upholding the individual mandate to protect the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G; Brown, Erin C Fuse; Orenstein, Daniel G; O'Keefe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Among multiple legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the premise that PPACA's "individual mandate" (requiring all individuals to obtain health insurance by 2014 or face civil penalties) is inviolate of Congress' interstate commerce powers because Congress lacks the power to regulate commercial "inactivity." Several courts initially considering this argument have rejected it, but federal district courts in Virginia and Florida have concurred, leading to numerous appeals and prospective review of the United States Supreme Court. Despite creative arguments, the dispositive constitutional question is not whether Congress' interstate commerce power extends to commercial inactivity. Rather, it is whether Congress may regulate individual decisions with significant economic ramifications in the interests of protecting and promoting the public's health. This article offers a counter-interpretation of the scope of Congress' interstate commerce power to regulate in furtherance of the public's health.

  19. Public information and education on radiation safety and protection in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djaloeis, Azhar [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jalan KH Abdul Rohim, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of public information and education concerning nuclear science and technology in general and radiation safety and protection in particular in Indonesia from the perspective of promoting the development and utilization of nuclear science and technology in the country. The role of nuclear science and technology in Indonesia is first introduced, followed by an overview of the nuclear activities in the country. Basic considerations, major objectives of the public information and education program on radiation safety and protection as well as basic and operational strategies to achieve those objectives are then presented. Major programs including highlights of the past and present activities as well as prospect on future course of actions are discussed. (author)

  20. Of decentralization of public power Ukrainian land that belonged to Lithuanian (XIII – the early XVII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Manuilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive crisis in Ukraine and continued military confrontation in the Donbass demonstrated the urgent need to establish effective governance, which would imply decentralization of public power. Note that in implementing the decentralization of power in Ukraine insists the International Monetary Fund; United Nations Development Program; the transfer of authority to the field and decentralization of power in Ukraine is one of the points of the Minsk agreements and obligations of Ukraine to the EU. The article deals with the Ukrainian lands topical issue features the decentralization of public power in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century. The importance of the topic due to the need to study the historical experience of the implementation of decentralization. It was, emphasized that the success of the reforms depends largely because of the historical experience and features of the decentralization of public power in the past. Characterized by the development of local government in the Ukrainian lands was part of the Lithuanian state. The purpose of the article is to clarify the characteristics of decentralization of public authority on Ukrainian lands were part of the Lithuanian state during the XVII century XIII. To address this goal, outline decentralization of public power in the state; analyze, competence of local government in the Ukrainian lands that belonged to the Lith uanian State; determine how close to the power of the people. The level of decentralization of public power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century was high. It was, found that Lithuania had not established a centralized state. It is, noted that the Board of the nobility limited the princely power. The effect of delegated deputies from different parts of the Lithuanian statehood solutions nobility Council.Clarified the facts that confirm the existence of decentralization of public power in Lithuania: the functioning of local

  1. Breeding birds in managed forests on public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy

    2017-01-01

    Managers of public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley have implemented forest management strategies to improve bottomland hardwood habitat for target wildlife species. Through implementation of various silvicultural practices, forest managers have sought to attain forest structural conditions (e.g., canopy cover, basal area, etc.) within values postulated to benefit wildlife. We evaluated data from point count surveys of breeding birds on 180 silviculturally treated stands (1049 counts) that ranged from 1 to 20 years post-treatment and 134 control stands (676 counts) that had not been harvested for >20 years. Birds detected during 10-min counts were recorded within four distance classes and three time intervals. Avian diversity was greater on treated stands than on unharvested stands. Of 42 commonly detected species, six species including Prothonotary Warbler (Prothonotaria citrea) and Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) were indicative of control stands. Similarly, six species including Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) and Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) were indicative of treated stands. Using a removal model to assess probability of detection, we evaluated occupancy of bottomland forests at two spatial scales (stands and points within occupied stands). Wildlife-forestry treatment improved predictive models of species occupancy for 18 species. We found years post treatment (range = 1–20), total basal area, and overstory canopy were important species-specific predictors of occupancy, whereas variability in basal area was not. In addition, we used a removal model to estimate species-specific probability of availability for detection, and a distance model to estimate effective detection radius. We used these two estimated parameters to derive species densities and 95% confidence intervals for treated and unharvested stands. Avian densities differed between treated and control stands for 16 species, but only Common Yellowthroat

  2. Data publication, documentation and user friendly landing pages - improving data discovery and reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Bertelmann, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Research data are the basis for scientific research and often irreplaceable (e.g. observational data). Storage of such data in appropriate, theme specific or institutional repositories is an essential part of ensuring their long term preservation and access. The free and open access to research data for reuse and scrutiny has been identified as a key issue by the scientific community as well as by research agencies and the public. To ensure the datasets to intelligible and usable for others they must be accompanied by comprehensive data description and standardized metadata for data discovery, and ideally should be published using digital object identifier (DOI). These make datasets citable and ensure their long-term accessibility and are accepted in reference lists of journal articles (http://www.copdess.org/statement-of-commitment/). The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences is the national laboratory for Geosciences in Germany and part of the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest scientific organization. The development and maintenance of data systems is a key component of 'GFZ Data Services' to support state-of-the-art research. The datasets, archived in and published by the GFZ Data Repository cover all geoscientific disciplines and range from large dynamic datasets deriving from global monitoring seismic or geodetic networks with real-time data acquisition, to remotely sensed satellite products, to automatically generated data publications from a database for data from micro meteorological stations, to various model results, to geochemical and rock mechanical analyses from various labs, and field observations. The user-friendly presentation of published datasets via a DOI landing page is as important for reuse as the storage itself, and the required information is highly specific for each scientific discipline. If dataset descriptions are too general, or require the download of a dataset before knowing its suitability, many researchers often decide

  3. PKDIP: Efficient Public-Key-Based Data Integrity Protection for Wireless Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited energy of “wireless image sensors (WISs,” existing data integrity protection mechanisms typically employ a hash-function-based signing algorithm to generate “message authentication codes (MACs” for long image frames. However, hash-function-based signing algorithm requires the WIS and the “end user (EU” sharing a secret, which leads to a new security issue: Once the EU becomes malicious due to some reasons, it will be able to forge the WIS’s data since it holds the shared secret. Therefore, public-key cryptography is desirable. Unfortunately, public-key cryptographic operations are quite time-consuming for energy-restrained WISs. Facing this dilemma, we present a novel data integrity protection protocol named PKDIP in this paper. Similar to the mechanisms of this field, PKDIP generates MACs for data integrity protection. However, different from other well-known approaches, PKDIP introduces the “Montgomery Modular Multiplication (MontMM” technique to current public-key-based signing algorithms. Since MontMM is much more efficient than hash functions, PKDIP can reduce the signing cost significantly. Experimental results show PKDIP can even be more efficient than hash-function-based schemes.

  4. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Negrete

    Full Text Available Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina, and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB. Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity than the alpha diversity.

  5. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  6. On track. Spontaneous privatization of public urban land in Bandung, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurman, Ari; Lund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The history of land control in Indonesia is overwhelmingly one of colonial conquest, government enclosure and expropriation of traditional property rights. However, beneath these great transformations, counter-currents also flow. Encroachment on state land and its gradual privatization by ordinary...

  7. Conservation Policy in Time and Space: Lessons from Divergent Approaches to Salvage Logging on Public Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Robinson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A 50-yr precedent was reversed in 1995 when, following a powerful windstorm, salvage logging was disallowed in the protected Adirondack Park State Forest Preserve of New York, United States. Damage from a similar windstorm in 1950 had provoked massive salvage operations, approved by the New York State legislature on the grounds of fire prevention and resource conservation. Following the 1995 storm, state conservation officers and consulting ecologists were prepared with up-to-date assessment tools and a theoretical framework that treated large disturbances as normal ecosystem processes; the executive branch acted in accord with their recommendations to forgo salvage. Prior to these events in New York State, federal forest preserves in western states had recently been opened to salvage sales, following a widespread series of fires and insect outbreaks. In this latter case, under the rubric of "forest health," legislative amendments were added to unrelated bills and passed without open debate. This lack of public exposure may have denied opportunities for an ecological basis to a key policy decision that carries substantial ecological implications. On the one hand, Adirondack Park salvage policies have evolved to address large-scale forest disturbances as natural events rather than catastrophes that demand intervention. On the other hand, federal salvage policies have arisen in a different political and economic background, and have so far largely escaped scientific scrutiny.

  8. 76 FR 74844 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance at Auburn-Lewiston Municipal Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21) requires the FAA to provide an opportunity for public... northwesterly line of said McLeod 435.53' to a 5 rebar with cap stamped ``NCS, INC PLS 1314'' set in the... and land N/F of City of Auburn and City of Lewiston (Airport Property) 200.49' to a 5 rebar with...

  9. Protecting the Environment Through Public Procurement Law - The Case of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Renata; Karasińska-Jaśkowiec, Izabela

    2016-10-01

    The article presents the results of studies whose aim was to analyse public procurement procedures in the context of environmental protection, especially wastewater infrastructure, performed in the selected Polish municipalities. The selection criterions were the time of public procurement procedure - from 2009 until 2015 and that the contract was cofinanced by the European Union funds. The contracting authorities responsible for awarding specific contracts, were asked series of detailed questions about the environmental criteria and requirements contained in the tender documents for the construction contracts related to the wastewater infrastructure. The aim of the detailed study was to determine whether the actions taken by the contracting authorities in a tender procedure for the construction or operation of wastewater infrastructure include environmental issues. Authors examine also the applicable public procurement law regulation in Poland and Europe in the context of sustainable development and environmental protection. The study of public procurement law was to check whether the law regulation fully takes into account the environmental aspects of the planned investments. On this basis, conclusions have been made that laws are consistent and do not constitute an obstacle to awarding a contract positively affecting the environment.

  10. 75 FR 60149 - Notice of Public Meeting To Solicit Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on the Protection of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Meeting To Solicit Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on the Protection of... policy statement in the public meeting. DATES: 1. The public meeting will be held on November 8-9, 2010.../miau/licensing.html#cc to make documents, relevant to the draft policy statement and to the...

  11. Understanding the transformative aspects of the Wilderness and Protected Lands experience upon human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ewert; Jillisa Overholt; Alison Voight; Chun Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Wilderness and Protected Landscapes (WPLs) have long been considered special areas for a variety of reasons including baseline data, impact analyses, protected zones, and other tangible and intangible values. Another salient, and some would argue, a more important value offered through WPLs is that of human transformation. Accordingly, three theories have provided the...

  12. 对耕地保护的认识和思考%The Recognition and Speculation on the Cultivated Land Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嫄; 甘露; 贾雷

    2013-01-01

      The cultivated land protection implementation concerns food security, economic security, ecological security in our country. For canning have a better idea of the cultivated land protection, this paper from the propose and target and significance and mainstay and strategyof the cultivated land protectionagain understand the cultivated land protection, the cultivated land protection need participate together by the government and farmer and non-cultivated land users,and suggests ways ofestablishing and consummating the cultivated land protection of mechanism of reimbursement, fully arouse peasants' enthusiasm for the cultivated land protection, explicitfarmland rights’protection strategies.%  耕地保护的落实关系到我国的粮食安全,经济安全,生态安全。为了能够对耕地保护有一个更好的认识,文章从耕地保护的提出、目标、意义、主体、策略等方面来再次的认识耕地保护,耕地保护需要政府、农民以及其他非耕地使用者的共同参与,并提出了进一步建立和完善耕地保护的经济补偿机制,充分调动农民对保护耕地的积极性,明确耕地产权的耕地保护策略。

  13. When trends intersect: The challenge of protecting freshwater ecosystems under multiple land use and hydrological intensification scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny; O'Grady, Anthony P; Dale, Allan; Arthington, Angela H; Gell, Peter A; Driver, Patrick D; Bond, Nick; Casanova, Michelle; Finlayson, Max; Watts, Robyn J; Capon, Samantha J; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Tingley, Reid; Fry, Brian; Page, Timothy J; Specht, Alison

    2015-11-15

    Intensification of the use of natural resources is a world-wide trend driven by the increasing demand for water, food, fibre, minerals and energy. These demands are the result of a rising world population, increasing wealth and greater global focus on economic growth. Land use intensification, together with climate change, is also driving intensification of the global hydrological cycle. Both processes will have major socio-economic and ecological implications for global water availability. In this paper we focus on the implications of land use intensification for the conservation and management of freshwater ecosystems using Australia as an example. We consider this in the light of intensification of the hydrologic cycle due to climate change, and associated hydrological scenarios that include the occurrence of more intense hydrological events (extreme storms, larger floods and longer droughts). We highlight the importance of managing water quality, the value of providing environmental flows within a watershed framework and the critical role that innovative science and adaptive management must play in developing proactive and robust responses to intensification. We also suggest research priorities to support improved systemic governance, including adaptation planning and management to maximise freshwater biodiversity outcomes while supporting the socio-economic objectives driving land use intensification. Further research priorities include: i) determining the relative contributions of surface water and groundwater in supporting freshwater ecosystems; ii) identifying and protecting freshwater biodiversity hotspots and refugia; iii) improving our capacity to model hydro-ecological relationships and predict ecological outcomes from land use intensification and climate change; iv) developing an understanding of long term ecosystem behaviour; and v) exploring systemic approaches to enhancing governance systems, including planning and management systems affecting

  14. Analysis of the effects of land use change on protected areas in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Overmars, K.P.; Huigen, M.G.A.; Groot, de W.T.; Veldkamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation are the most important land use change processes in the Philippines. These processes are an important threat to the highly rated biodiversity of the country. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different

  15. Comparison of plant diversity in protected and communal lands in the Bushbuckridge lowveld savanna, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, CM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of higher plant species richness and beta diversity were assessed using standard Modified-Whittaker plots in relation to land use, slope position and mean annual rainfall across a rainfall gradient in the savanna areas of the Bushbuckridge...

  16. Towards a public, standardized, diagnostic benchmarking system for land surface models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abramowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine different conceptions of land surface model benchmarking and illustrate the importance of internationally standardized evaluation experiments that specify data sets, variables, metrics and model resolutions. We additionally show how essential the definition of a priori expectations of model performance can be, based on the complexity of a model and the amount of information being provided to it, and give an example of how these expectations might be quantified. Finally, we introduce the Protocol for the Analysis of Land Surface models (PALS, a free, online land surface model benchmarking application, and show how it is structured to meet both of these goals.

  17. Towards a public, standardized, diagnostic benchmarking system for land surface models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abramowitz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines different conceptions of land surface model benchmarking and the importance of internationally standardized evaluation experiments that specify data sets, variables, metrics and model resolutions. It additionally demonstrates how essential the definition of a priori expectations of model performance can be, based on the complexity of a model and the amount of information being provided to it, and gives an example of how these expectations might be quantified. Finally, the Protocol for the Analysis of Land Surface models (PALS is introduced – a free, online land surface model benchmarking application that is structured to meet both of these goals.

  18. Role of Remote Sensing and Geographyc Information System Mapping for Protected Areas Land Rice Field Subak, Buffer Zones, and Area Conversion (Case Studies In Gianyar Regency, Bali Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, Indayati; Netera Subadiyasa, N.

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of rice fields in Bali 2579 ha/year, Law Number 41 of 2009 [1] and five of Government Regulation (GR), mandates the Local Government (LG) has a Regional Regulation (RR) or Rule Regent/Mayor, on the protection of agricultural land sustainable food (PALSF). Yet none provincial government of Bali has PALSF; although Subak as world cultural heritage. Similarly, Gianyar regency development strategy directed to integrate agriculture with tourism. Landsat 8 images, Word View Coverage 2015 Gianyar district and ArcGIS 10.3 software used for of rice field mapping and zoning of land protection Subak. Ten thematic maps (watersheds, land use, irrigation, relief/slope, rainfall, spatial planning, land suitability, productivity, the distance from downtown) as a variable parameter, weighted and balanced numerically. Numerical classification agricultura land using for the overlay menu and reselek. The total value of >125 as rice need to be protected, 100-125 value for buffer zone, and the value of 100, 50-100 and sustainable of rice field protection, buffer and can be converted in a row for the next 20 years is 10973 ha, 3855 ha and 311 ha. For the next 40 years Subak conserved of rice field (8019 ha), buffer (5855 ha), and can be converted (3124 ha). Subak land pattern of spread can be converted to an supply of land for non-agricultural development of the region downstream to the access road Ida Bagus Matera (Jln. Province / national) in the coastal areas of Gianyar.

  19. ICRP publication 121: radiological protection in paediatric diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, P-L; Ringertz, H; Donoghue, V; Frush, D; Rehani, M; Appelgate, K; Sanchez, R

    2013-04-01

    Paediatric patients have a higher average risk of developing cancer compared with adults receiving the same dose. The longer life expectancy in children allows more time for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. This publication aims to provide guiding principles of radiological protection for referring clinicians and clinical staff performing diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures for paediatric patients. It begins with a brief description of the basic concepts of radiological protection, followed by the general aspects of radiological protection, including principles of justification and optimisation. Guidelines and suggestions for radiological protection in specific modalities - radiography and fluoroscopy, interventional radiology, and computed tomography - are subsequently covered in depth. The report concludes with a summary and recommendations. The importance of rigorous justification of radiological procedures is emphasised for every procedure involving ionising radiation, and the use of imaging modalities that are non-ionising should always be considered. The basic aim of optimisation of radiological protection is to adjust imaging parameters and institute protective measures such that the required image is obtained with the lowest possible dose of radiation, and that net benefit is maximised to maintain sufficient quality for diagnostic interpretation. Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction measures when purchasing new imaging equipment for paediatric use. One of the unique aspects of paediatric imaging is with regards to the wide range in patient size (and weight), therefore requiring special attention to optimisation and modification of equipment, technique, and imaging parameters. Examples of good radiographic and fluoroscopic technique include attention to patient positioning, field size and adequate collimation, use

  20. Calculating and testing cultivated land protection externality using Contingent Valuation Method%基于CVM的耕地保护外部性估算与检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛海鹏; 王文龙; 张安录

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for estimating cultivated land protection externality. The proposed CVM was based on reconstruction of cultivated land utilization benefit system and defined cultivated land protection externality. The paper discussed in detail specific techniques of sample size and distribution, determination of leading technology, pay/compensation interval setting, hypothetical market scenario setting, evasion of deviation, pretreatment of survey data, and results validity/reliability tests. The results showed that ecological and social benefits of cultivated lands included public goods with mixed classes across categories. These classes were provided by joint ventures between the pure positive externalities and the private sector (mainly farmers). This could be estimated by using CVM and other non-market valuation methods. The willingness to pay of inter-viewee for this service was heavily restricted and influenced by their levels of socioeconomic development. The recognition of eco-logical and social benefits of cultivated lands of farmers and urban residents formed the main causality factor for the differences in payment ratio between urban residents and rural farmers. Urban residents were more familiar with ecological and social benefits of cultivated lands than rural/farm households. This was probably a key factor influencing the willingness to pay for ecological services. Farm households preferred voluntary labor as mean of payment, while both money and voluntary labor were more preferred by urban residents. The probable reason for this was that farm households had more leisure time than urban residents. Unitary cultivated land protection externality for Jiaozuo City was 1.91×108 Yuan·a−1 and the cultivated land protection externality per unit area of cultivated land was 993.7 Yuan·hm−2·a−1 base on CVM. CVM validity and reliability test was a critical element of CVM theory, method and practice. This was

  1. Historical reconstruction of wastewater and land use impacts to groundwater used for public drinking water: exposure assessment using chemical data and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Christopher H; Rudel, Ruthann A; Kachajian, Jennifer R; Brody, Julia G

    2003-09-01

    Land use in geographic areas that replenish groundwater and surface water resources is increasingly recognized as an important factor affecting drinking water quality. Efforts to understand the implications for health, particularly outcomes with long latency or critical exposure windows, have been hampered by lack of historical exposure data for unregulated pollutants. This limitation has hindered studies of the possible links between breast cancer risk and drinking water impacted by endocrine disrupting compounds and mammary carcinogens, for example. This paper describes a methodology to assess potential historical exposure to a broad range of chemicals associated with wastewater and land use impacts to 132 groundwater wells and one surface water body supplying drinking water to 18 public distribution systems on Cape Cod, MA. We calculated annual measures of impact to each distribution system and used the measures as exposure estimates for the residential addresses of control women in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study (Cape Cod Study). Impact was assessed using (1) historical chemical measurements of nitrate at the water supply sources (performed as required by the Safe Water Drinking Act) and (2) a geographic information system analysis of land use within the zones of contribution (ZOCs) delineated for each well in a state-mandated wellhead protection program. The period for which these impact estimates were developed (1972-1995) was constrained by the availability of chemical measurements and land use data and consideration of time required for groundwater transport of contaminants to the water supply wells. Trends in these estimates for Cape Cod suggest increasing impact to drinking water quality for land use over the study period. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect on the distribution of controls' cumulative exposure estimates from (1) reducing the area of the ZOCs to reflect typical well operating conditions rather than

  2. 75 FR 27362 - Notice of Temporary Order Restricting Dogs From Public Lands in the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ..., following completion of an Environmental Assessment for the Temporary Order and signing of the Record of... New Mexico tourism/travel Web sites. 4. The following persons are exempt from this closure order: a... year. These actions are taken to protect public health and safety. 5. An Environmental Assessment for...

  3. Legal Protection of Land-expropriated Farmers’Participation Right in Collective-owned Land Requisition%论集体土地被征收人参与权的法律保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立冠; 姜莉

    2016-01-01

    集体土地征收是事关社会公共利益、国计民生的问题,与城市化建设的顺利推进、农村集体经济组织的稳定发展有着密切的联系。被征收人合法权益的保护问题是集体土地征收的重点工作,而被征收人合法权益的保障离不开参与权的有效行使。只有让被征收人参与到土地征收过程中,对土地征收行为进行有效监督并提出自身的合理诉求,才能切实保障被征收人的合法权益,促进征地决策的合理公正,从而保障城市化进程的有序开展,维护社会稳定。我国目前立法方面对集体土地被征收人参与权的法律保障存在主体范围不明、权利范围狭窄、程序保障缺陷等问题,亟需从集体土地被征收人参与权的法律保障现状出发,针对被征收人参与权的法律保障存在的立法缺陷,通过法律的制定与修改,明确参与权的主体范围,扩大并明确参与权的内容,完善参与权的程序配置,构建有效的反馈监督机制。%Collective-owned land requisition matters a great deal to the public interests and people’s livelihood. It’s also closely related to the smooth progress of urbanization and steady development of rural collective economic organizations. The protection of land-expropriated farmer’s legal interests is the key point in collective-owned land requisition,and it cannot do without the performance of participation right. The land-expropriated farmers’legal interests will be effectively protected only when they could participate in and supervise the requisition process,and put forward their own claims,thereby making the requisition decision more just and equitable,ensuring an orderly urbanization progress and maintaining social stability. There are still many problems in the legislation a boat legal protection of land-expropriated farmers’participation right including unclear definition of the scope of subject,narrow scope of

  4. Conservation and Recreation Lands with Public Access in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents conservation and recreation lands in the state of Iowa. Boundaries of areas represent differences in ownership and managing agency of the...

  5. Navy's land and water use assessment : Section 206©- Public Law 101-618

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This note is about an Environmental Assessment in which the Naval Air Station in Fallon, NV proposes an agricultural leasing program for Navy lands to reduce soil...

  6. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  7. Land development in the United Kingdom: private property rights and public policy objectives

    OpenAIRE

    J Corkindale

    1999-01-01

    The system of land-use planning in the United Kingdom has remained essentially unchanged since the introduction of the 1947 Town and Country Planning Acts. There has been rather little progress since then in the economic evaluation of this system or in the development of more market-based approaches to land-use planning. The author discusses some of the reasons for the lack of economic evaluation, develops decision criteria for conducting such economic evaluation, and goes on to indicate the ...

  8. Public policy, private landholders: perspectives on policy mechanisms for sustainable land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocklin, Chris; Mautner, Naomi; Dibden, Jacqui

    2007-12-01

    A variety of tools can be employed in support of environmental policy objectives, but achieving preferred outcomes also requires the cooperation of private landholders and others with vested interests in the land. The Land Stewardship project in the state of Victoria, Australia, is an initiative devoted to exploring the ways in which private landholders could be encouraged towards more sustainable land management. Following the view that the success of policy initiatives is contingent on effective stakeholder engagement, a component of the Land Stewardship project involved a dialogue with landholders about policy tools (e.g., regulation, economic instruments) that might be deployed to encourage improved land management practices. This paper provides an account of the views and attitudes of landholders, as revealed in a series of three workshops, which consisted of discussions about the factors influencing agriculture, participants' interpretations of sustainability, and policy methods. The focus of the paper is on what landholders believe to be the strengths and limitations of standard policy tools, and the essential requirements for these tools to deliver the best land management outcomes. One of the main findings of the project was a 'preference hierarchy' in respect of policy methods, according to which the strongest support was expressed for voluntary and education-based tools, followed by market-based instruments, with command-and-control regulation identified as a measure of 'last resort'. In the paper we reflect also on how the views and outlook of landholders should be positioned relative to other inputs in the design of policy interventions.

  9. Grasslands Wildlife Management Area proposed expansion: Environmental Assessment, Land Protection Plan, and Conceptual Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses the proposed expansion of the Service's easement program for protection of the wildlife habitat of Merced County's Grasslands Ecological...

  10. 耕地保护生态补偿现状及政策建议%Current Situation and Policy Suggestion of Ecological Compensation for Cultivated Land Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of exploration of the present situation of cultivated land protection of ecological compensation in China,the necessity to establish the ecological compensation of cultivated land protection was analyzed,and relevant policy suggestions to perfect the ecological compensation for farmland protection in China were finally put forward.%在剖析我国耕地保护生态补偿现状的基础上,分析建立耕地保护生态补偿的必要性,最后提出完善我国耕地保护生态补偿的相关政策建议。

  11. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R

    2012-05-15

    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  12. The land-use of Bandung, its density, overcrowded area and public facility toward a compact city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, B.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of a compact city has been introduced since 1973. It is a utopian vision largely driven by a desire to see more efficient uses of resources. In 1980s, the reconfiguration of the physical urban form of metropolitan areas was increasingly debated by both theorists and practitioners. Recently, the concept of a compact city has been more focused on developed countries in which the population tends to decrease. However, in Asia, except Japan which contains many dense cities, it has become a concept which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses, though rather only in population and density. This paper addresses the land-use of Bandung that having the density over 14,000 people/km2, which has been so much potential toward a compact city. Somehow, unprepared ness of urban planning and regulation, the city seemed overwrought to serve its inhabitants. This condition is shown from the demographic condition, especially population density in Bandung based on its sub areas of the city (SWK). The stack of public facilities in a certain district has led the concentration of density and activity, which finally raising the slum and overcrowded settlement. Finally, this paper explores the implications of land use management and describes challenges faced and possible approaches, especially in land-use management strategies to be implemented in Bandung.

  13. Protecting the public's health following the Virginia Tech tragedy: issues of law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G

    2007-09-01

    Assessing legal responsibility in the aftermath of the April 2007 tragedy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) is inevitable. Beyond assigning blame, law- and policymakers should examine ways to protect the public from future incidences of gun violence on campuses and other settings. Although no combination of legal responses may fully deter individuals who are intent on causing significant harm, select legal reforms have the potential to prevent future acts of gun violence. These reforms include considering more restrictive gun laws nationally, reporting individuals with known mental impairments that may endanger themselves or others to federal or state databases, and refining laws that limit institutions from acting in advance to address prospectively dangerous people. Each of these reforms has the potential to reduce acts of gun violence to improve the public's health, but also implicates individual rights and interests.

  14. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  15. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  16. Energy and consumer protection, competition, and fraud. Official transcript of public briefing and addendum, March 30, 1978, Washington, D. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Fifty questions are posed dealing with consumer protection, competition, and fraud. Answers are supplied by DOE officers and are additionally discussed at a public briefing on the subject. A transcript of the briefing is included.

  17. Constancy and cover of plants in the Petersburg and Wrangell Districts, Tongass National Forest and associated private and other public lands, southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    2002-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive and inclusive description and inventory of the vegetation within the Stikine area of southeast Alaska. Private and other public lands were included as well as Tongass National Forest lands contained in the Petersburg and Wrangell Ranger Districts. Previous inventories have concentrated almost exclusively on tree species within forest...

  18. ICRP publication 82 on protection against prolonged exposure - application in accident situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-06-01

    In the past 15 years, two events have occurred that cover a conceivable range of emergencies involving extensive post-emergency phase response, namely the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents. Large amounts of {sup 137}Cs were released to the environment during these accidents, leading to a prolonged or quasi-prolonged exposure of the affected populations. The experience gained from these accidents and others have revealed that there is a need for an updated and fully integrated system of guidance on implementation of countermeasures. A revised system must have a sound technical basis but must also be understandable, explainable and acceptable to the public and the decisionmakers. Once all protective actions have been undertaken, the situation should be considered 'normal' again with no further restriction being imposed. Therefore a common language explanation should be developed for the public and public officials that clearly state the risks of radiation exposure and what actions are appropriate and inappropriate, and what is 'safe'. The concepts of 'safe' and 'return to normality' should be developed together with intervention criteria, disengaged from the linear non-threshold risk hypothesis. Within this context, the application of the recommendations in ICRP Publication 82 for application in post-accident situations is briefly summarized with reference to observations and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents. (orig.)

  19. Protected Areas Database for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by USGS GAP, that illustrates and describes public land ownership, management...

  20. 75 FR 26991 - Notice of Realty Action; Competitive Sale of Public Land in Deschutes County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... States harmless from any costs, damages, claims, causes of action, penalties, fines, liabilities, and... related in any manner to said solid or hazardous substances or wastes; or (6) Natural resource damages as... successful bidders, claiming to own unauthorized improvements on the land are allowed 60 days from the...

  1. Land-Grant Extension: Defining Public Good and Identifying Pitfalls in Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Land-grant extension is an ongoing example of higher education outreach and community engagement. Population, food, climate, and geographic isolation all factor into the importance of producing and facilitating agricultural knowledge. This qualitative study took place in a geographically isolated region with potential food security issues to…

  2. 76 FR 6155 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Sandoval County, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... with the patented real property and may be enforced by the United States in a court of competent... current appraisal may be reviewed during normal business hours between 7:45 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. at the Rio... is intermingled with State and private land. No significant resource values will be affected by...

  3. 75 FR 18881 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Land in Caribou Co., ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Dairy Syncline Mine and Reclamation Plan (MRP) application to the BLM on October 6, 2008, for the Dairy Syncline Phosphate Lease Area. The MRP is currently under review by the BLM, and an environmental impact... determine and analyze the impacts of the MRP as well as the proposed land sale. According to the...

  4. 75 FR 48857 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska, Subpart D; Seasonal Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ....fed.us . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Under Title VIII of the Alaska National Interest Lands... annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity... the economy. However, we estimate that 2 million pounds of meat are harvested by subsistence users...

  5. Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad W Gabriel

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of non-target wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for fishers (Martes pennanti, a candidate for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act in the Pacific states. In an investigation of threats to fisher population persistence in the two isolated California populations, we investigate the magnitude of this previously undocumented threat to fishers, we tested 58 carcasses for the presence and quantification of ARs, conducted spatial analysis of exposed fishers in an effort to identify potential point sources of AR, and identified fishers that died directly due to AR poisoning. We found 46 of 58 (79% fishers exposed to an AR with 96% of those individuals having been exposed to one or more second-generation AR compounds. No spatial clustering of AR exposure was detected and the spatial distribution of exposure suggests that AR contamination is widespread within the fisher's range in California, which encompasses mostly public forest and park lands Additionally, we diagnosed four fisher deaths, including a lactating female, that were directly attributed to AR toxicosis and documented the first neonatal or milk transfer of an AR to an altricial fisher kit. These ARs, which some are acutely toxic, pose both a direct mortality or fitness risk to fishers, and a significant indirect risk to these isolated populations. Future research should be directed towards investigating risks to prey populations fishers are dependent on, exposure in other rare forest carnivores, and potential AR point sources such as illegal marijuana cultivation in the range of fishers on California public lands.

  6. A Study on Land Use Zoning in Chongqing from the Perspective of Cultivated Land Protection%基于耕地保护视角的重庆市土地利用分区研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀锋; 秦建

    2015-01-01

    土地利用分区是土地利用规划及土地利用差别化管理的重要内容与基础,为使土地利用分区更好地反映区域耕地保护压力差异,采用耕地保护内压力即耕地资源人口承载力,与耕地保护外压力即耕地非农化胁迫相关联分析的土地利用分区方法进行研究,研究表明:①2003年-2010年重庆市耕地资源人口承载力逐步降低,耕地保护内压力整体上升,区域差异性有所扩大;②以耕地资源承载力水平与经济发展水平为表征的耕地保护内外压力关联进行土地利用分区,能很好地反映耕地供需矛盾的区域差异,各类型区具有相似耕地资源承载力与耕地非农化胁迫,且具有明显的空间聚合性;③分区结果与重庆市五大功能区布局有较高的空间吻合性,反映了经济社会发展与耕地资源之间的内在联系,使区内土地资源利用管理策略更具有针对性。%Land use zoning is an important content and the basis for the planning and differential manage‐ment of land use .In order for land use zoning to better reflect the pressure difference of regional cultivated land protection ,this paper proposes a land use zoning method through correlation analysis of the internal pressure ,i.e. the population carrying capacity of cultivated land resources ,and external pressure ,i.e.non‐agricultural stress of cultivated land ,of cultivated land protection .The research shows that during the 8 years from 2003 to 2010 ,the population carrying capacity of cultivated land resources in Chongqing steadily decreased ,the internal pressure of cultivated land protection generally increased ,and the regional difference expanded ;that land use zoning conducted through the correlation between the internal pressure and external pressure of cultivated land protection represented by the carrying capacity of cultivated land resources and the level of economic development could well

  7. 78 FR 13692 - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge, KY; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan/Land Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... surrounding Clarks River watershed, and providing quality public use programs and wildlife-dependent... Federal responsibility. These species will be chosen based on the criteria that they are indicators of the... reflect best management practices determined after examination of historical regimes, soil types...

  8. Effect in Protecting Cultivated Land of New Construction Land Compensation Fee%新增建设用地使用费的耕地保护绩效测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁; 金晓斌; 唐健; 张志宏; 赵婕; 宋佳楠; 周寅康

    2011-01-01

    论文以农用地转用环节征收数额较大、改革相对较早的新增建设用地土地有偿使用费为研究对象,应用2003—2008年省级面板数据,建立土地有偿使用费征收率与建设占用耕地面积间动态变化的计量经济函数,采用混合OLS模型加以估计,并在此基础上对土地有偿使用费政策的耕地保护绩效进行测算。研究结果表明:①2003—2008年间,土地有偿使用费征收率每提高1元/m2,每省每年约能减少耕地占用面积47.26 hm2;②2003—2008年土地有偿使用费政策实施累计抑制建设占用耕地面积152 410.00 hm2,其耕地保护%Land taxes and fees have played an important role in protecting farmland and improving the efficiency of land use.This paper studies new construction land compensation fee,which is charged in comparatively large amounts and has experienced a long term of reform.Its effects in cultivated land protection can make a good reference to the improvement and perfection of the land taxes and fees system.The province-level panel data from 2003 to 2008 was used in the research to establish the econometric model that describes the dynamic changes between the charging rate of new construction compensation fee and cultivated land occupation area by construction.The mixed OLS model was applied to estimate the equations and the cultivated land preservation effect of new construction compensation fee was assessed by computing estimated decreased areas of cultivated land occupation with and without new construction land compensation fee policy in effect.The estimated results of model shows that the variables’ sign symbols were consistent with expected and the t test was significant at 10% level.The model can be used to calculate the direct effects and relative effects of new construction land compensation fee on cultivated land preservation.The main conclusions of the research are: 1) The cultivated land occupation reduced by about 47.26 hm2 with

  9. Nitrogen Discharge due to Climate Change and Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Simulated model output for the figures in the associated publication. Data are SWAT model simulation results for different scenarios of land-use change and climate...

  10. Minimizing Visitor Impacts to Protected Lands: An Examination of Site Management and Visitor Education Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Melissa Lynn

    2004-01-01

    This thesis contains two studies that explore different methods of visitor management in recreation. The management strategies studied here are both relatively indirect approaches intended to minimize the environmental and social impacts that visitors cause in protected areas. The Annapolis Rocks study focuses on visitors' evaluations of a site management strategy that shifted camping from a flat, open area to constructed side-hill campsites. A visitor questionnaire was administered before...

  11. 24 CFR 5.2005 - Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing... violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. 5.2005 Section 5.2005 Housing and... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence in Public and Section 8...

  12. 75 FR 35083 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lincoln County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... areas or with higher resource values from willing sellers. Regulations contained in 43 CFR 2711.3-3 make allowances for direct sales when a competitive sale is inappropriate and when the public interest would best... public interest would best be served by authorizing the direct sale to Alan Woodland, which would allow...

  13. Land use change for flood protection: A prospective study for the restoration of the river Jelašnica watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia’s hilly-mountainous regions are extremely vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of their natural characteristics and human impacts. Land mismanagement influences the development of erosion processes, and causes soil degradation that significantly reduces the land’s capacity to infiltrate and retain rainwater. Inappropriate land use as well as development activities replace permeable with impervious surfaces in the watershed. This leads to more rapid runoff generation and the more frequent appearance of torrential floods and bed-load deposits on downstream sections. Environmental degradation creates economicsocial problems within local societies which is often followed by depopulation. Restoring watersheds to their optimal hydrologic state would reduce flood discharge and by increasing groundwater recharge would increase both low-flow and average discharges in springs and streams. Best management practices could be developed through the application of specific combinations of biotechnical, technical and administrative measures, and by using the concept of ″natural reservoirs″. The design of such practices is explored through a case study of the watershed of the river Jelašnica, southeastern Serbia. Realization of these planned restoration works should help decrease the annual yields of erosive material by 44.1% and the specific annual transport of sediment through hydrographic network by 43.6%. Representative value of the coefficient of erosion will be reduced from Z=0.555 to Z=0.379. The value of maximal discharge Qmax-AMCIII (1%=54.17 m3•s-1, before restoration, is decreased to Qmax-AMCIII (1%=41.22 m3•s-1 after restoration, indicating the improvement of hydrological conditions, as a direct consequence of land use changes. Administrative measures are applied through ″Plans for announcement of erosive regions and protection from torrential floods in the territory of Leskovac municipality″.

  14. Carbon Stocks in Physically-Protected Soil Organic Matter Pools of European Forests, Grasslands and Arable Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M.; Del Galdo, I.; Marzaioli, F.; Rubino, M.; Terrasi, F.

    2006-12-01

    Soils represent the largest stock of C in most terrestrial ecosystems: a large research effort worldwide is devoted to quantify these stocks and their mean residence time, and to model changes in response to future scenarios of climate and land use. As a consequence, a fairly good understanding of the processes controlling C flows from the plant roots and littering into soil organic matter pools and, eventually, back to the atmosphere has been achieved. Yet, the characterization of functionally meaningful soil organic matter pools, which can be measured and applied in models remains an unfulfilled goal. Results will be presented on the organic carbon stocks of soils from the CARBOEUROPE network. Soil samples collected at 3 broad-leaved and 3 coniferous forests, 3 croplands and 3 pastures, along a depth gradient, were separated by size and density, and the isolated fractions analysed for C content and isotopic composition. The data set will be interpreted in terms of soil mineralogical properties, site climate and land use. Additionally, the stable C isotope values of physically-protected C pools from this dataset and the stable and radioactive C isotope datasets originated from other key isotope labelling studies, will be used to characterize the fractions isolated and to provide a mechanistic understanding of C flows among them

  15. A geospatial soil-based DSS to reconcile landscape management and land protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Piero; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; D'Antonio, Amedeo; De Michele, Carlo; Iamarino, Michela; Langella, Giuliano; Florindo Mileti, Antonio; Pileri, Paolo; Vingiani, Simona; Terribile, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of UN Agenda 2030 may represent a great opportunity to place soil science at the hearth of many Sustainable Development Goals (e.g. SDGs 2, 3, 13, 15, 15.3, 16.7). On the other side the high complexity embedded in the factual implementation of SDG and many others ambitious objectives (e.g. FAO goals) may cause new frustrations if these policy documents will not bring real progresses. The scientific communities are asked to contribute to disentangle this complexity and possibly identifying a "way to go". This may help the large number of European directives (e.g. WFD, EIA), regulations and communications aiming to achieve a better environment but still facing large difficulties in their full implementation (e.g. COM2015/120; COM2013/683). This contribution has the motivation to provide a different perspective, thinking that the full implementation of SDGs and integrated land policies requires to challenge some key overlooked issues including full competence (and managing capability) about the landscape variability, its multi-functionalities (e.g. agriculture / environment) and its dynamic nature (many processes, including crops growth and fate of pollutants, are dynamic); moreover, it requires to support actions at a very detailed local scale since many processes and problems are site specific. The landscape and all the above issues have the soil as pulsing heart. Accordingly, we aim to demonstrate the multiple benefits in using a smart geoSpatial Decision Support System (S-DSS) grounded on soil modelling, called SOILCONSWEB (EU LIFE+ project and its extensions). It is a freely-accessible web platform based on a Geospatial Cyber-Infrastructure (GCI) and developed in Valle Telesina (South Italy) over an area of 20,000 ha. It supports a multilevel decision-making in agriculture and environment including the interaction with other land uses (such as landscape and urban planning) and thus it simultaneously delivers to SDGs 2, 3, 13, 15, 15.3, 16.7.

  16. The natural and social history of the indigenous lands and protected areas corridor of the Xingu River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Stephan; Boas, André Villas; Ono, Katia Yukari; Fonseca, Marisa Gesteira; Doblas, Juan; Zimmerman, Barbara; Junqueira, Paulo; Jerozolimski, Adriano; Salazar, Marcelo; Junqueira, Rodrigo Prates; Torres, Maurício

    2013-06-05

    The 280,000 km² Xingu indigenous lands and protected areas (ILPAs) corridor, inhabited by 24 indigenous peoples and about 215 riverine (ribeirinho) families, lies across active agriculture frontiers in some of the historically highest-deforestation regions of the Amazon. Much of the Xingu is anthropogenic landscape, densely inhabited and managed by indigenous populations over the past millennium. Indigenous and riverine peoples' historical management and use of these landscapes have enabled their long-term occupation and ultimately their protection. The corridor vividly demonstrates how ILPAs halt deforestation and why they may account for a large part of the 70 per cent reduction in Amazon deforestation below the 1996-2005 average since 2005. However, ongoing and planned dams, road paving, logging and mining, together with increasing demand for agricultural commodities, continued degradation of upper headwaters outside ILPA borders and climate change impacts may render these gains ephemeral. Local peoples will need new, bottom-up, forms of governance to gain recognition for the high social and biological diversity of these territories in development policy and planning, and finance commensurate with the value of their ecosystem services. Indigenous groups' reports of changing fire and rainfall regimes may themselves evidence climate change impacts, a new and serious threat.

  17. Protecting the Integrity of Science: Educating Media, Scientists, and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    Global change encompasses a wide range of geophysical sciences. Many of the issues around global or environmental change also have increasingly important economic, social, and political ramifications. Thus, more and more earth scientists are coming into direct contact with media, the public, and policymakers seeking information, advice, and participation in the policy process. At the same time, non-scientific organizations are finding they have a growing stake in research findings and policy outcomes, including non-governmental organizations, advocacy groups, and political parties. These cross-currents raise the risk of misuse and abuse of science, and indeed, there has been an apparent increase in threats to the integrity of science over the past several years. This talk will review risks to the integrity of science, challenges facing scientists who need to, or choose to, interact with media, the public, and policymakers, and recent examples of abuse of science. It will also offer thoughts about how to encourage, protect, and support the careful use of science in the policy arena.

  18. 75 FR 25879 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules Concerning Fireworks on Public Land in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ..., 43 U.S.C. 315a, and 43 CFR 8365.1-6. II. Public Comment Procedures You may view an electronic version...) Cigarette loads; (D) Other trick noise makers; (VIII) Snake or glow worm pressed pellets of not more...

  19. 75 FR 18877 - Notice of Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Gunnison Gorge National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... shoot or discharge any weapon at any object containing glass, or other target material that can shatter and cause a public safety hazard as a result of the projectile impact or explosion. d. You must not... must not burn wood or other material containing nails, glass, or any metal. 10. Human Waste...

  20. 78 FR 73144 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Councils, which represent 10 subsistence resource regions in Alaska. The Councils provide a forum for rural... address subsistence issues concerning the region. To participate, call toll free 1-877-638-8165. When... review policies and management plans, and to provide a public forum for subsistence issues. DATES:...

  1. 75 FR 39580 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Minidoka County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... higher resources from willing sellers. ] Regulations contained in 43 CFR 2711.3-3 make allowances for direct sales when a competitive sale is inappropriate and when the public interest would best be served... would best be served by authorizing the direct sale to the Western Mortgage and Realty Company, which...

  2. 77 FR 47662 - Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Within the Lower Lake Creek Special Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying... supplementary rules would not have an effect of $100 million or more on the economy. They would not adversely affect, in a material way, the economy; productivity; competition; jobs; the environment; public health...

  3. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  4. Concentration of trace metals in sediments and soils from protected lands in south Florida: background levels and risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joffre E; Fernandez, Adolfo M; Gonzalez-Caccia, Valentina; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive environmental evaluation was completed on 20 metals: two reference metals (Fe, Al) and several minor trace metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) for surface soils and sediments collected from 50 sites in Everglades National Park (ENP), the coastal fringes of Biscayne National Park (BNP), and Big Cypress National Preserve. Samples were prepared by acid digestion (EPA3050) and analyzed by ICP/MS detection (EPA6020). Although no widespread contamination was detected across the two parks and one preserve, there were some specific areas where metal concentrations exceeded Florida's ecological thresholds, suggesting that some metals were of concern. A screening-level evaluation based on a proposed effect index grouped trace metals by their potential for causing negligible, possible, and probable effects on the biota. For example, Cu in BNP and Cr and Pb in ENP were considered of concern because their adverse effect likelihood to biota was assessed as probable; consequently, these trace metals were selected for further risk characterization. Also, stations were ranked based on a proposed overall contamination index that showed that: site BB10 in BNP and sites E3 and E5 in ENP had the highest scores. The first site was located in a marina in BNP, and the other two sites were along the eastern boundary of ENP adjacent to current or former agricultural lands. An assessment tool for south Florida protected lands was developed for evaluating impacts from on-going Everglades restoration projects and to assist State and Federal agencies with resource management. The tool consists of enrichment plots and statistically derived background concentrations based on soil/sediment data collected from the two national parks and one preserve. Finally, an equally accurate but much simplified approach is offered for developing enrichment plots for other environmental settings.

  5. 21st Century Strategies for Protected Areas in East Asia--Briefs of the 3rd Conference on Conservative Land in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zurong

    2001-01-01

    @@ The author had the opportunity to attend the 3rd Conference on the Conservative Land in East Asia in Seoul, Korea in September 1999, whose theme was " 21st Century Strategies for Protected Areas in East Asia". As the majority of protected areas in China is located in mountain areas,since the government announced prohibition of any commercial wood cutting, all mountains have become sort of protected areas in a certain degree. The following is a brief introduction on the major issues discussed at the conference.

  6. The mental health of children of migrant workers in Beijing: the protective role of public school attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children - children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1,466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1,019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children's mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children.

  7. Transforming Agricultural Systems on Public Lands in the EAA to Support Everglades Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, Edward; Capece, John

    2010-01-04

    The survival of Florida’s biodiversity and economy is dependent on finding ways to balance farm economics with proper management of water and other natural resources. The state purchase of U.S. Sugar lands in critical areas of south Florida, replacing them with water storage and treatment areas, creates both an opportunity and imperative for new farming systems. These transformed farming system could provide a viable economic and ecological alternative to the reservoirs, STA’s, and flow-way. An agricultural model built around flood-tolerant sugarcane varieties could be compatible with the new visions for EAA lands. Reducing the agricultural intensity of these farms creates the risk or reality of yield reduction and lower farm income, but would allow for water storage, reduced nutrient loads, and muck soil carbon conservation on the farms. Payments for these ecosystem services could offset the loss in crop revenues. Cultivation of flood-tolerant sugarcane allows for temporary storage of water on a field followed by water transfer to an adjacent field. Using this relay approach, a water pulse could be passed down a corridor of fields. The volume of water transported to the south via a pulse way depends largely on the nutrient dynamics of the soil-water system. If the nutrient flux becomes the limiting factor then water volumes sent into the corridors would be limited to the net increase in soil-water storage and ET losses. Including ecosystem services as revenue streams in agricultural business models to compensate for lower yield income requires: (1) quantifying the services delivered, (2) assigning values to the services, and (3) compensating farmers for the quantities delivered. The direct ecosystem services provided by a flood-tolerant sugarcane farming system are (1) water storage, (2) nutrient removal and (3) carbon sequestration. A farming system that significantly reduces soil subsidence and its resulting carbon loss to the atmosphere may be eligible for

  8. Land degradation due to erosion in public perception. Case study: Secaşul Mare river basin settlements (Transylvanian Depression, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Marioara; Tăuşan, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    According to the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990-1999), the risk indicates potential losses due to particular natural phenomenon, and these could be reduced by improving of prevention and education. People perceive these losses differently depending on phenomenon occurrence, severity, and impact in time. Starting from this idea, this research presents public perception on land degradation through erosion in a small area from the central part of Romania (south-west of Transylvanian Depression). The research was based on a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The items were structured by issues: awareness assessment regarding hazard and risk phenomena, assessment of type of property and land use, assessment of knowledge and information on the possible production of negative effects by natural phenomena, and evaluation of land owners' attitudes towards the occurrence of erosion on their land. Results reveal that the public perception on erosion is weak. This process is perceived as insignificant due to lack of phenomenon knowledge and especially because of scarcity preoccupation in land's quality monitoring. Even though the owned lands are affected by erosion forms, the owners are not aware of the phenomenon that generates them. Material damages caused by erosion, loss of soil quality, and land fertility decrease are less perceived because the economic losses fill only at long term. This perception leads to underestimating erosion risk compared to other natural phenomena and to a passive attitude towards this particular phenomenon.

  9. LEGAL BASES FOR DISCLOSING CONFIDENTIAL PATIENT INFORMATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH IMPROVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    The disclosure of confidential patient data without an individual's explicit consent should be for purposes that persons have reason to both expect and accept. We do not currently have the required level of clarity or consistency in understanding regarding the disclosure of confidential patient information for public health purposes to support effective public dialogue. The Health Service (Control of Patient Information) Regulations 2002 establish a legal basis in England and Wales for data to be disclosed for public health purposes without patient consent. Under the Regulations, there is more than one potential route towards lawful processing: Data may be processed for public health purposes under both Regulations 3 and 5. The alternatives have different safeguards and conditions attached, and their respective applicability to processing for purposes of public health improvement is currently unclear and subject to review. Beyond the need for clarity regarding the safeguards applicable to processing for particular public health purposes, there are reasons to prefer recognition that Regulation 5 is the most appropriate legal basis for disclosure when the purpose is public health improvement rather than public health protection. Where health improvement, rather than protection, is the aim, there is no justification for discarding the additional safeguards associated with processing under Regulation 5.

  10. Household opportunity costs of protecting and developing forest lands in Son La and Hoa Binh Provinces, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ngoc Lan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam has pilot-tested a payment for forest environmental services (PFES program in an effort to restore and protect forest areas, some of which have been severely degraded by the excessive cutting of trees by small-scale farmers planting annual crops on steep, sloping lands. The pilot program implemented in southern Vietnam seems to be successful, yet the program in northern Vietnam has not produced the desired rates of planting and maintaining forest areas. The reasons for these mixed results include differences in socio-economic characteristics and also the production and marketing opportunities available to rural households in the project areas. To gain insight regarding program participation, we examine the household-level opportunity costs of planting and ­maintaining small plots of forest trees in northern Vietnam. We find that small-scale farmers in Hoa Binh Province, with limited financial resources, prefer the annual revenue stream provided by crops such as maize and cassava, rather than waiting for 7 years to obtain revenue from a forest planting. Farmers in Son La Province, with limited access to markets, prefer annual crops because they are not able to sell bamboo shoots and other forest products harvested from their small plots. In both provinces, the payments offered for planting and maintaining forest trees are smaller than the opportunity costs of planting and harvesting annual crops. Thus, most households likely would choose not to participate in the PFES program, at current payment rates, if given the opportunity to decline.

  11. The Rights of Foreign Investors Over Land According to Investment Protection Treaties: a View from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás M. Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years foreign investment in agriculture has increased notably in Latin America. Foreign investors, as much private as state, are interested in agricultural production, either for an expected benefit, or to assure the food supply. This increase in investment can be positive for the countries of the region. Nevertheless, in order to carry out this determination it is necessary to understand, among other things, the legal effects of these investment flows. This work maintains that the property rights acquired by foreign investors over the land and their agricultural undertakings may be different from the rights of national investors. This is because of foreign investment protection treaties. The strengthening of the rights of foreign investors affects the relationship between these investors and the receiving state. This article analyzes the effects of the rights of foreign investors in relation to five categories of state initiatives. Specifically, they are 1 the right to export production or the cost of exportation in the face of commercial and taxation measures; the right to continue a project in the face of changes within the regulatory paradigm; 3 the right to continue a project in the face of political change or new social preferences; 4 the right to receive better compensation in the face of agricultural reforms or programmes of historical reparation; 5 the right to maintain the business plan in the face of a food crisis.

  12. Findings of an evaluation of public involvement programs associated with the development of a Land and Resource Management Plan for the Ouachita National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holthoff, M.G. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Howell, R.E. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Federal regulations require the United States Forest Service (USFS) to integrate public input and values into decisions concerning land and resource management planning. The USFS has typically relied on traditional methods of involving the public, whereby public access and input to policy development are unilaterally controlled by the agency. Because of the highly political nature of land and resource management planning, such technocratic forms of public involvement and decision-making appear to be proving ineffective. This paper describes and evaluates two public involvement programs associated with the Ouachita National Forest`s (ONF) lengthy forest planning process. The research consisted of personal interviews with key program leaders and knowledgeable citizen participants, collection of secondary data, and a survey of citizen participants. Because of controversial planning decisions made during an initial planning process, the ONF was forced to re-enter the planning process in order to address unresolved planning issues and to conduct a more effective public involvement program. The supplemental planning process also resulted in a considerable degree of public contention. The survey revealed that although citizen participants were somewhat more satisfied with the supplemental public involvement program relative to the initial program, neither program was viewed as satisfactory. The findings of the study suggest that in order to be more effective, USFS public involvement programs should be more responsive to public concerns and conducted in adherence to principles of collaborative planning.

  13. [Coordination of governmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, I A; Zel'din, A L

    2015-01-01

    The article covers features of govenmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection. Based on analysis of contemporary legislation, the authors evaluated terms "control" and "supervision", having different legal nature. The authors determined specific traits and define subjects and objects for public control in relationships aimed to provide sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population, evaluated legislative basis of citizens' claims to Rospotrebnadzor, pointed at difficulties in implementation of public control in connection with necessity to create new organizational and legal mechanisms widening control possibilities.

  14. Publication and Protection of Sensitive Site Information in a Grid Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholia, Shreyas; Cholia, Shreyas; Porter, R. Jefferson

    2008-03-31

    In order to create a successful grid infrastructure, sites and resource providers must be able to publish information about their underlying resources and services. This information makes it easier for users and virtual organizations to make intelligent decisions about resource selection and scheduling, and can be used by the grid infrastructure for accounting and troubleshooting services. However, such an outbound stream may include data deemed sensitive by a resource-providing site, exposing potential security vulnerabilities or private user information to the world at large, including malicious entities. This study analyzes the various vectors of information being published from sites to grid infrastructures. In particular, it examines the data being published to, and collected by the Open Science Grid, including resource selection, monitoring, accounting, troubleshooting, logging and site verification data. We analyze the risks and potential threat models posed by the publication and collection of such data. We also offer some recommendations and best practices for sites and grid infrastructures to manage and protect sensitive data.

  15. Environmental awareness and public support for protecting and restoring Puget sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G; Norman, Karma C; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure-tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices-is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  16. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  17. Publication and Protection of Sensitive Site Information in a Grid Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholia, Shreyas; Cholia, Shreyas; Porter, R. Jefferson

    2008-03-31

    In order to create a successful grid infrastructure, sites and resource providers must be able to publish information about their underlying resources and services. This information makes it easier for users and virtual organizations to make intelligent decisions about resource selection and scheduling, and can be used by the grid infrastructure for accounting and troubleshooting services. However, such an outbound stream may include data deemed sensitive by a resource-providing site, exposing potential security vulnerabilities or private user information to the world at large, including malicious entities. This study analyzes the various vectors of information being published from sites to grid infrastructures. In particular, it examines the data being published to, and collected by the Open Science Grid, including resource selection, monitoring, accounting, troubleshooting, logging and site verification data. We analyze the risks and potential threat models posed by the publication and collection of such data. We also offer some recommendations and best practices for sites and grid infrastructures to manage and protect sensitive data.

  18. Validating a method for transferring social values of ecosystem services between public lands in the Rocky Mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    With growing pressures on ecosystem services, social values attributed to them are increasingly important to land management decisions. Social values, defined here as perceived values the public ascribes to ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, are generally not accounted for through economic markets or considered alongside economic and ecological values in ecosystem service assessments. Social-values data can be elicited through public value and preference surveys; however, limitations prevent them from being regularly collected. These limitations led to our three study objectives: (1) demonstrate an approach for applying benefit transfer, a nonmarket-valuation method, to spatially explicit social values; (2) validate the approach; and (3) identify potential improvements. We applied Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) to survey data for three national forests in Colorado and Wyoming. Social-value maps and models were generated, describing relationships between the maps and various combinations of environmental variables. Models from each forest were used to estimate social-value maps for the other forests via benefit transfer. Model performance was evaluated relative to the locally derived models. Performance varied with the number and type of environmental variables used, as well as differences in the forests' physical and social contexts. Enhanced metadata and better social-context matching could improve model transferability.

  19. TUESDAY: EPA Administrator to Discuss Historic Clean Power Plan to Cut U.S. Carbon Pollution and Protect Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - On Tuesday, August 11, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will be discussing the Clean Power Plan at the Resources for the Future (RFF) Leadership Forum. The Clean Power Plan will protect public health, spur clean energy investments and st

  20. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  1. 75 FR 59160 - Radiation Protection Regulations and Guidance; Public Meetings and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Issue Notation Vote Paper (SECY-08-0197) to the Commission which presented the regulatory options of... in ICRP Publication 26, and the scientific information contained in ICRP Publication 30. In addition... recommendations from 1990 in ICRP Publication 60 and subsequent publications updating the scientific information...

  2. Discussion on Public Participation in Environmental Protection%浅论环境保护中的公众参与

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晶

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factor is a kind of typical public product. The maintenance of the quality of environment , need the participation of the whole society except the active and effective management of the government. The breadth and depth of public participation determine the level of environmental protection. This paper discusses the main parts of public participation in environmental protection work.%环境要素作为一种典型的公共产品,其质量的维护除了政府进行积极、主动有效的管理,更需要全社会的共同参与,公众参与的广度和深度上决定着环境保护的水平.针对环保工作,论述了公众参与的主要环节.

  3. Protection of the Reputation Right of Public Celebrities%公众人物名誉权的保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳倩宇

    2011-01-01

    我国名誉权法律保护存在着言论自由和公众人物名誉权保护的协调问题。合理界定公众人物名誉权保护的范围与边界是化解公众人物名誉权保护困难的出发点。加强公众人物名誉权的保护需要明确引入公众人物的法律概念,建立我国公众人物名誉权保护的强化机制,引进西方的"惩罚性赔偿"制度、"恶意不实诉讼"制度和"实际恶意原则"。同时,公众人物的名誉权的保护也应受到合理的限制,国家需要制定新闻法以及相关法律保障言论自由和舆论监督。%There exists a problem in our law of e reputation right protection.Coordination between freedom of speech and reputation right protection of public celebrities.Making clear the scope and boundary of the protection becomes a starting point to make the protection process no longer difficult.The legal conception of public celebrities should be introduced to establish strengthening system with combining action of the systems of the compensation and malicious lawsuit as well as the principle of concrete malice.Meanwhile,the reputation right protection of public celebrities should be reasonably limited.The news law and other regulations should be drafted in order to protect freedom of speech and supervision of public opinions.

  4. Land Protection Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — "The purpose of this LPP is to provide landowners with a brief document that describes the Service's potential acquisition methods policy, and priorities for the...

  5. Power and Conflict in Adaptive Management: Analyzing the Discourse of Riparian Management on Public Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Arnold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive collaborative management emphasizes stakeholder engagement as a crucial component of resilient social-ecological systems. Collaboration among diverse stakeholders is expected to enhance learning, build social legitimacy for decision making, and establish relationships that support learning and adaptation in the long term. However, simply bringing together diverse stakeholders does not guarantee productive engagement. Using critical discourse analysis, we examined how diverse stakeholders negotiated knowledge and power in a workshop designed to inform adaptive management of riparian livestock grazing on a National Forest in the southwestern USA. Publicly recognized as a successful component of a larger collaborative effort, we found that the workshop effectively brought together diverse participants, yet still restricted dialogue in important ways. Notably, workshop facilitators took on the additional roles of riparian experts and instructors. As they guided workshop participants toward a consensus view of riparian conditions and management recommendations, they used their status as riparian experts to emphasize commonalities with stakeholders supportive of riparian grazing and accentuate differences with stakeholders skeptical of riparian grazing, including some Forest Service staff with power to influence management decisions. Ultimately, the management plan published one year later did not fully adopt the consensus view from the workshop, but rather included and acknowledged a broader diversity of stakeholder perspectives. Our findings suggest that leaders and facilitators of adaptive collaborative management can more effectively manage for productive stakeholder engagement and, thus, social-ecological resilience if they are more tentative in their convictions, more critical of the role of expert knowledge, and more attentive to the knowledge, interests, and power of diverse stakeholders.

  6. People, Land and History: The Cultural Landscape of the Nulhegan District Cultural Resource Assessment and Management Plan of the Former Champion Lands Held in Public Ownership

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a recent study conducted by the University of Maine at Farmington Archaeology Research Center on behalf of the Vermont Land Trust. Divestment...

  7. Forest dynamics in the U.S. indicate disproportionate attrition in western forests, rural areas and public lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2017-01-01

    Forests are experiencing significant changes; studying geographic patterns in forests is critical in understanding the impact of forest dynamics to biodiversity, soil erosion, water chemistry and climate. Few studies have examined forest geographic pattern changes other than fragmentation; however, other spatial processes of forest dynamics are of equal importance. Here, we study forest attrition, the complete removal of forest patches, that can result in complete habitat loss, severe decline of population sizes and species richness, and shifts of local and regional environmental conditions. We aim to develop a simple yet insightful proximity-based spatial indicator capturing forest attrition that is independent of spatial scale and boundaries with worldwide application potential. Using this proximity indicator, we evaluate forest attrition across ecoregions, land ownership and urbanization stratifications across continental United States of America. Nationally, the total forest cover loss was approximately 90,400 km2, roughly the size of the state of Maine, constituting a decline of 2.96%. Examining the spatial arrangement of this change the average FAD was 3674m in 1992 and increased by 514m or 14.0% in 2001. Simulations of forest cover loss indicate only a 10m FAD increase suggesting that the observed FAD increase was more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. Furthermore, forest attrition is considerably higher in the western United States, in rural areas and in public lands. Our mathematical model (R2 = 0.93) supports estimation of attrition for a given forest cover. The FAD metric quantifies forest attrition across spatial scales and geographic boundaries and assesses unambiguously changes over time. The metric is applicable to any landscape and offers a new complementary insight on forest landscape patterns from local to global scales, improving future exploration of drivers and repercussions of forest cover changes and supporting more informative

  8. [Nuclear energy and public health, the mission of OPRI (Office of Protection from Ionizing Radiation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, M R

    1995-03-15

    In the domain of the use of ionising radiation for medical purposes and in the nuclear industry, the protection of man and his environment is primordial. Such protection is defined in European Community countries by the Directives of the Euratom Council, applied as national law. In France, the "Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants" oversees the application of laws and rules relating to protection from radiation and determines the inspections and analyses required to ensure the protection of the population against ionising radiation.

  9. 75 FR 55347 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land Near Aztec in San Juan County, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer, by competitive sale, one parcel of land totaling 73.75 acres within the Aztec city limits in San Juan County, New Mexico. The sale will be subject to the applicable provisions of Section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), respectively, and BLM land sale regulations. The purpose of the sale is to dispose of......

  10. 78 FR 16567 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Non-Rule Making Action To Change Land Use From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... To Change Land Use From Aeronautical to Non-Aeronautical at Mobile Downtown Airport, Mobile, Alabama... by the Mobile Airport Authority. The airport layout plan update, if approved, would change the land... Commercial Development. The location of the land relative to existing or anticipated aircraft noise...

  11. 77 FR 2605 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Gerald R. Ford International Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... authorize the lease of the airport property. The proposal consists of 2 parcels of land with the lease... compatible with local commercial/ industrial zoning classification. The land was acquired under the FAA... allowing the airport to lease the property, since the land is no longer needed for aeronautical...

  12. 75 FR 23760 - Notice of Public Hearing Regarding Environmental Protection Agency Region III's Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... public comment on-site the day of the public hearing. Audio-visual equipment will not be provided. If you...-0985). For those who have special needs and require auxiliary aids and/or services to fully...

  13. Constitutional rights to health, public health and medical care: the status of health protections in 191 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Cassola, Adèle; Raub, Amy; Mishra, Lipi

    2013-07-01

    United Nations (UN) member states have universally recognised the right to health in international agreements, but protection of this right at the national level remains incomplete. This article examines the level and scope of constitutional protection of specific rights to public health and medical care, as well as the broad right to health. We analysed health rights in the constitutions of 191 UN countries in 2007 and 2011. We examined how rights protections varied across the year of constitutional adoption; national income group and region; and for vulnerable groups within each country. A minority of the countries guaranteed the rights to public health (14%), medical care (38%) and overall health (36%) in their constitutions in 2011. Free medical care was constitutionally protected in 9% of the countries. Thirteen per cent of the constitutions guaranteed children's right to health or medical care, 6% did so for persons with disabilities and 5% for each of the elderly and the socio-economically disadvantaged. Valuable next steps include regular monitoring of the national protection of health rights recognised in international agreements, analyses of the impact of health rights on health outcomes and longitudinal multi-level studies to assess whether specific formulations of the rights have greater impact.

  14. Factors influencing private and public environmental protection behaviors: results from a survey of residents in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wang; Reisner, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Currently one of the largest and most rapidly developing countries, China also has some of the world's most severe environmental problems. China will most likely need to use all of the potential major strategies currently available to solve the country's huge environmental challenges, including promoting individual conservation behavior through educational campaigns and encouraging public environmental advocacy. This paper summarized the findings of a survey of 347 residents of Shaanxi province on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The survey found generally high levels of environmental knowledge and high recognition of the seriousness of environmental issues, moderate levels of individual actions supporting environmental resource conservation and low levels of public environmental behaviors, particularly for organized public advocacy. Further analysis indicated that the perceived importance of environmental protection is the most important factor influencing individual environmental resource conservation, but not public advocacy behaviors. Implications for environmental campaigns are discussed.

  15. 公众对地方政府土地生态行政认知的调查和分析——以L市为例%Investigations and Analyses of Public Recognition of Local Government's Ecological Land Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春华; 姜楠

    2012-01-01

    The differences in land use and management objectives between the central government and local government have caused problems to some local governments in land ecological administration. By conducting a public investigation in a city in the form of questionnaire and interview, this paper finds out the impact factors in land ecological administration through factor analysis, analyzes the problems of land ecological administration in local government, and then puts forward the corresponding proposals, providing a reference for local government to enhance sustainable land use and management and to ensure socio-economic sustainable development and environmental protection.%由于中央政府和地方政府土地利用及其管理目标的差异性,导致部分地方政府在土地生态行政的过程中存在相关问题.通过问卷调查和访谈的方式对L市公众进行了调查,运用因子分析找出土地生态行政认知的影响因素,深入分析地方政府土地生态行政问题,进而提出完善地方政府土地生态行政的相关对策建议,为地方政府加强土地可持续利用与管理,确保社会经济持续发展和保护土地生态环境提供参考.

  16. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conspicuous public place at each desk, station and position in the United States that is in charge of a person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  17. 43 CFR 13.5 - Protection from competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection from competition. 13.5 Section... BLIND PERSONS § 13.5 Protection from competition. (a) The head of the Interior bureau or office shall protect the blind operator of the vending facility against direct competition from other vendors...

  18. A Study on China’s System of Public Participation in Environmental Protection ----Taking Haikou’s “Two Constructions” for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, China’s environmental condition becomes more and more serious and all kinds of pollution incidents happen frequently. Although government departments have implemented various policies and measures to curb the deterioration of the environment, public participation in environmental protection is the key solution of which the breadth and depth determines the level of environmental protection. This paper first analyzes the problems of public participation in environmental protection, such as defects of current legislation, low level of environmental awareness and participation, weak environmental NGOs etc. and then puts forward three ways to optimize the system of public participation in environmental protection by the example of Haikou City’s “Two Constructions” Project, that is, perfect the relevant legal mechanism, increase publicity and support environmental NGOs. Finally the paper makes a summary and outlook of China’s system of public participation in environmental protection.

  19. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with the Wellington Integrated Land-Use, Transportation and Environment (WILUTE model, and forecasted changes in active commuter trips associated with changes in the built environment. Results indicated high income individuals were more likely to commute actively than individuals on low income. Several land-use and transportation factors were associated with active commuting and results from the modelling showed a potential increase in active commuting following an increase in bus frequency and parking fees. In conclusion, regional level policies stimulating environmental factors that directly or indirectly affect active commuting may be a promising strategy to increase population level physical activity. Access to, and frequency of, public transport in the neighbourhood can act as a facilitator for a more active lifestyle among its residents without negatively affecting disadvantaged groups.

  20. To what extent does a tobacco carve-out protect public health in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Katherine; Gleeson, Deborah; Freeman, Becky

    2016-04-15

    In November 2015, negotiations of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement came to a close with the release of the final text. It included an optional carve-out (exclusion) for tobacco control measures from the TPP's investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Despite the apparent 'win' for the field of tobacco control, the limited scope of the carve-out provides only partial protection for public health regulatory measures.

  1. Public, private and personal: qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Gareth; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Hudson, Sheena; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Lanumata, Tolotea

    2010-12-31

    Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to children from secondhand smoke and the

  2. PROTECTING HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT ON SIOUX TRIBAL LANDS: A PARTNERSHIP OF EPA AND TRIBAL EPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through environmental sampling performed by EPA and Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Environmental Protection Division personnel, mercury contamination in managed pond systems in South Dakota was characterized and risk reduction recommendations were made to protect subsistence fisherma...

  3. Public Conservation Trust Land

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  4. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Land Conservation Plan : Options for the protection of fish and wildlife habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This LCP explores the effects of private lands on Yukon Delta NWR resources, and provides an opportunity to discuss key refuge issues and ways the Service can work...

  5. Land Use and Land Cover, WI Agricultural Statistics Service (WASS) WI Cropland Data Layer. Agriculture and non-ag land cover categories based on survey data (ground truth), satellite imagery classification, FSA common land unit, and 2001 National Land Cover dataset., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. It is...

  6. Notes and comments "High and dry?" The Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act and liability protection for pharmaceutical manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper, B Kurt

    2007-01-01

    In an era filled with fears of bioterrorism, Congress approved the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (PREPA) to encourage development of vaccines and other countermeasures. By providing pharmaceutical manufacturers with protection from liability for potential side effects, Congress has attempted to motivate manufacturers to produce a national stockpile of countermeasures. As part of PREPA, the government established a compensatory system intended to provide compensation to persons injured by countermeasures used during a public health emergency. Although the Act provides for a compensation fund, it fails to allocate monies for that fund. Thus, in the absence of further congressional action, PREPA will not provide compensation to those injured by countermeasures. Failing to assure the American public of a compensation program constitutes bad public policy and risks inspiring potential vaccinees to refuse necessary drugs. Additionally, arguments as to the constitutionality of the Act exist should Congress fail to adequately fund the program, and the existence of those arguments undermines the purpose of the Act--namely to assure pharmaceutical manufacturers that they will not be sued into oblivion should they attempt to aid national pandemic protection. In addition to detailing both the Act and the statutory precedent for congressional attempts to spur biodefense, this Article addresses important issues of healthcare, tort, and constitutional law that will continue to manifest themselves in this new era of bioterrorism.

  7. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  8. 76 FR 42140 - Public Availability of the Merit Systems Protection Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    .../contact/contracting.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Veronica Bullock, Merit Systems Protection...; telephone 202-254-4406; e- mail veronica.bullock@mspb.gov . William D. Spencer, Clerk of the Board....

  9. 农地租值消散和农地所有权主体完善与农地发展权构建--农地征收中农民土地权益保护思考%Dissipation of Land Rent,Perfection of Rural Land Ownership and Establishment of Development Rights:Reflections on Protection of Peasants’ Land Rights and Interests in Expropriating Rural Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜明义

    2014-01-01

    Rent dissipation resulting from imperfect property rights and price control has damaged the property owners ’ rights and interests in expropriating rural land ,and unclear definition of rural land property rights and the price control has led to the dissipation of rural land rent ,damaging the peasants’ land rights and interests .Therefore ,in expropriating rural land ,the rural land ownership should be perfected and the rural land development rights constructed ;meanwhile ,it is necessary to curb price control ,balance the distribution of land increment income between state ,collectivity and individuals ,decrease the rent dissipation ,protect peasants ’ land rights and interests , and promote development of urbanization scientifically and harmoniously .%产权不完善与价格管制下形成租值消散,损害产权主体权益。我国农地征收中存在农地产权不完善与价格管制导致农地租值消散,损害农民土地权益的问题。为此,在农地征收中,应完善农地所有权主体,构建农地发展权,遏制价格管制,兼顾好国家、集体、个人的土地增值收益分配,减少租值消散,保护好农民土地权益。

  10. Ecosystem Service Valuation Assessments for Protected Area Management: A Case Study Comparing Methods Using Different Land Cover Classification and Valuation Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E L Whitham

    Full Text Available Accurate and spatially-appropriate ecosystem service valuations are vital for decision-makers and land managers. Many approaches for estimating ecosystem service value (ESV exist, but their appropriateness under specific conditions or logistical limitations is not uniform. The most accurate techniques are therefore not always adopted. Six different assessment approaches were used to estimate ESV for a National Nature Reserve in southwest China, across different management zones. These approaches incorporated two different land-use land cover (LULC maps and development of three economic valuation techniques, using globally or locally-derived data. The differences in ESV across management zones for the six approaches were largely influenced by the classifications of forest and farmland and how they corresponded with valuation coefficients. With realistic limits on access to time, data, skills and resources, and using acquired estimates from globally-relevant sources, the Buffer zone was estimated as the most valuable (2.494 million ± 1.371 million CNY yr(-1 km(-2 and the Non-protected zone as the least valuable (770,000 ± 4,600 CNY yr(-1 km(-2. However, for both LULC maps, when using the locally-based and more time and skill-intensive valuation approaches, this pattern was generally reversed. This paper provides a detailed practical example of how ESV can differ widely depending on the availability and appropriateness of LULC maps and valuation approaches used, highlighting pitfalls for the managers of protected areas.

  11. On the National Food Security under the Cultivated Land Protection%耕地保护下的国家粮食安全问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋才发

    2013-01-01

    粮食安全是一个具有特定含义的科学概念。中国粮食需求在较长时期内将保持增长的态势,粮食安全依赖于一定数量的耕地作为基本保障。耕地保护问题是关系国计民生的首要问题,是维系国家政权稳固的重大问题。依法保护耕地是保障国家粮食安全的根基,是实现中国现代化的根本,已成为“十二五”发展时期的焦点问题。%food security is a scientific term with specific meaning. Food demand in China will maintain a growth trend in the long term; a certain amount of arable land is a basic guarantee for food security. The cultivated land protection is the primary problem in people's livelihood; it is the major problems for national regime steady. In accordance with the law to protect arable land is the foundation of national food security, it is the fundamental guarantee to realize China's modernization, it has become the focus issues in the 12th Five Year Plan period.

  12. Ecosystem Service Valuation Assessments for Protected Area Management: A Case Study Comparing Methods Using Different Land Cover Classification and Valuation Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Charlotte E L; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-appropriate ecosystem service valuations are vital for decision-makers and land managers. Many approaches for estimating ecosystem service value (ESV) exist, but their appropriateness under specific conditions or logistical limitations is not uniform. The most accurate techniques are therefore not always adopted. Six different assessment approaches were used to estimate ESV for a National Nature Reserve in southwest China, across different management zones. These approaches incorporated two different land-use land cover (LULC) maps and development of three economic valuation techniques, using globally or locally-derived data. The differences in ESV across management zones for the six approaches were largely influenced by the classifications of forest and farmland and how they corresponded with valuation coefficients. With realistic limits on access to time, data, skills and resources, and using acquired estimates from globally-relevant sources, the Buffer zone was estimated as the most valuable (2.494 million ± 1.371 million CNY yr(-1) km(-2)) and the Non-protected zone as the least valuable (770,000 ± 4,600 CNY yr(-1) km(-2)). However, for both LULC maps, when using the locally-based and more time and skill-intensive valuation approaches, this pattern was generally reversed. This paper provides a detailed practical example of how ESV can differ widely depending on the availability and appropriateness of LULC maps and valuation approaches used, highlighting pitfalls for the managers of protected areas.

  13. Definition and Classification of the Stakeholders in Land Consolidation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-dong; GUO Bi-jun; GUO Mao-xuan

    2012-01-01

    Using the methods of questionnaire survey, statistical analysis and multidimensional rating, we define and classify the stakeholders in land consolidation project. 25 kinds of stakeholders are determined, divided into three categories: core stakeholders, including county-level government, county-level land departments, county-level land consolidation center, the rural collective economic organizations, farmers, township government, and the villagers’ committee; middle stakeholders, including central government, the Ministry of Land and Resources, the Ministry of Land and Resources Land Consolidation Center, the provincial land departments, the provincial land consolidation center, the county-level finance departments, the county-level water resources departments, the government supervisory departments, government audit departments, and the public; peripheral stakeholders, including the county-level environmental protection departments, the county-level agricultural departments, supervisory agencies, design agencies, project contractors, equipment suppliers, material suppliers, and the bidding agencies. The project managers should pay attention to the interest appeal of the stakeholders, and adopt different coping strategies.

  14. 78 FR 76855 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Campbell County, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Campbell County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action. SUMMARY... totaling 4.15 acres in Campbell County, Wyoming, to the Craig G. and Peggy S. Means Revocable Trust under... acres in Campbell County, Wyoming according to the official plat of the survey of the said land, on file...

  15. Research on the Protection of the Public Trust Doctrine on Urban Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lingbo

    2016-01-01

    The public trust doctrine is based on the belief that certain common properties — such as running water,the seashore,and air — perpetual use was dedicated to the public,government to accept the people’ s trust is entitled to the ownership of the proper-ty. Urban parks as the public trust property would impose restriction on attempts by govern-ments to transfer the possession of parks held in trust or to devote it a private use. It could e-ven impose restriction on the capability of government to divert parks from park use to anoth-er.

  16. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  17. A review of public desert land lease policies for concentrated solar power plants and the impact on their economic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnakis, Christos; Phocas-Cosmetatos, Alex; Kynigalakis, Kostantinos

    2016-05-01

    Large scale Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants need large plots of land with very high solar resource and thus are often deployed in desert areas which are usually owned by the state or a municipal authority. This study discusses the implication and practices of land lease policies with regards to CSP development. The strategy followed on a land lease is examined by definition on a case-specific basis and this text is by no means exhaustive with regards to its content. The study also discusses the pricing of land in various cases, presents the governing types of land lease and their effect on the economic performance of hypothetical CSP projects under various cases.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  19. Balancing the interests of patient data protection and medication safety monitoring in a public-private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Nancy A; Blackburn, Stella; Hliva, Valerie; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Richardson, Jonathan; Jamry-Dziurla, Anna; Bourke, Alison; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-04-15

    Obtaining data without the intervention of a health care provider represents an opportunity to expand understanding of the safety of medications used in difficult-to-study situations, like the first trimester of pregnancy when women may not present for medical care. While it is widely agreed that personal data, and in particular medical data, needs to be protected from unauthorized use, data protection requirements for population-based studies vary substantially by country. For public-private partnerships, the complexities are enhanced. The objective of this viewpoint paper is to illustrate the challenges related to data protection based on our experiences when performing relatively straightforward direct-to-patient noninterventional research via the Internet or telephone in four European countries. Pregnant women were invited to participate via the Internet or using an automated telephone response system in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Information was sought on medications, other factors that may cause birth defects, and pregnancy outcome. Issues relating to legal controllership of data were most problematic; assuring compliance with data protection requirements took about two years. There were also inconsistencies in the willingness to accept nonwritten informed consent. Nonetheless, enrollment and data collection have been completed, and analysis is in progress. Using direct reporting from consumers to study the safety of medicinal products allows researchers to address a myriad of research questions relating to everyday clinical practice, including treatment heterogeneity in population subgroups not traditionally included in clinical trials, like pregnant women, children, and the elderly. Nonetheless, there are a variety of administrative barriers relating to data protection and informed consent, particularly within the structure of a public-private partnership.

  20. EDUCATING THE PUBLIC ABOUT ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM MAINTENANCE AND WATERSHED PROTECTION (R823466)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Ocean Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open... be held at the Francis Marion Hotel, 387 King Street, Charleston, South Carolina. FOR FURTHER... ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Committee, composed of external, knowledgeable representatives of...

  2. Urban land planning in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Slavka L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the capitalization, urban land management and planning routine have been explored. The focus dwells on the praxis and urban planning perspectives as a link and means for realizing the public interest in space and the role of 'urban transplants' as a lever of urban development. It has also been pointed to a certain discrimination of the property status and property rights through the category of 'public interest', which is articulated by way of urban planning. The unfairness of the existing planning system towards private property and 'taxation' of entrepreneurial activities is evident, especially in urban land use i.e. installing the height of the land rent. It is expected that urban planning is competent upon the background of societal democratization, privatization and introduction of market institutions where the perspectives shift towards democratic transformation, the regulatory role and protection of property rights and different actors’ interests in using urban land. The conclusion is that changes in the management of urban land are required with recommendations to consider public-private sector partnerships.

  3. Meeting the public health challenge of protecting private wells: Proceedings and recommendations from an expert panel workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Mary A., E-mail: mfox9@jhu.edu [Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 407, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 429, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Nachman, Keeve E. [Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 407, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 429, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Center for a Livable Future, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room W7010, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Anderson, Breeana [Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 429, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Lam, Juleen [Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 407, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 429, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); University of California at San Francisco, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, Mailstop 0132, 550 16th Street, 7th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); and others

    2016-06-01

    Private wells serving fewer than 25 people are federally unregulated, and their users may be exposed to naturally occurring agents of concern such as arsenic and radionuclides, as well as anthropogenic contaminants. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Clean Water for Health Program works to protect private wells and prevent adverse health outcomes for the roughly 15% of Americans who rely on them. To understand current and emerging challenges to the private drinking water supply, an interdisciplinary expert panel workshop on “Future and Emerging Issues for Private Wells” was organized to inform strategic planning for the Clean Water for Health Program. The panel assessed current conditions of ground water as a source for private wells, identified emerging threats, critical gaps in knowledge, and public health needs, and recommended strategies to guide future activities to ensure the safety of private drinking water wells. These strategies addressed topics of broad interest to the environmental public health community including: development of new methods to support citizen science; addressing contaminant mixtures; expanding capacity for well testing; evaluating treatment technologies; building an evidence base on best practices on well owner outreach and stewardship; and research and data needs. - Highlights: • About 43 million Americans use federally unregulated private wells for drinking water. • Private wells may be contaminated with naturally occurring and man-made chemicals. • Protecting well water requires an “infrastructure for stewardship”. • Recommendations to advance private well protection are offered.

  4. [Telematics in the public health sector. Where is the protection of health data?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voßhoff, Andrea; Raum, Bertram; Ernestus, Walter

    2015-10-01

    There is a long history of telematics in the German health system. Apart from the growing technical possibilities in the field, it is important to concentrate on the protection of health data in telematics applications. Health data in the hands of service providers or other third parties entails certain risks for the patient's personality rights, because these institutions may not be bound by the practice of medical confidentiality. In addition, big data processing risks make the individual lives of patients and insured persons totally transparent. Measures to reduce these risks have to be taken by the providers as well as by the users of telematics infrastructure; they are the ones who should explicitly address the relevant risks and dangers in a data protection and IT-security concept and develop adequate strategies to cope with these dangers. Additionally, the German legislator remains obliged to create a regulatory framework for the protection of patients' rights.

  5. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Torsten; Finck, Robert; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louis; Wiklund, Aasa; Yuen Katarina; Oelander Guer, Hanna

    2004-09-01

    The Swedish Government has requested the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures.

  6. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health 2008; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet 2008 - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyrke, Lena; Almen, Anja; Blixt, Anders; Brewitz, Erica; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Skeppstroem, Kirlna; Wester, Ulf

    2008-04-15

    The Swedish Government has requested that the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures

  7. The Impact of State Preemption of Local Smoking Restrictions on Public Health Protections and Changes in Social Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Mowery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Preemption is a legislative or judicial arrangement in which a higher level of government precludes lower levels of government from exercising authority over a topic. In the area of smoke-free policy, preemption typically takes the form of a state law that prevents communities from adopting local smoking restrictions. Background. A broad consensus exists among tobacco control practitioners that preemption adversely impacts tobacco control efforts. This paper examines the effect of state provisions preempting local smoking restrictions in enclosed public places and workplaces. Methods. Multiple data sources were used to assess the impact of state preemptive laws on the proportion of indoor workers covered by smoke-free workplace policies and public support for smoke-free policies. We controlled for potential confounding variables. Results. State preemptive laws were associated with fewer local ordinances restricting smoking, a reduced level of worker protection from secondhand smoke, and reduced support for smoke-free policies among current smokers. Discussion. State preemptive laws have several effects that could impede progress in secondhand smoke protections and broader tobacco control efforts. Conclusion. Practitioners and advocates working on other public health issues should familiarize themselves with the benefits of local policy making and the potential impact of preemption.

  8. 基于耕地保护的城市发展空间生态适宜性评价研究%Ecologically Feasible Evaluation for Urban Land Expanding and Spatiotemporal Space on Cultivated Land Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关小克

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of construction land sprawling out into agricultural land in urban fringe, a ecologically feasible space for urban land expanding evaluation system was designed, which was composed of land construction feasibility and ecologically evaluation system and land capability evaluation system. In this system not only the sightseeing function and tourism of agriculture, but also agriculture’s landscape and ecological function are considered. Taking the city of Zhumadian as an example, land construction feasibility and cultivated land suitability evaluated were built. Considering high quality cultivated land should be protected, four types of synthetically suitability sub areas were obtained. Accordingly, urban development space consisting of primary construction zones, preferential construction zone, restricted construction zone and forbidden construction zone. The ways of application of spatial and temporal allocation of new build-up land were explored. The results showed that the areas of these four categories of Zhumadian accounted for 37.05%, 28.87%, 17.75%and 16.33%, respectively. This method provides information support for the new construction land allocation in urban fringe.%针对城市边缘地带建设用地快速增长与优质农用地大量减少的矛盾,以驻马店为例,在充分考虑农田的生态服务功能的基础上,构建了建设用地生态适宜性评价系统和耕地自然生产潜力评价系统组成的生态适宜城区扩展用地评价方法,评价了城市建设用地的生态适宜性和农地的自然宜耕性,基于保护优质耕地的目标,划分了适宜性发展空间分区,将城市发展空间划分为重点开发、优化开发、限制开发和禁止开发4个类型,结合宜居城市建设对不同分区内的耕地功能用地进行了分析,探讨了扩展用地时空配置的方法和途径。结果表明:驻马店市重点、优化、限制和禁止开发区面积

  9. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  10. Schools in Kansas with Tornado Protection. Shawnee Mission Public Schools--District No. 512.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Delbert B.

    Kansas and nearby Missouri are among the half-dozen states in America having the greatest frequency of tornadoes of any region in the world. This booklet describes a districtwide approach of designing and constructing tornado-resistant shelters as integrated parts of the school facilities. The design criteria for tornado protection also resulted…

  11. Investigating public health impacts of deer in a protected drinking water supply watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, K; Stevens, M A; Haydon, S R; Jex, A R; Gasser, R B; Campbell, B E

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Water Safety Plans highlight the need for preventative risk management when managing water contamination risks. As part of this approach, a management framework incorporating multiple barriers is necessary and there is a need to validate those barriers through scientific evidence. This paper reports on a study undertaken to validate the effectiveness, in terms of pathogen numbers, of having protected watersheds. The study aimed to determine if the deer population in a protected watershed carried Cryptosporidium and whether or not it was human infectious. Deer faecal samples were collected from the protected watersheds over a 12 month period and analysed using a new method, developed as part of this project, for genotyping Cryptosporidium. Early results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium, but following a refinement in the method no human infectious Cryptosporidium was detected. The results give some confidence that having protected watersheds is an effective barrier against pathogen contamination. They do not, however, imply that continued monitoring and management of the deer should cease. To maintain compliance with the Water Safety Plans, continual validation of barrier effectiveness is required.

  12. The Effectiveness of Public Participation in Developing and Implementing Tourism Plans for Two Peruvian Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Novey, H. Alicia

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades protected area management approaches have experienced a shift from top-down management models to more diverse governance approaches that involve various forms and degrees of participation from local populations. These new participatory approaches seek to reaffirm cultural values, maintain cultural landscapes, recognize the…

  13. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  14. Connotation of Multifunctional Cultivated Land and Its Implications for Cultivated Land Protection%耕地多功能内涵及其对耕地保护的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小青; 欧阳竹

    2012-01-01

    Recently, multifunctional cultivated land (MCL) management has been a hot topic in the world. To get a deep understanding of the challenges such as the disorderly competition of cultivated land demand, margin-alization of cultivated land and degradation of cultivated ecosystem, a comprehensive analytical framework was established based on the crux of mono-functional land use. From this point of view, it is vital to promote the tran-sition of cultivated land protection towards the MCL management. However, there is no explanation framework of the connotation of the MCL. From the standpoints of positive and normative meanings, supply and demand meanings and the relationships among them, this paper established a comprehensive explanation framework through literature review. Finally, suggestions on promoting the transition such as establishing the spatial integra-tion mode of the MCL based on main function differentiations, expanding the channels of cultivated land value enhancement and establishing the safeguard mechanism of integrated use of the MCL were proposed.%近年来,耕地多功能管理引起了国内外的广泛关注。针对耕地需求无序竞争、耕地边际化与耕地生态系统退化三大现实问题,建立了以土地单功能利用为症结的综合分析框架,认为中国耕地保护须向耕地多功能管理转型。然而,目前尚缺乏耕地多功能的内涵解释框架。本文通过梳理耕地多功能的相关研究,从实证与规范、供给与需求及其相互关系角度,建立了耕地多功能内涵的综合解释框架。最后,本文提出耕地保护转型可同时注重构建以主体功能差异化为前提的耕地多功能空间融合模式、拓展耕地价值的提升途径并建立耕地多功能统筹利用保障机制。

  15. Impact of Publicly Financed Health Insurance Schemes on Healthcare Utilization and Financial Risk Protection in India: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Karan, Anup; Kaur, Gunjeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Several publicly financed health insurance schemes have been launched in India with the aim of providing universalizing health coverage (UHC). In this paper, we report the impact of publicly financed health insurance schemes on health service utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, financial risk protection and health status. Empirical research studies focussing on the impact or evaluation of publicly financed health insurance schemes in India were searched on PubMed, Google scholar, Ovid, Scopus, Embase and relevant websites. The studies were selected based on two stage screening PRISMA guidelines in which two researchers independently assessed the suitability and quality of the studies. The studies included in the review were divided into two groups i.e., with and without a comparison group. To assess the impact on utilization, OOP expenditure and health indicators, only the studies with a comparison group were reviewed. Out of 1265 articles screened after initial search, 43 studies were found eligible and reviewed in full text, finally yielding 14 studies which had a comparator group in their evaluation design. All the studies (n-7) focussing on utilization showed a positive effect in terms of increase in the consumption of health services with introduction of health insurance. About 70% studies (n-5) studies with a strong design and assessing financial risk protection showed no impact in reduction of OOP expenditures, while remaining 30% of evaluations (n-2), which particularly evaluated state sponsored health insurance schemes, reported a decline in OOP expenditure among the enrolled households. One study which evaluated impact on health outcome showed reduction in mortality among enrolled as compared to non-enrolled households, from conditions covered by the insurance scheme. While utilization of healthcare did improve among those enrolled in the scheme, there is no clear evidence yet to suggest that these have resulted in reduced OOP expenditures or

  16. Impact of Publicly Financed Health Insurance Schemes on Healthcare Utilization and Financial Risk Protection in India: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Karan, Anup; Kaur, Gunjeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Several publicly financed health insurance schemes have been launched in India with the aim of providing universalizing health coverage (UHC). In this paper, we report the impact of publicly financed health insurance schemes on health service utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, financial risk protection and health status. Empirical research studies focussing on the impact or evaluation of publicly financed health insurance schemes in India were searched on PubMed, Google scholar, Ovid, Scopus, Embase and relevant websites. The studies were selected based on two stage screening PRISMA guidelines in which two researchers independently assessed the suitability and quality of the studies. The studies included in the review were divided into two groups i.e., with and without a comparison group. To assess the impact on utilization, OOP expenditure and health indicators, only the studies with a comparison group were reviewed. Out of 1265 articles screened after initial search, 43 studies were found eligible and reviewed in full text, finally yielding 14 studies which had a comparator group in their evaluation design. All the studies (n-7) focussing on utilization showed a positive effect in terms of increase in the consumption of health services with introduction of health insurance. About 70% studies (n-5) studies with a strong design and assessing financial risk protection showed no impact in reduction of OOP expenditures, while remaining 30% of evaluations (n-2), which particularly evaluated state sponsored health insurance schemes, reported a decline in OOP expenditure among the enrolled households. One study which evaluated impact on health outcome showed reduction in mortality among enrolled as compared to non-enrolled households, from conditions covered by the insurance scheme. While utilization of healthcare did improve among those enrolled in the scheme, there is no clear evidence yet to suggest that these have resulted in reduced OOP expenditures or

  17. 76 FR 33778 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in the San Joaquin River Gorge Special Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Special Recreation Management Area, in Eastern Fresno and Madera Counties, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Recreation Management Area (SRMA) in eastern Fresno and Madera Counties, California, and by this notice...

  18. 76 FR 25402 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Richard Downing Airport, Coshocton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Ohio, and being further described as follows; Note: North based on GPS observations. All steel pins... Township 6 North, Range 6 West, United States Military Lands, in Township of Keene, in the County...

  19. A theory of the availability and level of consumer protection in online and mobile payments for public economic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Ionescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of the paper is formed by an analysis of the factors that influence the community use of mobile payment for e-Government services, the use of mobile payment for the exchange of government goods and services, the types of e-Government services for which mobile payment is suitable, and real and perceived risks associated with mobile financial services. This paper presents a theory of the level of consumer protection and especially the availability of online payment systems and mobile public economic services, and highlights the use of Internet technology to provide effective and efficient public services. We underline the need to configure citizen-centric government services, accessibility challenges associated with the use of mobile, and diverse and transient nature of mobile technology use.

  20. EPA Strengthens Ozone Standards to Protect Public Health/Science-based standards to reduce sick days, asthma attacks, emergency room visits, greatly outweigh costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Based on extensive scientific evidence on effects that ground-level ozone pollution, or smog, has on public health and welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has strengthened the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (

  1. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-01-01

    for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. RESULTS: Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations...

  2. 50 CFR 21.48 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect public resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of... proposed control activity, specifying what public resources are being impacted, how many birds are likely... other birds are present; and (C) Contact information for the person in charge of the control action. (ii...

  3. On C-E Translation Strategies of Public Signs for Environmental Protection%环保公示语的汉英翻译策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦孟芬

    2015-01-01

    环保公示语是新功能性特类公示语,它在引导人们保护环境,提高环保意识方面起着很大的作用。就我国环保类公示语汉英翻译错误进行深入剖析,并提出相应的翻译策略,以期提高生态环保公示语的翻译质量。%Public signs for environmental protection ,as a new functional and special public sign ,play an important role in guiding people to protect environment and promoting the people's awareness of environmental protection .This paper analyzes the types of errors existing in the translation of environmental protection signs .Several corresponding translation strategies are put forward to improve the translation quality of public signs for eco‐environmental protection .

  4. Environmental Assessment, Land Protection Plan and Conceptual Management Plan: Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge proposed Buena Vista addition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1975 for the protection of the endangered Santa Cruz long-toed salamander (SCLTS). There are 170...

  5. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  6. Challenges and chances for radiation protection experts in the public discourse; Herausforderungen und Chancen fuer Strahlenschuetzer als Fachleute im oeffentlichen Diskurs. Spezialvortrag 'Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit und Strahlenschutz'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebl, M. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The contribution deals with the public information on radiation protection, including the definition of a radiation protection expert in the frame of public discourse. The author discusses the radioactivity warning on consumer products and the controversial debate of radioactive waste transports in Germany and offers recommendations for radiation protection experts in their public work.

  7. Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public well-being and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

  8. Participation of a non-disputing party in arbitration and protection of the public interest before an ICSID Tribunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the need to protect the legitimacy of decision-making process in investment arbitration through public access to the proceedings. Unlike commercial arbitration, investment arbitration entails decisions on state responsibility for measures directed towards protection of environment, lives and health of its population or human rights. Presence of the public interest in such disputes brings under strong criticism a traditional characteristic of arbitration process - its confidentiality. The problem of democratic deficit of decision-making can be resolved, inter alia, by allowing persons who are not parties to the dispute to participate in the proceedings if they consider that their interest might be affected by arbitral award. The 2006 Arbitration Rules of International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes envisage, subject to approval of the Tribunal, the right of a non-disputing party to file a written submission with the Tribunal regarding a factual or legal issue connected with the subject matter of the dispute. However, without right of those entities to attend arbitral hearings and, more importantly, without their access to documents submitted during the proceedings, this is not by far enough to give 'friends of the court' a meaningful and significant role.

  9. Public health focus: effectiveness of rollover protective structures for preventing injuries associated with agricultural tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-29

    Agriculture ranks fourth among U.S. industries for work-related fatalities (1). Fatalities associated with agricultural machinery commonly involve farm tractors, and rollover incidents (i.e., the tractor tips sideways or backward and overturns, crushing the operator) account for 46% (Minnesota) to 76% (Georgia) of all farm tractor-related fatalities (2). Annually, agricultural tractor rollovers result in approximately 132 work-related deaths among persons aged > or = 16 years* (3). This report summarizes information regarding the efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on agricultural tractors.

  10. Public health law: the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ville, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Congress of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was immediately challenged by lawsuits attacking the constitutionality of the legislation. The lawsuits, joined by over 2 dozen state's attorney generals, contend that PPACA is an unconstitutional exercise of federal power. Specifically, the suits argue that the individual insurance mandate portion of the law is justified by neither the "Commerce Power" nor Congress' authority to "tax" and provide for "the general welfare." This essay outlines and analyzes the constitutional arguments for, and against, PPACA forecasting the likely resolution of the debate if the suits reach the US Supreme Court.

  11. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  12. Legal ecotones: A comparative analysis of riparian policy protection in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett A. Boisjolie; Mary V. Santelmann; Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Sally L. Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Waterways of the USA are protected under the public trust doctrine, placing responsibility on the state to safeguard public resources for the benefit of current and future generations. This responsibility has led to the development of management standards for lands adjacent to streams. In the state of Oregon, policy protection for riparian areas varies by ownership (e....

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. AlGhamdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western. Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601 of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544 were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p < 0.001. Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p < 0.02. The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p < 0.001. Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  14. ICRP Publication 131: Stem cell biology with respect to carcinogenesis aspects of radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, J H; Niwa, O; Barcellos-Hoff, M H; Globus, R K; Harrison, J D; Martin, M T; Seed, T M; Shay, J W; Story, M D; Suzuki, K; Yamashita, S

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge of stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in 'niches', and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is reviewed regarding haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. The identity of the target cells for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive and mostly quiescent stem cell population (able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy), and, in a few tissues, to daughter progenitor cells. Several biological processes could contribute to the protection of stem cells from mutation accumulation: (1) accurate DNA repair; (2) rapid induced death of injured stem cells; (3) retention of the intact parental strand during divisions in some tissues so that mutations are passed to the daughter differentiating cells; and (4) stem cell competition, whereby undamaged stem cells outcompete damaged stem cells for residence in the vital niche. DNA repair mainly operates within a few days of irradiation, while stem cell replications and competition require weeks or many months depending on the tissue type. This foundation is used to provide a biological insight to protection issues including the linear-non-threshold and relative risk models, differences in cancer risk between tissues, dose-rate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age.

  15. A Proposed Methodology to Assess the Quality of Public Use Management in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Benayas, Javier

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the goal of nature preservation has faced, almost worldwide, an increase in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing protected areas resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. The rapidly increasing numbers of visitors have prompted administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it the best way? This research focuses on developing and applying a new instrument for evaluating the quality of visitor management in parks. Different areas are analyzed with this instrument (78 semi-quantitative indicators): planning and management capacity (planning, funding, human resources), monitoring, reception, information, interpretation, environmental education, training, participation and volunteer's programs. Thus, we attempt to gain a general impression of the development of the existing management model, detecting strengths and weaknesses. Although Spain's National Parks constituted the specific context within which to develop the evaluation instrument, the design thereof is intended to provide a valid, robust and flexible method for application to any system, network or set of protected areas in other countries. This paper presents the instrument developed, some results obtained following its application to Spanish National parks, along with a discussion on the limits and validity thereof.

  16. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  17. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  18. Public Auditing with Privacy Protection in a Multi-User Model of Cloud-Assisted Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cui, Jie; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Lu

    2017-05-05

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) are gaining importance in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). The modern medical system is a particular area where the WBSN techniques are being increasingly adopted for various fundamental operations. Despite such increasing deployments of WBSNs, issues such as the infancy in the size, capabilities and limited data processing capacities of the sensor devices restrain their adoption in resource-demanding applications. Though providing computing and storage supplements from cloud servers can potentially enrich the capabilities of the WBSNs devices, data security is one of the prevailing issues that affects the reliability of cloud-assisted services. Sensitive applications such as modern medical systems demand assurance of the privacy of the users' medical records stored in distant cloud servers. Since it is economically impossible to set up private cloud servers for every client, auditing data security managed in the remote servers has necessarily become an integral requirement of WBSNs' applications relying on public cloud servers. To this end, this paper proposes a novel certificateless public auditing scheme with integrated privacy protection. The multi-user model in our scheme supports groups of users to store and share data, thus exhibiting the potential for WBSNs' deployments within community environments. Furthermore, our scheme enriches user experiences by offering public verifiability, forward security mechanisms and revocation of illegal group members. Experimental evaluations demonstrate the security effectiveness of our proposed scheme under the Random Oracle Model (ROM) by outperforming existing cloud-assisted WBSN models.

  19. Application of Farmland Productivity Calculation to Compensation Mechanism Construction in Cultivated Land Protection%农用地产能核算在耕地保护补偿机制构建中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀敏; 张传新

    2011-01-01

    Based on the definition of regional compensation for cultivated land protection; this paper analyzes the connection between farmland productivity calculation and regional cultivated land protection compensation mechanism, and attempts to design a technical route of regional cultivated land protection compensation mechanism and steps of regional cultivated land protection compensation. Meanwhile, according to the design of the technical route and compensation procedures, it also puts forward proposals to build regional cultivated land protection compensation mechanism from the perspective of policies and operation in order to provide a useful reference for the current cultivated land protection mechanism, which has intersected calculations to quantity and quality of cultivated land.%在界定区域耕地保护补偿的基础上,对农用地产能核算与区域耕地保护补偿机制的联系进行分析,并设计了基于农用地产能核算结果的区域耕地保护补偿机制技术路线和区域耕地保护补偿步骤.同时,根据设计的技术路线和补偿步骤,从政策层面和操作层面提出了构建完善区域耕地保护补偿机制的建议,以期为改善目前耕地数量和质量分割计算的耕地保护机制提供有益参考.

  20. ICRP Publication 131: Stem Cell Biology with Respect to Carcinogenesis Aspects of Radiological Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, O; Barcellos-Hoff, M H; Globus, R K; Harrison, J D; Hendry, J H; Jacob, P; Martin, M T; Seed, T M; Shay, J W; Story, M D; Suzuki, K; Yamashita, S

    2015-12-01

    This report provides a review of stem cells/progenitor cells and their responses to ionising radiation in relation to issues relevant to stochastic effects of radiation that form a major part of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's system of radiological protection. Current information on stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in stem cell 'niches', and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is presented in a series of substantial reviews as annexes concerning haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. This foundation of knowledge of stem cells is used in the main text of the report to provide a biological insight into issues such as the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model, cancer risk among tissues, dose-rate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age. Knowledge of the biology and associated radiation biology of stem cells and progenitor cells is more developed in tissues that renew fairly rapidly, such as haematopoietic tissue, intestinal mucosa, and epidermis, although all the tissues considered here possess stem cell populations. Important features of stem cell maintenance, renewal, and response are the microenvironmental signals operating in the niche residence, for which a well-defined spatial location has been identified in some tissues. The identity of the target cell for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive stem cell population that is mostly quiescent, and hence able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy. In addition, there is some potential for daughter progenitor cells to be target cells in particular cases, such as in haematopoietic tissue and in skin. Several biological processes could contribute to protecting stem cells from mutation accumulation: (a) accurate DNA repair; (b) rapidly induced death of injured stem cells