WorldWideScience

Sample records for public knowledge institutions

  1. The Role of Knowledge Sharing in Enhancing Innovation: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Higher Education Institutions in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Husseini, Sawasn; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of the impact of knowledge sharing on product and process innovation. In it we try to identify the similarities and differences between these impacts in public and private Higher Education (HE) Institutions in Iraq. A mixed methods approach was conducted using 486 valid responses to test the causal…

  2. Organizational Learning in the Public Health Institutions through knowledge of ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2004-01-01

    The following paper is a presentation of an empirical study on ICT [1] -implementation in a public health institution. The methodology of the empirical research is briefly touched upon, as well as the theoretical background for the study of learning - not in the classroom, but in the workplace....... Secondly, it presents an empirical study of the implementation of an electronic record in a health care organisation. Thirdly the article recommends a model for organisational learning within health care through ICT. Finally, non-scholastic learning and apprenticeship are commented on in relation...

  3. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: knowledge translation and effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard; Jessani, Nasreen; Mafuta, Eric M

    2014-06-02

    Local health systems research (HSR) provides policymakers and practitioners with contextual, evidence-based solutions to health problems. However, producers and users of HSR rarely understand the complexities of the context within which each operates, leading to the "know-do" gap. Universities are well placed to conduct knowledge translation (KT) integrating research production with uptake. The HEALTH Alliance Africa Hub, a consortium of seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa, was formed to build capacity in HSR. This paper presents information on the capacity of the various SPHs to conduct KT activities. In 2011, each member of the Africa Hub undertook an institutional HSR capacity assessment using a context-adapted and modified self-assessment tool. KT capacity was measured by several indicators including the presence of a KT strategy, an organizational structure to support KT activities, KT skills, and institutional links with stakeholders and media. Respondents rated their opinions on the various indicators using a 5-point Likert scale. Averages across all respondents for each school were calculated. Thereafter, each school held a results validation workshop. A total of 123 respondents from all seven SPHs participated. Only one school had a clear KT strategy; more commonly, research was disseminated at scientific conferences and workshops. While most respondents perceived their SPH as having strong institutional ties with organizations interested in HSR as well as strong institutional leadership, the organizational structures required to support KT activities were absent. Furthermore, individual researchers indicated that they had little time or skills to conduct KT. Additionally, institutional and individual links with policymakers and media were reported as weak. Few SPHs in Africa have a clear KT strategy. Strengthening the weak KT capacity of the SPHs requires working with institutional leadership to develop KT strategies designed

  4. Knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisma Engida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there was an estimated number of 287,000 maternal deaths in 2010. Eighty five percent (245,000 of these deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Among the causes of these deaths were obstructed and prolonged labour which could be prevented by cost effective and affordable health interventions like the use of the partograph. The Use of the partograph is a well-known best practice for quality monitoring of labour and subsequent prevention of obstructed and prolonged labour. However, a number of cases of obstructed labour do happen in health facilities due to poor quality of intrapartum care. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study assessed knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and use of partograph among obstetric care givers. Results Knowledge about the partograph was fair: 189 (96.6% of all the respondents correctly mentioned at least one component of the partograph, 104 (53.3% correctly explained the function of alert line and 161 (82.6% correctly explained the function of action line. The study showed that 112 (57.3% of the obstetric care givers at public health institutions reportedly utilized partograph to monitor mothers in labour. The utilization of the partograph was significantly higher among obstetric care givers working in health centres (67.9% compared to those working in hospitals (34.4% [Adjusted OR = 3.63(95%CI: 1.81, 7.28]. Conclusions A significant percentage of obstetric care givers had fair knowledge of the partograph and why it is necessary to use it in the management of labour and over half of obstetric care givers reported use of the partograph to monitor mothers in labour. Pre-service and

  5. Knowledge Management Implementation at the Women’s Branch of the Institute of Public Administration in Saudi Arabia: A Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiman Saud Abokhodiar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce a proposed model of knowledge management implementation at the Women’s Branch of the Institute of Public Administration (WIPA. The model was built after a review and analysis of literature related to knowledge management implementation in higher education institutions. The research includes three sections. The first section deals with a theoretical framework of knowledge management, including a knowledge management definition, components of knowledge management systems, an academic knowledge framework, an organizational knowledge framework, and processes of knowledge management. The second section reviews and discusses the proposed model of knowledge management implementation at WIPA. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of the success factors and expected barriers to the proposed model.

  6. Institutions as Knowledge Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Garzarelli, Giampaolo

    The paper revisits the socioeconomic theory of the Austrian School economist Ludwig M. Lachmann. By showing that the common claim that Lachmann's idiosyncratic (read: eclectic and multidisciplinary) approach to economics entails nihilism is unfounded, it reaches the following conclusions. (1......) Lachmann held a sophisticated institutional position to economics that anticipated developments in contemporary new institutional economics. (2) Lachmann's sociological and economic reading of institutions offers insights for the problem of coordination. (3) Lachmann extends contemporary new institutional...... theory without simultaneously denying the policy approach of comparative institutional analysis. (90 words.)KeywordsComparative institutional analysis, coordination, expectations, institutionalevolution, interpretative institutionalism.JEL CodesB31, B52, B53, D80....

  7. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Robert K D; Graham, Ian D; Bosompra, Kwadwo; Choudhry, Yumna; Coen, Stephanie E; Macleod, Martha; Manuel, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan; Mota, Adrian; Peckham, David; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Tucker, Joanne

    2012-06-22

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has defined knowledge translation (KT) as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding interventions, and how KT can best be evaluated.

  8. Knowledge repositories in knowledge cities: institutions, conventions and knowledge subnetworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger

  9. Public Order: Challenges of Inter-Institutional and Regional Cooperation in the Context of the Knowledge Society. A Question of Economic and Social Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Balan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The context of public policies undergoes a process of rapid change due to the emergence of the dynamic knowledge-based economy and society. Public administration institutions need to adapt their material and human resources to the dynamic developments of the knowledge and information society in order to maintain efficiency and effectiveness of their scopes. One of the most fragile fields is public order and the need for improved inter-institutional cooperation at national, regional, and EU-level for achieving the objectives of ensuring citizens’ safety while safeguarding rights and liberties. The social and economic efficiency of public order policies and measures need to be reassessed and improved based on overhauled and updated inter-institutional and organisational concepts, on diversified methods of cooperation at national, regional, EU- and international level. A recent project developed in the field of public order with respect to juvenile delinquency has shown that major questions still need to be approached with respect to efficiency and effectiveness of inter-institutional cooperation with both public and private bodies, and with representatives of the non-governmental organizations. The outcomes of the project have shown that juvenile delinquency must be approached as phenomenon in the wider framework of public order, of urban and rural safety, of crime prevention and combating. One major conclusion of the project is that a new integrated model is required with respect to the intra-, and inter-institutional cooperation and dialogue, but also with respect to the skills required to work efficiently considering the challenges posed by the overall developments of a society changing towards increased knowledge and information awareness. This would allow also for improved quality assessment and effectiveness measurements based on composite process and outcome indicators for public order, and public administration, in general, as well.

  10. Characteristics and determinants of knowledge transfer policies at universities and public institutions in medical research--protocol for a systematic review of the qualitative research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Rosa; Müller, Olaf; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2015-08-19

    Universities, public institutions, and the transfer of knowledge to the private sector play a major role in the development of medical technologies. The decisions of universities and public institutions regarding the transfer of knowledge impact the accessibility of the final product, making it easier or more difficult for consumers to access these products. In the case of medical research, these products are pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, or medical procedures. The ethical dimension of access to these potentially lifesaving products is apparent and distinguishes the transfer of medical knowledge from the transfer of knowledge in other areas. While the general field of technology transfer from academic and public to private actors is attracting an increasing amount of scholarly attention, the specifications of knowledge transfer in the medical field are not as well explored. This review seeks to provide a systematic overview and analysis of the qualitative literature on the characteristics and determinants of knowledge transfer in medical research and development. The review systematically searches the literature for qualitative studies that focus on knowledge transfer characteristics and determinants at medical academic and public research institutions. It aims at identifying and analyzing the literature on the content and context of knowledge transfer policies, decision-making processes, and actors at academic and public institutions. The search strategy includes the databases PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and DiVa. These databases will be searched based on pre-specified search terms. The studies selected for inclusion in the review will be critically assessed for their quality utilizing the Qualitative Research Checklist developed by the Clinical Appraisal Skills Programme. Data extraction and synthesis will be based on the meta-ethnographic approach. This review seeks to further the understanding of the kinds of transfer pathways that exist in medical

  11. Latina Social Studies Teachers Negotiating Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Elizabeth D.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores the institutionalized master narrative of public institutions and how the mandated policies enacted by public institutions impact Latina social studies teachers when delivering instruction to their students. A socio-transformative constructivist framework guides this study to affirm that knowledge is socially…

  12. Public knowledge of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a study of the scientific literacy of the British public a quota sample of 1033 adults over the age of 15 was interviewed by Market and Opinion Research International (MORI) in 80 constituency sampling points in Britain. All interviews were conducted face to face between 21 June and 1 July 1986. The questions asked included a series of knowledge questions pitched at about the Grade 4 level of the English Certificate of Secondary Education examination, the level intended to represent the attainment of an average person. In addition to these general questions, there were two concerned with the knowledge that respondents had of radioactivity, as well as three concerned with their views about issues related to nuclear power generation. (author)

  13. Public employees leadership institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Public agencies in Iowa are continually challenged with reduced staff levels, reduced budgets, and increased expectations for services provided. Responding to these demands requires a well-informed and coordinated team that includes professionals, su...

  14. Language Policy, Tacit Knowledge, and Institutional Learning: The Case of the Swiss Public Service Broadcaster SRG SSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    "Promoting public understanding" is what the programming mandate asks the Swiss public broadcasting company SRG SSR to do. From a sociolinguistic perspective, this means linking speech communities with other speech communities, both between and within the German-, French-, Italian-, and Romansh-speaking parts of Switzerland. In the…

  15. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  16. FUNDING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Constantin, DIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of this article started from the fact that in the field of public institutions accounting there have been many changes and it aims to capture the essential aspects of their financing. Thus the article covers a series of issues related to the credit officers, to employment, to settlement and payment of public institutions expenditure, to the budgeting and budgetary credits accounting. It also presents a brief classification of the public institutions according to several criteria, as well as their financing sources. The paper also practically presents the accounting of the budgetary credits and their sharing mechanism between the principal, secondary and tertiary budgetary credits officers.

  17. Knowledge management in Portuguese healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sofia Gaspar; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge management imposes itself as a pressing need for the organizations of several sectors of the economy, including healthcare. to evaluate the perception of healthcare institution collaborators in relation to knowledge management in the institution where they operate and analyze the existence of differences in this perception, based on the institution's management model. a study conducted in a sample consisting of 671 collaborators from 10 Portuguese healthcare institutions with different models of management. In order to assess the knowledge management perception, we used a score designed from and based on items from the scores available in the literature. the perception of moderate knowledge management on the healthcare institutions and the statistically significant differences in knowledge management perception were evidenced in each management model. management knowledge takes place in healthcare institutions, and the current management model determines the way staff at these institutions manage their knowledge.

  18. Practical integration: The art of balancing values, institutions and knowledge - lessons from the History of British Public Health and Town Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grandis, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The paper uses two historical examples, public health (1840-1880) and town planning (1945-1975) in Britain, to analyse the challenges faced by goal-driven research, an increasingly important trend in science policy, as exemplified by the prominence of calls for addressing Grand Challenges. Two key points are argued. (1) Given that the aim of research addressing social or global problems is to contribute to improving things, this research should include all the steps necessary to bring science and technology to fruition. This need is captured by the idea of practical integration, which brings this type of research under the umbrella of collective practical reason rather than under the aegis of science. Achieving practical integration is difficult for many reasons: the complexity of social needs, the plurality of values at stake, the limitation of our knowledge, the elusive nature of the skills needed to deal with uncertainty, incomplete information and asymmetries of power. Nevertheless, drawing from the lessons of the case studies, it is argued that (2) practical integration needs a proper balance between values, institutions and knowledge: i.e. a combination of mutual support and mutual limitation. Pursuing such a balance provides a flexible strategy for approximating practical integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. knowledge management practices in higher learning institutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Knowledge Management (KM) Practices in Institutions of Higher Learning in .... quality and skills to cope with the labour market demands. .... Total. 44. 100.0. Source: Field Data (2012/13). Staff's Level of Awareness of Knowledge Management.

  20. Managerial Methodology in Public Institutions

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    Ion VERBONCU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important ways of making public institutions more efficient is by applying managerial methodology, embodied in the promotion of management tools, modern and sophisticated methodologies, as well as operation of designing/redesigning and maintenance of the management process and its components. Their implementation abides the imprint of constructive and functional particularities of public institutions, decentralized and devolved, and, of course, the managers’ expertise of these organizations. Managerial methodology is addressed through three important instruments diagnosis, management by objectives and scoreboard. Its presence in the performance management process should be mandatory, given the favorable influence on the management and economic performance and the degree of scholastic approach of the managers’ performance.

  1. Working Programme 2010. Knowledge Institute for Mobility Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Dutch Knowledge Institute for Mobility Policy (KiM) provides analyses of mobility that influence the policy. As a separate institute within the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water management, the KiM conducts strategic outlooks and policy analyses. KiM establishes working programs annually. [nl

  2. Facing the Knowledge Society: Mexico's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Petito, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education in Mexico faces major challenges vis-a-vis its position within the modern knowledge society, sparking concern among educational authorities. In the second half of the 20th century Mexican universities ceased to be selective, elitist schools, becoming, instead, massive institutions that reflect social and intellectual…

  3. Financial institutions as an example of institutions of public trust

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Jakubowska

    2013-01-01

    Financial institutions are commonly known as institutions of public trust and they are fundamental for activities of other economic entities. The level of trust determines the competitive position of financial institutions. That is why care about the best standards is the most important task for these institutions. Financial institutions are called institutions of public trust and thus high professionalism and more responsibility is demanded from them. This article presents basic problems con...

  4. Informal Knowledge Institutions and Market Innovation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A framework is built in which small firms develop new market innovations through the utilization of knowledge acquired from informal (e.g. personal contact, network of friends, families etc.) institutions. Data was collected through a survey of 510 small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in knowledge intensive business ...

  5. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

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    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  6. Knowledge attitudes and practices of health professionals in public health institutions on emergency contraception in Pietermaritzburg KwaZuluNatal Province South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sibanda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although emergency contraception (EC is widely available, its use is surrounded by many controversies. Overall, it seems to be underutilised worldwide.Objectives. To determine healthcare professionalsá¾½ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding EC, and how frequently they encounter, educate and issue it to patients.Methods. A questionnaire-based survey of doctors and nurses (volunteers working in obstetrics and gynaecology was conducted in 3 public hospitals and 17 clinics in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Data were analysed using SPSS.Results. Sixty-seven (25% doctors and 201 (75% nurses participated in the survey. Awareness of the three ECs available in the public sector overall was 56.4%, and 62.7% of participants could prescribe one EC correctly. Only 39.6% knew that EC pills prevent ovulation. Seventy-six percent thought that the use of EC could lead to high-risk sexual behaviour, high risk of transmission of HIV and non-use of other forms of contraception. Only 7.8% saw patients seeking EC often, 5.6% issued it often and 23.5% educated patients about it often.Conclusion. Participants were familiar with EC, but lacked accurate and detailed knowledge about its mechanism of action and had misperceptions on its social impact. They seldom prescribed it.

  7. Knowledge transfer from public research organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Erik; Knee, Paula; Brown, Neil; Javorka, Zsuzsa; Giarracca, Flora; Sidiqui, Sabeen

    2012-01-01

    This study describes knowledge transfer from European universities and institutes to industry, focusing on the role of the Industrial Liaison / Technology / Knowledge Transfer Office function. It explores practices in European institutions and compares these with international ones, especially from

  8. Public Accountability Institutions in Pakistan and their ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mobile Nav Footer Links ... It is expected that the research will provide insight into the relationship between public accountability, macroeconomic ... Date de début ... Public accountability institutions of Pakistan & their macro economic impacts.

  9. CONTROL ENVIRONMENT IN KOSOVO PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

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    Shaqir M. REXHEPI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study on how is Internal Control System developed in public institutions is of a special importance for modalities, forms and the manner of the application of relevant strategies for the functioning of internal control environment in public institutions. In this paper, there is treated the existing situation of internal control system environment of public finances and its implementation in public sector. For internal control system environment in public finances to function effectively, there should exist a coherent control environment which includes responsibilities for financial management from managers of Publicly Owned Enterprises and with complete functioning of internal audit, which exists in the function of development to add value. In Kosovo public institutions, this framework is offered by legislation and by institutional mechanism for the implementation of legislation according to these parameters.

  10. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...

  11. Entrepreneurship in a Finnish public institution

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    Marin Burcea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the idea of entrepreneurship in public institutions has been the subject of intense debates, activities and academic research. The scopes of our article are to briefly underline the importance of developing an entrepreneurial spirit by presenting a case study from a Finnish local public administration and making aware the proactive aspect in the process of managing public institutions in Romania. Our hypotheses have been mainly of an interrogative nature. Hypothesis testing was achieved through the analysis of statistical data and conducting a set of sociological interviews with key people from Finnish institutions which were used in the survey. The results of the research emphasize that where there is an entrepreneurial behaviour with the local administration management, the community undergoes a process of conservation and development. The way in which they relate to community partners (such as entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, citizens is essential to the entrepreneurial spirit within the local public institution.

  12. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

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    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  13. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  14. Management of nuclear information and knowledge in Cuban institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.G.; Rondon, C.F.; Aldama, C.L.; Aruca, L.A.; Labrada, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The peaceful use and application of nuclear energy demands a wide domain of the capabilities and an inherent knowledge for technicians employee and a part of the personnel linked to the nuclear specialties, the application of the generated and accumulated information in databases and the organization in an integral culture that allows the socialization of the generated and acquired knowledge, supported on a solid infrastructure based on the use of the information and communication technologies. The Nuclear Ramal Program in Cuba (NRP) recognizes as a main priority the establishment of the knowledge management system, which offer possibilities of participation for all institutions belonging to the Agency of Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies (AEN and TA). In this rank an important role belongs to the Energy Development and Information Management Centre (CUBAENERGIA) as a coordinating entity, on which are executed projects focused: To develop the web site of the AEN and TA connected to web sites of other institutions of the proper Agency; To develop the executive web site (Intranet of the AEN and TA), which manages the corporate information, as a support to the process of taking decisions. Here also participate all the institutions belonging to agency; Networking education system for human resources of these institutions and others that belong to the energy sector in Cuba; Application and implementation of data warehousing process for all institutions on corporate levels; Approaches and concepts for managing nuclear information supported on a collective catalogue of scientific and technical publications of nuclear profile; Application of technology watching system for all the scientific and technical activities linked to the use and application of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, based on the information and knowledge contained in the databases of INIS, WIPO and RRIAN; To promote and disclose the peaceful, efficient and safety use of nuclear energy

  15. Importance of Knowledge Management in the Higher Educational Institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdev Dhamdhere, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Every academic institution contributes to knowledge. The generated information and knowledge is to be compiled at a central place and disseminated among the society for further growth. It is observed that the generated knowledge in the academic institute is not stored or captured properly. It is also observed that many a times generated…

  16. The Knowledge Management Research of Agricultural Scientific Research Institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the perception of knowledge management from experts specializing in different fields,and experts at home and abroad,the knowledge management of agricultural scientific research institution can build new platform,offer new approach for realization of explicit or tacit knowledge,and promote resilience and innovative ability of scientific research institution.The thesis has introduced functions of knowledge management research of agricultural science.First,it can transform the tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge.Second,it can make all the scientific personnel share knowledge.Third,it is beneficial to the development of prototype system of knowledge management.Fourth,it mainly researches the realization of knowledge management system.Fifth,it can manage the external knowledge via competitive intelligence.Sixth,it can foster talents of knowledge management for agricultural scientific research institution.Seventh,it offers the decision-making service for leaders to manage scientific program.The thesis also discusses the content of knowledge management of agricultural scientific research institution as follows:production and innovation of knowledge;attainment and organizing of knowledge;dissemination and share of knowledge;management of human resources and the construction and management of infrastructure.We have put forward corresponding countermeasures to further reinforce the knowledge management research of agricultural scientific research institution.

  17. Public Knowledge of Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The American public generally recognizes the name "Montessori" because so many schools across the country and around the world use the Montessori name. However, the Montessori community has long believed that misunderstandings abound. A recent dissertation study quantified Montessori awareness and identified misconceptions in particular for those…

  18. An Empirical Inquiry on Knowledge Sharing among Academicians in Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, T.; Yeap, Jasmine A. L.; Ignatius, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Universities are expected to be places where knowledge is shared freely among academicians. However, the reality shows that knowledge sharing is barely present within universities these days. As Malaysia shifts towards building a knowledge-based society, academic institutions, particularly the public universities, now face ever-growing faculty…

  19. Financing public healthcare institutions in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akortsu, Mercy Akosua; Abor, Patience Aseweh

    2011-01-01

    The financing of healthcare services has been of a major concern to all governments in the face of increasing healthcare costs. For developing countries, where good health is considered a poverty reduction strategy, it is imperative that the hospitals used in the delivery of healthcare services are well financed to accomplish their tasks. The purpose of this paper is to examine how public hospitals in Ghana are financed, and the challenges facing the financing modes adopted. To achieve the objectives of the study, one major public healthcare institution in Ghana became the main focus. The findings of the study revealed that the main sources of financing the public healthcare institution are government subvention, internally-generated funds and donor-pooled funds. Of these sources, the internally generated fund was regarded as the most reliable, and the least reliable was the donor-pooled funds. Several challenges associated with the various financing sources were identified. These include delay in receipt of government subvention, delay in the reimbursement of services provided to subscribers of health insurance schemes, influence of government in setting user fees, and the specifications to which donor funds are put. The findings of this study have important implications for improving the financing of public healthcare institutions in Ghana. A number of recommendations are provided in this regard.

  20. THE NEW CHALLENGES OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Accounting of public institutions is an area in the middle of change, at the beginning of the year 2104 being recorded changes are consistent with significant impact on such areas, general, accounting. Given that the transformation process of how reporting is in progress, I found it helpful to attend a study aiming at the transformation imposed by the new legislative package, but what are the main issues that might affect implementation of the project. We have identified three directions by which the Ministry of public finance requires changing, such as: adaptation of the chart of accounts used by public entities, the creation of a national system of monitoring, reporting, verification and control of the financial statements, legal commitments and budgets of public entities and increasing training of Heads of financial and accounting departments. This structure is designed and realized study.

  1. Academic returnees knowledge transfer in Vietnamese public universities

    OpenAIRE

    Truong Thuy, Van

    2017-01-01

    In the trend of international education, many graduates have earned a degree from international education programs and returned to work in their home countries. This study explores the institutional factors affecting the process of transferring knowledge from international education to local workplace, taking the case of Vietnamese academic returnees in public universities. The study employs the qualitative approach and institutional theory to understand this phenomenon. Data from interviews ...

  2. Amateur knowledge: public art and citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The science studies literatures on amateurs and citizen science have remained largely unconnected despite similarities between the two categories. The essay connects amateur knowledge and citizen science through examples from public art. Through an analysis of the use of the term "amateur" by contemporary artists working to engage the public in critiques of science, connections in the ideals of democratic knowledge making by amateurs and citizen scientists are further explored.

  3. [Conceptualization of knowledge management in medium and high complexity health institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda-Posada, Gladys I

    2016-06-01

    Objective To identify the familiarization, conceptualization and incorporation of employees of medium and high complexity health institutions in the Valle de Aburrá, Colombia into the strategic knowledge management platform in 2011. Methodology Cross sectional study. The study was carried out by applying surveys to 224 employees to assess knowledge management. The population included staff who working in the Health Providing Institutions (IPS) of high (52) and medium complexity (322) in the Valle de Aburrá in 2011. In both the public and private institutions surveyed, 38.8 % of the respondents said they were not familiar with knowledge management. Among those who had administrative training, the ignorance was less than among care workers. It was also noted that as the level of education increased, knowledge of the concept was greater. A high proportion (65.2 % ) of respondents placed the concept in line with the creation, organization, storage, retrieval, transfer and application of knowledge systematically. 78.7 % of respondents from public institutions said that knowledge management was part of the strategic platform of the institution. 58.3 % from private institutions said the same. Conclusions In general terms the concept of knowledge management is not well conceived or familiar to the staff working in these institutions. The study confirmed a lack of empowerment in the field to promote the development of new ideas and to ensure that they become service innovations or processes that contribute to the development of institutional knowledge.

  4. Media System, Public Knowledge and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka; Curran, James; Iyengar, Shanto

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the implications of the movement towards entertainment-centred, market-driven media by comparing what is reported and what the public knows in four countries with different media systems. The different systems are public service (Denmark and Finland), a `dual' model (UK) an...... consumption and contributes to a smaller within-nation knowledge gap between the advantaged and disadvantaged. But wider processes in society take precedence over the organization of the media in determining how much people know about public life......) and the market model (US). The comparison shows that public service television devotes more attention to public affairs and international news, and fosters greater knowledge in these areas, than the market model. Public service television also gives greater prominence to news, encourages higher levels of news...

  5. Evaluation acting: the experience of a public research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Regia Ruth Ramirez; Ferreira, Hudson Rubio; Filgueiras, Sergio A. Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Innovation and knowledge management are central questions of the modern world economy where the incorporation of new knowledge is determining for competition. In this context, there is a movement of pression under public research institutions for a more dynamic participation on the local innovation system. The institutions of C and T should prepare to help the companies to insert in the context of open economies and also to compete in the global market. The modernity requires flexibility and organizational changes in the research institutions. Redefinitions of their practices in relation to other aspects such as: financing sources; partnership with other organizations; definition and planning of the objectives; evaluation, diffusion and valorization of the results and the establishing of a measuring system and performance indicators. Aiming at having an effective institutional insertion on the national and regional systems of innovation, the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN reformulated its strategical planning, incorporating the view of the researchers of the Center and external experts. As part of the evaluation process, CDTN organizes an annual seminar for evaluating its projects, focused on presenting the results and also on the analysis of the performance indicators. The result of this pairs review are widely informed to the Institution and is an important tool for the critical analysis of the institutional performance and for corrections to be made by the high direction. This paper presents the methodology for evaluating the results, as well as the difficulties and improvements incorporated to the process, which has been applied for three years. (author)

  6. Importance of Knowledge Management in the Higher Educational Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta NAMDEV DHAMDHERE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Every academic institution contributes to knowledge. The generated information and knowledge is to be compiled at central place and disseminated among the society for further growth. It is observed that the generated knowledge in the academic institute is not stored or captured properly It is also observed that many a times generated information or knowledge in the academic institute is not known to any one and remains as grey literature, which might be useful if proper recoding is maintained in the organization. In fact academic environment is treasure of knowledge but it is not organized properly and hence utility is also lacking and cause for the repetitions of the activity. This project is undertaken under Board of University and Colleges, University of Pune for finding importance of KM of past knowledge of an institute. Also study on data capture, data analysis, data categorization, data mining, data mapping, knowledge mapping, concept mapping, indexing, linking and repackaging of knowledge, tools, techniques, strategies and copyright issues in sharing this knowledge through knowledge base.

  7. Institutional policy learning and public consultation: the Canadian xenotransplantation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mavis; Einsiedel, Edna

    2011-09-01

    Attempts to evaluate public consultations, participatory technology assessment, and deliberative democracy have typically considered impacts on either policy or participants. The determination of impacts on policy institutions has been limited due to the challenges of tracing effects through the policy process, or penetrating bureaucratic walls. This paper presents findings from a retrospective study exploring the institutional lessons learned from a 2001 Canadian national public consultation on xenotransplantation. The consultation was conducted through an arm's-length process and involved the use of citizen juries in six regional sites. We conducted in-depth interviews of regulatory and policy actors who were engaged in early policy discussions and the consultation process. We reviewed evaluations of this process, both internal and external, which gave us richer insights into what institutional actors saw as the impacts of this consultative experience on their policy environment. Participants in our research identified a broader shift toward openness in policy culture which they linked specifically to the innovative consultation process employed for xenotransplantation. We argue that beyond input into policy decisions, a consultation may have an impact in terms of its contribution to overall shifts in institutional culture (related to institutional learning), such as an "opening" of technological decision processes to a broader range of actors, knowledge, and values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Public's Knowledge of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pew Research Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The public's knowledge of science and technology varies widely across a range of questions on current topics and basic scientific concepts, according to a new quiz by the Pew Research Center and "Smithsonian" magazine. About eight-in-ten Americans (83%) identify ultraviolet as the type of radiation that sunscreen protects against. Nearly…

  9. Stressing the Importance of Public Affairs Knowledge in an Era of Declining Political Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Brian L.

    Public affairs instructors must routinely contend with the reality that stressing the importance of political knowledge is challenging in an era of declining student interest in politics and political institutions. Yet enhancing students' knowledge about public affairs can stimulate more interest and engagement in public affairs, particularly if…

  10. Changing Patterns of Publication Productivity: Accumulative Advantage or Institutional Isomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates two competing perspectives, accumulated advantage and institutional isomorphism, on the relationship between publication productivity and institutional hierarchy. Accumulated advantage refers to the continuing attraction of students, faculty, and research dollars to prestige universities. Institutional isomorphism denotes the tendency…

  11. ADMINISTRATIVE KNOWLEDGE IN INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Pankratova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated the conditionsfor generating administrative knowledgeand ways to evaluate his conditionand optimization. Designated methodsand tools actualization administrative management of knowledge as aresource of innovative development ofthe educational institution. The basic directions of innovative development ofsoftware, including the assessment of theimpact of corporate culture, and diagnosisof barriers to educational institution.

  12. Public knowledge of head and neck cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T E

    2010-04-01

    Studies show 60% of patients with newly diagnosed Head & Neck Squamous Cell Cancer in Ireland, present with advanced disease. A poor level of knowledge and awareness among the public of Head & Neck Cancer, is an important consideration in the often delayed presentation for medical attention in many of these cases. Our study surveyed 200 members of the public to assess their knowledge and awareness of Head & Neck Cancer. One hundred and forty (70%) of respondents had never encountered the term "Head & Neck Cancer". One hundred and forty six (73%) failed to identify excessive alcohol consumption as a risk factor. Less than 100 (50%) would have concern about persisting hoarseness or a prolonged oral ulcer. An urgent need exists to raise awareness of Head & Neck Cancer among the public in Ireland.

  13. The Cochrane Collaboration: Institutional Analysis of a Knowledge Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Peter; Stephani, Anne Marie; Garner, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Cochrane is an international network that produces and updates new knowledge through systematic reviews for the health sector. Knowledge is a shared resource, and can be viewed as a commons. As Cochrane has been in existence for 25 years, we used Elinor Ostrom's theory of the commons and Institutional Analysis and Development Framework to appraise…

  14. Examining Citizens’ Contact to Local Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Bente

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study aims to explore the communication process within local public administration as a determinant of citizens` satisfaction. Prior work - Several authors had examined if having contact with certain service providers will affect people’s attitudes toward the service quality, but the researchers have not focused yet on the effect of citizens` contact to local authorities on satisfaction. Approach - This research seeks to address this field using an exploratory approach. Following a quantitative methodological approach, a survey was applied to a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian. Findings - By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with costumer contact. In addition it was revealed that in Crisana Region city hall is the most frequented local public institution. Implications – The results showed a negative effect of frequency of access to local authorities on overall customer satisfaction. The effect of citizens` contact to local authorities received less attention from the academic researchers, as a need in the literature is to expand this field. Value - This research is the first to specifically examine the contact to local authorities and the effect of frequency of addressing on citizen satisfaction within Crisana Region.

  15. Research on the construction of knowledge base for institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ru

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge base (KB in short) is very important for institutes. It can train employees to improve their ability of work. It can supply more information to directors for making right decisions, and can help constructing learning organization to promote innovation. Institutes possess several information systems, but there are some problems such as inadequate use of documents, and connotative knowledge isn't described and communicated. KB of institute is based on programs. It stress integrity, secrecy of programs and authorized access. Libraries have abilities to construct KB, since it's the center of information for the institute. KB of institute includes: KB of training, communion of technique issues, KB of department, personal KB, KB of specialists. Because of low cost many institutes adopt softwares of free codes such as: DSpace, EPrints, Fedodra, CDSware, Greenstone. KB systems are choosed by institutes, depending on types of knowledge, ability of technique, fund and so on. KB is constructed by collecting, sorting, describing key knowledge, connecting, accessing, updating and innovating. Program KB of different places and majors will unite in the future. (author)

  16. Gender Equality in the Romanian Local Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality in public institutions is a sensitive topic considering the vast efforts of European countries to overcome the problems raised by gender inequality, gender segregation and gender discrimination in the labor market. In order to measure gender equality in public institutions and to identify the most important gender related organizational issues a questionnaire was built, tested in 2010 in one public institution, and then applied at national scale to public servants (both women and men from local public institutions. The questionnaire focuses on gender stereotypes, sexual harassment, gender discrimination (in hiring, promotion, pay and benefits, evaluation, promotion and task distribution practices in institution and occupational mobility.

  17. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  18. Gender Equality in the Romanian Local Public Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR; Felicia Cornelia MACARIE; Simona Claudia CREŢA

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality in public institutions is a sensitive topic considering the vast efforts of European countries to overcome the problems raised by gender inequality, gender segregation and gender discrimination in the labor market. In order to measure gender equality in public institutions and to identify the most important gender related organizational issues a questionnaire was built, tested in 2010 in one public institution, and then applied at national scale to public servants (both women ...

  19. Knowledge management practices at an institution of higher learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mavodza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article underscores the fact that society is becoming more and more knowledge-based, and that the organisations that can identify, value, create and evolve their knowledge assets are likely to be more successful than those that do not. Knowledge management (KM is about enhancing the use of organisational knowledge through sound practices of KM and organisational learning. KM practices encompass the capture and/or acquisition of knowledge, its retention and organisation, its dissemination and re-use, and lastly responsiveness to the new knowledge.Objective: The focus of this study was on KM principles and practices that may be in place in the Metropolitan College of New York (MCNY. The argument is that KM and its survival principles and tools may help the College to improve performance. However, there is uncertainty about whether the use of KM principles and tools can partly solve the College’s approach to improving the quality of education it provides.Methods: A mixed methods research methodology encompassing a questionnaire, observation, interviews, and use of institutional documents was used in the investigation.Results: The findings of the study indicate that KM concepts were not universally understood at MCNY.Conclusion: There is a need to create a knowledge inventory at MCNY. This may help the College to develop appropriate institution-wide policies and practices for proper and well organised methods of integrating work processes, collaborating and sharing (including the efficient use of social media, and developing an enabling institutional culture.

  20. Management of nuclear information and knowledge in Cuban institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.G.; Rondon, C.F.; Aldama, C.L.; Aruca, L.A.; Labrada, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the management of information and the knowledge, the Cuban Agency of Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies recognizes as needful the establishment of the nuclear knowledge management system. In the rank of the Nuclear Ramal Program are executed projects, with the participation of all the Cuban nuclear institutions, focused to develop the web site and the intranet of the proper agency as support to the process of taking decisions, to develop the networking education system for human resources of these institutions and others that belong to the energy sector in Cuba, to introduce the data warehousing process for all institutions on corporate levels, to develop technology watching system for all the scientific and technical activities linked to the use and application of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, based on the information and knowledge contained in the databases of INIS, WIPO and RRIAN, between other purposes. (author)

  1. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Kenya Institute for Public Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... public expenditure management, food security, tourism, regional integration and trade, private-sector development, education, poverty, infrastructure, service ... internal goals and targets are met and to assess the impact of KIPPRA's work

  2. IPSAS versus National Norms on Public Institutions' Own Capitals

    OpenAIRE

    Ecobici, Nicolae

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I have compared international standards on accounting for the public sector and those required by national norms on public institutions' own capitals, pointing out both convergences and divergences. Last, but not the least, I have compared IPSAS 1 (applied by public institutions) with IAS 1 (applied by commercial companies).

  3. Institutions, public debt and growth in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Masuch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence that supports the view that the quality of institutions is an important determinant of long-term growth in European countries. It shows that an initial high government debt level coupled with institutional quality below the EU average tends to be associated with particularly poor longterm real growth performance. Interestingly, the detrimental effect of high debt levels on long-term growth seems cushioned by the presence of very sound institutions. The paper offers some evidence that sound institutions may be particularly important for long-term growth in countries in which the exchange rate tool is no longer available and less so in countries with flexible exchange rate regimes. The empirical findings on the importance of institutions are robust to various measures of output growth, different measures of institutional indicators, different sample sizes, different country groupings and to the inclusions of additional control variables.

  4. Faith-Based Institutions, Institutional Mission, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jessica Rose; Gustafson, Jacqueline N.

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in historical foundations and demonstrated by continued government financial support, one purpose of higher education is to contribute to the "public good," or support and further social causes and human flourishing. This notion has received renewed attention in both the literature as well as in professional practice. Given the…

  5. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS – FASHION OR NECESSITY?

    OpenAIRE

    SICA STANCIU

    2011-01-01

    The marketing strategy, as core of the marketing policy, in the contemporary society and in the public institution, becomes a necessity not just a fashion. We undertake to reinforce this statement by arguments and to outline the specificity of the marketing strategy in the public institution of the modern society. Although public institutions are created and supported only if there is a large amount of social needs to be met during a certain period of time, the adoption of adequate marketing ...

  6. Sexual promiscuity: knowledge of dangers in institutions of higher learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, R D

    1994-06-01

    Knowledge of dangers of sexual promiscuity was assessed in 2 institutions of higher learning. The objectives were to find out the knowledge of medical and social consequences as well as the factors responsible for sexual promiscuity among Nigerian youths. The study also assessed the discrepancies in societal concept of sex norms for males and females. The result was used as an index to determine the need for sex education for Nigerian youths. A total of 200 students (100 from each school) was assessed by random selection and use of a questionnaire. The result showed that students had a fair knowledge of sexual promiscuity, although in terms of medical consequences the knowledge was low for both groups. On social consequences, the knowledge was fair for both groups. Students agreed that lack of financial support and of supervision from parents and teachers were among the causes of sexual promiscuity. Recommendations were made for Health Education in these areas in institutions of higher learning. Also, recommendations were made for parental education on how to bring up, and care for, their adolescents to reduce the problems of sexual promiscuity. It was also recommended that a compulsory course on sexual promiscuity should be included in the syllabus in institutions of higher learning.

  7. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding public health inspections of restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Grimm, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Foodborne diseases cause 76 million illnesses in the U.S. each year, and almost half of all money spent on food is spent in restaurants. Restaurant inspections are a critical public health intervention for the prevention of foodborne disease. A telephone survey of randomly selected Tennessee residents aged > or =18 was performed. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and expectations regarding restaurant inspections. Of 2000 respondents, 97% were aware that restaurants are inspected regularly by the health department. More than half of the respondents believed that inspections should be performed at least 12 times per year; only one third were aware that inspections currently occur only twice per year in Tennessee. More than one third of the respondents considered an inspection score of > or =90 acceptable for a restaurant at which they would eat; the mean score in Tennessee is 82. When presented with a variety of scenarios, an overwhelming number of respondents felt that public health responses to safety violations should be far more draconian than they actually are. Survey answers did not differ consistently based on respondents' race, gender, or history of having worked in a restaurant. This study identified a number of public misconceptions and unrealistically high expectations of the public health restaurant-inspection system. It is important to improve consumers' understanding of inspection scores and the limitations of regulatory inspections, as well as the role of such inspections in disease prevention.

  8. Writing for publication: institutional support provides an enabling environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Libhaber, Elena

    2016-04-18

    Due to the excessive service delivery loads in public hospitals supported by academic institutions in developing environments, researchers at these institutions have little time to develop scientific writing skills or to write up their research. It is imperative to expand the writing skills of researchers and train the next generation of health sciences academics in order to disseminate research findings. This study reports on the implementation of approaches for writing and publication and the extent of support to staff suffering from the overload of service delivery and of heavy teaching duties. Workshops in scientific writing and writing retreats were initiated and were offered to all staff. Feedback from participants of the writing skills workshops indicated that the workshops provided an injection of confidence and proficiency. Protected writing time resulted in 132 papers submitted to journals and 95 in preparation from 230 participants of the writing retreats over a two year period. Staff commended the off-site, collegial environment, which also supported future collaboration with new-found colleagues. This enabling environment facilitates not only the development of writing skills per se, but also the dissemination of the generated scientific knowledge. In addition, the training in writing skills of this generation will be of value in the training of future cohorts in countries with similar health care deliverables.

  9. KNOWLEDGE FROM RESEARCH AS A QUASI-PUBLIC GOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila György

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a special quasi-public good which is delivered by several types of institutions, including public and private universities. Knowledge to be produced in bigger quantities, the state should contribute with budgetary financial support as subsidies or grants to cover a part of expenses. States are supporting research from public resources, especially the basic research which enjoy a smaller interest from the private research units due its small potential to be implemented and recovered throughout price. Public co-founding of research generates problems regarding the regime of patents’ ownership because financing bodies have divergent opinion regarding the utility of research in society’s development. There are different approaches offered in solving this problem, taking into account the forms of realizing this quasi-public good, approaches based especially on different type of joint-ventures. Academic research, perceived as a very important and income generating activity, is done in a very large scale of combinations between universities and private entities. These complicated relations generates information asymmetry specific to principal-agent relations in economy. The control of information asymmetry level is important because a high level corresponds to inefficient use of funds and smaller satisfaction of general needs.

  10. Mobilisation for public engagement: Benchmarking the practices of research institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta; Bauer, Martin M

    2017-10-01

    Studies on scientists' practices of public engagement have pointed to variations between disciplines. If variations at the individual level are reflected at the institutional level, then research institutes in Social Sciences (and Humanities) should perform higher in public engagement and be more involved in dialogue with the public. Using a nearly complete sample of research institutes in Portugal 2014 ( n = 234, 61% response rate), we investigate how public engagement varies in intensity, type of activities and target audiences across scientific areas. Three benchmark findings emerge. First, the Social Sciences and the Humanities profile differently in public engagement highlighting the importance of distinguishing between these two scientific areas often conflated in public engagement studies. Second, the Social Sciences overall perform more public engagement activities, but the Natural Sciences mobilise more effort for public engagement. Third, while the Social Sciences play a greater role in civic public engagement, the Natural Sciences are more likely to perform educational activities. Finally, this study shows that the overall size of research institutes, available public engagement funding and public engagement staffing make a difference in institutes' public engagement.

  11. Using Horticulture As Therapy in Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, George; Dillon, Roy D.

    1974-01-01

    Horticultural activities to bring about desired changes in individual behavior are being developed in many psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation centers, senior citizen homes, correctional institutions, and centers for the mentally handicapped. The authors provide some examples of greenhouse-oriented projects appropriate for therapy. (EA)

  12. Assessment of anatomical knowledge: Approaches taken by higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Freemont, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Assessment serves the primary function of determining a student's competence in a subject. Several different assessment formats are available for assessing anatomical skills, knowledge and understanding and, as assessment can drive learning, a careful selection of assessments can help to engender the correct deep learning facility required of the safe clinical practitioner. The aim of this review was to survey the published literature to see whether higher education institutions are taking an andragogical approach to assessment. Five databases (EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge) were searched using standardized search terms with two limits applied (English language, and 2000 to the present). Among the 2,094 papers found, 32 were deemed suitable for this review. Current literature on assessment can be categorized into the following themes: assessment driven learning, types of assessments, frequency of assessments, and use of images in assessments. The consensus is to use a variety of methods, written and practical, to assess anatomical knowledge and skill in different domains. Institutions aim for different levels of Bloom's taxonomy for students at similar stages of their medical degree. Formative assessments are used widely, in differing formats, with mostly good effects on the final examination grade. In conclusion, a wide variety of assessments, each aimed at a different level of Bloom's taxonomy, are used by different institutions. Clin. Anat. 30:290-299, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The death of public knowledge ? how free markets destroy the general intellect

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Death of Public Knowledge argues for the value and importance of shared, publicly accessible knowledge, and suggests that the erosion of its most visible forms, including public service broadcasting, education, and the network of public libraries, has worrying outcomes for democracy.With contributions from both activists and academics, this collection of short, sharp essays focuses on different aspects of public knowledge, from libraries and education to news media and public policy. Together, the contributors record the stresses and strains placed upon public knowledge by funding cuts and austerity, the new digital economy, quantification and target-setting, neoliberal politics, and inequality. These pressures, the authors contend, not only hinder democracies, but also undermine markets, economies, and social institutions and spaces everywhere. Covering areas of international public concern, these polemical, accessible texts include reflections on the fate of schools and education, the takeover of publi...

  14. Building on existing institutions to perpetuate knowledge of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzberg, A.

    1982-08-01

    Purpose of this report is to examine the function of several existing institutions and to show how they could be effectively used to transmit information about waste repositories for long times into the future. Scope of this report is limited to a discussion of four institutional approaches to the dissemination and retention of information: Widely distributed maps, the marker system of the National Geodetic Survey, the archiving of documents, and one-call systems designed to protect underground utility installations from inadvertent damage by the public. Each of these approaches is discussed in an independent section that describes the background of the institutional approach, discusses methods for applying it to waste repositories, and assesses its potential value. The sole intent of this report is to present supporting data for future decisions about the kinds of communication measures that should be implemented to advise future generations about the locations and hazards of waste repositories

  15. An Assessment of Institutional Publication Productivity in Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Steven L.; Armstrong, Amy J.; Ryan, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    Although the primary reason for publishing in scholarly journals is to help the profession in its efforts to serve persons with disabilities, such publication has a growing importance for the individuals and institutions involved in the publication process. Increasingly, publication is linked with the funding, reputation, and impact of those in…

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCING PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnaliy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the ways to optimize financing public higher education institutions of Ukraine. Public higher education institutions acutely feel the lack of financial resources. The study describes that it is necessary to reform the models, methods and forms of financing higher education institutions. The paper explains the impact of autonomy of higher education institutions on their development. The autonomy level of university determines the possibilities for diversification from additional sources. The results found that more autonomy of higher education institutions will allow them effectively generate and use financial resources. The review outlines the diversification of financial resources public universities. One of the key factors of the university success is to implement the diversification strategy into the overall academic strategy and mission of the higher education institution. The analysis recommends the performance-based funding system and public higher education institutions achieve certain performance indicators. The performance-based funding system will promote higher competitiveness of education institutions and improve the quality of higher education in general. The conclusions suggest the development trends of financing public higher education institutions of Ukraine.

  17. ACCOUNTING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS FROM CLASSIC TO MODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA UŢA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Local communities in Romania and around the world, faced with extensive decentralization of public services have turned into real management units which must meet the needs of increasingly diverse individuals, the insurance fund with limited resources . This has led to the identification of resource management budget and transparency in their use, on one hand, and secondly the criteria of efficiency, effectiveness and economy.

  18. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS – FASHION OR NECESSITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SICA STANCIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The marketing strategy, as core of the marketing policy, in the contemporary society and in the public institution, becomes a necessity not just a fashion. We undertake to reinforce this statement by arguments and to outline the specificity of the marketing strategy in the public institution of the modern society. Although public institutions are created and supported only if there is a large amount of social needs to be met during a certain period of time, the adoption of adequate marketing strategies and tactics is a must in order to achieve their efficiency.

  19. Urban Sloths: Public Knowledge, Opinions, and Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissia Ferreira Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-range sloths living in an urban environment are rare. In this study, the opinions, attitudes, and interactions with a population of Bradypus variegatus were investigated through short, structured interviews of people in the pubic square where the sloths live, in addition to informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions. A questionnaire was applied to people in the square where the sloths reside, and informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions were made. 95% of respondents knew of the sloths’ existence in the square and 87.8% liked their presence. Opinions about population size differed greatly and younger people were concerned as to whether the square was an appropriate place for them. Some human-sloth interactions showed the consequences of a lack of biological knowledge. People initiated all sloth-human interactions. The fact that sloths are strictly folivorous has avoided interactions with humans and, consequently, mitigated any negative impacts of the human-animal interaction on their wellbeing. These results demonstrate that, while there is a harmonious relationship between people and sloths, actions in environmental education of the square’s public could be beneficial for the sloths.

  20. Mainstreaming conservation agriculture in Malawi: Knowledge gaps and institutional barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew J; Whitfield, Stephen; Stringer, Lindsay C; Vincent, Katharine; Wood, Benjamin T; Chinseu, Edna L; Steward, Peter; Mkwambisi, David D

    2017-06-15

    Conservation agriculture (CA) practices of reduced soil tillage, permanent organic soil coverage and intercropping/crop rotation, are being advocated globally, based on perceived benefits for crop yields, soil carbon storage, weed suppression, reduced soil erosion and improved soil water retention. However, some have questioned their efficacy due to uncertainty around the performance and trade-offs associated with CA practices, and their compatibility with the diverse livelihood strategies and varied agro-ecological conditions across African smallholder systems. This paper assesses the role of key institutions in Malawi in shaping pathways towards more sustainable land management based on CA by outlining their impact on national policy-making and the design and implementation of agricultural development projects. It draws on interviews at national, district and project levels and a multi-stakeholder workshop that mapped the institutional landscape of decision-making for agricultural land management practices. Findings identify knowledge gaps and institutional barriers that influence land management decision-making and constrain CA uptake. We use our findings to set out an integrated roadmap of research needs and policy options aimed at supporting CA as a route to enhanced sustainable land management in Malawi. Findings offer lessons that can inform design, planning and implementation of CA projects, and identify the multi-level institutional support structures required for mainstreaming sustainable land management in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prudence in public institutions management: the strategic financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prudence in public institutions management: the strategic financial efficiency challenge in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... the constructive optimization of risks with a view to attracting returns in relation to variability, volatility, and vitality.

  2. Financial Reporting for Public Institutions in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Commission on Higher Education.

    This manual is intended to provide public institutions of higher education in New Mexico with a consistent and uniform system for treating institutional finance data. Part 1 presents accounting principles for fund accounting, restricted and unrestricted funds, accrual accounting, and handling other charges and revenues. Part 2 provides general…

  3. Social Networks Impacts on Knowledge Sharing Among Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords- Social networks, Social media, Facebook, Twitter, and. Linkedin, Knowledge ... of knowledge sharing among public education students which the researcher see as .... frankness with teaching sphere. The American ...

  4. Ranking Institutional Settings Based on Publications in Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…

  5. Neo-institutional Perspectives on Public Management Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestel, N.M. van; Teelken, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical explanations of competing drivers of change from neo-institutional theory are applied to public sector patterns of reform. The aim is to investigate basic ideas, assumptions, and practices of public management reform over the past two decades and analyze these elements of

  6. Public Knowledge about Hepatitis B-Related Issues in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Chrusch

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B infection is endemic in many parts of the world, including Korea. Basic knowledge of the hepatitis B virus by the public is a prerequisite for the development of a successful vaccination program. A survey was conducted in rural Korea to examine public knowledge of hepatitis B etiology, symptoms, transmission, risk factors and prevention. It was found that knowledge independently correlated with education and female sex, but that overall knowledge of hepatitis B was poor. The preferred information sources in order of preference were physicians, television and public health nurses. This information may be useful in designing public health education and vaccination programs in developing populations.

  7. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  8. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  9. Facebook – Public Communication Media for the Romanian Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Farcaş

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For the public institutions, social networks represent a communication channel completing what represents the professional public communication, so the role of the professional communicator does not end or diminish and neither does the role of traditional mass-media. It is about an evolution, a modification, an adaptation of public communication and not a replacement of the way of achieving such communication. By this study, I proposed myself to identify the way in which the public institutions in Romania have adapted to the new trends imposed to public communication. To this end, I conducted an analysis of the structure, content, presentation and visibility in the online media of the Facebook pages of the 21 ministries composing the Romanian Government. I chose ministries as a subject of this study because, as institutions representing the central public administration of Romania, they exercise their competence at the level of the entire national territory and, generating public policies, have a major impact on the socio-economic environment, addressing a large number of beneficiaries. I noticed that all the ministries have an official Facebook page, these pages are updated and, by the published information, they are constituted as key elements in all representation media for these institutions.

  10. Knowledge management initiatives benefits for the Slovenian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Colnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of knowledge management in Slovenian public sector organizations. Knowledge management has received a lot of attention in the past two decades, however in the public sector it is still under-researched. The global financial and economic crisis revealed some important organizational weaknesses in the Republic of Slovenia, some particularly due to the ineffectiveness of the Slovenian public sector, which ranks amongst the worst in the Euro zone. Authors argue that a stronger commitment to knowledge management, which is currently unused in the Slovenian public sector, represents an opportunity to coordinate and exploit public sector organizational knowledge resources. After analysing existing literature, authors have identified examples of good practices from foreign countries that could be partially transferred and adapted into the Slovenian environment. Since the efficient use of knowledge is linked to the performance of public sector organizations, the paper suggests that successful implementation of knowledge management initiatives should result in a more efficient public sector and, indirectly, in improved international public sector competitiveness rankings. This paper is also considered to be important for public sector practitioners and managers, as it proposes implementation of a knowledge management pilot project in Slovenian public sector.

  11. Knowledge of Pharmacogenetics among Healthcare Professionals and Faculty Members of Health Training Institutions in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzi, W; Addy, B S; Dzudzor, B

    2015-03-01

    Pharmacogenetics has a potential for optimizing drug response and identifying risk of toxicity for patients. Pharmacogenetics knowledge of healthcare professionals and the unmet need for pharmacogenetics education in health training institutions are some of the challenges of integrating pharmacogenetics into routine medical practice. To assess pharmacogenetics knowledge among healthcare professionals and faculty members of health training institutions in Ghana. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to interview healthcare professionals from selected public and private hospitals. Faculty members from health training institutions were also interviewed. The respondents were Medical doctors 42 (46.7%), Pharmacists 29 (32.2%) and Nurses 19 (21.1%). Healthcare professionals rated their knowledge of Pharmacogenetics as Excellent 5 (5.6%), Very Good 10 (11.2%), Good 53 (60%) and Poor 19 (21.4%). Thirty-two faculty members from health training institutions were also interviewed. Faculty members rated their knowledge of pharmacogenetics as Excellent 2 (6.3%), Very Good 3 (9.4%), Good 9 (28.1%), Fair 12 (37.5%) and Poor 6 (18.8%). Thirty seven percent (12) of these faculty members said pharmacogenetics was not part of their institutions' curriculum, 7 (22%) did not know if pharmacogenetics was part of their curriculum and only 13 (40.6%) said it was part of their curriculum. Few healthcare professionals and faculty members of training institutions are aware of the discipline of pharmacogenetics. There is the need for continuous professional education on pharmacogenetics and development of competency standards for all healthcare professionals in Ghana.

  12. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  13. Public Participation and Institutional Fit: A Social-Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public participation plays a role in the development and long-term maintenance of environmental institutions that are well-matched to local social-ecological conditions. However, the means by which public participation impacts such institutional fit remains unclear. We argue that one major reason for this lack of clarity is that analysts have not clearly outlined how humankind's sense of agency, or self-determination, influences institutional outcomes. Moreover, the concept of institutional fit is ambiguous as to what constitutes a good fit and how such fit could be diagnosed or improved. This is especially true for "social fit," or how well institutions match human expectations and local behavioral patterns. We develop an interdisciplinary framework based on principles of human agency and institutional analysis from social psychology to address these problems. Using the concept of "institutional acceptance" as an indicator of social fit, we show how analysts can define, diagnose, and improve social fit of participatory programs. We also show how such fit emerges and is sustained over time. This interdisciplinary perspective on fit and participation has important implications for participatory approaches to environmental management and the scientific study of institutional evolution.

  14. Public Action and Innovationsupport Institutions in New Technological Agglomerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana; Bacaria, Jordi; Fernandez-Ribas, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    In all industrial and technological agglomerations several types of public and semi-public actors coexist. The same happens with the levels of government. Consequently, the daily reality of agglomerations is characterized by a wide diversity of innovation-support institutions more or less actively...... on the major efforts of different public actors in the territory since the 1980s, mainly through the establishment and enhancement of innovation-support institutions, and analyses succinctly their effects through selected successful and failed cases. Two normative statements are suggested from the analysis....... The first is that policy strategies should not try to be hegemonic. Instead, they should be elaborated seeking complementarity and coexistence. A second normative conclusion is the necessity of fostering the learning processes within and across institutions, by mobilizing collectively the assets of the area...

  15. Alternative mechanisms of state public health institutions financing in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hural, Anastasiya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The main source of state public health institutions financing in Ukraine is budgetary funding. In order to overcome the underfunding, the idea of multichannel health financing was proposed in the late 1990s. The main forms of extrabudgetary financial support of public health institutions in Ukraine are voluntary health insurance, non-profit self-financing, charity and sponsorship. The study aims to deeper understand the nature of alternative financing mechanisms of state public health institutions in Ukraine and peculiarities of their use in practice.METHODS. The proposed study is exploratory. Case-study was selected as research method. Nine unstructured interviews were conducted in six health care facilities that have agreed to participate in the study. All studied facilities were in-patient.RESULTS. The sources of financial revenues of the studied institutions were as follows: reimbursement for treatment of insured patients, reimbursement for treatment of sickness funds members, payments for services (medical examinations, counseling, transportation to the hospital, rental of premises, payment for internship from the students of paid forms of medical education, charitable contributions, contracts with companies, contracts with private clinics based in public institutions’ premises (limited liability companies, private entrepreneurs, sponsorship, grants, gifts, payments for services for foreigners, and in-kind revenues. Major health facilities expenditures were the following: salaries (not covered from extrabudgetary revenues; ranged from 70% to 92% of the funds provided to the institutions from state (municipal, regional budget, energy carriers (partially covered from extrabudgetary funds, patients nutrition, medicines, materials, household expenditures, reparation of premises, and purchase of equipment (mostly covered from extrabudgetary revenues. In the studied cases, funds raised by alternative funding mechanisms amounted from

  16. Public Relations in the State Institutions from Galati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Tanase Popa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at identifying and analyzing specific public relations activities in various state institutions from Galati in order to shape a PR typological profile in this geographic area. From the methodological point of view, the paper is based on in-depth interview technique for data collection and content analysis as a method of interpretation. The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate the professional activity of the specialist in public relations in state institutions in Galati and achieving it was made possible through a structured interview guide on three indicators: professional environment, typological profile, professional responsibility.

  17. Institutional Knowledge Sources and Knowledge Management Kurumsal Bilgi Kaynakları ve Bilgi Yönetimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Özdemirci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has been increasingly seen as a critical institutional source which provides superiority in rivalry. Moreover, the management of knowledge and knowledge sources as a strategic source is the most important factor that increases institutional success. In this framework, it is necessary to determine, arrange and most importantly manage these sources due to a systematic approach. This study focuses on the determination and management of knowledge sources which is the most important factor to achieve successful knowledge management. Bilgi artan bir biçimde rekabette üstünlük sağlayan kritik öneme sahip kurumsal kaynak olarak görülmektedir. Bununla birlikte stratejik bir kaynak olarak bilginin, bilgi kaynaklarının bilinçli bir şekilde yönetilmesi kurumsal başarıyı artıran en önemli faktördür. Bu çerçevede kurumsal bilgi kaynaklarının ne olduğunun tespit edilmesi, düzenlenmesi ve en önemlisi bir sistem dâhilinde yönetilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışma bilgi yönetiminin başarıya ulaşması için en önemli unsur olan kurumsal bilgi kaynaklarının ortaya konulması ve yönetilmesi üzerinde durmaktadır.

  18. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  19. Temporal trends in pharmacology publications by pharmacy institutes: A deeper dig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Parloop Amit; Patel, Zarana

    2016-10-01

    Publications in Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) are the face of contemporary pharmacology practices followed in health-care profession - a knowledge-based profession. It depicts trends in terms of quantity (proportions), quality, type (preclinical/clinical), thrust areas, etc., of pharmacology followed by biomedical community professions both nationally and internationally. This article aims to establish temporal trends in pharmacology research by pharmacy institutes in light of its publications to IJP from 2010 to 2015. The website of IJP was searched for publications year and issue wise for contributing authors from pharmacy institutions and analyzed for types of publications, their source and the categories of research documented in these publications. A total of 1034 articles were published, of which 189 (18%) articles were published by pharmacy institutes, of which 90% ( n = 170) were contributed from pharmacy institutes within India whereas 10% ( n = 19) from international pharmacy institutes. 75% of these were research publication, the majority of which (65%) were related to preclinical screening of phytochemical constituents from plants. With multi and interdisciplinary collaborations in pharmacy profession the trend needs to improve toward molecular and cellular pharmacology and clinical studies.

  20. A knowledge sharing framework in the South African public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Mkhize

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy, organisations are shifting their investment focus to intellectual capital in order to sustain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Organisational survival is increasingly dependent on the organisation’s ability to create and distribute knowledge that contributes to the improvement of performance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate individual knowledge-acquisition and sharing practices in the South African public sector. I applied the techniques of grounded theory analysis to extract themes from data that could provide insight into the knowledge sharing that takes place in the South African public sector. Findings revealed that the informal sharing of knowledge takes place in discussion forums within communities of practice through web-based, socially orientated platforms. These communities of practice are widespread throughout the public sector and are established with the purpose of soliciting expert knowledge from those who have been using open-source software successfully.

  1. Sexism and Homophobia in Adolescents of a Public Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuy Castromonte, Breiding Junior; Noé Grijalva, Hugo Martín

    2017-01-01

    The research explores the relationship between sexism and homophobia in adolescents of a public educational institution in Chimbote. The research design was descriptive-correlational with a sample of 406 students, including boys and girls, from 1st to 5th level of secondary education. They were evaluated using the Acosta's Adaptation (2010) of the…

  2. Prudence in Public Institutions Management: The Strategic Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    It stems from the realization that system-wide prudential adaptation still leaves ... Key Words: Financial control, Institutional prudence, Strategic synergy ... functions, continuous finance/accounting resource development, circumspect cash .... sustainably impact on the collective psyche of public (civil) servants, and this is.

  3. Public Knowledge, Private Knowledge: The Intellectual Capital of Entrepreneurs. NBER Working Paper No. 14797

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Albert; Ruhm, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the innovative actions of entrepreneurs, namely their tendency to reveal the intellectual capital that results from their research efforts either in the form of public knowledge (publications) or private knowledge (patents). Using data collected by the National Research Council within the U.S. National Academies from their…

  4. Can internationalisation really lead to institutional competitive advantage? : a study of 16 Dutch public higher education institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan

    2014-01-01

    Public higher education institutions (PHEIs) have widely acknowledged a positive relationship between internationalization and their institutional competitive advantage enhancement. Although some concerns have been raised by practitioners and researchers about whether institutional competitive

  5. ROLE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion POTLOG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-Private Partnership represents institutional and organizational alliance of the state and business, consisting of financial actors interaction, legal, social and policy oriented joint public and private resources from different sources into a single complex to solve strategic socio-economic problems of country. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the importance of financial institutions in publicprivate partnership projects implementation. Research methodology – in order to achieve the expected results, author applied recognized methods and techniques applied as economic investigations: comparative method, statistical method, logical analysis method. The research results, expressed by knowledge through mentioned field can be applied to improve the process of attracting local and international financial institutions to ensure success in public-private partnerships projects in Republic of Moldova.

  6. Institutions of Civil Society Participating in Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Belokrylova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of maturity of the civil society of a country is now seen as an important indicator of the development of a socially oriented market economy. The authors explore two forms of state and civil society relations - qualitative, characterized by the diffusion of a relationship of trust in society, and quantitative, in the system of public procurement corruption identifiable pace of localization. Institutional capacity development of civil society in public relations is the simultaneous modernization of the qualitative and quantitative scope of its relationship with the state. The paper presents the mechanism of transition to a partnership model relations between the state and civil society, the most important form of which is the realization of public control, rapid formal institutionalization which has provided detection and elimination of large-scale irregularities in public procurement. Its swift formal institutionalization provided by representatives of civil society to identify and eliminate large-scale irregularities in public procurement. The experience of NGO Fund "Sodeistvie - XXI vek" to identify "blind" purchases, is offered as a tool to improve the efficiency of public control conduct free training of potential public controlles by institutions engaged in training of civil officials for the course "Management of state and municipal procurement".

  7. Nuclear knowledge, trust and public acceptance of nuclear developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdahl, A.L.; Bell, B.S.; Bourassa, C.M.; Fried, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    While nuclear sector activities remain contentious public issues, studies suggest that knowledge levels and trust in nuclear actors can influence public attitudes. Drawing on original data from a 2013 representative telephone survey of Saskatchewan residents, this paper considers the extent to which knowledge and trust influence support for nuclear developments. Saskatchewan provides an interesting case study: while the province has a robust uranium mining industry, there are no nuclear power facilities, and the potential development of nuclear energy and nuclear fuel waste storage has been a source of spirited public debate. The study's results have implications for public education and policy initiatives regarding nuclear power developments. (author)

  8. Nuclear knowledge, trust and public acceptance of nuclear developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, A.L.; Bell, B.S.; Bourassa, C.M.; Fried, D.J., E-mail: Loleen.Berdahl@usask.ca, E-mail: Bourassa@edwards.usask.ca, E-mail: Scott.Bell@usask.ca, E-mail: Jana.Fried@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    While nuclear sector activities remain contentious public issues, studies suggest that knowledge levels and trust in nuclear actors can influence public attitudes. Drawing on original data from a 2013 representative telephone survey of Saskatchewan residents, this paper considers the extent to which knowledge and trust influence support for nuclear developments. Saskatchewan provides an interesting case study: while the province has a robust uranium mining industry, there are no nuclear power facilities, and the potential development of nuclear energy and nuclear fuel waste storage has been a source of spirited public debate. The study's results have implications for public education and policy initiatives regarding nuclear power developments. (author)

  9. Investigation on public knowledge, attitude and practices related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study are to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards pet husbandry, ... pet-owning households, with concerted efforts by veterinary, human and public health profes- ... Those benefits include companionship, physical activity, pro-.

  10. Institutions and Regulation for Economic Growth ? : public interests versus public incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Realizing institutions and regulations that foster economic growth is an essential asset for contemporary economies. This book investigates practices and options for steering individual and firm behaviour that prevents unacceptable externalities and boosts public interests. These multi-dimensional

  11. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly se...

  12. More "Private" than Private Institutions: Public Institutions of Higher Education and Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Olin L., III; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Guarino, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    This research compares the status of managerial accounting practices in public four-year colleges and universities and in private four-year colleges and universities. The investigators surveyed a national sample of chief financial officers (CFOs) at two points in time, 1998-99 and 2003-04. In 1998-99 CFOs representing private institutions reported…

  13. Institutional framework of public-private partnership development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Sidorova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors proceed from the thesis that the interaction between business and government is essential for the development of each state. This paper investigates the institutional framework of public-private partnership (PPP in the Russian Federation. Based on the assessment of regulations functioning in Russia, it is concluded that, despite a number of legislative acts designed to regulate the scope of partnerships between the public and the private sector, due to the limited range of the issues and the lack of essential problems range studied, the question of legislative support to the PPP is not resolved. The role of public institutions in the development of interaction between government and business is shown. Based on the analysis of a large factual material, the institutions of PPP development are evaluated: the Investment Fund of the Russian Federation, state corporations, venture innovation funds and special economic zones. This paper states that for each country and region it is essential to identify the priority sectors of public-private partnership.

  14. Evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements in public utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermishina Anna, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early 2000s a policy of attracting private operators to public utilities, which should help to increase productivity, reduce costs, and as a result, reduce utility prices takes place in Russia. The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between institutional arrangements and pricing for water and wastewater services. Applying statistical and cluster analysis to empirical data on water utilities in 13 largest cities has revealed the differences in the level and dynamics of prices for water and wastewater services in the group of public utilities and public private water utilities. In 2011-2014 the level and growth price rates in the group of public private partnerships were higher than in group of municipal water utilities. Thus, the involvement of private operators has not yet lead to the expected reduction in prices.

  15. Scientific publications in XML - towards a global knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murray-Rust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments on the World-Wide Web provide an unparalleled opportunity to revolutionise scientific, technical and medical publication. The technology exists for the scientific world to use primary publication to create a knowledge base, or Semantic Web, with a potential greatly beyond the paper archives and electronic databases of today.

  16. How knowledge and technology are created in a research institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Carlos Anisio; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: monteiro@ipen.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Collaboration within and across R and D teams is a naturally occurring socio-technical process and it seems to be a very good thrust for technology development and knowledge creation, transfer and preservation in R and D organizations. The study has focused on evidence gathered from: (a) the publication data base of IPEN from 2001 to 2008 was used to generate four time evolving networks of co-authorship, considering time slices of two years; (b) authors 'demographic' data were included as node attributes in the networks; and (c) questionnaire surveys and interviews to understand the reasons which influence a person to search and choose partner to co-work in a research. Social network analysis was used extensively to understand the network configurations, their time evolution, the key actors, groups and their role in this network. A few indexes and algorithms were used to get insight into the networks structures. A variety of centrality indicators were used to better characterize key actors and better understand their position and role in the network. Also many grouping techniques were used to find the most prominent/active groups. For the most central authors or groups, demographic data was cross analyzed with their network indexes to get check for a few hypothesis of preferential attachment. Finally, based on the proper theoretical background and the information gathered with questionnaires and interviews a model was devised to explain the propensity to collaborate. This paper reports the general ideas of the whole research and presents the most important results of the network analysis. (author)

  17. How knowledge and technology are created in a research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Carlos Anisio; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Collaboration within and across R and D teams is a naturally occurring socio-technical process and it seems to be a very good thrust for technology development and knowledge creation, transfer and preservation in R and D organizations. The study has focused on evidence gathered from: (a) the publication data base of IPEN from 2001 to 2008 was used to generate four time evolving networks of co-authorship, considering time slices of two years; (b) authors 'demographic' data were included as node attributes in the networks; and (c) questionnaire surveys and interviews to understand the reasons which influence a person to search and choose partner to co-work in a research. Social network analysis was used extensively to understand the network configurations, their time evolution, the key actors, groups and their role in this network. A few indexes and algorithms were used to get insight into the networks structures. A variety of centrality indicators were used to better characterize key actors and better understand their position and role in the network. Also many grouping techniques were used to find the most prominent/active groups. For the most central authors or groups, demographic data was cross analyzed with their network indexes to get check for a few hypothesis of preferential attachment. Finally, based on the proper theoretical background and the information gathered with questionnaires and interviews a model was devised to explain the propensity to collaborate. This paper reports the general ideas of the whole research and presents the most important results of the network analysis. (author)

  18. Burnout and nursing work environment in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso de; Guedes, Erika de Souza; Santos, Mariana Alvina Dos; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da

    2018-01-01

    to identify associations between the Burnout domains and the characteristics of the work environment. cross-sectional study with 745 nurses from 40 public health institutions in São Paulo. Nursing Work Index-Revised (NWI-R) and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used. Similar institutions according to NWI-R were grouped by clustering and the Anova and Bonferroni tests were used in the comparative analyzes. there was significant and moderate correlation between emotional exhaustion and autonomy, control over the environment and organizational support; between reduced personal accomplishment, autonomy and organizational support; and between depersonalization and autonomy. The group that presented the worst conditions in the work environment differed on emotional exhaustion from the group with most favorable traits. emotional exhaustion was the trait of Burnout that was more consistently related to the group of institutions with more unfavorable working conditions regarding autonomy, organizational support and control over the environment.

  19. Temporal trends in pharmacology publications by pharmacy institutes: A deeper dig

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Parloop Amit; Patel, Zarana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Publications in Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) are the face of contemporary pharmacology practices followed in health-care profession - a knowledge-based profession. It depicts trends in terms of quantity (proportions), quality, type (preclinical/clinical), thrust areas, etc., of pharmacology followed by biomedical community professions both nationally and internationally. This article aims to establish temporal trends in pharmacology research by pharmacy institutes in light ...

  20. International financial institutions and human rights: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Serving as lender of last resort to countries experiencing unsustainable levels of public debt, international financial institutions have attracted intense controversy over the past decades, exemplified most recently by the popular discontent expressed in Eurozone countries following several rounds of austerity measures. In exchange for access to financial assistance, borrowing countries must settle on a list of often painful policy reforms that are aimed at balancing the budget. This practice has afforded international financial institutions substantial policy influence on governments throughout the world and in a wide array of policy areas of direct bearing on human rights. This article reviews the consequences of policy reforms mandated by international financial institutions on the enjoyment of human rights, focusing on the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. It finds that these reforms undermine the enjoyment of health rights, labour rights, and civil and political rights, all of which have deleterious implications for public health. The evidence suggests that for human rights commitments to be met, a fundamental reorientation of international financial institutions' activities will be necessary.

  1. Improving Organisational Performance through knowledge management : The case of Financial Institutions in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagorogoza, J.; de Waal, A.; van den Herik, H.J.; van de Walle, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the knowledge management practices of financial institutions in Uganda, in order to understand how these practices influence the high performance organisation factors and thereby the performance of the financial institutions.

  2. A Descriptive Research on Knowledge Management Practices in Educational Institutions at Jalandhar and Phagwara

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper seeks to find out the various Knowledge Management Practices used by education institutes in Jalandhar and Phagwara and to find out the factors which increase the performance of employees by using the Knowledge Management Practices in their institutions. Primary as well as secondary data has been used to carry out the research. Sample size of 150 has been taken from 5 educational institutes located in city of jalandher. Data collection sources are Apeejay Institute o...

  3. Public-Private Partnership as Incentive Institution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Averkieva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction system of national public and private sectors institutions is becoming increasingly important in the conditions that characterize the current stage of economic development (such as globalization and post-industrialization trends, geopolitical threats, transformation of production and financial processes. Instability and the dependence of national economies from external environment factors, exposure to systemic crises increase the vulnerability of national business and require the state institutions’ activation in order to support and promote national business initiatives. In these circumstances, one of the most adequate to modern realities forms of entrepreneurial activity stimulation is the public-private partnership model, which proved to be highly effective, both in foreign countries and in Russia. The author reveals potential of public-private partnership as an institution to stimulate entrepreneurial activity by analyzing features of its organizational and management mechanism in the Russian Federation. The practical aspects of the introduction of the public-private partnership model are studied on the example of the Rostov region. The author shows that the implemented programs to encourage entrepreneurship through PPP projects have a positive effect, but at the same time remain a number of problems in the development of the business sector in Russia. The improving ways of the interaction mechanism between government and business at the regional level are identified based on the assessing results of the PPP level in Russia as a whole and in separate regions, implemented by the Association "Center for PPP development".

  4. Knowledge brokering in public health: a tale of two studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, R; DeCorby, K; Dobbins, M

    2014-06-01

    A Knowledge Broker is one approach for facilitating the integration of evidence-informed decision making in public health practice. In this paper, the findings from two studies investigating a Knowledge Broker intervention as a means of enhancing capacity for evidence-informed decision making are presented. Contextual factors that facilitate this strategy are also identified. This paper describes work done through a single mixed-methods study (randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component) and a case study. The Health Evidence team conducted two studies examining Knowledge Broker impact in Canadian public health departments. The effectiveness of knowledge translation strategies of varying intensities for promoting the use of research evidence in decisions related to child obesity prevention were explored via a randomized controlled trial with a fundamental descriptive component (2003-2007). In a case study (2010-2013), the authors partnered with three health departments to develop and implement tailored strategies targeted at the organization. Knowledge Brokers worked with designated staff in these studies via one-on-one consultations, small group meetings, and/or workshops and presentations. The Knowledge Broker role was assessed by analysing data from close-ended surveys, interviews, organizational documents, and reflective journals. In this paper, the authors focus on findings from the qualitative analysis of implementing the Knowledge Broker role in both studies and explore several contextual factors that impacted study outcomes. Knowledge Brokers were shown to enhance individual capacity by improving knowledge and skill in searching for, critically appraising, and applying research evidence to practice-based issues. Organizational capacity was also enhanced with strong management support and policies. Effective Knowledge Broker attributes included both expertise in research methodology and public health, as well as intangible traits such as

  5. Models of knowledge management in Russian institutions: social and psychological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestik Timofei Aleksandrovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents socio-psychological analysis of five knowledge management models used in Russian institutions: knowledge management in projects, virtual expert groups, competence centers, knowledge management via organization development and open innovations. Special attention is given to the consequences of transition to network-based knowledge management.

  6. The Informal Institutions and the Knowledge Sharing: The Mediating Effect of the Social Identity and the Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erendira Fierro Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is to determine the extent to which social identity and organizational trust mediate the relationship between informal institutions and the exchange of knowledge. Based on a review of literature and relying on the theoretical perspective of new institutionalism and on the resource based-view the research hypotheses were formulated. Using a cross-sectional and with Mexican public sector organizations and through the perceptions of 252 public servants the hypotheses were tested. Multivariate analysis (SEM was performed. The results confirm the importance of informal institutions that legitimize the performance of organizations but do not guarantee its real efficiency. However, research shows that intervening valuable resources management (social identity and organizational trust helps to exploit opportunities and neutralize threats from the environment generating new capabilities: the exchange of knowledge.

  7. Discrete Institutional Alternatives of Public Administration Reforms in Countries with Developed and Developing Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Kapoguzov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to evaluation the impact of the level of development of institutional environment on the success of the reforms of public administration. The indicators that characterize the degree of development of the institutional environment, in particular, the level of protection of property rights, the development of political competition, civil society, corruption, and trust in society are shown. Depending on the elements of the political-administrative system, socio-economic features, that determine the trajectories of reforms, showing alternative purposes and characterized some indicators, that characterizing the results of reforms for the OECD-counties. Showing institutional problems is implementing reforms in the transition countries, depending on the elements of the political and administrative systems, and socio-cultural factors that determine the path of reform, showing alternative purposes and characterized by individual indicators characterizing the results of the OECD reform. From the point of view of the classification results, the emphasis is made on quantitative results of the operational type, in particular, the dynamics of the general government expenditure and the level of employment of civil servants in relation to employment in the economy as a whole. Showing institutional problems in the implementation of reforms in the transition countries, in particular the gap of development of the bureaucratic ethos, the weakness of the market environment and the insufficient level of external pressure on the quality of public services. The significance for the success of reform and systemic cultural change within the state apparatus, which affects the quality of citizens' satisfaction with public services is observed. It is noted that the preliminary formalization of the public sector, the formation of Weberian bureaucracy type is essential for successful implementation of the New Public Management. The factors that

  8. Public knowledge and perceptions of black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B.L.; Cline, K.

    2003-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) historically occupied an 11-state region of the United States. We surveyed 1,900 residents (response rate 56%) of this region to understand citizen knowledge and perceptions about prairie dogs and their management. Those who have direct experience - e.g., those who live very close to prairie dog colonies or know the location of the nearest colony - have higher levels of knowledge. A significantly higher level of knowledge was documented among those who were politically active when compared with the general public. Those who found environmental issues difficult to understand were associated with lower knowledge. People with direct experience were likely to hold negative views, whereas those holding environmentalist values were likely to express positive attitudes toward the species. Although those with higher education reported more knowledge, there was no link between a person's level of knowledge and perceptions of prairie dog management.

  9. Security in Brazilian Universities: Compared Prospects of Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane de Holanda Camilo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of preliminary results of the data collected in the "Research Project Violence, Conflict and Crime: Subsidies for the Formulation of UFG Security Policy" held between 2014-2015. The objective is to analyze policies to prevent violence in universities. The methodology used was an exploratory and documental research and are based public information available on institutional websites. The five universities surveyed were: UFSC, USP, UFMT, UFMG and UNILA. The results allowed certain approximation and divergence on the concepts of security on campuses, as the statistical record and the presence of military police at the university.

  10. Managing information and knowledge in the public sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milner, Eileen M

    2000-01-01

    .... In this book Eileen Milner introduces the reader to the concepts of information and knowledge and explores a variety of tools and techniques which may be usefully adopted in actively managing and developing these resources. Wherever possible, real-life public sector cases and examples are used to illustrate good practice, as well as some of the pitfalls of poor application. Down-to-earth and taking into account the critically important characteristics unique to public services, this will be an illuminati...

  11. Aboriginal Knowledge Infusion in Initial Teacher Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mashford-Pringle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the Aboriginal socio-political history in Canada has historically been excluded from public education. In Ontario, public school children learn about Aboriginal people at specific times in the curriculum. However, teachers frequently only teach the bare essentials about Aboriginal people in Canada because they do not have adequate knowledge or feel that they lack the ability to teach about this subject. The Ontario Institute of Studies in Education at the University of Toronto has implemented the Deepening Knowledge Project to provide teacher candidates with an increased awareness and knowledge about Aboriginal history, culture, and worldview for their future teaching careers. This article will provide insight into the project and the curriculum developed for working with teacher candidates.

  12. Framing the Problem of Radioactive Waste: Public and Institutional Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Public acceptability has been the rock on which radioactive waste management plans have foundered in many countries. As a response to this, public consultation, information provision, and transparency have been recognised as necessary elements for successful development and implementation of management plans. However, the actual practice of public consultation, in many cases, fails to adequately incorporate the significance of questioning the ways in which the problem is defined, the issues that are important, and the overall 'framing' of the problem. Public framing generally differs substantially from the way in which the problem is understood by those institutions responsible for its management; further, there are differences in the ways in which different publics frame issues. These public differences may or may not be attributable to demographic factors, but are closely related to the problem context - that is, the history of relationships, structural conditions, and the cultural resources available to make sense of the issues. The author argues that it is crucial that public framing(s) are adequately taken into account in developing management initiatives, so that policies reflect these different understandings, and thus have more social purchase, in line with Grove-White and Wynne's argument that in order for radioactive waste management to become a solvable problem, it is necessary to generate social ownership of the problem. However, traditional, and even many novel, consultation processes do not comprehensively address the issue of framing, but reproduce assumptions about the nature of the problem and how it should be addressed. These assumptions are present in, for example, the institutional arrangements and scientific and technical agendas. The author reports on a project undertaken this year with Nirex entitled 'The Front of the Front End' which used repeat focus groups to directly elicit the ways in which different publics frame the issue of

  13. Disciplinary Representation on Institutional Websites: Changing Knowledge, Changing Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kate; Yates, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses shifts in the representation of history and physics as named organisational units on Australian university websites over the last 15 years in the context of broader questions about the production of knowledge in contemporary times. It derives from a broader project concerned with disciplinarity, changing university contexts and…

  14. Knowledge production as a function of the individual institution's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the idea of a university'. In this regard, the article makes a critical analysis and interpretation of the literature on the central question of 'the idea of a university', and the bearing of this on knowledge production. An overview of the history of ...

  15. What's so Good About a Wise and Knowledgeable Public?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    that the public tends to be largely ignorant on the issues relevant to governance. To make matters worse, social psychological research on how ignorance tends to breed overconfidence gives us reason to believe that the public will not only lack knowledge on the relevant issues, but also wisdom, in the Socratic......—irrespective of what account of wisdom available in the literature we opt for. In fact, it might just be that what the public needs is nothing but the most basic epistemic good: true belief....

  16. Knowledge and Attitude of Public Secondary School Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated knowledge and attitude of public secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude ...

  17. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  18. Steps Towards a Conceptualization of Digital Institutions of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    a theoretical framework that allows us to conceptualise such visualisations as emerging ‘Digital Institutions of Knowledge’. This framework is rooted in discursive and process oriented institutionalisms and in the concept of ‘market devices’ which has been powerful within economic sociology. The ordinally......Digital traces are increasingly used as data with which to generate insights into social dynamics around complex issues such as the controversies surrounding biotechnology. Hyperlinks can, for example, be used to locate a network of relevant stakeholders around an emerging technology and a popular...... ranked results of Google are presented as the simplest examples of a Web-based visualisation and its relevant theoretical characteristics are emphasised by juxtaposing it to FICO-scores which serve as an example of a market device. Similarities and differences between the two devices are used as a basis...

  19. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Dry Eye Treatment by Institutional Chinese Physicians in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wanwen; Lee, Sze Yee; Lee, Man Xin; Tong, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye is a common health problem worldwide, causing significant discomfort and inconvenience to sufferers. The conventional treatment of dry eye via topical administration of eye drops is deemed palliative and unsatisfactory to many. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown some promise in dry eye treatment; however, the extent of its use and acceptance is uncertain. We evaluated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of institutional TCM practitioners in the treatment of dry eye in Singapore. A questionnaire was generated to address the study aims and sent to TCM practitioners listed in the Singapore TCM practitioners' board database. About three quarters of respondents thought that dry eye was not severe enough to be a public health burden but most thought that TCM was effective in the treatment of dry eye. Acupuncture and herbal medicine were most commonly used TCM modalities in dry eye treatment, and a single TCM treatment session would be charged S$20–50 by the practitioner. The majority of surveyed institutional TCM practitioners in Singapore believe that TCM is relevant in dry eye treatment. Public awareness should be raised regarding the availability of TCM as alternative medicine for dry eye. PMID:23213306

  20. The role of innovative global institutions in linking knowledge and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole A

    2016-04-26

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that our collective ability to tackle complex problems will require the development of new, adaptive, and innovative institutional arrangements that can deal with rapidly changing knowledge and have effective learning capabilities. In this paper, we applied a knowledge-systems perspective to examine how institutional innovations can affect the generation, sharing, and application of scientific and technical knowledge. We report on a case study that examined the effects that one large innovative organization, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, is having on the knowledge dimensions of decision-making in global health. The case study shows that the organization created demand for new knowledge from a range of actors, but it did not incorporate strategies for meeting this demand into their own rules, incentives, or procedures. This made it difficult for some applicants to meet the organization's dual aims of scientific soundness and national ownership of projects. It also highlighted that scientific knowledge needed to be integrated with managerial and situational knowledge for success. More generally, the study illustrates that institutional change targeting implementation can also significantly affect the dynamics of knowledge creation (learning), access, distribution, and use. Recognizing how action-oriented institutions can affect these dynamics across their knowledge system can help institutional designers build more efficient and effective institutions for sustainable development.

  1. Medical Institutions and Twitter: A Novel Tool for Public Communication in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuya; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Tsuya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Fukao, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is a free social networking and microblogging service on the Internet. Medical professionals and patients have started to use Twitter in medicine. Twitter use by medical institutions can interactively and efficiently provide public health information and education for laypeople. This study examined Twitter usage by medical institutions. We reviewed all Japanese user accounts in which the names of medical institutions were described in the user's Twitter profile. We then classified medical institutions' tweets by content. We extracted 168 accounts for medical institutions with ≥500 followers. The medical specialties of those accounts were dentistry and oral surgery (n=73), dermatology (n=12), cosmetic surgery (n=10), internal medicine (n=10), ophthalmology (n=6), obstetrics and gynecology (n=5), plastic surgery (n=2), and others (n=50). Of these, 21 accounts tweeted medical knowledge and 45 accounts tweeted guidance about medical practice and consultation hours, including advertisements. In the dentistry and oral surgery accounts, individual behavior or thinking was the most frequent (22/71, 31%) content. On the other hand, consultation including advertisements was the most frequent (14/23, 61%) in cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery, and dermatology. Some medical specialties used Twitter for disseminating medical knowledge or guidance including advertisements. This indicates that Twitter potentially can be used for various purposes by different medical specialties.

  2. Public Knowledge of Monarchs and Support for Butterfly Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrod Penn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator populations in North America are in decline, including the iconic monarch butterfly. In order to determine if public knowledge of monarchs informs opinions on butterfly conservation, we surveyed the public to assess their knowledge of monarchs. We also asked participants about their attitudes towards general butterfly conservation and if they believe that butterfly gardens contribute to conservation. Respondents generally had some knowledge of monarchs but were unaware of monarch population declines and the necessity of milkweed to their life cycle. Respondent knowledge was correlated with more positive attitudes about butterfly conservation. Furthermore, membership in an environmental organization increased the likelihood that the participant had prior knowledge of monarchs and cared about monarch conservation. Respondent socioeconomic factors of age and sex were also significantly correlated with conservation attitudes—older and female participants had more positive attitudes towards general butterfly conservation. Interestingly, females were also less likely than males to admit having prior knowledge of monarchs, indicating that gender may also play an important role in conservation outreach efforts. Our study indicates that educational efforts need to be directed more toward individuals not already associated with an environmental organization as these individuals are predisposed to regard conservation positively.

  3. MERS-CoV infection: Mind the public knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazir, Amen; Al-Mazroo, Eman; Jradi, Hoda; Ahmed, Anwar; Badri, Motasim

    In August 2015, the Corona outbreak caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was the 9th episode since June 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Little is known about the public awareness toward the nature or prevention of the disease. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge of the adult population in Riyadh toward the MERS-CoV. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected participants visiting malls in Riyadh. The questionnaire contained measurable epidemiological and clinical MERS-CoV knowledge level variables and relevant source of information. The study included 676 participants. Mean age was 32.5 (±SD 8.6) years and 353 (47.8%) were males. Almost all participants heard about the corona disease and causative agent. The study showed a fair overall knowledge (66.0%), less knowledge on epidemiological features of the disease (58.3%), and good knowledge (90.7%) on the clinical manifestation of the MERS-CoV. Internet was the major (89.0%) source of disease information, and other sources including health care providers, SMS, television, magazines and books were low rated (all knowledge. This study concludes that there was inadequate epidemiological knowledge received by the public and the reliance mostly on the clinical manifestations to recognizing the MERS-CoV disease. Comprehensive public health education programs is important to increase awareness of simple epidemiological determinants of the disease is warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Online Communication And PR in Romanian Public Administration. The Case Study of Public Institutions From Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Cristina BALABAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available New technologies such as Internet and new media introduce new challenges for public communication. Private companies from Romania use in a very creative way the new tools of Web 2.0, such as social media. In the Romanian public sector, especially in the public administration there are important steps taken towards a modern communication. Based on the example of over 40 city halls, city councils, prefectures and county councils from Transylvania, the present paper analyzes the use of new media tools in public communication by applying content analysis and in-depth interviews with the PR representatives in those institutions in two stages, 2011 and 2015. The most important advantages of online communication in public administration are high speed, cost reduction, reaching young audiences, etc. Nevertheless, there are also critical voices that express possible risks such as exclusion of audience groups that have no online media literacy.

  5. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  6. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  7. Motivational theory and knowledge sharing in the public service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng N. Mosala-Bryant

    2017-05-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore factors that motivated knowledge sharing practices in a South African public service CoP. Method: This study used the mixed methods design through the lens of the motivational theory. Primary quantitative data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires returned by 23 of the 31 KwaZulu-Natal (KZN Provincial Human Resource Development Forum (PHRDF members to whom the questionnaires were distributed. In addition, primary qualitative data were collected from the senior managers of Human Resource Development (HRD units from 10 different KZN Provincial Departments of the 14 managers requested. The quantitative analysis was established using SPSS software, whereas qualitative analysis was established using thematic codes with the NVIVO software. Results: The findings from the results revealed that PHRDF members were intrinsically motivated to share their knowledge rather than extrinsically motivated. Conclusion: Although literature confirmed the main barrier to knowledge sharing in organisations as being the unwillingness to share, CoPs were likely to reduce the extent to which knowledge sharing was hindered. Members of a CoP ultimately related to one another as homogeneous groups despite representing different departments. To this end, hedonic intrinsic motivation occurred as members shared knowledge for the good of the whole regardless of the absence of extrinsic motivation. Departmental silos fell away, and there was no anticipation of rewards or incentives for knowledge sharing. It is, therefore, imperative that the South African public service strategically positions CoPs as knowledge sharing platforms to curb the loss of knowledge when employees leave its employ for whatever reason.

  8. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  9. Can Internationalisation Really Lead to Institutional Competitive Advantage?--A Study of 16 Dutch Public Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haan, Haijing

    2014-01-01

    Public higher education institutions (PHEIs) have widely acknowledged a positive relationship between internationalization and their institutional competitive advantage enhancement. Although some concerns have been raised by practitioners and researchers about whether institutional competitive advantage can be enhanced given the current ways of…

  10. A longitudinal and experimental study of the impact of knowledge on the bases of institutional trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PytlikZillig, Lisa M; Kimbrough, Christopher D; Shockley, Ellie; Neal, Tess M S; Herian, Mitchel N; Hamm, Joseph A; Bornstein, Brian H; Tomkins, Alan J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined a knowledge-centered theory of institutional trust development. In the context of trust in water regulatory institutions, the moderating impact of knowledge was tested to determine if there were longitudinal changes in the bases of institutional trust as a function of increases in knowledge about a target institution. We hypothesized that as people learn about an institution with which they were previously unfamiliar, they begin to form more nuanced perceptions, distinguishing the new institution from other institutions and relying less upon their generalized trust to estimate their trust in that institution. Prior to having specific, differential information about a new institution, we expected institutional trust to be a function of generalized trust variables such as dispositional trust and trust in government. The longitudinal experiment involved 185 college students randomly assigned to one of three information conditions. Every 3 months for 15 months, participants read information about water regulatory institutions or a control institution. At each time point, participants reported their trust in and perceptions of the trust- and distrust-worthiness of the water regulatory institutions. Participants also completed measures of knowledge of water regulatory institutions, dispositional trust, and governmental trust. Our manipulation check indicated that, as expected, those in the experimental group increased in subjective knowledge of water regulatory institutions to a greater extent than those in the control condition. Consistent with our hypotheses, there was some evidence that, compared to the control group, the experimental group relied less on their general trust in government as a basis for their trust in water regulatory institutions. However, contrary to our hypotheses, there was no evidence the experimental group relied less on dispositional trust as a basis for institutional trust. There also was some evidence the experimental

  11. A longitudinal and experimental study of the impact of knowledge on the bases of institutional trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M PytlikZillig

    Full Text Available This study examined a knowledge-centered theory of institutional trust development. In the context of trust in water regulatory institutions, the moderating impact of knowledge was tested to determine if there were longitudinal changes in the bases of institutional trust as a function of increases in knowledge about a target institution. We hypothesized that as people learn about an institution with which they were previously unfamiliar, they begin to form more nuanced perceptions, distinguishing the new institution from other institutions and relying less upon their generalized trust to estimate their trust in that institution. Prior to having specific, differential information about a new institution, we expected institutional trust to be a function of generalized trust variables such as dispositional trust and trust in government. The longitudinal experiment involved 185 college students randomly assigned to one of three information conditions. Every 3 months for 15 months, participants read information about water regulatory institutions or a control institution. At each time point, participants reported their trust in and perceptions of the trust- and distrust-worthiness of the water regulatory institutions. Participants also completed measures of knowledge of water regulatory institutions, dispositional trust, and governmental trust. Our manipulation check indicated that, as expected, those in the experimental group increased in subjective knowledge of water regulatory institutions to a greater extent than those in the control condition. Consistent with our hypotheses, there was some evidence that, compared to the control group, the experimental group relied less on their general trust in government as a basis for their trust in water regulatory institutions. However, contrary to our hypotheses, there was no evidence the experimental group relied less on dispositional trust as a basis for institutional trust. There also was some evidence

  12. Public Engagement with the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Andrew; Shupla, Christine; Smith Hackler, Amanda; Buxner, Sanlyn; Wenger, Matthew; Joseph, Emily C. S.

    2016-10-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute's (LPI) public engagement programs target audiences of all ages and backgrounds; in 2016 LPI has expanded its programs to reach wider, more diverse audiences. The status, resources, and findings of these programs, including evaluation results, will be discussed in this poster. LPI's Cosmic Explorations Speaker Series (CESS) is an annual public speaker series to engage the public in space science and exploration. Each thematic series includes four to five presentations held between September and May. Past series' titles have included "Science" on the Silver Screen, The Universe is Out to Get Us and What We Can (or Can't) Do About It, and A User's Guide to the Universe: You Live Here. Here's What You Need to Know. While the presentations are available online after the event, they are now being livestreamed to be accessible to a broader national, and international, audience. Sky Fest events, held four to five times a year, have science content themes and include several activities for children and their parents, night sky viewing through telescopes, and scientist presentations. Themes include both planetary and astronomy topics as well as planetary exploration topics (e.g., celebrating the launch or landing of a spacecraft). Elements of the Sky Fest program are being conducted in public libraries serving audiences underrepresented in STEM near LPI. These programs take place as part of existing hour-long programs in the library. During this hour, young people, typically 6-12 years old, move through three stations where they participate in hands-on activities. Like Sky Fest, these programs are thematic, centered on one over-arching topic such as the Moon or Mars. Beginning in Fall 2016, LPI will present programs at a revitalized park in downtown Houston. Facilities at this park will enable LPI to bring both the Sky Fest and CESS programs into the heart of Houston, which is one of the most diverse cities in the US and the world.

  13. PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE, LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS STRATEGIC LEVERS FOR A NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfranco Malizia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In one of the most interesting volumes of an equally interesting series entitled “Proposals for a change in the public administrations” concerning the Italian P.A. (VV. AA., 2002, edited by the Civil Service Department of the Italian government and realised with the collaboration of public and private partners to stimulate processes of change in the P.A., a precise and carefully explained reference is made to the absolute importance for the public administrations of the promotion of know-how development by means of the creation, valorisation and sharing of the knowledge-competence patrimony necessary to back the innovation processes like the logic of learning organizations and knowledge management.

  14. Influencing public policies: Two (very good) reasons to look toward scientific knowledge in public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, François; Bellefleur, Olivier

    2014-07-11

    The healthy public policy movement rests on the belief that a range of public policies should be at least partly informed by evidence demonstrating the positive effects of these policies on population health, health inequalities and their determinants. In order to address certain difficulties that the movement faces, knowledge produced in various scientific disciplines regarding public policies may provide some valuable guidance. In this short commentary, we examine how knowledge from the scientific disciplines investigating public policies makes it possible to address two difficulties in the development of healthy public policies: 1) adequately anticipating the effects of public policies, and 2) assessing the political viability of the policies being promoted. Since urban traffic policies are of interest to most of the other contributors to this supplement, we use examples from this field to illustrate some of our points.

  15. Isomorphic pressures, institutional strategies, and knowledge creation in the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Wei-Min

    2007-01-01

    Health care organizations are facing surprisingly complex challenges, including new treatment and diagnostic technologies, ongoing pressures for health care institutional reform, the emergence of new organizational governance structures, and knowledge creation for the health care system. To maintain legitimacy in demanding environments, organizations tend to copy practices of similar organizations, which lead to isomorphism, and to use internal strategies to accommodate changes. A concern is that a poor fit between isomorphic pressures and internal strategies can interfere with developmental processes, such as knowledge creation. The purposes of this article are to, first, develop a set of propositions, based on institutional theory, as a theoretical framework that might explain the influence of isomorphic pressures on institutional processes through which knowledge is created within the health care sector and, second, propose that a good fit between isomorphic pressures factors and health care organizations' institutional strategic choices will enhance the health care organizations' ability to create knowledge. To develop a theoretical framework, we developed a set of propositions based on literature pertaining to the institutional theory perspective of isomorphic pressures and the response of health care organizations to isomorphic pressures. Institutional theory perspectives of isomorphic pressures and institutional strategies may provide a new understanding for health care organizations seeking effective knowledge creation strategies within institutional environment of health care sector. First, the ability to identify three forces for isomorphic change is critical for managers. Second, the importance of a contingency approach by health care managers can lead to strategies tailoring to cope with uncertainties facing their organizations.

  16. Leaves of knowledge, a collectable publication for dissemination of scientific and technological topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurio, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development (IEDS) of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina performs an active task of popularization of nuclear science and technology applications and its spin-off activities. The IEDS, based on this goal and the known expression of Descartes 'Science branches intertwine in the Tree of Knowledge' has been making the annual task of inviting authors, editing, publishing and often, printing the publication Leaves of Knowledge, since 2008 and without interruption. The presentation format consists in a holder folder containing collectibles sheets. Each sheet represents a leaf on the Tree Science Knowledge. The publication encourages the participation of renowned professionals invited from CNEA and other Institutions who are committing to writing just two pages of their topic specialty. As to the fifth edition currently being edited, 56 items have already been published on the following seven general topics: ENVIRONMENT - APPLICATIONS - SCIENCE - ENERGY - MATERIALS - HEALTH - SAFETY. Although it was originally aimed to the general public, now it has evolved into three distinct approaches also covering universitary and professional level. Its PDF version is available to the public through the IEDS website and it was registered under its corresponding ISBN. (author)

  17. FINANCING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF ACADEMIC EDUCATION IN SPAIN

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    DRĂGUŞIN CRISTINA-PETRINA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Spanish universities meet the educational needs of the students with a wide offer of courses and the opportunity to study at all levels. They appear as an attractive option in the context of the relatively low cost of living compared to other countries in the EU area and under conditions of a tax system controlled by the Government. Starting from the assumption that the financing model of the academic education public institutions represents the foundation of their modernization in the current society based on changes and evolution, in this paper we propose to bring into the light of the concerns of those who are interested, through a persuasive exhibit, the Spanish model and its specific features. To this end, our debate will begin with a description of the Spanish system of academic education under the decentralized model of financing imprint, continuing with the presentation of specific skills in terms of funding on the triptych template: state - autonomous communities - universities. Subsequently, our investigative approach will focus on detailing the tertiary education financing sources: public resources, private and patrimonial revenues. The end of our presentation will be intended for conclusions, through which we aim to advance our vision regarding the investigated problems. In fact, the paper is intended to be a precursor step in carrying out a comparative study between the academic education funding mechanism in Romania and the Spanish one.

  18. A knowledge translation project on community-centred approaches in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, J; South, J

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the development and impact of a national knowledge translation project aimed at improving access to evidence and learning on community-centred approaches for health and wellbeing. Structural changes in the English health system meant that knowledge on community engagement was becoming lost and a fragmented evidence base was seen to impact negatively on policy and practice. A partnership started between Public Health England, NHS England and Leeds Beckett University in 2014 to address these issues. Following a literature review and stakeholder consultation, evidence was published in a national guide to community-centred approaches. This was followed by a programme of work to translate the evidence into national strategy and local practice.The article outlines the key features of the knowledge translation framework developed. Results include positive impacts on local practice and national policy, for example adoption within National Institute for Health and Care Evidence (NICE) guidance and Local Authority public health plans and utilization as a tool for local audit of practice and commissioning. The framework was successful in its non-linear approach to knowledge translation across a range of inter-connected activity, built on national leadership, knowledge brokerage, coalition building and a strong collaboration between research institute and government agency.

  19. Medical Institutions and Twitter: A Novel Tool for Public Communication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuya; Tsuya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Fukao, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background Twitter is a free social networking and microblogging service on the Internet. Medical professionals and patients have started to use Twitter in medicine. Twitter use by medical institutions can interactively and efficiently provide public health information and education for laypeople. Objective This study examined Twitter usage by medical institutions. Methods We reviewed all Japanese user accounts in which the names of medical institutions were described in the user’s Twitter profile. We then classified medical institutions’ tweets by content. Results We extracted 168 accounts for medical institutions with ≥500 followers. The medical specialties of those accounts were dentistry and oral surgery (n=73), dermatology (n=12), cosmetic surgery (n=10), internal medicine (n=10), ophthalmology (n=6), obstetrics and gynecology (n=5), plastic surgery (n=2), and others (n=50). Of these, 21 accounts tweeted medical knowledge and 45 accounts tweeted guidance about medical practice and consultation hours, including advertisements. In the dentistry and oral surgery accounts, individual behavior or thinking was the most frequent (22/71, 31%) content. On the other hand, consultation including advertisements was the most frequent (14/23, 61%) in cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery, and dermatology. Conclusions Some medical specialties used Twitter for disseminating medical knowledge or guidance including advertisements. This indicates that Twitter potentially can be used for various purposes by different medical specialties. PMID:27227154

  20. Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte Devereaux; Gera, Aradhana; Shah, Meeraj; Sharma, Amit; Powell, Judy E; Wilson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88%) of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness. PMID:18947430

  1. Reliability of public institutions in the transition of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of dishonesty and distrust is often unclear phenomena in Eastern Europe. These are common issues discussed not only in print media and television, but also social environments as well. Corruption, so unfair advantage, lies, deceit and abuse of trust are mentioned frequently during the last decades a" er the change of system in the region, especially in Balkan Peninsula. Although dishonesty and distrust (+ corruption have existed in the previous system, however, they have been hidden phenomena or issues for which there is talk in this system. Research in terms of honesty and trust include a more areas in different sectors. International literature on the subject focuses on two fundamental topics. One of which is his faith and relationship with social capital. What do some of these concepts mean in our perception? What are the benefits and harmful effects of faith and are those connected with social equity and democratic consolidation? The search for this topic is interdisciplinary because it includes political sciences, social sciences, political, legal or sociologic-and those of anthropology. As a result this thesis will provide comparative scale impasse that creates two realities of different social complexity, from the countries that have experienced the post-socialist transition, belief in family and society that retains a holding in the operations of public institutions and may create difficulties to succeed the efforts to implement the law impartially. In conclusion: Corruption is an unreliable source, which comprises behavior and violates the trust placed on official- and public officials. It includes the use of public positions for personal benefit and it creates an ill infrastructure for fragile democracies.

  2. Overcoming Barriers to Public Engagement through a Multi-Institution Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, K. F.; Weiss, M.; Garlick, S.

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that public engagement with science (PES) can enhance the relevance and impact of science on society. At the same time, advances in our understanding of public engagement suggest that greater skills, resources, and time horizons are often required to create effective programs. Consequently, despite a proliferation of training programs, many scientists still face the challenge of balancing the demands of public engagement with the requirements of their disciplinary research. Novel institutions are emerging that bring together interdisciplinary networks of principle investigators with PES practitioners to overcome barriers to effective and sustained public engagement in the environmental sciences. We will use the Science Policy Exchange (SPE), a consortium housed at the Harvard Forest, Harvard University, to illustrate how PIs and PES practitioners can collaborate to design public engagement processes, conduct policy-relevant scientific syntheses, and implement science communication strategies. Results from two SPE case studies demonstrate how multi-institutional consortia can help scientists overcome barriers such as lack of knowledge of evidence-based PES approaches, limits on time and funding to implement PES projects, and the need to integrate PES activities with research. The case studies also show how SPE strives to achieve credibility, saliency, and legitimacy in different public policy contexts: (1) engagement between scientists and local stakeholders to develop scenarios of landscape change; and (2) engagement between scientists and policy makers to understand the relationship between power plant emission standards, and air quality, human health and ecosystem function. The presentation will conclude with examples of how SPE programs have led to institutional change (staffing and budget), cultural change (attitudes and expectations of senior leaders), and research change (development of research questions, funding proposals

  3. An exploration of public knowledge of warning signs for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Sinead; McKenna, Hugh; Fleming, Paul; McIlfatrick, Sonja

    2011-02-01

    Warning signs of cancer have long been used as an effective way to summarise and communicate early indications of cancer to the public. Given the increasing global burden of cancer, the communication of these warning signs to the public is more important than ever before. This paper presents part of a larger study which explored the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of people in mid-life towards cancer prevention. The focus of this paper is on the assessment of the knowledge of members of the public aged between 35 and 54 years of age. A questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of the population listing 17 warning signs of cancer. These included the correct warning signs and distracter signs. Respondents were asked to correctly identify the seven warning signs. Findings show that respondents could identify 4.8 cancer warning signs correctly. Analysis by demographics shows that being female, being older, having a higher level of educational attainment and being in a higher socio-economic group are predictors of better level of knowledge of cancer warning signs. Recommendations are proffered with regard to better targeting, clarification and communication of cancer warning signs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insiders and incomers: how lay public health workers' knowledge might improve public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoeli, Heather; Cattan, Mima

    2017-11-01

    Since 2005, health trainers and other lay public health workers (LPHWs) have been increasingly active in the UK. Although elsewhere in the world LPHWs are expected to come from the communities within which they work and know that their knowledge is valued, neither is the case for LPHWs in the UK. This study sought to discover the lay knowledge of health trainers and other LPHWs, aiming to ascertain how this knowledge might more effectively be utilised within UK public health services. This paper describes a participatory and ethnographic case study research project undertaken on an anonymised urban estate in North East England. Findings were generated by a range of means including by participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Seven LPHWs took part, as did 32 other community members. This study found that the lay health knowledge of an individual UK LPHW is determined primarily by his or her position within, or in relation to, the community within which he or she works. Insider LPHWs possess an embodied knowledge and incomer LPHWs possess an experiential knowledge which, although different from one another, are essentially interpersonal in nature. Lay health knowledge can take different forms, and different LPHWs can provide different forms of lay health knowledge. Public health structures and services in the UK should make better use of all forms of LPHW knowledge, and should seek from LPHWs training on how to engage the most 'hard-to-reach' or 'difficult-to-engage' groups. Services recruiting LPHWs should decide whether they are seeking embodied insider LPHW knowledge, experiential incomer LPHW knowledge or a mixture of both. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prototype of Knowledge Management System for the Higher Education Institution in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nuryasin, Ilyas; Prayudi, Yudi; Dirgahayu, Teduh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a model of knowledge management for higher education institution in Indonesia. The model consists of five processes (i.e. capturing, structuring, storing, disseminating and implemetation) and six critical success factors (i.e. vision, culture, management support, technology, education and motivation, and maintenance). Based on the model, we develop a prototype of knowledge management system that accomodates activities and processes in higher education institutions. T...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Public and Private Educational Institutions: A Case Study of District Vehari-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Abdul Ghafoor; Zia, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Education is necessary for the personality grooming of individual. There are different types of institutions available like private and public institutions, technical institutions, and madrasas (religious institutions). These institutes are having the triangle of three main pillars; consisted of Teachers, Students, and Curriculum. There are two…

  7. Using Bibliographic Knowledge for Ranking in Scientific Publication Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Vesely, Martin; Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Document ranking for scientific publications involves a variety of specialized resources (e.g. author or citation indexes) that are usually difficult to use within standard general purpose search engines that usually operate on large-scale heterogeneous document collections for which the required specialized resources are not always available for all the documents present in the collections. Integrating such resources into specialized information retrieval engines is therefore important to cope with community-specific user expectations that strongly influence the perception of relevance within the considered community. In this perspective, this paper extends the notion of ranking with various methods exploiting different types of bibliographic knowledge that represent a crucial resource for measuring the relevance of scientific publications. In our work, we experimentally evaluated the adequacy of two such ranking methods (one based on freshness, i.e. the publication date, and the other on a novel index, the ...

  8. Challenges in Implementing FP7 Projects in the Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel VULTURESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available National Authority for Scientific Research (ANCS and Executive Unit for Higher Education, Research and Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI participate to several projects funded under the Framework Programmes, since 1998. The staff from each the two organisations participating in projects are merely the same, typically from “international cooperation” departments. In each of the two organisations, dedicated teams were set and a distinct specialization emerged. In this respect, dedicated procedures and good practices in project management were developed. Even the Framework Programs had different structures and the focused was different (e.g. knowledge creation, EU problem solving, scientific support for policies and programs, etc., the funding instruments (projects were not radically different from a Framework Program to another, so the staff could gain experience in managing this type of projects. Experience and expertise gained during this long period of time led to definition of a general framework within the two institutions and setting up of a general guideline for participation to this type of projects. The main dimensions of this framework are: project team organization, project management process, managing results and risk, organisational framework, good practices, factors which ensure success in project implementation.The paper presents a specific framework for FP 7 project implementation and how this framework is applied by both organisations, a set of rules and procedures that should be followed by any organisation, in particular governmental ones, participating in FP 7 projects and a set of good practices developed by ANCS and UEFISCDI.

  9. A structured approach to introduce knowledge management practice in a national nuclear research institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. In June 2003, the 2nd National Science and Technology policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position. Several initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national nuclear research institutions in the knowledge based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national nuclear research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. To a certain extent MINT has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. This paper describes a structured approach to introduce the knowledge management practices or initiatives in MINT. It also describes some of the challenges foreseen in adopting the practices. (author)

  10. Knowledge Management in Higher Education Institutions: Enablers and Barriers in Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veer Ramjeawon, Poonam; Rowley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to research on knowledge management in higher education institutions (HEIs), by studying the enablers and barriers to knowledge management in a country with a developing higher education sector, Mauritius. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior staff in…

  11. International Study in the Global South: Linking Institutional, Staff, Student and Knowledge Mobilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Ashley; Raghuram, Parvati

    2018-01-01

    The international mobility of institutions, staff, students and knowledge resources such as books and study materials has usually been studied separately. This paper, for the first time, brings these different forms of knowledge mobilities together. Through a historical analysis of South African higher education alongside results from a…

  12. TOOLS OF KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION WITHIN A NATIONAL DEFENSE INSTITUTION FOR INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

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    Edson Aparecida de Araújo Querido Oliveira

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyzes in a National Defense Institution for Innovation, Technology and Science its tools of knowledge dissemination. The methodology contemplates the period of 2004 and 2005. Qualitative and quantitative information orientate the research in order to understand focal aspects on knowledge dissemination, in comparison with theoretical references of renowned authors and other elaborated research searching for elements to perform an organizational diagnosis, focused on the knowledge dissemination as well as on the forces which promote or obstruct the organizational development. Conclusions are that the tools of knowledge dissemination must suitable to spread the tacit knowledge in such a way as the explicit ones and that, in a National Defense Institution, other important aspects must be considered, a time that, being the spread knowledge of wrong form can, besides bringing damages for the organization, to compromise the national sovereignty.

  13. Report on our activities to spread knowledge about radiation in Musashi Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yukiko

    2007-01-01

    In Musashi Institute of Technology, radiation knowledge spread activities are performed twice per year. One is 'the science experience classroom which children enjoy.' Another is 'the open school which studies atomic power'. The writer participated in the 'life and radiation' project as a WEN member, and has performed the radiation knowledge spread activities to a citizen. In this paper, these activities are introduced and the necessity and problem of radiation knowledge spread activities are considered. (author)

  14. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN MALAYSIA: COMPETING, COMPLEMENTARY OR CROSSBREEDS AS EDUCATION PROVIDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Chang Da

    2007-01-01

    Delivery of higher education used to be exclusive to the public sector in Malaysia. However, legislative changes made in 1996 led to the coexistence of public and private higher education institutions. In 2007, there were 20 public universities compared to more than 500 private institutions, of which 30 are currently categorised as universities or university colleges. Looking at their respective roles as higher education providers, public and private institutions display characteristics of be...

  15. PARTICULARITIES CONCERNING THE CREATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MARKETING MIX IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sica STANCIU

    2010-01-01

    The marketing mix is the essential instrument in implementing marketing in the public sector. This paper brings into evidence the particularities of conceiving, elaborating and applying the marketing mix in public institutions. The particularities of the marketing mix that is applied in public institutions are imposed, on one hand, by the role played by the public institution and the place it occupies in the contemporary society and, on the other hand, by the objectives it defines by its mark...

  16. Sexism and Homophobia in Adolescents of a Public Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiding Junior Bernuy Castromonte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research explores the relationship between sexism and homophobia in adolescents of a public educational institution in Chimbote. The research design was descriptive - correlational and a sample of 406 students between males and females from 1st to 5th level of secondary education. As a measure they were evaluated with the Scale of Detection of Sexism of Ramos, Cuadrado and Recio (2007 adaptation of Acosta (2010 and the scale of modern homophobia of Raja and Stokes (2005 adaptation of Paredes (2013. The results of the research reflect a very significant, direct and strong relationship that indicates that the more sexism in adolescents, the more homophobic attitudes they can show. For hostile sexism and homophobia towards gay, a correlation of (r =.641 ** p <.01 and for lesbians (r =. 658 ** p <.01 was obtained; between gay sexism and homophobia towards gay (r =.574 ** p <.01 and towards lesbians (r =.646 ** p <.01. Levels of sexism by gender are identified as a high level of hostile and benevolent sexism for the male population with 14.1% and 15.7% respectively. There are also levels of homophobia according to gender in adolescents to gay and lesbian people with 35.3% and 25.3%

  17. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. Results: More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). Conclusion: These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings. PMID:28503216

  18. Knowledge, risk, and policy support: Public perceptions of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Sturgess, Shelbi G.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy was becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to air polluting fossil fuel technologies through the latter half of the 2000s. The tragic events of March 11, 2011 in Fukushima, Japan appear to have instantly killed any momentum the nuclear industry had gained. While unfortunate, many argue that nuclear power is still a safe alternative and that the Fukushima disaster resulted from insufficient safety regulations in Japan, a problem that does not exist in the United States. This project examines U.S. public support for nuclear energy one year after the Fukushima tragedy, seeking to understand the influence of knowledge and risk perceptions on policy support. We evaluate public support for nuclear energy policy from several perspectives using risk and attitudinal measurements that are more specific than often found in the literature to obtain a greater understanding of the connection between policy and risk. -- Highlights: •Paper evaluates US public support for nuclear energy1 year after Fukushima tragedy. •Attitudinal indicators are significant predictors of nuclear power policy support. •People more knowledgeable about energy issues are more supportive of nuclear energy. •Perceptions of risk exert varying influence on support for nuclear power. •Specific attitude and risk indicators permit nuanced insight into their influence

  19. Public Health System Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States (2009-2015): Actionable Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Bernard, Dottie; Klein, Noah; James, Lyndon P; Guicciardi, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine released a letter report identifying 4 research priority areas for public health emergency preparedness in public health system research: (1) enhancing the usefulness of training, (2) improving timely emergency communications, (3) creating and maintaining sustainable response systems, and (4) generating effectiveness criteria and metrics. To (1) identify and characterize public health system research in public health emergency preparedness produced in the United States from 2009 to 2015, (2) synthesize research findings and assess the level of confidence in these findings, and (3) describe the evolution of knowledge production in public health emergency preparedness system research. Search Methods and Selection Criteria. We reviewed and included the titles and abstracts of 1584 articles derived from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and gray literature databases that focused on the organizational or financial aspects of public health emergency preparedness activities and were grounded on empirical studies. We included 156 articles. We appraised the quality of the studies according to the study design. We identified themes during article analysis and summarized overall findings by theme. We determined level of confidence in the findings with the GRADE-CERQual tool. Thirty-one studies provided evidence on how to enhance the usefulness of training. Results demonstrated the utility of drills and exercises to enhance decision-making capabilities and coordination across organizations, the benefit of cross-sector partnerships for successfully implementing training activities, and the value of integrating evaluation methods to support training improvement efforts. Thirty-six studies provided evidence on how to improve timely communications. Results supported the use of communication strategies that address differences in access to information, knowledge, attitudes, and practices across segments of the population as well as evidence on specific

  20. Italian public health care organizations: specialization, institutional deintegration, and public networks relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Mario; De Pietro, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The Italian National Health Service (INHS) has undergone profound changes over the past three decades. With establishment of the INHS in 1978--a tax-based public health care system with universal coverage--one of the underlying principles was integration. The recognition of health and health care as requiring integrated answers led to the creation of a single public organization, the Local Health Unit, responsible for the health status of the population of its catchment area. At the beginning of the 1990s, the scenario radically changed. The creation of hospital trusts, the development of quasi-market mechanisms and management control tools, the adoption of a prospective payment system for reimbursing health care providers--all were signs of deintegration and institutional unbundling. Two structural changes have deeply sustained this deintegration: patients' empowerment and the increased possibilities for outsourcing practices. In more recent years, a new reintegration effort has occurred, often led by regional governments and based on institutional cooperation and network relationships. However, the earlier structural changes require innovative approaches and solutions if public health care organizations want to retain their leading role.

  1. Political and institutional influences on the use of evidence in public health policy. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Marco; Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin O

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an engagement with theories and approaches

  2. Knowledge Production and Distribution by Institutions of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari-Okemwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on available opportunities and challenges which institutions of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa face in producing and distributing knowledge. Institutions of higher education are also expected to produce knowledge workers for the knowledge economy. Knowledge production falls into Mode 1, in which problems are set and…

  3. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialist...

  4. Comparing Academic Library Spending with Public Libraries, Public K-12 Schools, Higher Education Public Institutions, and Public Hospitals between 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…

  5. Entrepreneurs in the Public Library: Reinventing an Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Edwin S. III; Bangs, Patricia C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a case study that describes how the Fairfax County Public (VA) has reinvented itself as a public service corporation by developing a public-private model for fund development using a top managerial committee. Discusses volunteer programs, partnerships with local utility companies, and staff training in managing patron problem behavior.…

  6. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  7. Survey of public knowledge in tissue banking in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted with the objective to determine the level of public knowledge and awareness in tissue banking. From 233 respondents of 62.2% male and 37.8% female, only 44.6% have heard about tissue banking in Malaysia, mainly from newspapers and mass media, and only 11.6% realised the existence of the two tissue banks i.e at MINT, Bangi and USM, Kubang Kerian. However, higher percentage of respondents were aware of donation for both organs (56.2%) and tissues (51.1%). When asked about donating, 54.5% were willing to donate after death and surprisingly only 39.9% as life donors. On the contrary, 71.7% were willing to accept tissue grafts for clinical treatment and transplantation. The findings suggest that more aggressive publicity on tissue banking is necessary and more detailed information have to be made known especially regarding the 'fatwa' in particular for the Muslims and the Human Tissue Act 1974 for the general public. This may lead to even better response to the tissue donation programme which is being planned. Most of the respondents congratulated both tissue banks in our effort to develop indigenous expertise in this interesting new venture with high appreciation to our social and welfare obligations

  8. Balancing regulatory control, scientific knowledge, and public understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, D T

    1988-01-01

    In summary, I would like to emphasize the continued need for broad and vigorous basic research, with a balance between the fundamental work that may eventually lead to commercial products and the fundamental work that is necessary for an understanding of the interaction of many types of organisms within the environment. I would like also to reiterate the need for balance in the regulatory approach so that we do not repress innovation in research and development. Over-regulation has many side effects. In addition to repressing innovation and not taking advantage of our research base, over-regulation leads to reluctance by the capital markets to invest in the future of our new industries, thereby halting their development at an early stage. At the same time, under-regulation leads to lack of confidence by the public and paralysis of the industry based on public outcry and legal proceedings. It is my personal belief that the combination of a sound approach to regulatory practice, based on current scientific knowledge, combined with appropriate communication with the public regarding the new products, will lead to an exciting future for all sectors of industry that use the new biotechnology.

  9. List of publications of workers of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babecki, J.; Bednarz, W.; Kuszaj, K.; Ptak, K.; Zrodlewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography contains 3500 publications of 294 workers of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow published during the first 25 years of its activity. The publications are presented in alphabetic order. Personal author index is enclosed. (A.S.)

  10. MKEM: a Multi-level Knowledge Emergence Model for mining undiscovered public knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Swanson proposed the Undiscovered Public Knowledge (UPK model, there have been many approaches to uncover UPK by mining the biomedical literature. These earlier works, however, required substantial manual intervention to reduce the number of possible connections and are mainly applied to disease-effect relation. With the advancement in biomedical science, it has become imperative to extract and combine information from multiple disjoint researches, studies and articles to infer new hypotheses and expand knowledge. Methods We propose MKEM, a Multi-level Knowledge Emergence Model, to discover implicit relationships using Natural Language Processing techniques such as Link Grammar and Ontologies such as Unified Medical Language System (UMLS MetaMap. The contribution of MKEM is as follows: First, we propose a flexible knowledge emergence model to extract implicit relationships across different levels such as molecular level for gene and protein and Phenomic level for disease and treatment. Second, we employ MetaMap for tagging biological concepts. Third, we provide an empirical and systematic approach to discover novel relationships. Results We applied our system on 5000 abstracts downloaded from PubMed database. We performed the performance evaluation as a gold standard is not yet available. Our system performed with a good precision and recall and we generated 24 hypotheses. Conclusions Our experiments show that MKEM is a powerful tool to discover hidden relationships residing in extracted entities that were represented by our Substance-Effect-Process-Disease-Body Part (SEPDB model.

  11. The Singaporean response to the SARS outbreak: knowledge sufficiency versus public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M; Foo, L L; Low, Y Y; Chan, S P; Vijaya, K; Lee, M

    2005-12-01

    During the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Singapore from 1 March to 11 May 2003, various national prevention and control measures were undertaken to control and eliminate the transmission of the infection. During the initial period of the epidemic, public communication was effected through press releases and media coverage of the epidemic. About a month into the epidemic, a public education campaign was mounted to educate Singaporeans on SARS and adoption of appropriate behaviours to prevent the spread of the disease. A survey was conducted in late April 2003 to assess Singaporeans' knowledge about SARS and infection control measures, and their concerns and anxiety in relation to the outbreak. The survey also sought to assess their confidence in the ability of various institutions to deal with SARS and their opinion on the seemingly tough measures enforced. The study involved 853 adults selected from a telephone-sampling frame. Stratified sampling was used to ensure adequate representation from major ethnic groups and age groups. The study showed that the overall knowledge about SARS and control measures undertaken was low (mean per cent score of 24.5 +/- 8.9%). While 82% of respondents expressed confidence in measures undertaken by Tan Tock Seng Hospital (the hospital designated to manage SARS), only 36% had confidence in nursing homes. However, >80% of the public agreed that the preventive and control measures instituted were appropriate. Despite the low knowledge score, the overall mean satisfaction score of the government's response to SARS was 4.47 (out of possible highest score of 5.00), with >93% of adult Singaporeans indicating that they were satisfied or very satisfied with the government's response to SARS. Generally, Singaporeans had a high level of public trust (satisfaction with government, confidence in institutions, deeming government measures appropriate), scoring 11.4 out of possible maximum of 14. The disparity between low

  12. Institutional complexity: a bibliometric on recent publication in institutional theory [doi: 10.21529/RECADM.2016009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reis da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this bibliometric study we discuss the institutional complexity in eleven journals in business administration and organization studies. We try to identify the main features of the present Institutional Theory discussion in organization theory. The main research techniques we used were citation, co-citation, factorial bibliometric analysis and multidimensional scaling to identify the most influential studies and the main themes that are interwoven in institutional complexity (institutional logics, conflicts, changes and identity. The sample consisted of 43 articles and more than 3000 references cited. The most cited works were grouped into three factors that represent the emergent topics in institutional complexity. The results show the emergence of a new set of important concepts in the context of the institutional theory, such as institutional logics, conflict, change, identity, strategy. That set of concepts is diverse from that one typical of the institutionalism in organizations, in the 90´s. Complementarily, we identify authors and papers that can be considered central in organizational institutionalism, according to the journals that we take as part of our sample.

  13. Communicating Knowledge of Plant Genetic Resources to the Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeldt, Louise

    This thesis analyses how knowledge of plant genetic resources was communicated to the public through demonstration-projects in a governmental grant-scheme, which was part of the EU Rural Development Programme 2007 to 2013. The grant-receivers were museums and other Informal Learning Environments....... Three studies were made using frameworks from educational research, communication theory, and network theory: At first an analysis of the conditions influencing the formulation of the grant-scheme was made, secondly a study of the grant-receivers’ communication was conducted, and finally the cooperation......, and their diversity as well as cooperation between them were found to enhance the potential of learning and learners. Recommendations are given to the work with plant genetic resources: It is important that international strategies and an overall national programme govern the conservation, growing and development...

  14. Public Knowledge about Herbal Beverages in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaver Nazir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY:To explore public knowledge and perceptions of the efficacy, safety and reason to consume herbal beveragesincluding ginseng tea, gingko biloba tea and tongka ali tea.METHOD:This study was conducted in the state of Penang in June 2007. Participants were recruited at random;respondents were interviewed using a 19 item questionnaire. Non- parametric statistics was applied to analysethe data.RESULTS:Four hundred participants were recruited. Most of the respondents 228(57.0% were habitual consumers ofherbal beverages. 249(62.25% respondents believed that herbal beverages improved their health status.193(48.25% believed that herbal beverages boost the energy level of user and 120(30.0% used them toprevent diseases. 300(75% respondents agreed with the statement that herbal beverages are safe to use andthat they have less side effect than conventional medicines available on the market. Female respondents weremore likely to report using herbal beverages for slimming 78(19.5% and for cosmetic purposes 74(18.5%.However, the use of herbal beverages to boost energy levels was more frequent among male respondents.Respondents aged 18 – 25 years were significantly more likely to report the use of herbal beverages to preventcoughs and flu.CONCLUSION:This potentially ill advised and dangerous consumption of herbal beverages may delay appropriate help seekingfor various medical illnesses. In addition lack of knowledge about the side effects of herbal beverages may putusers at risk of side effects.

  15. Using Construction Management for Public and Institutional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Technology, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Construction management has been developed as an alternative to the traditional public building process and seeks to save an owner time and cost primarily through better activity coordination and project management. This report was developed to guide public agencies in their evaluation of construction management for their particular needs. It…

  16. 2015 Global Information Technology Report: Consequences on Knowledge Management in Higher Education Institutions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Agbor, Comfort Nkogho; Major, Nanighe Baldwin; Agabi, Chinyere O.; Wali, Worlu I.

    2016-01-01

    This research is a continuation of a theoretical review that evaluated ICT Policy Outcomes for National Development in relation to Networked Readiness Index (NRI) and the impact it has on knowledge integration and management in higher education institutions in Nigeria. A new dawn in information technology (IT) has initiated new trends in…

  17. Road safety knowledge and policy : a historical institutional analysis of the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C. Leroy, P. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the institutional development of Dutch road safety policy over the last century and the role of knowledge therein. After a theoretical exploration of the concept of institutionalization, the article sketches an overview of the institutionalization of road safety policy in the

  18. Organizational Transformation to Promote Knowledge Transfer at Universities and R&D Institutions in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama, Jorge Ines Leon; Lopez, Lydia Venecia Gutierrez; Lafarga, Cuitlahuac Valdez

    2013-01-01

    Using the results of an empirical study in the State of Sonora, Mexico, this paper reports on an attempt to identify trends and transformations that have taken place in the way knowledge transfer activities are organized and structured in higher education institutions and research centres. The research was designed to provide a characterization of…

  19. Institutional research on public opinion and participative devices. From polls to public debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mañas, Beatriz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the methods and techniques implemented in social research entail a certain definition of the concepts studied, it seems relevant to reflect on the possibilities of devices other than polls when studying “public opinion” as a sociological concept. Two arguments for such approach can be highlighted: the qualitative and discursive nature of public opinion, and polls’ difficulties for being collectively perceived as a reliable and interesting way to express points of view about public matters. The French CNDP (Commission Nationale du Débat Public is conceived for encouraging national, regional or local debates about political decisions which involve an important governmental investment. Taking into account that deliberative polling has probably been the most systematized among numerous research devices which have tried to implement the premises of deliberative/participative democracy, we will explore the possibilities of a different and wider representation of “public opinion” from the analysis of the dynamics generated by the institutional device of Public Debate.

    Sosteniendo la hipótesis de que los métodos y técnicas utilizadas para el estudio de los conceptos de interés sociológico tienen cierta influencia en la definición de los mismos, este artículo plantea una reflexión sobre las posibilidades e implicaciones de dispositivos diferentes a las encuestas para la investigación de la opinión pública. La aproximación a este enfoque se realizará desde dos argumentaciones: por un lado, sosteniendo la naturaleza cualitativa y discursiva de la opinión pública y, por otro, mostrando la dificultad de los sondeos para ser percibidos colectivamente como un medio confiable e interesante para expresar y registrar puntos de vista sobre los asuntos públicos. La CNDP (Comisión Nacional de Debate Público es una institución pública francesa creada para animar debates nacionales, regionales o locales

  20. Institutional Analysis of Knowledge Generation Resource Potential at the Enterprises of Regional Military-Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vasilyevich Popov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the processes of knowledge generation at the enterprises of military-industrial complex, which are the leaders of the regional innovative activity. The target of the research is to develop the methodology based on the use of resource application potential for increasing the efficiency of knowledge generation at the instrument-making enterprises of military-industrial complex. The system analysis of the knowledge generation processes is conducted at one of them. It allows to draw a conclusion that such enterprises have a lack of the institutes of knowledge generation processes. The authors are offered a technique of the development of the knowledge generation system at the military-industrial enterprises based on the accounting of assets and opportunities of the enterprise in the realization of intellectual activity. The developed technique is based on the determination of the horizontal resource potential of knowledge generation and allows to determine the potential of resource application at each stage of product life cycle. The comparison of the actual and theoretical values of horizontal resource potential allows to correct the distribution of a share of each of resources within a stage, and therefore, to optimize the realization of tasks at a specific stage. The offered tools were implemented in 2015 at one of the regional military-Industrial enterprises. The methodological tools of the research include the methods of expert assessment, mathematical statistics and the institutional analysis. On the basis of the offered technique and received empirical results, the institutional spiral of knowledge generation during the filling of state order at the military-industrial enterprise is developed. Its implementation will promote the decrease in the level of uncertainty during the whole life cycle of innovative activity product. The developed institutional spiral of knowledge generation at instrument-making military

  1. FINANCIAL REPORTING IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND NON-FINANCIAL ENTITIES. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vitan

    2011-01-01

    The present paperwork contains issues regarding financial reporting at the public institutions and non – financial entities. The main aspects are regarding the obligation of all entities to present the financial statements, the content of financial statements in public institutions and non-financial entities. Also, is presented the similarities and the differences aspects between financial reporting of these two patrimonial entities.

  2. No Policy for Public Private Partnership? PPP, Collaboration and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene; Greve, Carsten

    The paper examines how the PPP‐policy has developed in a country with low PPP activity. The paper focuses on the following research questions: How does collaboration occur between the public and private sector in relation to the provision of transport infrastructure and public service? How does...... infrastructure projects and public service provision contracts in the transport sector within roads and busses, bridges and tunnels, rail, airports and aviation and harbors. The projects will be categorized in relation to organizational and financial models and it leads to a. discussion of types of policy...

  3. Reality and Contemporary Economic Classification of Expenditures of Public Institutions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soroceanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In our daily existence, troubled and changing, economy occupies a large space. Increasingly, more economic concepts such as public budget and public expenditures enter within our daily language. Increasingly, we are assailed with data information about the sustainability of expenditure, about how and when budget allows us to make certain expenditures. Thus, an insight into the functional mechanism and a public institutional budget is always a topical issue. About the budget, as a financial and management tool of a public, we can not discuss without reference to economic classifiers public spending. Budget public institution acquires through economic classification of expenditure substance and reality.

  4. Lack of Knowledge Sharing Amongst Institutions in Denmark Responsible for Vulnerable Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    they share their knowledge about risk and policy management. In order to protect vulnerable groups such as children, disabled, sick and elderly people, we need to learn more about the general risk understanding and sharing of such according to region, responsibility, common events and hazards....... This information is needed to protect against future unintentional and intentional hazards and compare those with the institutional responsibilities. Risk understanding and knowledge sharing among professionals with responsibility for vulnerable groups can be a crucial tool for handling everyday threats as well......Lack of Knowledge Sharing Amongst Institutions in Denmark Responsible for Vulnerable Groups Ann Bojsen, Senior Lecturer Emergency and Risk Management Department, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark Even though understanding risk and how it is enacted is regarded as a crucial step...

  5. [Financing of the scientific publication and protection of the scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of a study is its publication on a scientific journal. Research financing agencies are important institutions so that studies can be developed and published. The most important research financing agencies that are discussed in this article are: "Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior" (CAPES), "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico" (CNPq) and "Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo" (FAPESP). CAPES' activities can be grouped in four different strategy lines: a) it evaluates the stricto sensu, at the post-graduation level; b) it provides access and development of scientific research; c) it provides investment on the development of high qualified human resources in Brazil and abroad, and d) it promotes international scientific cooperation. Although CAPES does not support directly scientific publications, almost all actions of this agency contribute to the development of scientific research and publication. CNPq has two main purposes: financing researches and development of human resources. It provides the researchers with financial aid to scientific publication. The grants for editing were specifically created for supporting the national scientific and technical publications edited by Brazilians institutions or societies. CNPq can also support Congresses, Symposiums and similar short-term courses. The Plataforma Lattes is also a branch of CNPq on which the Curriculum Lattes is available. This site has the curriculum vitae of the scientific community and is of great value for researchers. FAPESP also finances journal publications, articles and books that bring up original results of studies made by researchers from the state of São Paulo. It finances, partially, the travel expenses of innovative papers authors in meetings within the country or abroad. Brazilian authors are increasing the number of international publications. Universities, research institutes, financing agencies and

  6. 78 FR 78362 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal; Notice of public meeting in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal; Notice of public meeting in Endicott, New York AGENCY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control.... SUMMARY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease...

  7. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Public Affairs Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Public Affairs Centre's (PAC) role as a credible ... and networks with national governments and international partners working on ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  8. A survey of Canadian public health personnel regarding knowledge, practice and education of zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, K G; Anderson, M E C; Sargeant, J M; Weese, J S

    2013-11-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can spread under natural conditions between humans and other animals, are become a major public health concern in many countries including Canada. In Canada, investigations of zoonotic disease incidents are often conducted by public health inspectors (PHIs). However, little is known about PHIs' knowledge of transmission of zoonotic pathogens, their perceptions of zoonotic disease importance or their education regarding zoonotic diseases. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the knowledge, perceptions and education of Canadian PHIs regarding zoonotic diseases. Data were collected from December 2008-January 2009 using an internet-based survey distributed to members of the Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors national listserv. Responses were received from 229 PHIs in four provinces, with a response rate of approximately 20%. The majority of respondents reported at least 10 years of experience in the public health sector, 80% (181/225) were in frontline positions, and 62% (137/222) were routinely involved in investigations of infectious diseases. Two-thirds believed that the importance of zoonotic diseases with regards to public health would increase in the next 5 years. Whilst most respondents were able to correctly identify animals capable of directly transmitting common zoonotic pathogens, there were gaps in knowledge, particularly with regard to rabies and transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens by companion animals. PHIs tended to feel that their training on zoonotic diseases prior to working as PHIs was deficient in some areas, or left some room for improvement. Their responses also suggested that there is a need for improvement in both the quantity and the quality of continuing education on zoonotic diseases. In particular, less than one-third of PHIs received ongoing continuing education regarding zoonotic diseases, and of those that did, nearly two-thirds rated the quantity and quality as only fair.

  9. Review of Public Forestry Administrations and Related Institutions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main findings of a study on forest administration and related institutional arrangements (PFA) are highlighted. The relevance and changing roles of PFA in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are covered in the context of new paradigm for sustainable forest management (SFM). The current weak capacities and low ...

  10. International Financial Institution Policies of Conditionality and Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Scott; McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Conditionalities are most broadly defined as the provisos that are to be met by a country when borrowing money from the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Increasingly, they have proven to have far reaching consequences for countries entering into agreements with The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade…

  11. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dudchenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of socio-economic reform in Ukraine is the modernization of the structure of the national economy and its growth. An effective structure of the economy, which will correspond to a socially oriented model of economic growth and will be based on the use of both the country’s competitive advantages in the global division of labour and the economic benefits of cooperation, will guarantee the independence of any country and will be the key to its dynamic development. The development of economic theory is due to the emergence of fundamentally new ideas, sustainable accumulation of knowledge, intellectual and meaningful updating of established concepts and theories, the formation of new scientific schools. A new paradigm of economic theory should explain the real processes in real economies, which operate on the principles of complex systems of synergistic nature and the theory of nonlinear dynamics. There is a process of theoretical polystructuredness both of mainstream and heterodoxy. An important task is to form an interdisciplinary dialogue between economists and scientists, which stipulates the relevance of the research topic. The subject of the study is the theoretical and methodological foundations and approaches to state management of economic development in the context of the institutional theory. The purpose of the study is to determine the role and influence of public administration of the development of the economy in the context of institutional theory and to develop strategic goals of the state’s innovation policy. Methodology. Directions of correlation of the system of economic development of the country and the potential of the state development with the historical preconditions for the emergence and development of the institutional doctrine of economic theory are investigated. Based on the revealed interrelations, the necessity of using instruments of institutionalism for studying the economic development

  12. Institutional comunication and cultural marketing: Peculiarities in museum communication within the framework of public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia BURGHELE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural management theoreticians believe that the main target of museum communication is gaining knowledge on specific messages by as large a number of people as possible. Museum public relation practice – intensified and upgraded at the same time with the revolution of the new communication technologies – is both science and art which analyse certain tendences (in attitude, taste and informal of anticipating their consequences for implementing certain museum offer programs to appeal to the public.As an institution with a decisive role in guarding cultural heritage and in outlining cultural identity – as it keeps the necessary instruments for this, the specialists and also the motivation through its own purposes – the museum in its dynamic, modern, enhanced shape must provide an attractive cultural product to the public, based on a anthropological approach to cultural fact.Modern museum-ology is built upon the concept that museum is a story and modern museums stimulate to a high degree participative learning, generated by a productive dialogue.

  13. Differences in the use of outsourcing in public and private institutions providing medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Kowalska, Mariola; Religioni, Urszula

    2014-06-29

    The costs of health care in Poland are continuously increasing. Thus, almost every institution providing medical services aims at their limitation. One of the costs rationalisation methods in the health care sector is outsourcing. The study was conducted in 153 randomly selected institutions providing medical activities. The tool was a questionnaire, available via a web browser. Over 30% of public institutions identified the need for financial savings, as the main reason for outsourcing the cleaning function. Among private institutions, the dominant reason for this is too high maintenance cost of the cleaning staff (less than 40% of responses). The huge number of medical institutions use the services of an external company for laundering. Over 30% of public institutions identified as the most common reason for separation of functions laundering lack of resources to upgrade and modernize facilities. Less than 27% of public institutions indicate too high costs of kitchen staff as the main reason for ordering function of feeding. Another reason is the need for financial savings (22% response rate). Some institutions indicate a desire to focus on key areas (20% of responses) and lack of financial resources to upgrade and modernize the kitchen (20% response rate). Public and private institutions exercise control over the quality and method performed by an external service (71% of public institutions and 59% of private institutions). Private institutions often informally exercise external control (difference confirmed - Fisher's exact test). Less than 90% of public institutions indicated satisfaction with the services provided by external companies. The adaptation of outsourcing in medical facilities leads to financial efficiency improvement. Through the separation of some medical functions and entrusting their realisation to external companies, medical institutions can focus on their basic activity that is the provision of health services.

  14. Explaining Journalists' Trust in Public Institutions across 20 Countries: Media Freedom, Corruption and Ownership Matter Most

    OpenAIRE

    Hanitzsch, Thomas; Berganza, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Building on the assumption that journalists' attitudes toward public institutions can contribute to a decline in public trust, this article sets out to identify the driving forces behind journalists' confidence in public institutions. Based on interviews with 2000 journalists from 20 countries, variation in trust is modeled across the individual level of journalists, the organizational level of news media, and the societal level of countries. Our findings suggest that the principal determinan...

  15. Facilitating Corporate Entrepreneurship in Public Sector Higher Education Institutions: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Nayyar Malik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual model of public sector corporate entrepreneurship for the state government higher education institutions. The proposed model is intended to depict the main antecedents that relate to corporate entrepreneurship within the public sector higher education institution  and the impact of corporate entrepreneurship on public sector HEI’s performance, as well as factors influencing its continuous performance.

  16. Public perceptions of hazardous technologies and demographic political institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Failure of high-level waste repository might impose high radiation doses on a few people, or very low doses on many people: no failure that has been identified can impose high doses on many people. Thus the public's perception of rad wastes posing a serious threat to human well-being is unjustified. Nevertheless, in democracies such as the U.S.A., public concern has risen to a point where the future of waste disposal, and therefore of nuclear energy, is in jeopardy. This paper argues that the waste dilemma might be resolved if skeptical elites can be convinced that rad wastes, if properly handled, do not pose the threat commonly perceived by the public. This may require development of inherently safe packaging, such as the copper canisters adopted in Sweden

  17. Bioethics and University: The University Hospital, Private or Public Institution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nel Carreño R., MD, esp.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire a real and useful knowledgeof medicine, the practice in the hospital setting is indispensable. Public, former charity hospitals have been the scenary for student practice. In a paternalistic model of medicine this was understandable.Nevertheless now that the model has changed to a more respectful of autonomy and justice this discrimination appears as unethical. There are no real reasons to discriminate educationin such a way. Medical education should happen in both the public and private sector.

  18. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Munahi Almutairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4% of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7% had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6% respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5% stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  19. Knowledge loss risk assessment in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, Minodora; Constantin, Marin; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method developed in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti for knowledge loss risk assessment in nuclear sector, in order to obtain a risk map at departmental and organizational level, by analyzing each position/people. The method starts from the classical method for knowledge loss risk assessment but takes into account the INR characteristics, the particularities of Romanian nuclear market and the difficulties of the classical method to estimate correctly the risk at the job level. A short description of the classical method of knowledge loss risk assessment, the improved method by introducing five new parameters for risk factor of vacant job are presented, how this last method has been applied in some departments from INR Pitesti and the preliminary risk matrix for knowledge loss at organization level is discussed. (authors)

  20. Towards Establishing an Open Access Repository of Indian Publications in Astronomy -- a Case Study of Indian Institute of Astrophysics Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdie, C.; Vagiswari, A.

    2007-10-01

    The continued escalation of journal prices, and inadequate access to scholarly journals along with a consistent reduction in library resources and the advent of new technologies have all contributed to a change in the present scholarly communication. The initiative towards establishing Open Access communication has been advocated among scholars and researchers. An Institutional Archive for holding pre- and post-prints of articles written by academic and research staff increases the accessibility, visibility and impact of research output. The Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) is one of the astronomical research institutes in India pioneering the Open Access movement. The institute has set up a pilot project to store the institute's publications in an institutional repository (IR). The library at IIA plays an important role in setting up this archive. While the authors and publishers are the key players in this endeavor, the role of librarians needs to be redefined in the present paradigm shift of publishing. When the Institutes decide to develop their own repositories, the skills and expertise of librarians are needed to design, develop, manage and maintain a successful repository. These and the knowledge of copyright issues relevant to the digital content of IRs are highlighted in this paper. This paper also discusses the various opportunities and tools available for librarians to learn the procedures and involve themselves in establishing their institutional repositories.

  1. Comparative Study on Educational Management in Public and Private Institutions in the Twin Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to compare the quality of education delivered at the undergraduate level in the public and private institutions of the Twin Cities (Islamabad and Rawalpindi in Pakistan. Data is collected with the help of questionnaires from 246 students. The data was collected from three public and three private educational institutions of the Twin Cities, and the age of students ranged from 18 to 27 years. The research instrument used in this paper is the independent sample t-test to find the difference between the three private and three public educational institutions selected in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in terms of different variables that are very important in measuring the quality of education. For analysis, Levene’s test was adopted, which reflects the variations in educational quality with respect to academic staff availability in the twin cities. The differences in close supervision of students by academic staff between public and private sector educational institutions were also analysed, and the results reflected a difference between private and public educational institutions with respect to close supervision of students. The results also highlighted the factors that are involved in higher performance of students in private institutes as compared to that of students in public institutes. These factors can be implemented in the public sector to increase student performance.

  2. Firms’ maneuvering between institutional logics in the public sector for commercializing welfare innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Helle Aarøe; Clarke, Ann Højbjerg; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard

    The article aims to explore, through a micro level focus, how individual private firm actors maneuver between institutional logics embedded in different individual public actors operating at various levels in the public sector, when making efforts towards commercializing innovative welfare...... in commercializing interact with public actors operating at various levels in the public sector using a top-down, bottom-up or mixed approach. The top-down approach shows that private firms handle institutional logics embedded in political and managerial actors by creating legitimacy and accept from above concerning...... approach demonstrates that private firms handle institutional logics by combining interaction with actors across levels in the public sector, thereby mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches. As such, the three approaches point out that private firms, when handling institutional logics, can do...

  3. The Role of Public Institutions for Innovation Support in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Brito Silva Cirani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present a brief description of the main public instruments for innovation support in Brazil. We also show a preliminary assessment of the use of these instrument s in innovativ e companies. W e conducted a two - step analysis. In the first part we conducted a quantitative descriptive analysis of historical series about resources allocat ion available by FINEP. In the second part we performed a qualitative in - depth analy sis of six companies that used the financial benefits offered by FINEP and BNDES to support innovative projects. The responses of the interviews were used to identify the perception of the attractiveness of public instruments for innovation support and pos sible limitations to their use, while other information was used to present the main public instruments for innovation s timulus in Brazil. T he results showed that the investigated companies are interested in using the instruments; however, they face diffic ulties for their adoption, due to excessive bureaucracy, high costs of innovation, and legal i nsecurity.

  4. [Current status of bacteriological studies at prefectural and municipal public health institutes in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Hiroto; Seto, Kazuko; Kawase, Jun; Arikawa, Kentaro; Funatogawa, Keiji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kubota, Hiroaki; Shirabe, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Prefectural and municipal public health institutes are located in prefectures and ordinance-designated cities in Japan, and play a vital role in the regional surveillance of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses. These institutes, in close cooperation with national institutes such as the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Health Sciences, construct the national surveillance network for infectious diseases and their causative agents. Bacteriological examinations and studies on a variety of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses are core activities of prefectural and municipal public health institutes, through which novel and important bacteriological findings have been acquired. In this article, we report the latest findings regarding bacteriological examinations/studies and interesting cases at these institutes, especially concerning foodborne illnesses, tuberculosis, and antimicrobial resistances.

  5. Knowledge Transfer and Teaching Public Administration: The Academy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginnings of Public Administration in the US and its accompanying education in other parts of the world, government and policy have become more complex. The education in Public Administration created a professional pathway to public service. The addition of education to Public Administration came out of the Progressive Movement in the…

  6. Knowledge acquisition from sources of law in public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition from text, and sources of law in particular, is a well established technique. Text is even - certainly in the context of the Semantic Web - increasingly conceived of as a raw knowledge resource that can be mined for knowledge routinely and automatically. As experience by large

  7. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Dry Eye Treatment by Institutional Chinese Physicians in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Wanwen; Lee, Sze Yee; Lee, Man Xin; Tong, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye is a common health problem worldwide, causing significant discomfort and inconvenience to sufferers. The conventional treatment of dry eye via topical administration of eye drops is deemed palliative and unsatisfactory to many. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown some promise in dry eye treatment; however, the extent of its use and acceptance is uncertain. We evaluated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of institutional TCM practitioners in the treatment of dry eye in Sing...

  8. PERCEPTIONS OF EXECUTIVE PAYMENT ABUSE IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Pendiuc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, executive compensation abuse has been deeply criticized. Thus, the actuality of research is undeniable. The article highlights the importance of learning from other institutions’ past and present executive compensation abuse experiences by presenting the participants’ shared experiences (having to do with executive compensation abuse and by studying how participants perceive executive compensation abuse. The main objective of this research lies in exploring participants’ shared experiences concerning executive compensation abuse, as well as their perceptions, discrepancies and unsolved questions – presented within an ample, interconnected qualitative and quantitative methodological approach. A sample of 20 individuals was chosen for the triangulation method. From the resultant triangulation six new themes derive from the interview/questionnaire questions specifically referring to executive payment abuse namely: (a ethics means distinguishing between right and wrong, (b perspectives of ethical behaviour, (c types of executive payment abuse, (d the participant’s perceptions of institution and colleagues.

  9. [Nursing leadership styles at a public institution of Fortaleza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, E G; Caetano, F H; Carneiro, M M; Sampaio, M G

    2000-01-01

    In modern organizations leadership has been emphasized, since it is considered fundamental to the execution of the objectives of a company. It is through leadership that the ability of influencing the behavior of others is developed, facilitating the accomplishment of activities. The study has as its objective the investigation of the head nurse's leadership, considering the opinion of assistant nurses in four units of a public hospital. The study has shown that nurses who are in managerial position, present a leadership profile centered on the service and on individuals.

  10. Italian tariff system - relationships with public and private institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses

  11. AUDITING INTERNAL CONTROLS IN FINANCING PRESCHOOL PUBLIC INSTITUTION: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana HORVAT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public preschool educational institutions in Slovenia are mostly financed by public money, it means bay state and municipalities. They are also financed by parents. So, it is important that preschool institutions are using public money transparent and responsible, for this reason public preschool institution should have internal controls in financing. The internal auditor as independent professional should verify if internal controls works. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how internal controls in financing public educational institution works it means which internal controls are important in financing the preschool institution - on the selected institution to show and check how internal controls work. For this reason we divide internal controls in the financing in two phases: (1 internal controls in the preparation of the annual financial plan and financial planning of financial resources for institution’s programs and activities, (2 internal controls in obtaining financial resources. We used methods of internal auditing and research approaches as sampling, unstructured interviews and analysis of documents. The results showed that selected preschool institution should work on rules of recovery and monitoring of claims. The findings provide useful academic insight to setting internal controls as well as practical guidance for preschool institutions.

  12. Collective Labour Conflicts in Companies and Public Institutions: Some Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca DIMITRIU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Participation of the employees and of the public servants in collective labor conflicts constitutes a significant chapter regarding the concrete way in which the Romanian legislator implements the concept of flexicurity and re-defines labor relations. Indeed, the entire Romanian legislation on labor relations and dispute resolution has been tremendously changed in May 2011, and the impact of these changes is about to be very intense. The new law on collective labor conflicts, currently at crossroads, is rather susceptible to discourage the initiation of such conflicts and even to limit the freedom of strike. The legislator adopted a unified regulation, applicable to both employees and public servants; as such individuals who work under an employment contract are governed by the same dispute resolution norms as those individuals who perform their professional activity under an administrative act. Beyond the theoretical aspects that the new view of the Romanian laws on the labor conflict resolution raises, there are many direct, practical consequences, as well as difficulties that courts face since the entering into force of the new legislation. This study aims to analyze some of these practical consequences.

  13. The Role of Knowledge Management in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lawrence Kinyata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to investigate the role of knowledge management in higher education institutions. The case study was based on the Stefano Moshi Memorial University College (SMMUCo. The study relied on both secondary and primary data; primary data was obtained mainly through a questionnaire, observations, as well as short interviews/discussions with students and lecturers, since the researcher is a lecturer at SMMUCo. The findings show that the current University website and the general state of IT infrastructure is not adequate in supporting the knowledge management activities, for example both students and lecturers pointed out a lack of an information system where they could login to access specific information (e.g. individual course results, lecture notes, news bulletins and updates from the management. The paper concludes by highlighting the development of the knowledge management model, which SMMUCo could implement in order to achieve effective knowledge management. The model suggests that in order to build the knowledge management capabilities, the university should effectively align its key resources, namely: (a Employees (both academic and administrative staff, (b University content (e.g. lecture notes, programs, policies etc., and (c ICT infrastructure. The use of relevant technologies is highly recommended, since technology is viewed as a resource that can improve knowledge management.

  14. Integrating social science knowledge into natural resource management public involvement practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    This PhD study explores the long-recognized challenge of integrating social science knowledge into NRM public involvement practice theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, the study draws on research from adult learning, continuing rofessional education and professional knowledge development...... to better understand how social science knowledge can benefit NRM public involvement practice. Empirically, the study explores the potential of NRM continuing professional education as a means for introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. The study finds social science knowledge can...... be of value to NRM public involvement prospectively and retrospectively; and that continuing professional education can be an effective means to introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. In the design of NRM continuing professional education focused on social science knowledge...

  15. The workplace satisfaction of Romania’s medical personnel in state and public institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghenu Cristina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Romanian medical system is facing changes in terms of qualified personnel. Each year a great number of doctors decide to leave Romania in order to conduct practice in other countries with better working conditions. In this situation where doctors are no longer pleased to work in Romanian institutions, can we question the quality of their working environment? This study aims to determine the workplace satisfaction of Romania’s medical personnel currently working in private as well as state healthcare institutions. In this process, the study also discloses the inside image of Romanian medical units concerning the quality of the working environment, the quality of communications between subordinates belonging to the same section as well as their relations with their „direct superior”, „hierarchic superior” and „senior management”. To construct the current research, Romanian medical personnel completed a survey in order to determine their knowledge and judgment regarding their working environment. The research implied two phases: the first phase lasted one month and a half during which 100 medical personnel from a public hospital were selected to answer a survey; the second phase followed and it targeted the application of the same questions on 100 medical personnel working in a private institution. The survey comprised situations of everyday life in which any employee can be found. The results reveal the present situation of Romanian medical personnel, how often, despite of their unpleasant working conditions, they are forced to give their best in order to provide the quality medical treatment that any patient is entitled to. Therefore, the findings (1 reveal the inside image of Romanian hospital’s system and (2 offer an empirical foundation for subsequent research and improvement of working environments in Romanian hospitals.

  16. THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND BUDGETARY FUNDING OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. CASE STUDY: INSTITUTIONS FINANCED BY THE LOCAL COUNCIL OF GALATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Riana Iren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Full of reforms, accounting science always tried to approach the concerned user requirements as return on capital employed and the complete picture of the operations that occurred during the financial year. For public sector entities, international financial reporting practices are referring to International Accounting Standards for the Public Sector (IPSAS. In this paper we intend to present a parallel between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and IPSAS conjunction with the main aspects of budgetary lending highlighted through a case study aimed at the budget-funded institutions Galati Local Council in 2011-2013.

  17. The popularization of the nuclear sciences and its impact in the public opinion. Strategies of institutional communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega E, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A continuous concern that is presented among those responsible for the exercise of the science and the technology in the Westerner entire world is to give to know the chore of their institutions and individuals. As in the case of several Mexican institutions, and particularly of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), one of their rector axes are to diffuse their achievements among the different social actors. A suitable vehicle to impact positively to the public opinion on the advances and tendencies of the nuclear energy it is the popularization of the science. The purpose of the popularization is to place accessible information in hands of the public and, by this, it requires of the use of talkative techniques derived of the journalism and of the public relationships, mainly, besides a basic knowledge of the scientific activity. In simple terms, it is not possible to achieve a positive image of the incomprehensible thing. By this cause, the correct understanding of the current administration of the nuclear energy represents the success or the failure of a strategy of institutional communication. Additionally, it is necessary a deep knowledge of the public opinion, in order to classify it and to have the option of to diversify the messages, of agreement with the characteristics of each segment of the public. Nevertheless their competition, the scientific popularization is centered in the construction of texts and other talkative tools, for that its acting frequently doesn't reach the effective dissemination of the messages. In this context, the use of a strategy of institutional communication represents the multi-functional option: on one hand and derived of the strategic planning, it will establish objectives, the periods of realization of the actions and the form of evaluating their efficiency; and on the other hand, it will allow the incorporation of creative solutions according with the nature of the origin institution, the space-time conditions

  18. 11 CFR 110.12 - Candidate appearances on public educational institution premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... educational institution exempt from federal taxation under 26 U.S.C. 115, such as a school, college or... normal charge. An unincorporated public educational institution exempt from federal taxation under 26 U.S... makes reasonable efforts to ensure that the appearances constitute speeches, question and answer...

  19. Development of a Publications and Conferences Data Base in the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, C. Lopez Cerdan; And Others

    This paper describes the development by the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas or IIE) over a 10-year period of a publications and conferences database (PCDB) of research and development output of the institute. The paper begins by listing the objectives of the database and describing data coverage…

  20. Co-existing institutional logics and agency among top-level public servants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke

    2011-01-01

    to address parts of this void. This study examines the agency exerted by top-level public servants through their everyday strategy and policy work in face of co-existing logics of public administration. The findings illustrate how their action strategies span from more passive strategies of coping...... with coexisting logics of administration to more skilled agency of combining logics aimed at enhancing their opportunity and action space. The study suggests that the interplay between co-existing institutional logics, action strategies and the practical skills of top-level public servants provides the basis...... for both coping and more proactive strategies in pluralistic public administrations. Findings illustrate the role of public servants' practical sense of realizable opportunities that inform such strategies of handling co-existing institutional logics. Implications for institutional studies of organizations...

  1. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN MALAYSIA: COMPETING, COMPLEMENTARY OR CROSSBREEDS AS EDUCATION PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Chang Da

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of higher education used to be exclusive to the public sector in Malaysia. However, legislative changes made in 1996 led to the coexistence of public and private higher education institutions. In 2007, there were 20 public universities compared to more than 500 private institutions, of which 30 are currently categorised as universities or university colleges. Looking at their respective roles as higher education providers, public and private institutions display characteristics of being substitutes while at the same time serving complementary roles to one another. This dichotomy between public and private higher education institutions can, in fact, be seen as inclining towards a hybrid model that allows both to operate within a single system of higher education provision in the country. Such a hybrid model is evident in how the clientele is being divided between public and private higher institutions. It is also evident in the different roles played by the respective faculty members as well as in the programmes being made available in either type of institutions.

  2. Public Knowledge about HIV / AIDS: A survey of Dental School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that 90% of the respondents knew what AIDS was and how to protect themselves against the virus but only 58% rated their knowledge as being a lot. The highly educated had lower scores in ... More males (98%) than females (84%) wanted to know more about AIDS. Conclusion: Knowledge of ...

  3. Knowledge of School Health Programme among Public Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: School-age children, Effective implementation, Adequate knowledge, Positive health ... healthy habits of the future adult population of any nation2 ... understanding of skills that a person has acquired ..... 7. Ofovwe GE, Ofili AN. Knowledge, attitude and practice of school health programme among head teachers of.

  4. Global knowledge economy in the post-colony: public universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Modern Education ... like widening digital divide and increasing exclusion from the global knowledge economy, devaluation of indigenous knowledge systems, increased 'white slavery' and perpetuation of the culture of dependency, as well as lack of self-confidence in local intellectual values and practice.

  5. Public knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter medicines:Case study in Dar es ... views on OTC in terms of safety and effectiveness and knowledge and ... it shows those pharmacists need to be more proactive in the management of ...

  6. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of institutional food-handlers in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortune Akabanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. Methods The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235 institutional food-handlers. The questionnaire was peer-reviewed and pilot tested in three institutions in the Upper East Region of Ghana, before the final version was distributed to food-handlers. The questionnaire was structured into five distinctive parts to collect information on (i demographic characteristics, (ii employees’ work satisfaction, (iii knowledge on food safety, (iv attitudes towards food safety and (v food hygiene practices. Results Majority of the food-handlers were between 41–50 years (39.1%. Female respondents were (76.6%. In our study, the food-handlers were knowledgeable about hygienic practices, cleaning and sanitation procedures. Almost all of the food-handlers were aware of the critical role of general sanitary practices in the work place, such as hand washing (98.7% correct answers, using gloves (77.9%, proper cleaning of the instruments/utensils (86.4% and detergent use (72.8%. On disease transmission, the results indicates that 76.2% of the food- handlers did not know that Salmonella is a food borne pathogens and 70.6% did not know that hepatitis A is a food borne pathogen. However, 81.7% handlers agreed that typhoid fever is transmitted by food and 87.7% agreed that bloody diarrhea is transmitted by food. Logistic regression analysis testing four models

  7. Who wants to deliver public service? Do institutional antecedents of public service motivation provide an answer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, W.V.

    2011-01-01

    Public service motivation has rapidly become one of the important concepts in contemporary public administration research. However, until now, research has mainly focused on its measurement and its consequences, whereas relatively ignoring its origins. This study investigates where the antecedents

  8. Knowledge-driven institutional change: an empirical study on combating desertification in northern China from 1949 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-11-15

    Understanding institutional changes is crucial for environmental management. Here we investigated how institutional changes influenced the process and result of desertification control in northern China between 1949 and 2004. Our analysis was based on a case study of 21 field sites and a meta-analysis of additional 29 sites reported in the literature. Our results show that imposed knowledge-driven institutional change was often perceived as a more progressive, scientific, and rational type of institutional change by entrepreneurs, scholars, experts, and technicians, while voluntary, knowledge-driven institutional change based on indigenous knowledge and experiences of local populations was discouraged. Our findings also demonstrate that eight working rules of imposed knowledge-driven institutional change can be applied to control desertification effectively. These rules address the issues of perception of potential gains, entrepreneurs' appeals and support, coordination of multiple goals, collaboration among multiple organizations, interest distribution and conflict resolution, incremental institutional change, external intervention, and coordination among the myriad institutions involved. Imposed knowledge-driven institutional change tended to be more successful when these rules were thoroughly implemented. These findings provide an outline for implementing future institutional changes and policy making to combat desertification and other types of ecological and environmental management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge Transfer between SMEs and Higher Education Institutions: Differences between Universities and Colleges of Higher Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfmann, Heike; Koster, Sierdjan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge transfer (KT) between higher education institutions (HEIs) and businesses is seen as a key element of innovation in knowledge-driven economies: HEIs generate knowledge that can be adopted in the regional economy. This process of valorization has been studied extensively, mainly with a focus on universities. In the Netherlands, there is a…

  10. How can knowledge exchange portals assist in knowledge management for evidence-informed decision making in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Emma; Huckel-Schneider, Carmen; Campbell, Danielle; Seale, Holly; Milat, Andrew J

    2014-05-12

    Knowledge exchange portals are emerging as web tools that can help facilitate knowledge management in public health. We conducted a review to better understand the nature of these portals and their contribution to knowledge management in public health, with the aim of informing future development of portals in this field. A systematic literature search was conducted of the peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify articles that described the design, development or evaluation of Knowledge Exchange Portals KEPs in the public health field. The content of the articles was analysed, interpreted and synthesised in light of the objectives of the review. The systematic search yielded 2223 articles, of which fifteen were deemed eligible for review, including eight case studies, six evaluation studies and one commentary article. Knowledge exchange portals mainly included design features to support knowledge access and creation, but formative evaluation studies examining user needs suggested collaborative features supporting knowledge exchange would also be useful. Overall web usage statistics revealed increasing use of some of these portals over time; however difficulties remain in retaining users. There is some evidence to suggest that the use of a knowledge exchange portal in combination with tailored and targeted messaging can increase the use of evidence in policy and program decision making at the organisational level. Knowledge exchange portals can be a platform for providing integrated access to relevant content and resources in one location, for sharing and distributing information and for bringing people together for knowledge exchange. However more performance evaluation studies are needed to determine how they can best support evidence-informed decision making in public health.

  11. AN INSTITUTION STUDENTS OF KNOWLEDGE OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON THE SMOKING AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ponte Carneiro de Matos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the knowledge of an academic institution of higher education on smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This descriptive, field, exploratory and cross conducted from February to April 2010, the two offices of a higher education institution in Fortaleza / CE. They evaluated 100 students, the courses in law, accounting, physical education and physiotherapy. The average age was 26.7 ± 9.38 years. It was observed that 45% (n = 45 of the sample neverheard about the disease, 66% (n = 66 did not know their causes, 69% (n = 69 did not know the symptoms, 69% (n = 69 did not know the treatment, 71% (n = 71 did not know how the diagnosis was made and 87% (n = 87 reported not knowing anyone with the disease. When asked about their knowledge of the harm caused by smoking, 92% (n = 92 said they knew, and 96% (n = 96 considered passive smoking as responsible for diseases of the lungs. Showed up little knowledge of COPD, its causes, symptoms, treatment and association with smoking among students assessed.

  12. Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy: Rebuilding Progress

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... The editors. Devaki Jain is the Founder-Director of the Institute of Social Studies Trust, New Delhi, India. Diane Elson is Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Essex, UK.

  13. Marketing strategies in higher education with specific reference to public and private educational institutions within Gauteng, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. The researcher proposes that there are similarities as well as differences between the private and public institutions. Is it true that the results regarding achievements and quality are better with private education institutions than with public institutions, with much more difficulties facing private education than public education? What are the fundamental differences and similarities between the private and public Higher Educational institutions that lead to their marketing stra...

  14. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialists in public institutions were focused on the use, the extent of this use, and the perceived value of various social media as sources contributing to agenda building (Cobb, Elder 1983. If journalists are regularly monitoring sites and forums for story ideas and information, it is necessary for PR professionals within each industry to carefully monitor the information placed there and perhaps engage content producers. In this paper, I conclude that social media is an alternative instrument to encourage a two-way communication channel between government and publics. In public relations, the emergence of social media challenges the traditional instruments of government public relations. Responding to the development of information and communication technology (ICT, social media is considered as an alternative communication channel of government public relations efforts.

  15. The balancing role of evaluation mechanisms: cases of publicly funded research institutions: MPG, HGF, and CAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation has been designed and used as an instrument of organisational governance for publicly funded research institutions (PRIs). Such an instrument can justify external public support and provide internal evidence for decision-making and organisational learning. Under given national and

  16. An Examination of Integrated Marketing Communication in US Public Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    This research analyzes the strategic process of integrated marketing communication (IMC) and its current application in US public institutions of higher education (IHEs). The basis for this research was a survey questionnaire that analyzed the impact of IMC on 42 leading US public colleges and universities (as ranked by "U.S. News & World…

  17. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  18. An Examination of Integrated Marketing Communication in U.S. Public Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston-Strasser, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the strategic process of integrated marketing communication and its application in U.S. public institutions of higher education. A quantitative survey analyzed 42 leading U.S. public colleges and universities as ranked by "U.S. News & World Report." To further examine the findings of the survey, qualitative interviews were…

  19. The Future of Public Forests: An Institutional Blending Approach to Forest Governance in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ian D.; Adams, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Early in 2011, the Government initiated a consultation on the potential sale of the Public Forest Estate in England. This proposal leads to vociferous negative public reaction and the consultation was withdrawn and an Independent Panel established. This paper reviews the arguments as to the options and appropriate institutional arrangements for…

  20. PUBLIC SECTOR CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ECONOMY IN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC AND THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hirnyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines trends shaping the problem of "public sector". The research shows the history of the formation of the concept of "social economy", its relationship with the basic principles of theoretical economic analysis and development. The paper investigates process of establishing the structure of the phenomenon of the public sector and its interaction with the challenges of the modern world and the global economy. The article deals with the role of the public sector in the production of public goods. The researchers evaluated the effect of its scale in indicators of social, economic and i institutional development. The study singled out performance criteria for public sector institutions and analyzed changes of vectors public choice in terms of globalization changes. It was revealed the impact of global institutional transformation and structural reforms in the public sector, in-depth conceptual basis of improving the efficiency of public sector functions.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University ... [12]. Lack of knowledge and misperceptions about EC also exists among ... included in the study were specialist obstetricians and gynaecologists,.

  2. A pro-competitive order as an institute of the economy based on knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhdestvenskaya Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern theory of constitutional economy returns to the ideas of the founders of ordoliberalism, marks the function of the state as an institutional mechanism to promote and protect competition. The role of the state is the system subject of a pro-competitive order. The article analyzes the patterns of spontaneous transformation of government involvement in the market economy in the procompetitive order Institute as a condition of sustainable development of the economy based on knowledge. The research results are useful in the development of the theory of regulation of market processes and the formation of a strategic state policy in the field of economic regulation, in particular for Russia.

  3. Practice of knowledge management for institutes--take the construction of experience feedback system as the example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kaiping

    2014-01-01

    The construction of experience feedback system is an important part and breakthrough point of institutes' knowledge management. It is significant for institutes' design, management, development and innovation. This article introduces the concept of experience feedback for institutes. It also goes details of the content of experience feedback system construction for institutes, including the founding of experience feedback organizational mechanism, the development of experience feedback system, construction of knowledge database system, the construction of knowledge resources, and the appraisal of experience feedback's performance. Furthermore, the recognition and support of leaders, understanding and cooperation of relative departments, and corporation's culture of encouraging knowledge sharing, also are the important guarantees for the good effects of institutes' experience feedback work. (author)

  4. Management of information security risks in a federal public institution: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Gomes Soares Souza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Public institutions bound to the Brazilian federal public sector must apply security measures, policies, procedures and guidelines as information assets protection measures. This case study sought to determine whether the management of information security risks is applied in a federal public institution according to Information Technology (I.T. managers perceptions and the results expose the importance of the roles played by people, responsibilities, policies, standards, procedures and their implementation aiming greater control of information security risks and opportunities related to information technology security.

  5. Automatic processing of list of journals and publications in the Nuclear Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vymetal, L.

    Using an EC 1040 computer, the Institute of Nuclear Research processed the list of journals in the reference library of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission including journals acquired by all institutions subordinated to the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission, ie., UJV Rez (Nuclear Research Institute), Nuclear Information Centre Prague, UVVVR Prague (Institute for Research, Production and Application of Radioisotopes) and Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques Kosice. Computer processing allowed obtaining files arranged by libraries, subject matters of the journals, countries of publication, and journal titles. Automated processing is being prepared of publications by UJV staff. The preparation is described of data for computer processing of both files and specimens are shown of printouts. (Ha)

  6. Public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Daichi; Yada, Yasuto; Imaizumi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Toshimitsu; Miyawaki, Manami; Van Borsel, John

    To determine laypeople's knowledge and awareness of stuttering in Japan. A total of 303 respondents, recruited by street sampling, completed a questionnaire assessing the prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different races, cause, treatment, association with intelligence, and hereditariness of stuttering. The questionnaire used was a Japanese version of that devised by Van Borsel, Verniers, and Bouvry (1999) for use in Belgium. Although around half of the respondents had heard or met a stutterer, they tended to misunderstand the stuttering; e.g., respondents estimated the prevalence of stuttering as high. Knowledge also differed according to age, gender, and education level. Specifically, older individuals, females, and individuals with higher levels of education tended to have greater knowledge of stuttering. In comparing the results of the present study with similar studies conducted in Belgium, China, and Brazil, we observed several similarities and differences. Although most respondents were to some extent familiar with stuttering, their overall knowledge of the condition was limited. Certain factors could be involved in having knowledge of stuttering, such as one's life experience, cultural background, and social attitudes toward stuttering. The findings suggest the need for growing knowledge and awareness of stuttering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How should we assess knowledge translation in research organizations; designing a knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Jaleh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nedjat, Sima; Maleki, Katayoun; Ashoorkhani, Mahnaz; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh

    2011-02-22

    The knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI) was designed to assess the status of knowledge translation in research institutes. The objective was, to identify the weaknesses and strengths of knowledge translation in research centres and faculties associated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). The tool, consisting of 50 statements in four main domains, was used in 20 TUMS-affiliated research centres and departments after its reliability was established. It was completed in a group discussion by the members of the research council, researchers and research users' representatives from each centre and/or department. The mean score obtained in the four domains of 'The question of research', 'Knowledge production', 'Knowledge transfer' and 'Promoting the use of evidence' were 2.26, 2.92, 2 and 1.89 (out of 5) respectively.Nine out of 12 interventional priorities with the lowest quartile score were related to knowledge transfer resources and strategies, whereas eight of them were in the highest quartile and related to 'The question of research' and 'Knowledge production'. The self-assessment tool identifies the gaps in capacity and infrastructure of knowledge translation support within research organizations. Assessment of research institutes using SATORI pointed out that strengthening knowledge translation through provision of financial support for knowledge translation activities, creating supportive and facilitating infrastructures, and facilitating interactions between researchers and target audiences to exchange questions and research findings are among the priorities of research centres and/or departments.

  8. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of institutional food-handlers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabanda, Fortune; Hlortsi, Eli Hope; Owusu-Kwarteng, James

    2017-01-06

    In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235) institutional food-handlers. The questionnaire was peer-reviewed and pilot tested in three institutions in the Upper East Region of Ghana, before the final version was distributed to food-handlers. The questionnaire was structured into five distinctive parts to collect information on (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) employees' work satisfaction, (iii) knowledge on food safety, (iv) attitudes towards food safety and (v) food hygiene practices. Majority of the food-handlers were between 41-50 years (39.1%). Female respondents were (76.6%). In our study, the food-handlers were knowledgeable about hygienic practices, cleaning and sanitation procedures. Almost all of the food-handlers were aware of the critical role of general sanitary practices in the work place, such as hand washing (98.7% correct answers), using gloves (77.9%), proper cleaning of the instruments/utensils (86.4%) and detergent use (72.8%). On disease transmission, the results indicates that 76.2% of the food- handlers did not know that Salmonella is a food borne pathogens and 70.6% did not know that hepatitis A is a food borne pathogen. However, 81.7% handlers agreed that typhoid fever is transmitted by food and 87.7% agreed that bloody diarrhea is transmitted by food. Logistic regression analysis testing four models showed statistically significant differences

  9. The Public Manager, the Structure of Public Institution, and Implementation: The 2002-2012 Finnish Senior Bureaucratic Manager Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Mohammed Ibn

    2015-01-01

    Public management and administration today is about crafting, structuring and instituting. Structuration is a very integral part of all organisations. Unlike the gradualist approach, structural reform transforms the dominant system touching on main elements. Structural reform had largely come and gone without necessarily touching on some public…

  10. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok

    2007-01-01

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married

  11. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in

  12. Public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Addas, Abdallah; Tarakji, Bassel; Abbas, Alkasem; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is in increasing in incidence in Yemen and indeed worldwide. Knowledge regarding risk factors and early signs in the general population can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in the general population in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on Yemeni adults aged ≥15 years old. A total of 543 persons participated, the collected data being analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Two thirds (71.5%) of the participants had heard about oral cancer. Smoking and smokeless tobacco usage were identified as the major risk factors by 71.5% and 73.7% of the participants, respectively. Only 24.1% and 21.4%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Knowledge of oral cancer was significantly associated with age (p<0.01), gender (p<0.05) and education level (p<0.001). The findings suggest that the knowledge regarding oral cancer in this population is low. Therefore, educational programs are highly needed to improve such knowledge.

  13. Public Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis with people contacting dirty-water or through sexual intercourse. Occasional ... to treat these diseases was reported to be a common practice. ...... Primary Publications and Grey Literature. Rwanda J.

  14. Towards a Comprehensive and Up-To-Date Institutional Repository: Development of a Publications Tracking Process

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed

    2016-06-15

    As our repository matured we found that a concerted effort was needed to establish it as a resource that institutional stakeholders knew they could turn to for reliable information about the research outputs produced by researchers affiliated with or funded by our institution. The initial impetus for this project was the adoption of an institutional open access policy, which necessitated a process to track the publications of institutional authors, deposit items with applicable open access licenses, and notify authors when an accepted manuscript was needed. To support this process we developed a local publications tracking system independent of our hosted DSpace repository that regularly queries publisher and indexer APIs for new publications, checks for relevant permissions policies, identifies institutional authors and helps us send manuscript request emails. We also harvested records for past items and modified our repository to accommodate metadata-only records. The success of these tracking and harvesting services in making our repository comprehensive and up-to-date has allowed us to rely on our repository as the key source of publications information for additional integrations that update ORCID records with publication information, populate a PlumX metrics dashboard and, most recently, support the implementation of a current research information system (CRIS).

  15. Towards a Comprehensive and Up-To-Date Institutional Repository: Development of a Publications Tracking Process

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.; Grenz, Daryl M.; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    As our repository matured we found that a concerted effort was needed to establish it as a resource that institutional stakeholders knew they could turn to for reliable information about the research outputs produced by researchers affiliated with or funded by our institution. The initial impetus for this project was the adoption of an institutional open access policy, which necessitated a process to track the publications of institutional authors, deposit items with applicable open access licenses, and notify authors when an accepted manuscript was needed. To support this process we developed a local publications tracking system independent of our hosted DSpace repository that regularly queries publisher and indexer APIs for new publications, checks for relevant permissions policies, identifies institutional authors and helps us send manuscript request emails. We also harvested records for past items and modified our repository to accommodate metadata-only records. The success of these tracking and harvesting services in making our repository comprehensive and up-to-date has allowed us to rely on our repository as the key source of publications information for additional integrations that update ORCID records with publication information, populate a PlumX metrics dashboard and, most recently, support the implementation of a current research information system (CRIS).

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception Regarding Biostatistics Among Postgraduate Students in Dental Institutions of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautami S Penmetsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biostatistics is a discipline concerned with how we ought to make decisions when analysing biomedical data. As statistics is desirable at every stage of research to obtain scientifically important information and reliable results, the importance of biostatistics should definitely be informed to the researchers in health sciences. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and perception of dental professionals towards biostatistics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception regarding biostatistics among 721 postgraduate students in dental institutions of Andhra Pradesh. All the participants were provided with a pre-structured questionnaire comprising 21 questions, and answering was completely self-paced. Results: Among the respondents, 86% were aware of the importance of biostatistics in research. Forty-five percent of the respondents attempted to perform statistical analysis on their own. Of all the students, 53% were unable to identify the commonly used parametric tests in clinical trials. Conclusion: Majority of the participants were aware of the importance of biostatistics, but only a few of them attempted to perform statistical analysis. Therefore, dental institutions should take initiatives in organising workshops and training programmes for learning and application of biostatistics, concomitantly encourage research activity to conduct valuable research and add up evidence to literature.

  17. Public Knowledge and Behaviours Regarding Antibiotics Use: A Survey among the General Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Y Abujheisha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is associated with increased number of illness, mortality, and health care costs. The incorrect use, excessive prescription and prolonged administration of antibiotics are some factors which allow the growth of resistant bacteria leading to the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Several studies about antibiotic use have shown that behaviour towards antibiotics differs among countries, depending on culture, habits, education, and health care organization. The aim of this pilot study was to inspect the attitudes and knowledge regarding antibiotics among the public in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a validated questionnaire was carried out from January to February 2017 within the public, including hospital attendees and patients come for a consultation at the Prince Sattam university hospital. A total of 670 participants were included in this study. They have been chosen using a suitable sampling method. Persons incorporated in this survey who were above 18 years old and familiar with the term “antibiotics”. Results: The majority of respondents get informed about the use of antibiotics from Pharmacists (79.94%, and Physicians (76.14% and 50.3% (n=331 of the respondents reported using antibiotics six months before the survey. Regarding the source of antibiotics, (42.55% of the respondents usually gets the antibiotics after a consultation with the doctor, while 53.8% declared that their antibiotics were acquired from a retail pharmacy and a few of them (3.65% get the antibiotics from family and friends. The justification of participants for having antibiotics was mostly due to fever (41.34% or respiratory infections (22.19%. About 33.5% stated that they did not complete the treatment course and the reason was they felt better. Almost 57% indicated that they had ever kept an antibiotic at home for emergency need while 28.57% use leftover antibiotics in case they

  18. Knowledge of emergency contraception among students in a tertiary institution in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewunmi AA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abiodun Adeniyi Adewunmi,1 Kabiru Afolarin Rabiu,1 Adetokunbo Olufela Tayo,1 Tawakwalit Abimbola Ottun,1 Bolu Sunday Adeboye,2 Raheem Akinwunmi Akindele31Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja-Lagos, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, State Specialist Hospital Akure Ondo State, 3Department Of Physiology, Obafemi Awolowo College Of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, NigeriaBackground: Emergency contraception (EC has been available in developing countries without prescription for some time. There is, however, little research into the extent of the knowledge of mode of action, effectiveness, and availability of this form of contraception in rural areas.Objectives: To assess the knowledge of EC with respect to mode of action, effectiveness, and availability in rural areas among students in a tertiary institution in a developing country.Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to tertiary students in a university in rural area in a developing country. This questionnaire asked about their knowledge of the mode of action of EC, its availability over the counter, its cost, and the student's willingness to purchase it.Results: Some 488 of the 500 questionnaires were returned. One hundred and eight (22.1% of the students had used EC or bought it for a girlfriend at some stage in the past. Two hundred and forty four (50.0% knew the correct timeframe for its use, while 201 (41.2% were not aware of its availability over the counter in pharmacies, and 150 (30.7% felt unable to purchase EC in a pharmacy where they are known. One hundred (20.5% of the participants were aware of the cost of EC.Conclusion: The students had good knowledge of the timeframe for the use of EC, but lacked information regarding the availability and the cost of EC in the community.Keywords: developing country, emergency contraception, knowledge

  19. Harvesting Feminist Knowledge to Influence Public Policy | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Casablanca quest is an initiative supported by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) that brings together women activists and academics from the South with a view to bringing women's knowledge to bear on the growing burden of worldwide poverty, most of which is borne by women. This grant will carry ...

  20. Bioterrorism Preparedness in Public Health: Knowledge Needs for Robust Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Minu

    2007-01-01

    The typical response of organizations dealing with external uncertainty is to develop strategies to adapt to the situation and focus on regaining a stable state. A crucial element of responding successfully to external uncertainties is to identify changes in knowledge needs within core organizational processes. This paper discusses the changing…

  1. On the Composition of Public-Coin Zero-Knowledge Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    only languages in BPP have public-coin black-box zero-knowledge protocols that are secure under an unbounded (polynomial) number of parallel...only languages in BPP have public-coin black-box zero-knowledge protocols that are secure under an unbounded (polynomial) number of parallel repetitions...and Krawczyk [GK96b] show that only languages in BPP have constant-round public-coin (stand-alone) black-box ZK protocols with negligible soundness

  2. Activities of the center for public information in the ''Kurchatov Institute''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of the relations between the nuclear community and the public in the former USSR and Russia arose quite recently, exactly after the Chernobyl accident and after the transition to the democratic social order in the country. Recently the Kurchatov Institute was one of the most classified scientific organization in the country. There was no question of discussing its problems in mass media as well as of visiting its facilities by the public. The Center for Public Information was established in the Institute in 1989, in the time when the tide of the public protests against the development of nuclear power in the USSR was at its zenith. The establishing of our public information service had its two objects: to bring back public confidence to nuclear scientists and to restore the high authority of the Kurchatov Institute in the public opinion; the second one was to favour the creation of the objective attitude in the society concerning the necessity of the development of nuclear power. Our first concern was the journalists. The main concern of our contacts with the public and mass media was to demonstrate and to make them understand that nuclear scientists care the public safety not less than the others do. The specific role of our center and the Kurchatov Institute itself is that we represent the only organization in Russia with the competent stuff experienced in nuclear energy and its safety problems at the same time not submitted to any state bodies responsible for Nuclear Power Plants construction and operation. It gives us the possibility to act as an objective arbiter for the public when discussing the problems of nuclear power development

  3. Fixing the flaws [Why emergency planners need the public's knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasker, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Planners seeking to mitigate the consequences of acts of radiological terrorism - including terrorist attacks on nuclear power infrastructures - are working at a distinct disadvantage. The public is the object of their concern and the focus of their education and risk communication efforts, but strategies and plans are being developed without directly involving the public. Lacking that voice, do we really know what matters to people in these types of situations and what can be done to address the problems they would face? Do we fully appreciate the role that the public can play in contributing to response and recovery? Recent research and experience with disasters in the United States reveal that we don't - with dire consequences

  4. Knowledge and behavior towards voluntary blood donation among students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, A G; Odeh, E

    2011-01-01

    Blood donation is the only way of acquiring blood to meet emergency requirements in cases of road traffic accidents, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, various anemic disorders and surgical emergencies among others. Globally, 80 million units of blood are donated each year, but only two million units are donated in sub-Saharan Africa where the need is enormous. The objective of this study was to determine the behavior of the students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria towards voluntary blood donation. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, which involved students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the participants for this study. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and factors affecting voluntary blood donation. The data obtained were analyzed using EPI-INFO 2005 software Version 3.3.2. Less than two-thirds (61%) of total respondents had good knowledge of blood donation. More than three quarters (85%) of the respondents had never donated blood. Of the 15% that had donated, only 3% donated voluntarily. Among those that had ever donated, males (57%) were more than females. Many of the donors donated for relatives (57%). The majority of the respondents were compelled to donate because of emergency situations (75%). The reasons why many did not donate were lack of opportunity (45%) due to tight lecture schedule and inadequate knowledge (24%). Gift items such as hematinics, T-shirts and wrist bands (29%) would motivate respondents to donate. The Students' Union body and other Organizations in the University should include a blood donation drive in their monthly/annual activities. The University authorities, the University health service centre and the Hematology Department of the Teaching hospital should collaborate in promoting voluntary blood donation among the students.

  5. Institutional innovation to generate the public acceptance of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1991-01-01

    Contrasting experiences of public acceptance of radioactive waste disposal are compared for the United Kingdom, France, Sweden and Canada. The disparity between scientifically assessed and publicly perceived levels of risk is noted. The author argues that the form of decision-making process is more important to public acceptance of radioactive waste disposal than the technology of disposal. Public risk perception can be altered by procedures employed in planning, negotiation and consultation. Precisely what constitutes acceptable risk does vary from country to country, and differences in institutional responses and innovation are particularly highlighted. (UK)

  6. The Problems of Accounting in a Public Institution: The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Duhovnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author determines that, due to changes during the privatisation process, the Slovenian framework for public institution accounting is unable to assure the relevant presentation of costs, benefits and effects. She therefore proposes certain changes based on solutions applied in the private sector accounting practices. Her conclusions and recommendations, however, are based on a need for a true and fair measurement of a public institution’s results. The recommended way to achieve this goal is the proper application of solutions included in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards issued by the International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board of the International Federation of Accountants.

  7. Public Health Knowledge Utilisation by Policy Actors: An Evaluation Study in Midden-Holland, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Joyce; Steenkamer, Betty; Treurniet, Henriëtte; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive report has been prepared on the state of public health and healthcare in the Midden-Holland region of the Netherlands. This study describes the development of the report and the mechanisms behind public health knowledge utilisation by three groups of health policy actors: local authorities, public health professionals and regional…

  8. The Gift of Education: How Indigenous Knowledges Can Transform the Future of Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michelle M.; Sabzalian, Leilani; Jansen, Joana; Tobin, Tary J.; Vincent, Claudia G.; LaChance, Kelly M.

    2018-01-01

    This article advocates for the necessity of Indigenous Knowledges in furthering Indigenous self-determination in public schools, as well as furthering the broad aims of public education. Drawing attention to past efforts across the United States to transform the public school curriculum and analyzing data from testimonies given at Oregon State…

  9. Real estate capitalization of Public Administration Institutions - a chance to stimulate investment and increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Constantin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The divide in the development of the different European space regions, is exemplified by the different ability to attract investments between rural and urban areas. Urban areas usually assure to investors a broad availability of structures and services that rural areas cannot offer. Another limiting factor for rural areas is the difficulty the enterprises which want to localize their structures outside the urban area meet when they try to find information about the quantity and the quality of the available structures. This penalization affects also the unused real estates of the public administration institutions; these real estates could represent for the investors an important opportunity to improve area’s resources, meeting some forms of converging collaboration with the public administration institutions. POLYINVEST project aims at improving conditions for investment in the rural areas, directly tackling the development gap between the regions of the South East Europe and to develop an information system useful for those public administration institutions.

  10. Science on the net: an analysis of the websites of the European public research institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Massoli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a study on the websites of several European public research institutions that aims at identifying the science communication model chosen and implemented online with the purpose of reaching different target publics. The analytical approach takes into account a number of indicators: from the institutional identity to the scientific features, from the interactive services to the internationalisation level, in order to evaluate whether the web provides an added value in the adopted communication model and in building a relation with the users. Lights and shades emerge from this study in which good practices side examples of a much weaker science communication approach, outlining a general context where a public research institution website has been still used as a presentation tool and its interactive opportunities have not been capitalised.

  11. Knowledge as Public Property : The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, Lex M

    2008-01-01

    Universities are funded by public means to a large extend. It’s reasonable to expect that society benefits from the results. For scientific research this means that it should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual investigators must explicitly consider the societal

  12. Gender and Leadership. The Impact of Organizational Culture of Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study approaches the public organizations and their organizational culture by taking into account the gender factor. More specifically, it will approach women’s presence in the leadership of public organizations, the influence of the public organizational culture in the promotion of women in middle and top management positions, and it will finally identify the defining characteristics of the organizational culture of the institutions led by women in comparison to those led by men. Our study is based on a research conducted in Bistriţa-Năsăud County, Romania, by applying a survey in 12 public organizations. The survey comprises 16 questions, seven of which are open questions; 25 women with different positions in the medium and the top management of public institutions were surveyed. The conclusions of the research confirm the existence of some clear differences in the organizational culture of womenled and respectively, men-led public institutions. At the same time, the study identifies possible causes for the low presence of women in the public top management in contrast to their high presence in the execution positions.

  13. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  14. [Zero citation of Russian institute publications on the psychiatry and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsov, A V; Kuznetsova-Moreva, E A

    To evaluate the zero-citation sizes. Based on the data of the Russian Science Citation Index the publication activity of four leading institutes in the field of Psychiatry and Addiction is analyzed. The same indices in the field of Neurology were used as a control. Number and percentage of publications with ≥1 citations and zero-citation were analyzed. It has been shown that in psychiatric science zero citation rate is quite high (from 32.8% to 47.2%, an average of 42.9%). It is higher compared to the control. Zero-citation indicator is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of scientific institutions.

  15. A Conjecture on Institutional Rationalities and Property Rights in Public Procurement of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Robert; Rolfstam, Max

    2013-01-01

    The increased interest in using public procurement as a policy tool for innovation has renewed a need for understanding the procurement process. A conjecture on institutional rationalities and property rights is offered to explain the hurdles present for conducting successful procurement projects....... If an efficient negotiation solution is to be achieved participants in procurement projects need to be aware of the other participants’ institutional rationalities and actively consider these while concluding the terms of procurement projects. Consequently, future policy efforts towards increased innovation have...... to be targeting the process of public procurement of innovation, rather than focusing on regulatory issues....

  16. THEORETICAL APPROACH ON THE ROLE OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin PAUN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Government has faced extensive changes in the last period regarding its operating plan, in what was meant to accomplish and the actions of the political representatives and citizens, their tasks and responsibilities. In this paper we have attempted to identify the main factors with direct influence on management of public institutions starting from the communication management. The result of the research showed that leaving aside and not taking into account the strategic perspectives, preparation in terms of poor management of administrative factors are elements that detract from public institutions and from here the lack of initiative and flexibility needed for their operation.

  17. Studying and Comparing Knowledge Management Dimensions between Public and Private Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available By reviewing the literature of KM, it can be understood that there are different views about(to knowledge management and its applications in public and private sectors which is due to the structural difference between these two economic sectors. In order to be able to exploit the benefits of knowledge management in public sector adequately, it is necessary to identify the best practices of KM. To understand the differences between knowledge management in public and private sector and benchmark capabilities of private sector in public sector, is one of the ways to achieve this goal. In this study, we used survey study and questionnaire tool in order to identify these differences in banks. Results suggest that just in two dimensions of information technology and knowledge management, among five identified dimensions, there is a meaningful difference between public and private banks.

  18. The dynamic creation of knowledge: Analysing public - private collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, I.; Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    , a look at time and cost trade-off, the fifth innovation generation's related performance and possible congruence between the fifth generation's factors and motives for their implementation. The source of data is an existing survey 'The Danish industry-Present and Future'. Results indicate that Danish...... manufacturing companies demonstrate an innovative performance close to the fourth generation of innovation, which is slightly different than it is perceived publicly. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Marketing based on knowledge as a basis for strategy of research institution – on the example of the Packaging Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Tkaczyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Basis for marketing activities of COBRO – Packaging Research Institute are two main issues. First of all, as a small research and development centre, COBRO has no funds to carry out specialized marketing department. On the other hand, due to huge growth of packaging market, all needs of stakeholders – companies but also other research institutions seeking consortium members – cannot be entirely identified or forecasted, and practical solutions are created in the course of cooperation. For all that reasons Institute has developed its own concept of the knowledge-based marketing, which means more flexible use of the potential of academics and research employees.

  20. Trust and Work Place Spirituality on Knowledge Sharing Behaviour: Perspective from Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…

  1. Nationwide survey of energy conservation in public school districts: Institutional, organizational, and technical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.E.; Ettinger, G.A.; Gaines, L.L.; Kier, P.H.; Miller, K.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kammerud, R.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes the responses to a mail survey sent to superintendents and other administrators of public school districts. The survey was part of an evaluation project for the USDOE Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The goal of the project is to identify the most successful energy conservation measures (equipment and activities) available to the institutional buildings sector. To accomplish this goal, four specific research objectives were defined: To determine the impact of the ICP grants program on fostering energy efficiency and saving energy; to determine key characteristics of institutional conservation efforts outside the federal program; To determine the technical, organizational, and Institutional conditions that create the opportunity for energy conservation measures (ECMS) to be most effective; and to identify key technology transfer opportunities. This report focuses on those characteristics of school districts (and the schools within those districts) that might influence the identification, implementation, operation, and impacts of institutional energy conservation efforts. Information about institutional characteristics was gathered through a mail survey of public school districts and private schools. The first mailing resulted in responses from 90 of the 823 public school districts selected through a combination cluster-and-stratification sampling technique and 64 of the 1,700 private schools selected as a stratified random sample. Remaining project resources were used to collect data to achieve a statistically sound sample of a total of 250 public school districts by telephone interviews. In doing so, some questions had to be dropped. Responses from both the mall surveys and the telephone interviews of public school districts were combined into one data set. This report describes results for all 250 districts.

  2. The role of scientific knowledge in the public's perceptions of energy technology risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    It is important for policy makers to have an accurate understanding of public attitudes toward pressing issues to help inform their decision making. Researchers consistently find that the public’s receipt of and correct processing of scientific information and knowledge are essential for its problem solving. Different levels of understanding of specific energy technologies may produce different risk assessments across technologies within this issue domain. How this differential risk assessment occurs and the role that scientific information may play in it is not yet well known. This project seeks to determine the role that perceived and objective scientific knowledge may play in the public’s risk assessments of different energy technologies. Our findings suggest that scientific knowledge does temper public risk evaluations of different energy technologies, therefore linking more clearly the connection between science knowledge, scientific trust, and issue problem identification. - Highlights: •We examine influence of assessed and perceived knowledge on public risk perceptions. •We model effect of knowledge type on publics’ perceptions of three energy risks. •All models show those with higher assessed knowledge see risks more like experts do. •Perceived knowledge is less reliable predictor of public rating risk like experts. •Greater scientific grasp of issues by public needed for accurate risk assessment.

  3. Institutional public private partnerships for core health services: evidence from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Francesco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public-private partnerships (PPPs are potential instruments to enable private collaboration in the health sector. Despite theoretical debate, empirical analyses have thus far tended to focus on the contractual or project dimension, overlooking institutional PPPs, i.e., formal legal entities run by proper corporate-governance mechanisms and jointly owned by public and private parties for the provision of public-health goods. This work aims to fill this gap by carrying out a comparative analysis of the reasons for the adoption of institutional PPPs and the governance and managerial features necessary to establish them as appropriate arrangements for public-health services provisions. Methods A qualitative analysis is carried out on experiences of institutional PPPs within the Italian National Health Service (Sistema Sanitario Nazionale, SSN. The research question is addressed through a contextual and comparative embedded case study design, assuming the entire population of PPPs (4 currently in force in one Italian region as the unit of analysis: (i a rehabilitation hospital, (ii, an orthopaedic-centre, (iii a primary care and ambulatory services facility, and (iv a health- and social-care facility. Internal validity is guaranteed by the triangulation of sources in the data collection phase, which included archival and interview data. Results Four governance and managerial issues were found to be critical in determining the positive performance of the case examined: (i a strategic market orientation to a specialised service area with sufficient potential demand, (ii the allocation of public capital assets and the consistent financial involvement of the private partner, (iii the adoption of private administrative procedures in a regulated setting while guaranteeing the respect of public administration principles, and (iv clear regulation of the workforce to align the contracts with the organisational culture. Conclusions Findings

  4. Institutional public private partnerships for core health services: evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellaro, Giulia; Longo, Francesco

    2011-04-19

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are potential instruments to enable private collaboration in the health sector. Despite theoretical debate, empirical analyses have thus far tended to focus on the contractual or project dimension, overlooking institutional PPPs, i.e., formal legal entities run by proper corporate-governance mechanisms and jointly owned by public and private parties for the provision of public-health goods. This work aims to fill this gap by carrying out a comparative analysis of the reasons for the adoption of institutional PPPs and the governance and managerial features necessary to establish them as appropriate arrangements for public-health services provisions. A qualitative analysis is carried out on experiences of institutional PPPs within the Italian National Health Service (Sistema Sanitario Nazionale, SSN). The research question is addressed through a contextual and comparative embedded case study design, assuming the entire population of PPPs (4) currently in force in one Italian region as the unit of analysis: (i) a rehabilitation hospital, (ii), an orthopaedic-centre, (iii) a primary care and ambulatory services facility, and (iv) a health- and social-care facility. Internal validity is guaranteed by the triangulation of sources in the data collection phase, which included archival and interview data. Four governance and managerial issues were found to be critical in determining the positive performance of the case examined: (i) a strategic market orientation to a specialised service area with sufficient potential demand, (ii) the allocation of public capital assets and the consistent financial involvement of the private partner, (iii) the adoption of private administrative procedures in a regulated setting while guaranteeing the respect of public administration principles, and (iv) clear regulation of the workforce to align the contracts with the organisational culture. Findings suggests that institutional PPPs enable national health

  5. The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Rudman, Debbie; Dobbins, Maureen; Rouse, Michael; Sibbald, Shannon; Edwards, Nancy

    2012-03-20

    Planning a public health initiative is both a science and an art. Public health practitioners work in a complex, often time-constrained environment, where formal research literature can be unavailable or uncertain. Consequently, public health practitioners often draw upon other forms of knowledge. Through use of one-on-one interviews and focus groups, we aimed to gain a better understanding of how tacit knowledge is used to inform program initiatives in public health. This study was designed as a narrative inquiry, which is based on the assumption that we make sense of the world by telling stories. Four public health units were purposively selected for maximum variation, based on geography and academic affiliation. Analysis revealed different ways in which tacit knowledge was used to plan the public health program or initiative, including discovering the opportunity, bringing a team together, and working out program details (such as partnering, funding). The findings of this study demonstrate that tacit knowledge is drawn upon, and embedded within, various stages of the process of program planning in public health. The results will be useful in guiding the development of future knowledge translation strategies for public health organizations and decision makers.

  6. Perceptions of Parents on the Practice of Private Tuition in Public Learning Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Robert B.; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    The practice of private tuition outside normal class hours is a phenomenon which has prevailed in Kenyan basic learning institutions despite the repeated ban by the government. The purpose of the study was to establish parental perceptions on extra tuition in public schools in Kenya. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 40…

  7. Funeral Benefits in Public Higher Education Institutions: How Do They Explain Employees' Perception of Equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komba, Aneth Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the government and three campuses of a higher public education institution's funeral policies with a view to determining how these policies explain employees' equity perception. Three research questions guided the study: (1) what does the government's funeral policy say about the burial of government employees and their…

  8. New Media Institute – Personal Public Service Announcement Project

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Scott Shamp, New Media Institute, University of Georgia, discuss new media and the personal public service announcement project.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 2/10/2010.

  9. The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

  10. Evidence of Hybrid Institutional Logics in the US Public Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Stevie; Warshaw, Jarrett B.

    2017-01-01

    While the ascendancy of market behaviours in public research universities is well documented, the extent to which universities have transformed themselves into industry-like organisations has been called into question. So to what extent are universities displaying transformation in their core values? The concept of institutional logics, with its…

  11. Productivity, Performance and Return on Investment: A Baseline Analysis of Tennessee Public Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Tennessee needs to continuously increase its degree productivity by four percent every year from now until 2025. In the midst of this need for increased degree production, the state's current economic realities indicate public institutions will receive little to no new state appropriated revenues for the foreseeable future. The Master Plan Annual…

  12. Corporate Image of Public Higher Education Institutions: Relevant Factors to Distance Learning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fabio R.; Pelissari, Anderson S.; Gonzalez, Inayara V. D. P.

    2018-01-01

    Technological advances are generating a significant increase in the supply of distance learning (DL) courses via the Internet, increasing the importance of this type of education for the university's structure. This article identifies factors associated with perceptions of the public higher education institutions' image from the perspective of DL…

  13. Showing and telling : film heritage institutes and their performance of public accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    This PhD expands on 12 previously published film historical and -archival articles and essays. An extensive introductory text was written to string these articles and essays together and forge them into an argument for improving the performance of film heritage institutes vis-a-vis the public. In

  14. Education for Public Policy and Management: Views from the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); J.W. Björkman (James Warner); V. Moharir (Vasant); M.E. Wuyts (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction When the Institute of Social Studies, ISS, was founded in 1952 in The Hague as a postgraduate centre for teaching and research on social and economic development, it established the first Masters programme in public administration and the first professorial chair in

  15. Are Public Master's Institutions Cost Efficient? A Stochastic Frontier and Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.; Vamosiu, Adriana; McClure, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines costs, measured by educational and general (E&G) spending, and cost efficiency at 252 public master's institutions in the United States over a nine-year (2004-2012) period. We use a multi-product quadratic cost function and results from a random-effects model with a first-order autoregressive (AR1) disturbance term…

  16. Factors Affecting Corporate Image from the Perspective of Distance Learning Students in Public Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fábio Reis; Pelissari, Anderson Soncini

    2016-01-01

    New information technologies enable different interactions in the educational environment, affecting how the image of educational institutions adopting distance-learning programmes is perceived. This article identifies factors affecting the perception of corporate image from the viewpoint of distance-learning students at public higher education…

  17. The Rationalizing Logics of Public School Reform: How Cultural Institutions Matter for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    The research herein uses a mixed methods approach to examine how organizational phenomena at the macro level of analysis translate into phenomena at the micro level. Specifically, the research attempts to explain how cultural institutions may translate into individual attitudes and actions, such as public school teachers' decisions about using…

  18. Award of Construction Contracts: Public Institutions' Authority to Select the Lowest Responsible Bidder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elsa Kircher; Goldblatt, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes the responsibilities of public colleges and universities to award construction contracts to the lowest responsible bidder; discusses the purpose of bid statutes; and lists the factors institutions should consider in determining a bidder's responsibility. Also covered are the standard of review and due process rights of the…

  19. [Public relations in institutions and establishments of the health administration system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, A V

    2002-01-01

    The article is dedicated to development of directions and specific functions of the health system bodies/institutions public relations (PR) activities. Priorities are set forth depending on the form of property thereof. A complex use of approaches toward carrying out of PR activities permits optimizing work both within the system itself and relations with the society as a whole.

  20. (Re)membering Basic Writing at a Public Ivy: History for Institutional Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassoni, John Paul

    2006-01-01

    This essay offers a history of a basic writing course that began at a public ivy campus in the 1970s. Relying on principles of universal design and on insights derived from his school's studio program about ways the institution's selective functions can impact curricular matters, the author describes how the basic writing course was merely…

  1. Towards prevention of vitamin D deficiency and beyond: knowledge gaps and research needs in vitamin D nutrition and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2011-12-01

    The North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently published their report on dietary reference intakes (DRI) for Ca and vitamin D. The DRI committee's deliberations underpinning this most comprehensive report on vitamin D nutrition to date benefited hugely from a much expanded knowledge base in vitamin D over the last decade or more. However, since their release, the vitamin D DRI have been the subject of intense controversy, which is largely due to the persistence of fundamental knowledge gaps in vitamin D. These can be identified at the levels of exposure, metabolism, storage, status, dose-response, function and beneficial or adverse health effects, as well as safe and effective application of intake recommendations at the population level through sustainable food-based approaches. The present review provides a brief overview of the approach used by the IOM committee to revise the DRI for vitamin D and to collate from a number of authoritative sources key knowledge gaps in vitamin D nutrition from the public health perspective. A number of research topics are outlined and data requirements within these are identified and mapped to the risk assessment framework used by the DRI committee. While not intended as an exhaustive list, it provides a basis for organising and prioritising research efforts in the area of vitamin D, which may offer a perspective on the major areas in need of attention. It is intended to be of use to researchers, national policy makers, the public health community, industry groups and other relevant stakeholders including funding institutions.

  2. Evaluation of employees in public day care centers knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Joelânia Pires de O.; Prudente, Amanda Moura; Silva, Dyene Aparecida; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of public day care centers employees about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 public day care centers randomly selected in the city of Uberlandia, Southeast Brazil. A questionnaire applied to school principals, teachers, educators and general services assistants (GSA) included demographic and socioeconomic variables and questions about knowledge on breastfeeding, complementary feeding besides ...

  3. Transforming public welfare institutions through social innovation and action research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The article will present how action research may contribute to social innovation and empowerment in public welfare and cultural institutions (nursing homes and libraries) in a manner that supports the interests of marginalised citizens and local communities, and creates opportunities for positive...... change. First, we introduce the concepts of empowerment, action research and social innovation along with the roots of these concepts in critical social theory. Secondly, two case studies are presented to analyse two different methodological variants of action research in two different contexts...... space” for reflection and creation of concrete suggestions of social innovation in elder care. The second case is about the transformation of a public library into a community centre. In this case, the aim was to break down barriers between citizens and public institutions in a deprived, multicultural...

  4. Public Procurement of Innovation; Endogenous Institutions in User-Producer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 2010 government expenditure on works, goods and services in EU 19.7% of GDP - 2.406,98€ billion. Can be used to stimulate innovation Focus on public procurement of innovation in EU maintain competitive advantage and welfare Governments are important first users for high technology (U...... (Urban & von Hippel, 1988). Need interaction in public procurement of innovation (PPI). The aim of this research is to investigate the institutions that govern this interaction and how they influence performance in PPI. Institutions are “the rules of the game” (North, 1990)......Introduction 2010 government expenditure on works, goods and services in EU 19.7% of GDP - 2.406,98€ billion. Can be used to stimulate innovation Focus on public procurement of innovation in EU maintain competitive advantage and welfare Governments are important first users for high technology...

  5. Institutional Metamorphoses regarding the Exercise of External Public Audit in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts a synthetic approach of the evolution of institutional organization and the exercise of public financial audit in Romania, emphasizing on historical, as well as on modern elements. Recent changes, based, obviously, on legal regulations, aim at implementing the types of audit specific to the audit supreme institutions and founded on the basis of their own external public audit standards, adopted according to the INTOSAI audit standards, the European guidelines for their application and other standards relevant to the public sector, elaborated by IFAC and accepted by the European Union. The finding of the accounts in order is followed by issuing of a conformity certificate for the audited entity.

  6. Public School Teachers' Knowledge, Perception, and Implementation of Brain-Based Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachob, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine K-12 teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices of brain-based learning strategies in western Pennsylvania schools. The following five research questions were explored: (a) What is the extent of knowledge K-12 public school teachers have about the indicators of brain-based learning and Brain Gym?; (b) To…

  7. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  8. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  9. Training Institutions as places of reproduction of official and scientific knowledge on ecological transition. An analysis with mapping controversies tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargues, Emilie; Landivar, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Through an exploratory approach mobilizing a 'mapping controversies methodology', this article analyses the role of training institutions in producing, distributing and criticizing knowledge related to ecological transition. The current work deals with the case of biomass production and activity, a central sector in French ecological transition. The analysis of semantic and unstructured data crawled from 3900 web sites highlights the major issues of controversy, the actors of the controversy, the points of agreement/disagreement among actors, and the particular position of training organizations in the knowledge structure. We find that these organizations are strongly correlated to official and scientific knowledge and less related to critical and marginal knowledge

  10. A Model for Collaborative Working to Facilitate Knowledge Mobilisation in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Karen Elizabeth; Wallace, Annie; Crosland, Ann

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for collaborative working to facilitate knowledge mobilisation in public health. The model has been developed by university researchers who worked collaboratively with public health commissioners and strategic partners to evaluate a portfolio of short-term funded interventions to inform re-commissioning. Within this…

  11. Public and Private School Principals' Knowledge of Special Education Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Marie Nicole

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge of special education law held by public and private school principals as the law pertains to providing the appropriate services to students with disabilities. Numerous studies have investigated public school principals' level of preparation, training, and role within in special education law.…

  12. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…

  13. Knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff in higher learning institutes: The role of trust and perceived risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. This research focuses on the mediation impact of perceived risk on trust and knowledge sharing behaviour. The research also proposes actions that can be taken by higher learning institutions to enhance trust among the staff in order to create a knowledge sharing environment at the workplace. This research applied confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to evaluate the proposed measurement model and proved the research hypotheses. The findings from the research show that perceived risk plays a strong mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing behaviour among the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. The SEM analysis also confirmed that the research model shows a good fit. This research highlights issues concerning knowledge sharing practices among non-academic staff and provides some recommendations to the managers to address these issues. The researchers agreed that more research needs to be done in this area as there are aspects that are yet to be explored. The findings of this research serve to add to the literature on knowledge sharing focussing on non-academic staff of higher learning institutions.

  14. Why Public Comments Matter: The Case of the National Institutes of Health Policy on Single Institutional Review Board Review of Multicenter Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Ann-Margret; Taylor, Holly A; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Meinert, Curtis L

    2018-03-06

    In 2014, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) requested public comments on a draft policy requiring NIH-funded, U.S.-based investigators to use a single institutional review board (sIRB) for ethical review of multicenter studies. The authors conducted a directed content analysis and qualitative summary of the comments and discuss how they shaped the final policy. Two reviewers independently assessed support for the policy from a review of comments responding to the draft policy in 2016. A reviewer conducted an open text review to identify prespecified and additional comment themes. A second researcher reviewed 20% of the comments; discrepancies were resolved through discussion. The NIH received 167 comments: 65% (108/167) supportive of the policy, 23% (38/167) not supportive, and 12% (21/167) not indicating support. Clarifications or changes to the policy were suggested in 102/167 comments (61%). Criteria for selecting sIRBs were addressed in 32/102 comments (31%). Also addressed were IRB responsibilities (39/102; 38%), cost (27/102; 26%), the role of local IRBs (14/102; 14%), and allowable policy exceptions (19/102; 19%). The NIH further clarified or provided additional guidance for selection criteria, IRB responsibilities, and cost in the final policy (June 2016). Local IRB reviews and exemptions guidance were unchanged. In this case study, public comments were effective in shaping policy as the NIH modified provisions or planned supplemental guidance in response to comments. Yet critical knowledge gaps remain and empirical data are necessary. The NIH is considering mechanisms to support the establishment of best practices for sIRB implementation.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND EFFICIENCY OF BUDGET OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS BY THE METHOD BASED ON PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ștefana, CIBOTARIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, public sector performance is a concept on which it has been written very little and rarely applied in practice. The situation is not the same in developed countries economically to where we focus our attention, regarded as models for our country. Internationally, since the early 70s of the last century there were initiated processes of modernization and reorganization of public institutions in different countries. The society required a higher efficiency of the services provided by it, a better use of public services and also an effective bureaucratic model. It can be said that only in this context, government institutions can gain strength, consistency and can become more reliable. Flexibility, decentralization, creativity, self-management and management contract, all used as measurement tools are the basic features of a managerial reforms that focus on results. Determining the results in the public sector and implementing a system of financial and nonfinancial performance measurement requires a clear definition of the objectives and goals of each organization and component institution.

  16. Capacity of the legal framework of public health institutions in Mexico to support their functional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ibarra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the capacity of the federal legal framework to govern financing of health institutions in the public sector through innovative schemes –otherwise known as functional integration–, enabling them to purchase and sell health services to and from other public providers as a strategy to improve their performance. Materials and methods. Based on indicators of normative alignment with respect to functional integration across public health provider and governance institutions, content analysis was undertaken of national health programs and relevant laws and guidelines for financial coordination. Results. Significant progress was identified in the implementation of agreements for the coordination of public institutions. While the legal framework provides for a National Health System and a health sector, gaps and contradictions limit their scope. The General Register of Health is also moving forward, yet it lacks the necessary legal foundation to become a comprehensive tool for integration. The medical service exchange agreements are also moving forward based on tariffs and shared guidelines. However, there is a lack of incentives to promote the expansion of these agreements. Conclusions. It is recommended to update the legal framework for the coordination of the National Health System, ensuring a more harmonious and general focus to provide functional integration with the needed impulse.

  17. Picking the best publications to showcase graduate courses: Do institutional mechanisms reinforce gender differences?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leta, J.; Cabanac, G.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies performed by our research group have brought to light the concept “scientific capital” developed by Bourdieu to characterize the vertical segregation framework in Brazilian science, specifically Brazilian graduate programs, which is the main piece of the country’s S&T system. The present study still focuses on gender differences in Brazilian graduate programs but it turns attention to their institutional assignments. Among all information sent annaually to Capes evaluation process, heads of graduate programs have to send the top five publications of the year. Considering the institutional relevance of this set of publications, the present study aims to identify whether an institutional mechanism, as the choice of the best publications of the graduate program by the heads, promotes gender equality or reinforces discrepancies in Brazilian academia. Preliminary results, performed upon official data of teacher-researchers performance affiliated to Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, suggest that males rather than females more are more represented in this selective set of publications. (Author)

  18. Awaking the Public Sector with Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Revitalizing the Public Servant's Organizational Knowledge, Innovative Capability, and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janese Marie

    2011-01-01

    Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for public sector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…

  19. A RESEARCH THRU A LOGISTIC PERSPECTIVE REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF IMAGE-CRISES OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniu Ovidiu BALINT

    2015-01-01

    Image Crises are explained by the specialists in this field of study as a process of damaging an organization's / institution’s reputation through loss of public confidence in the products and / or services provided to the targeted public / consumers. The main reason why we chose this topic, for this paper, is to find out how image crisis can affect public institutions in Romania at national (central) and local (regional) level. Based on the studies we conducted in several public institutions...

  20. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  1. Evaluation of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankūnas, Mindaugas; Sauliūnė, Skirmantė; Smith, Tony; Avery, Mark; Šumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. Lithuanian and international public health experts emphasize the importance of leadership in public health. The aim of this study was to explore the self-assessed level of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of executives of Lithuanian public health institutions in 2010. The total number of returned questionnaires was 55 (response rate, 58.5%). Respondents were asked about their competencies in leadership, teamwork, communication, and conflict management. The evaluation was carried out by analyzing the answers provided in the survey, which used a 5-point rating scale. In addition, the Belbin Team-Role Self-Perception Inventory and the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument were used. RESULTS. The results showed that respondents were reserved or limited in their individual capacities through this evaluation of their leadership competencies. The mean score was 3.47 (SD, 0.71). Skills in competency areas of communication, teamwork, and conflict management were scored higher (3.73 [SD, 0.67], 3.73 [SD, 0.62], and 3.53 [SD, 0.63], respectively). Most of executives preferred to choose action-oriented roles (76.2%). The most common role was "implementer" (69.1%). "Avoiding" (52.7%) was the most common conflict solving strategy. The results showed that 89.1% of executives wanted to improve teamwork; 83.6%, leadership competencies; 81.8%, communication; and 80.0%, conflict management. CONCLUSIONS. The study results suggest that the executives of Lithuanian public health institutions evaluate their leadership competencies moderately. These results indicate the value of leadership training for public health executives.

  2. A CONCEPT: FACTORS INFLUENCING SHARING TACIT KNOWLEDGE IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawati D.T.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sharing tacit knowledge is a personal and more practical knowledge sharing based on someone's experience and skill. This research aimed to determine the process of sharing tacit knowledge in a public sector organization by putting several variables of organizational culture and servant leadership as antecedent and trust as mediation. This research was a combination of the previous model; it did not appear a new basis theory since it was an interaction of the previous research but more focusing on government organization. This research was practically expected to provide information to government organization on the factors influencing sharing tacit knowledge.

  3. State-owned Enterprises as Institutional Market Actors in the Marketization of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    This doctoral thesis (PhD) explores from a public governance perspective the role of stateowned enterprises (SOEs) in an era of marketization of public service provision and thus contributes to the renewed academic interest in contemporary SOEs. It builds on an explorative comparative case study...... of DSB SOV and SJ AB in the marketization of passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden respectively from the 1990s to 2015. In the period both cases kept full state ownership and Sweden gradually exposed all services to competition whereas in Denmark with time competition was put on hold. The case study...... as an institutional market actor (IMA)....

  4. Nursing Intervention in adolescence: an institution experience in Public Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martínez Esquivel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a key stage of life to the empowerment that must have health, but it has many needs that healthteams still have not resolved. This article presents an analysis of the health situation of a group of teenagersattending a public institution of higher education and intervention by nursing students, focused on creatingconditions for health promotion and disease prevention. This research was conducted from a quantitative,descriptive and was performed in an institution of secondary education in the period from September toNovember 2012. We worked with students and students of eighth and ninth year with a convenience sample. Themain results indicated needs in sexuality, healthy lifestyles and conflict resolution. To address these issuesevolved different strategies planned, organized, directed and controlled by the individual. We conclude that healtheducation in adolescents is a public health problem and that nurses must meet.

  5. Institutional Communication and Organizational Culture In Romanian Public Administration. A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminița Rosca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the extent to which modern management principles are known and applied in the Romanian public institutions. We also aim to identify a system of values that set a pattern of the organizational culture in the system of public institutions. The investigation technique we used is the questionnaire and the method we chose is the sociological survey. According to the standards of research methodology and in order to obtain accurate results, we have pre-tested the research tools in conditions similar to those of the study itself. In this respect, the present study will test the validity of the questionnaire on a group of 41 subjects, master’s students in a specialized program at the University of Bucharest, with the purpose of undertaking the sociological survey. The pilot study conclusions will allow the methodological framework of the sociological survey to refine and adapt the models of international analysis to the actual Romanian context.

  6. Climate information for public health: the role of the IRI climate data library in an integrated knowledge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Corral, John; Blumenthal, M Benno; Mantilla, Gilma; Ceccato, Pietro; Connor, Stephen J; Thomson, Madeleine C

    2012-09-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of climate variability and change on health outcomes. Protecting public health from the vagaries of climate requires new working relationships between the public health sector and the providers of climate data and information. The Climate Information for Public Health Action initiative at the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is designed to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of the climate. Significant challenges to building the capacity of health professionals to use climate information in research and decision-making include the difficulties experienced by many in accessing relevant and timely quality controlled data and information in formats that can be readily incorporated into specific analysis with other data sources. We present here the capacities of the IRI climate data library and show how we have used it to build an integrated knowledge system in the support of the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive decision-making with respect to health. Initiated as an aid facilitating exploratory data analysis for climate scientists, the IRI climate data library has emerged as a powerful tool for interdisciplinary researchers focused on topics related to climate impacts on society, including health.

  7. «Proceedings Of The Mining Institute»: history and modernization (to 110-th anniversary of first publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Г. Ребещенкова

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to one of the oldest scientific and technical periodicals in Russia, scientific agent of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University – «Proceedings of the Mining Institute». In 2017 we shall celebrate the 110-th anniversary of the first issue of the magazine coming from the press. That event gains a particular meaning because  of the growing role of periodicals in operative gaining, storing, translating and practically applying scientific information. Modern society is duly called the information society, in which intense and efficient use of one of its main resources – knowledge – is the chief factor of successful development of all the spheres of the society. «Proceedings of the Mining Institute» – is an exceptionally important fragment of that resource, shaped by all of its history. The paper considers the pre-history and historical stages of establishment of the «Proceedings of the Mining Institute». It stresses the high authority of the majority of participants of that process: starting from the initiators of its publication (professors of the Mining Institute and all the way to its current authors – outstanding scientists of Russia, the near and the far abroad, as well as the well-known political and economic leaders of the country. Reconstruction of the past of the «Proceedings of the Mining Institute» demonstrates that the magazine has rich and valuable history. Being itself a necessary expression of tribute and gratitude to the magazine forerunners, the re- construction is not the only principal purpose of this study, that purpose consisting in identification and substantiation of ways and means of upgrading the magazine, to support its competitive edge in the extremely complex information space, both global and domestic, saturated with information as never before.

  8. THE IMPACT OF MOVING TO KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela PACESILA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economy underwent profound changes in the last fifteen years, whichdetermined the appearance of a new economy – the knowledge economy.This economy is the result of the knowledge revolution, which gets a greaterand greater importance. Knowledge development is also very important inpublic sector. The knowledge society and its impact in public sectordevelopment is a critical area of study. The knowledge economy in publicsector requires the utilization of the knowledge in order to improve thetransparence, the services delivering to the citizens, for a bettercommunication with the citizens/users/clients and in order to improve theknowing degree of their needs. The transition to the knowledge economy inpublic sector has to take place in a decentralized, non-bureaucratic, cataliticand permissive environment, orientated to the results. In the same time, thepublic organizations must become knowledge based organizations, that havethe responsability and the flexibility to achieve the objectives publicly defined.In order to promote efficiently the development in the knowledge economy,the government must facilitate, instead of breaking, the process of economicchanges and modernizations, according as this modifications create newopportuneness and raised revenues. This must become as fast, selectiveand flexible as the economy and the society with which is mostly in contactand it must adopt the political decisions that serve the best the publicinterest.

  9. Public Service Entrance Examinations for Executive Secretary Position in Federal Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nunes de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The professional with a bachelor in Secretarial Science is increasingly placed on the labor market, both in the private and the public sector. However, recent public service entrance examination, on several occasions, offer positions for executive secretary – in which, neither the undergraduate degree in Secretarial Science nor the professional registry is mandatory, allowing undergraduates in different areas enter the public sector as executive secretaries. On the above, this article aims at identifying and introduce the public service entrance examinations for executive secretary, specifically in the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES, from 2009 to 2015. It was identified 110 public service entrance examination rules which provided 531 positions. Of these, only 308 positions (from 57 public service entrance examination rules were exclusively intended for applicants professionally qualified according to the Law No 7.377 of September 30th, 1985. It was noted that some IFES did not demand, in their public service entrance examination rules, the professional qualification required by the Circular Letter No 015/2005 from MEC, causing a loss to the professionals with the professional qualification.

  10. Public perception toward information and knowledge of nuclear power plant development; A Malaysian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge has been known as a key element in developing support and perception by the public towards any new policy by the government, including the development of nuclear energy. The success of the policy is mainly dependent on public support which is related to the perception cultivated by the knowledge that is already held by the people. A public survey was conducted between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia (n=1438). This research was aimed on the research question which is `Does the level of general knowledge and education regarding nuclear energy in Malaysia influence the acceptance and support of the people to develop nuclear technology?'. These finding suggest that open discourse is a must even at the initial stages of developing a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) program, which will touch on a few points that will assist to society's knowledge and understanding towards nuclear energy from the aspects of management, safety, radioactive waste, impact on economic competitiveness as well as the benefits and risks regarding the development of NPP. By increasing the knowledge regarding nuclear power and radioactive waste, perception towards the pros of NPP as well as the conviction towards its safety can be increased. It is suggested for the parties involved to use the latest approach of information technology as a way to provide the most effective medium of information dissemination to the public.

  11. Public and Institutional Markets for ESCO Services: ComparingPrograms, Practices and Prformance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; McWilliams, Jennifer; Birr,Dave; Stoughton McMordie, Kate

    2005-03-01

    Throughout the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry's history, public and institutional sector customers have provided the greatest opportunities for ESCOs to develop projects. Generally speaking, these facilities are large, possess aging infrastructure, and have limited capital budgets for improvements. The convergence of these factors with strong enabling policy support makes performance contracting an attractive and viable option for these customers. Yet despite these shared characteristics and drivers, there is surprising variety of experience among public/institutional customers and projects. This collaborative study examines the public/institutional markets in detail by comparing the overarching models and project performance in the federal government and the ''MUSH'' markets municipal agencies (state/local government), universities/colleges, K-12 schools,and hospitals that have traditionally played host to much of the ESCO industry's activity. Results are drawn from a database of 1634 completed projects held in partnership by the National Association of Energy Services Companies and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (the NAESCO/LBNL database), including 129 federal Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC) provided by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Strajnic and Nealon 2003). Project data results are supplemented by interviews with ESCOs.

  12. Institutional racism in public health contracting: Findings of a nationwide survey from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, H; Doole, C; McKenna, B; McCreanor, T

    2018-02-01

    Public institutions within New Zealand have long been accused of mono-culturalism and institutional racism. This study sought to identify inconsistencies and bias by comparing government funded contracting processes for Māori public health providers (n = 60) with those of generic providers (n = 90). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected (November 2014-May 2015), through a nationwide telephone survey of public health providers, achieving a 75% response rate. Descriptive statistical analyses were applied to quantitative responses and an inductive approach was taken to analyse data from open-ended responses in the survey domains of relationships with portfolio contract managers, contracting and funding. The quantitative data showed four sites of statistically significant variation: length of contracts, intensity of monitoring, compliance costs and frequency of auditing. Non-significant data involved access to discretionary funding and cost of living adjustments, the frequency of monitoring, access to Crown (government) funders and representation on advisory groups. The qualitative material showed disparate provider experiences, dependent on individual portfolio managers, with nuanced differences between generic and Māori providers' experiences. This study showed that monitoring government performance through a nationwide survey was an innovative way to identify sites of institutional racism. In a policy context where health equity is a key directive to the health sector, this study suggests there is scope for New Zealand health funders to improve their contracting practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about public health nutrition among students of the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

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    Jolanda Hyska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the

  14. Factors that influence the indication of a public federal education institution by its students through buzz marketing [doi: 10.21529/RECADM.2016003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildo Anselmo Galter Dalmonech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to identify factors that influence the indication of a Public Federal Institution of Education by its students through buzz marketing. In order to achieve this purpose, a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted, with primary data collection. The sample consisted of 528 students enrolled in high school, in integrated courses at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo´s state. The results show that satisfaction and the buzz marketing behavior are variables that influence the indication of the service of a Federal Public Institution of Education by students. Academically speaking, this study contributes in the sense that expands the knowledge of the buzz marketing action behavior in the area of public education that still is not very known in Brazil, enabling further investigations on the subject. As a practical contribution, this article suggests that managers from public institutions of education can use these results for future decision-making with concerning on projects and public policies related to the recruitment of students.   Keywords Buzz marketing; Quality; Satisfaction; Reputation.

  15. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Miodrag; Musović, Dijana; Petrović, Branislav; Milosević, Zoran; Milosavljević, Ivica; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Sokolović, Dusan

    2013-05-01

    According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the "ever" and "never" smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared with Serbian physicians in order to improve their smoking behavior and

  16. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared

  17. Essays on the Impacts of Geography and Institutions on Access to Energy and Public Infrastructure Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong, Belinda

    While previous literature has emphasized the importance of energy and public infrastructure services for economic development, questions surrounding the implications of unequal spatial distribution in access to these resources remain, particularly in the developing country context. This dissertation provides evidence on the nature, origins and implications of this distribution uniting three strands of research from the development and political economy, regional science and energy economics fields. The dissertation unites three papers on the nature of spatial inequality of access to energy and infrastructure with further implications for conflict risk , the historical institutional and biogeographical determinants of current distribution of access to energy and public infrastructure services and the response of households to fuel price changes over time. Chapter 2 uses a novel survey dataset to provide evidence for spatial clustering of public infrastructure non-functionality at schools by geopolitical zone in Nigeria with further implications for armed conflict risk in the region. Chapter 3 investigates the drivers of the results in chapter 2, exploiting variation in the spatial distribution of precolonial institutions and geography in the region, to provide evidence for the long-term impacts of these factors on current heterogeneity of access to public services. Chapter 4 addresses the policy implications of energy access, providing the first multi-year evidence on firewood demand elasticities in India, using the spatial variation in prices for estimation.

  18. Experiences of Knowledge Brokering for Evidence-Informed Public Health Policy and Practice: Three Years of the Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Helen; Geddes, Rosemary; Haw, Sally; Jackson, Caroline A.; Jepson, Ruth; Mooney, John D.; Frank, John

    2012-01-01

    Despite a burgeoning literature on, and widespread interest in, knowledge translation and exchange in public health, few articles provide an account of the actual experiences of knowledge brokerage organisations. The Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (SCPHRP) was formed in 2008 to: identify public health interventions…

  19. Public knowledge and attitudes towards the 60Co incident in Qixian County, Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cuiping; Cheng Xiaojun; Zhang Qinfu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation risk perception and nuclear acceptance after the 60 Co stuck source incident in June 2009 in Qixian County, Henan Province. Methods: From March to April 2010, 23 hamlets and 2 schools from 5 towns in Qixian County were selected, while 3 hamlets and 2 schools from 3 towns were used as control in Huixian County, 135 km away where no any impact of the incident was found. Face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups including mass public, elite public (representatives of public opinion, such as physicians, teachers, governmental officials, administrative personnel, private entrepreneurs), and middle school students (the third grade students in junior middle schools and the first grade students in senior middle schools). Results: A total of 1 340 valid questionnaires were collected. The public knowledge levels about radiation and nuclear power were low among all groups in two areas and public knowledge levels in Qixian County were higher than those in Huixian County. In both areas.the knowledge levels of the students were higher than those among the elite public, and that among the general public were the lowest. The knowledge levels of males and those with higher educational levels were higher than those of females and those with lower educational levels. More than 40.0% of the respondents supported the idea to build nuclear power plants in China, but only a small part of them supported to build nuclear power plants in their own areas. The percentages of opponents against local nuclear power plant construction were especially higher among the students and those with higher educational levels. More than 60% of the mass public and elite public believed the explanation of the government. More than 80% of the respondents held negative attitudes towards the performance of the Qixian County Government in dealing with this incident. The student gave the lowest evaluation of the credibility and the specific performance

  20. The Impact of a Summer Institute on Inservice Early Childhood Teachers' Knowledge of Earth and Space Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Krissek, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated inservice PreK to Grade two teachers' knowledge of some earth and space science concepts before and after a short-term teacher institute. A one-group pre-test-post-test design was used in the current study. Earth science concepts targeted during the professional development included properties of rocks and soils, and the…

  1. Theorizing the Concept of Urban Public Transportation Institutional Framework in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahman Noor Ashikin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends in transportation have been changing and will continue to change over the years. Urban dwellers in developing countries require and demand for mobility and accessibility at the same growth rate of these urban areas. Often, this demand is accommodated by the increased number of private vehicles. Development of a country is closely linked with the transportation system facilities thus will have a positive impact on the economic growth and social fabric of a country. The traffic issues are always associated with private vehicles especially in any developing cities such as the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. A practical, efficient and effective transport system includes traffic management, public transport, road network and infrastructure. However, sadly, at present, the traffic problems in Malaysia are resulted from ineffective public transport system which is not methodically integrated from one place to another, therefore, forcing the people to use private vehicles for daily exercise. An integrated and comprehensive approach is required as it enhances the regulatory framework, planning structure and level of services delivered. For that reason, this paper reviews the magnitude of urban public transportation institutional framework in order to improve the people’s mobility, also to respond to the major problem of urban public transportation in the major city of Malaysia. This study therefore applies a case study design and relies very much on qualitative data encompassing policies and guidelines. The findings were drawn from an early investigation of the Malaysian institutional public transport framework through literature review which looks closely into the management structure, as well as the implementation of public transportation system and its enforcement.

  2. Knowledge spillovers and absorptive capacity - institutional evidence from the 'German Mittelstand'

    OpenAIRE

    Proeger, Till

    2017-01-01

    Recent extensions to the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE) show that the successful commercialization of new knowledge by incumbents depends on their absorptive capacities. For policy-makers focusing on increasing incumbents' innovative performance, the systematic reduction of knowledge filter through improved absorptive capacities thus becomes a crucial goal. While the general working mechanisms of knowledge filter have been analyzed within the KSTE framework, few institu...

  3. Knowledge and awareness of ocular allergy among undergraduate students of public universities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Tettey, Bernard; Asiedu, Kofi; Awuah, Agnes

    2016-10-28

    Ocular allergy is a growing public health problem that greatly impacts the day-to-day life of sufferers and their families. Other aspects of their activities of daily living such as schooling, professional, and social life are affected hence an increased awareness and knowledge of ocular allergies, their detection and treatment is paramount. This study was to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of ocular allergy among undergraduate students of public universities in Ghana. A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted among 1000 students from three selected public universities in Ghana. Each respondent completed a questionnaire that had questions concerning awareness and knowledge of ocular allergy. Out of the 1000 students, 347 (34.7 %) were aware of ocular allergy. Of these 347 students, the level of knowledge of ocular allergy was generally low. Majority of the students had their source of information about ocular allergy from the media and the internet. There was statistical significant association among awareness of ocular allergy, sources of information and programme of study (p students is generally low. Students' programmes of study influenced their knowledge of ocular allergy. Public health measures are recommended to help educate students on the prevention and control of ocular allergy as well as the complications associated with this condition.

  4. A Proposed Educational Model to Improve the Operations of Knowledge-Exchange between MOE and Higher Education Institutions in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Ana,am Ali Salem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to build a proposed educational model for improving knowledge-exchange processes between the Ministry of Education and Higher Education institutions in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of (301 educational leaders: (158 academic staff members from the Faculty of Educational Sciences – University of Jordan – and the Faculty of Education in Yarmouk University; and (143 members from the center of Jordanian Ministry of Education for the academic year 2016/2017. To achieve the aims of the study, the researcher built a questionnaire, consisting of (88 items as tool for collecting data. The research tool was checked for its validity and reliability semantics. To analyze the data, means and standard deviation were used. The results of the study showed that the educational leaders rated the degree of practicing knowledge-exchange processes between Jordanian Ministry of Education and Higher Education institutions in Jordan as (moderate. Also, they rated the obstacles that face knowledge-exchange processes as (moderate. The study concluded with a proposed educational model for improving knowledge-exchange processes between the Ministry of Education and Higher Education institutions in Jordan, and recommended to be approved and applied in Jordan. Keywords: A Proposed educational model, Knowledge-exchange processes, Practicing degree, Obstacles, Jordanian Universities, Jordanian Ministry of Education

  5. Knowledge Sharing among Academics in Institutions of Higher Learning: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, T.; Ignatius, Joshua; Leen, Jasmine Yeap Ai

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a research agenda for a funded research project on knowledge sharing among academics in Malaysia. One of the main objectives is to develop validate and measure of knowledge sharing which is suitable for academicians. Previous studies on knowledge sharing have used standard measurement items which do not cater for the multiple…

  6. Antibiotic use and resistance: a cross-sectional study exploring knowledge and attitudes among school and institution personnel in Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelaki, Ketevan; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Marrone, Gaetano

    2015-09-29

    The Republic of Georgia lacks regulations regarding drug prescriptions. In pharmacies, all drugs except psychotropic medication are sold legally without prescription anti-, including anti-tuberculosis agents. Due to the lack of adequate policies and regulations, the big share of responsibility regarding antibiotic education lies with the general public. This study examines public knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotic use and resistance in the Republic of Georgia among personnel from government schools and other public institutions. This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2011 using a quantitative questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was used. Participants included 250 individuals aged 21-80 years, from government schools and public institutions. Participants were from Tbilisi as well as the surrounding rural and urban areas. Respondents provided demographic data along with statements on knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use and resistance. Poisson and logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between knowledge, attitude outcomes and socio-demographic characteristics. The overall response rate was 75% (n = 187), of which 80% were female. Approximately 91% of respondents had used antibiotics at least once and 55% agreed that antibiotics speed up recovery from common colds. A number of respondents (55%) reported having received antibiotics without previously consulting a doctor and 62% reported having purchased antibiotics without a prescription. Respondents demonstrated some misunderstanding around the terms 'bacteria' and 'virus.' About 52% of participants agreed that antibiotics are effective against bacteria; however, 55% also agreed that antibiotics are effective against viruses. Trust in doctors was high at 80%. More knowledge was associated with a lower probability of having purchased antibiotics without medical consultation. The study findings demonstrate that respondents have several misconceptions and lack

  7. Survey of public knowledge about digestive health and diseases: implications for health education.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, G L; Ruben, B D; Baker, M W; Rosenthal, S R

    1987-01-01

    Increasing emphasis in recent years has been placed on health promotion, prevention, and the self-management of health care. These strategies presume the public has sufficient levels of relevant health information, as well as necessary attitudes and skills for the effective use of this information in the management of their own health care. This study tests this assumption as it relates to the level of public knowledge of digestive health and disease, a major health concern affecting an estim...

  8. Transformations of public and private knowledge: audience reception, feminism and experience of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzinger, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    This article examines an extraordinary cultural transformation in public and private knowledge: the discovery of child sexual abuse. It draws on interviews and focus group discussions conducted over eleven years to explore how dramatic changes in mass media coverage influenced public and personal perceptions of this issue. Focussing on the experiences of women and girls in the UK, my research highlights the media's special role, quite distinct from other cultural resources, in helping to conf...

  9. The logical underpinnings and benefits of pooled pharmaceutical procurement: a pragmatic role for our public institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-Rousselle, Maggie

    2012-11-01

    Multi-national pharmaceutical companies have long operated across national boundaries, and exercised significant leverage because of the breadth and depth of their market control. The goals of public health can be better served by redressing the imbalance in market leverage between supply and demand. Consolidation of purchasing power across borders, as well as within countries across organizational entities, is one means to addressing this imbalance. In those existing pooled procurement models that consolidate purchasing across national boundaries, benefits have included: 1) reductions in unit purchase prices; 2) improved quality assurance; 3) reduction or elimination of procurement corruption; 4) rationalized choice through better-informed selection and standardization; 5) reduction of operating costs and administrative burden; 6) increased equity between members; 7) augmented practical utility in the role of the host institutions (regional or international) administering the system; and finally, 8) increased access to essential medical products within each participating country. Many barriers to implementation of a multi-country pooled procurement system are eliminated when the mechanism is established within a regional or international institution, especially where participating countries are viewed (and view themselves) as clients/members of the institution, so that they have some sense of ownership over the procurement mechanism. This review article is based on two literature reviews, conducted between 2007 and 2009 (including publications from 1996 through 2009), and interviews with key informants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of scientific knowledge in shaping public attitudes to GM technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Henrik Ole; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the perceived balance of risk and benefit, and on the perceived unnaturalness, some applications of gene technology appear more acceptable to the public than others. This study asks whether a person’s knowledge of biology affects their assessment of these factors differently. A random...... sample of the Danish population (n = 2000) was presented with questionnaires. The respondent’s knowledge was measured by a number of textbook questions on biology. The results indicated that knowledge increases the likelihood that a person will have differentiated opinions on medical and agricultural...

  11. Community/public health nursing faculty's knowledge, skills and attitudes of the Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Barbara L; Harmon, Monica; Johnson, Regina Gina H; Hicks, Vicki; Brown-Schott, Nancy; Pilling, Lucille; Brownrigg, Vicki

    2018-05-02

    A multisite collaborative team of community/public health nursing (C/PHN) faculty surveyed baccalaureate nursing faculty to explore their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and application of the Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses (QCC-PHN). (1) Evaluate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the 2011 QCC-PHN by academic C/PHN faculty; (2) Evaluate the application of 2011 QCC-PHN by C/PHN faculty in the clinical practicum for undergraduate baccalaureate C/PHN students; and (3) Determine if a significant difference existed in the knowledge for each domain. A mixed methods descriptive research design was used to answer three specific hypotheses related to the study objectives. A convenience sample of 143 faculty teaching C/PHN in baccalaureate schools of nursing completed an online survey. ANOVA was used to determine the difference between knowledge, skills, attitudes, and application of nursing faculty regarding the QCC-PHN based on years of nursing experience, C/PHN experience, and nursing specialty preparation. Participants' qualitative comments for each domain were analyzed for themes. C/PHN nursing faculty are described and differences in knowledge, skills, and attitudes delineated. A statistically significant difference was found in skills based on years of experience in C/PHN and in the application of the competencies based on nursing specialty preparation. Variations in knowledge of the QCC-PHN are identified. Ten recommendations are proposed for key skill sets and necessary preparation for faculty to effectively teach C/PHN in baccalaureate schools of nursing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: The Impact of the Space Telescope Science Institute Office of Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise Anne; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, Ray; Green, Joel David

    2015-08-01

    As the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is uniquely positioned to captivate the imagination and inspire learners of all ages in humanity’s quest to understand fundamental questions about our universe and our place in it. This presentation will provide an overview of the impact of the STScI’s Office of Public Outreach’s efforts to engage students, educators, and the public in exploring the universe through audience-based news, education, and outreach programs.At the heart of our programs lies a tight coupling of scientific, education, and communications expertise. By partnering scientists and educators, we assure current, accurate science content and education products and programs that are classroom-ready and held to the highest pedagogical standards. Likewise, news and outreach programs accurately convey cutting-edge science and technology in a way that is attuned to audience needs. The combination of Hubble’s scientific capabilities, majestic imagery, and our deep commitment to create effective programs to share Hubble science with the education community and the public, has enabled the STScI Office of Public Outreach programs to engage 6 million students and ½ million educators per year, and 24 million online viewers per year. Hubble press releases generate approximately 5,000 online news articles per year with an average circulation of 125 million potential readers per press release news story. We will also share how best practices and lessons learned from this long-lived program are already being applied to engage a new generation of explorers in the science and technology of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  13. INSTITUTIONAL AND CONJUNCTURAL FACTORS ACTION ON AUTONOMY IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCUTARIU PETRONELA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Component without which the function of local public administration management would be compromised, administrative autonomy manifests under the action of various factors. From such an angle, the space of this article is dedicated to identifying the factors affecting the autonomy in management of local public administration in order to show their actions on its manifestation. By developing the present approach, beyond the incompleteness of the existing explanations relative to this sphere of interest, we have identified and highlighted the action of two sets of factors - institutional and conjunctural. Ensign turned out to be the action that institutional factors exert on autonomy, the latter being the greater, as the local administrative structure is higher, as the number of local public services is higher, when there are legal regulations that warrant it, and vice versa. Then analyzing conjunctural factors, we found that the influence of the economic crisis is, as expected, adverse to autonomy manifestation. Regarding the local development factor, we showed that a local community with a high degree of development functions without the intervention of center, a situation that favors autonomy, as opposed to a less developed community that requires the support of the center, intervention which mitigates the autonomy. By examining the action of political factor, we noticed that, although politicians define public strategies and policies that will be implemented, which gives it a positive connotation, most often autonomy suffers under the politics influence. Finally, the social organization in local collectivities provides favorable ground to the manifestation and functioning of autonomy in the management of local public administration.

  14. Public-Private Partnership as an Institutional Instrument of Investment in the Country’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergachova Viktoriia V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the world experience of efficient interaction between the public and private sectors, defining the main advantages of the implementation of public-private partnership (PPP relations, identifying problems in the legislative base on regulation of the PPP process in Ukraine. Introduction and formation of public-private partnership as an instrument of attraction of investment resources and interaction of public and private sectors are considered. It has been found that lack of financing and negative experience of privatization of the State property caused the introduction of the PPP institute in the world practice. However, there is no single unified approach to the regulation of relations in the sphere of PPP presently, which would meet the needs of all countries. In Ukraine, this mechanism is being implemented, but it is not a widespread practice because of terminological discrepancies and lack of a uniform procedure for providing the State support to the implementation of PPP. The advantages of the PPP implementation for the public and private sectors have been determined.

  15. Health-related behaviour among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Farkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Behavioural risk factors have a significant impact on health. We aimed to assess health-related behaviour, health status, and use of healthcare services among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which included management (directors, scientific directors, directors’ deputies of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health (63 respondents; 57% women; overall mean age: 51±7 years; response rate: 74%. Data were obtained using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Results: About 35% of respondents were directors. More than half of the respondents were overweight or obese (52%, the majority were not sufficiently physically active (59% and overloaded with stress (87%. Hypercholesterolemia (36%, spinal disease (17%, and arterial hypertension (16% were most common chronic diseases. Whilst only few participants visited their general practitioner due their health complaints, blood pressure (76%, cholesterol (51%, and glucose (54% were measured within last year in most of the respondents. Conclusion: Our findings point to a high prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as workplace-related stress among Slovenian public health managers. Therefore, effective preventive strategies should be focused on stress management along with promotion of healthy behavioural patterns.

  16. Breast cancer mammographic diagnosis performance in a public health institution: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana M R B; Bittelbrunn, Fernando P; Rockenbach, Marcio A B C; May, Guilherme G; Vedolin, Leonardo M; Kruger, Marilia S; Soldatelli, Matheus D; Zwetsch, Guilherme; de Miranda, Gabriel T F; Teixeira, Saone I P; Arruda, Bruna S

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the quality assurance of mammography results at a reference institution for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in southern Brazil, based on the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) 5th edition recommendations for auditing purposes. Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study with 4502 patients (9668 mammographies)) who underwent at least one or both breast mammographies throughout 2013 at a regional public hospital, linked to a federal public university. The results were followed until 31 December 2014, including true positives (TPs), true negatives (TNs), false positives (FPs), false negatives (FNs), positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity, with a confidence interval of 95%. The study showed high quality assurance, particularly regarding sensitivity (90.22%) and specificity (92.31%). The overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 65.35%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 98.32%. The abnormal interpretation rate (recall rate) was 12.26%. The results are appropriate when compared to the values proposed by the BIRADS 5th edition. Additionally, the study provided self-reflection considering our radiological practice, which is essential for improvements and collaboration regarding breast cancer detection. It may stimulate better radiological practice performance and continuing education, despite possible infrastructure and facility limitations. • Accurate quality performance rates are possible despite financial and governmental limitations. • Low-income institutions should develop standardised teamwork to improve radiological practice. • Regular mammography audits may help to increase the quality of public health systems.

  17. "Knowledge Must Become Capability": Institutional Intellectualism as an Agent for Military Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knott, Steven

    2004-01-01

    .... Institutional intellectualism is system-sponsored critical thinking that focuses synergistic intellectual capital to effect transformational change and continual renewal within an organization...

  18. Study on Space Audit Assessment Criteria for Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia: Space Capacity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hamdan Wan Samsul Zamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure the capacity rate of learning space based on the as-built drawing provided by the institutions or if the as-built drawing is missing, the researcher have to prepare measured drawing as per actual on site. The learning space Capacity Index is developed by analyzing the space design in as-built drawing or measured drawing and the list of learning spaces available at the institution. The Capacity Index is classified according to the level of Usable Floor Area (UFA and Occupancy Load (OL according to learning space design capacity. The classification of Capacity Index is demonstrated through linguistic value and the color-coded key. From the said index, the institution can easily identify whether the existing learning space is currently best used or vice versa and standard space planning compliance in Malaysia Public Higher Education Institutions. The data will assist the management to clarify whether to maximize the use of existing space or to request for new learning space.

  19. Paradigms for Assessment of Organizational Climate in a Public Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Knupp Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the factors relevant to assessment of organizational climate of a Public Institute for Research in the area of C&T, with headquarters located in Vale do Paraiba Paulista considering their specific characteristics and the perception of its employers for the characteristics of this work environment. This is a quantitative, exploratory descriptive, taking the form of survey. The Institution research participant has 1.075 active employers and the sample used in data collection were 149 respondents in which a questionnaire was administered, whose data were statistically analyzed. It was found the stability of the instrument through Cronbach's Alpha Test, which indicated the reliability of the survey responses and the tests Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin – KMO and Bartlett’s Sphericity indicated that the factor analysis could be used in this mass data. The technique of factor analysis was applied and the results showed that 10 clusters of issues/indicators are suitable for this study. After analyzing the clusters were identified the following factors as relevant for climate study: Identity and Security, Autonomy, Achievement and Satisfaction with Work, Professional Development, Commitment and Teamwork, Leadership, Salary, Interaction, and Satisfaction with Institution Organizational Structure. This work reached its goal and its outcome encourages further studies on the subject, and provides subsidies for the development of a tool to search appropriate to the specific organizational climate of the institution concerned.

  20. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public care... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care...

  1. The Quest for Really Useful Knowledge: An Institutional Ethnography of Community Adult Education in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Shivaani Aruna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this institutional ethnography was to explicate the social relations of broadband adoption through the public programs implemented by the Media Mobilizing Project (MMP) between 2009 and 2013, when they operated for the first time in alignment with federal regulations that orchestrated the practice of the Broadband Technology…

  2. Environmental Sustainability: Study an Institution of Higher Education Public of the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kalynka Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the general objective of analyzing the environmental sustainability of an Institution of Higher Education (IHE Public of the State of Santa Catarina. To meet this objective has to reach the specific objectives: to check the number of IHEs in Brazil and Santa Catarina; to identify the number of public and private institutions and to propose a management model 5W2H to deficit sustainability criteria. The methodology and the objectives considered descriptive, with the technical procedures has the case study and the approach problem qualitative. The methodology is divided into three phases: the first phase it is the theoretical basis, it approaches social and environmental responsibility; environmental management and environmental management system. In the second phase it is the analysis of the results where first there was the amount of IHE and distribution in administrative categories. In the third phase, it has been the purpose of responding to a checklist of 154 questions developed by Pieri et al (2011 and Environmental Management Plan Summary (5W2H. In the end it is concluded that the institution submitted a global sustainability index of 32 %, being regarded as weak, proposing with the 5W2H tool, an action for each criterion, as the inclusion of recyclable products in acquisitions; recycling of waste; accessibility to the handicapped; and creating actions that approximates the IHE to the society. It is hoped that the proposed actions that the institution to put them into practice, increase the environmental sustainability index, benefiting society and the environment.

  3. The role of communication in the transformation process of public institutions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Vasile

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of changes that take place in the Romanian economical-political-social environment before and after the integration in the European Union, the public administration must be able to rise up to the challenges that it has to confront. On the other hand, the civil society and the private sector, in order to develop, must find in the administration a partner that can facilitate communication and can offer the levers and instruments for them to express themselves and develop. A rigid administration, constrained by its own resources, norms and regulations cannot offer the most prompt answer to the needs of society, forming a barrier, often hard to surpass. That is why change should be a priority for the public administration in order to adapt to the same rhythm through a strategy that can promote communication, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness.Despite all this, it is required that the reform initiatives of the public administration to involve all factors that can contribute to the reform process: institutional, governmental factors, the European Union regulations, the requirements of the private and civil society. In order to answer to and involve all this factors, a communication strategy made and, precisely, adapted in the frame of the implementation process of the management of change is needed. In this process, the communication is answering the following wishes: the need of transparency of the decisional system; the need of communicating everything, immediately; the internal and external credibility of the institution management; the need of changing the people perception in regard to the institution, and, in this case facilitator and instrument in the change process.

  4. Beyond bridging the know-do gap: a qualitative study of systemic interaction to foster knowledge exchange in the public health sector in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driessen Mareeuw, Francine; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Klerkx, Laurens; Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Koelen, Maria

    2015-09-19

    Despite considerable attention currently being given to facilitating the use of research results in public health practice, several concerns remain, resulting in the so-called know-do gap. This article aims to identify the key tensions causing the know-do gap from a broad perspective by using a systemic approach and considering the public health sector as an innovation system. An exploratory qualitative design including in-depth semi-structured interviews was used, with 33 interviewees from different actor categories in the Dutch public health innovation system. The analyses employed an innovation system matrix to highlight the principal tensions causing the know-do gap. Seven key tensions were identified, including: research priorities determined by powerful players; no consensus about criteria for knowledge quality; different perceptions about the knowledge broker role; competition engendering fragmentation; thematic funding engendering fragmentation; predominance of passive knowledge sharing; and lack of capacity among users to use and influence research. The identified tensions indicate that bridging the know-do gap requires much more than linking research to practice or translating knowledge. An innovation system perspective is crucial in providing information on the total picture of knowledge exchange within the Dutch public health sector. Such a system includes broader stakeholder involvement as well as the creation of social, economic, and contextual conditions (achieving shared visions, building networks, institutional change, removing financial and infrastructural barriers), as these create conducive factors at several system levels and induce knowledge co-creation and innovation.

  5. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  6. Knowledge Transfer on Complex Social Interventions in Public Health: A Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Christian; Malo, Marie; Robert, Émilie; Ouimet, Mathieu; Berthelette, Diane; Ridde, Valéry

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Scientific knowledge can help develop interventions that improve public health. The objectives of this review are (1) to describe the status of research on knowledge transfer strategies in the field of complex social interventions in public health and (2) to identify priorities for future research in this field. Method A scoping study is an exploratory study. After searching databases of bibliographic references and specialized periodicals, we summarized the relevant studies using a predetermined assessment framework. In-depth analysis focused on the following items: types of knowledge transfer strategies, fields of public health, types of publics, types of utilization, and types of research specifications. Results From the 1,374 references identified, we selected 26 studies. The strategies targeted mostly administrators of organizations and practitioners. The articles generally dealt with instrumental utilization and most often used qualitative methods. In general, the bias risk for the studies is high. Conclusion Researchers need to consider the methodological challenges in this field of research in order to improve assessment of more complex knowledge transfer strategies (when they exist), not just diffusion/dissemination strategies and conceptual and persuasive utilization. PMID:24324593

  7. Knowledge Management Practices and Enablers in Public Universities: A Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sharimllah Devi; Chong, Siong-Choy; Wong, Kuan-Yew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the gap between knowledge management (KM) practices and key strategic enablers in public universities. For this purpose, a 57-item survey on two dimensions--"use" and "importance"--was used as the instrument for this study. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire was…

  8. Industry - Public knowledge infrastructure interaction: intra- and inter-organizational explanations of interactive learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeus, M.T.H.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; Hage, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper pursues the development and empirical exploration of a theoretical framework that explains the probabilities of interactive learning of innovating firms and actors in the public knowledge infrastructure. Our research question reads as follows: To what extent does the strength of innovator

  9. Institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying public policy responsibilities in a retail competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industry places at risk various environmental and social programmes such as demand side management, low income programmes and renewable energy. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kinds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industry. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises, electricity facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councils, model systems programmes, integrated social services programmes, collaborative electric service programmes, ISO standards and portfolio standards. These recommendations would be funded by a national transmission charge, a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes, to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively. (author)

  10. Publications and geothermal sample library facilities of the Earth Science Laboratory, University of Utah Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Phillip M.; Ruth, Kathryn A.; Langton, David R.; Bullett, Michael J.

    1990-03-30

    The Earth Science Laboratory of the University of Utah Research Institute has been involved in research in geothermal exploration and development for the past eleven years. Our work has resulted in the publication of nearly 500 reports, which are listed in this document. Over the years, we have collected drill chip and core samples from more than 180 drill holes in geothermal areas, and most of these samples are available to others for research, exploration and similar purposes. We hope that scientists and engineers involved in industrial geothermal development will find our technology transfer and service efforts helpful.

  11. National Institutions and Global Public Goods: Are Democracies More Cooperative in Climate Change Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Bättig, Michèle B.; Bernauer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article examines whether democracies contribute more to the provision of global public goods. It thus contributes to the debate on the effects of domestic institutions on international cooperation. The focus is on human-induced climate change, in Stern's words "the biggest market failure the world has ever seen.” Using new data on climate change cooperation we study a cross-section of 185 countries in 1990-2004. The results show that the effect of democracy on levels of political commitm...

  12. AICPA standard aids in detecting risk factors for fraud. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Dery, R J

    1999-10-01

    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 82, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, requires independent auditors to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statements are free of material mis-statements caused by error or fraud. SAS No. 82 provides guidance for independent auditors to use to help detect and document risk factors related to potential fraud. But while SAS No. 82 suggests how auditors should assess the potential for fraud, it does not expand their detection responsibility. Accordingly, financial managers should discuss thoroughly with auditors the scope and focus of an audit as a means to further their compliance efforts.

  13. Scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance of the waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    The recent successful certification and opening of a first-of-a-kind, deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, New Mexico, United States of America (USA), embody both long-standing local and wide-spread, gradually achieved, scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance. The related historical background and development are outlined and the main contributors to the successful siting, certification, and acceptance of the WIPP TRUW repository, which may also serve as a model to success for other radioactive waste disposal programs, are described. (author)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS FOR FINANCING THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial support of the regional and municipal economy development. Formation of the institutional basis for the budgeting process and budgets interactions between the territories of different levels are shown on the base of retrospective analysis of foundation and development of budget federalism in Russia. Attraction of entrepreneurial sector resources on the conditions of public-private partnership is discussed as additional finance source and definite particularities of this process are described in line with the possibilities of their appliance.

  15. Balanced Scorecard – Strategic Management Tool of Performance in Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cretu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Balanced Scorecard (BSC is used to achieve an operational strategic vision at all levels of the organization regarding issues related to performance, strategy, communication, resource allocation, decision-making and competitiveness. BSC was created to restrict the limits of traditional financial and management tools and ensure unity of vision and long-term action in an organization. The main advantage of the method consists in guiding managers and departments, human resources, technological and financial resources towards the strategy of the organization. Unfortunately BSC is mainly used in private companies, because high costs and lack of specialists pose a real obstacle in implementing this instrument in public institutions. Our arguments attempts to show that the Balanced Scorecard can be the most appropriate among all the management tools for the public sector.

  16. ISSUES REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL CONTROL/ MANAGERIAL AND COMBATING SOME NEGATIVE EFFECTS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS' ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stegaroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the importance and impact of the management of internal control/ managerial in Romanian public institutions, as well as the consequences arising as a result of not implementing it. It also analyzed the legal framework governing the internal control/managerial and the main conclusions issued by the Romanian Court of Accounts on the status of its implementation in Romanian public institutions. At the same time, it is stressed the role of management carried out by heads of public institutions in terms of combating the negative effects that have a direct impact on their activity.

  17. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Najko; Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  18. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najko Jahn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data

  19. Assessing the Potential for Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting from Large Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnachew Adugna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As in many other cities, urbanization coupled with population growth worsens the water supply problem of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with a water supply deficit of 41% in 2016. To investigate the potential contribution of rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH from large public institutions, 320 such institutions were selected and grouped into 11 categories, from which 25–30% representative 588 rooftops were digitalized and the potential RWH volume computed based on a ten-year rainfall dataset. When comparing the resulting RWH potential with the water consumption, up to 2.3% of the annual, potable water supply can be provided. If reused only within one’s own institution, the self-sufficiency varies from 0.9 to 649%. Non-uniform rainfall patterns add uncertainty to these numbers, since the size of the storage tank becomes critical for coverage in the dry season from October to May. Despite the low replacement potential at the city level, RWH from large institutions will enable a significant volume of potable water to be transferred to localities critically suffering from water shortage. Further, large institutions may demonstrate how RWH can be practiced, thus acting as a frontrunner for the dissemination of RWH to other types of rooftops. To narrow the water supply gap, considering rooftop RWH as an alternative water supply source is recommended. However, the present study assumed that financial constraints to install large sized storage tanks are considered as a possible challenge. Thus, future research is needed to investigate the cost-benefit balance along with the invention of a cheap storage tank as they may affect the potential contribution of RWH from rooftops.

  20. Assessing the Potential for Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting from Large Public Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Dagnachew; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Lemma, Brook; Gebrie, Geremew Sahilu

    2018-02-14

    As in many other cities, urbanization coupled with population growth worsens the water supply problem of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with a water supply deficit of 41% in 2016. To investigate the potential contribution of rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) from large public institutions, 320 such institutions were selected and grouped into 11 categories, from which 25-30% representative 588 rooftops were digitalized and the potential RWH volume computed based on a ten-year rainfall dataset. When comparing the resulting RWH potential with the water consumption, up to 2.3% of the annual, potable water supply can be provided. If reused only within one's own institution, the self-sufficiency varies from 0.9 to 649%. Non-uniform rainfall patterns add uncertainty to these numbers, since the size of the storage tank becomes critical for coverage in the dry season from October to May. Despite the low replacement potential at the city level, RWH from large institutions will enable a significant volume of potable water to be transferred to localities critically suffering from water shortage. Further, large institutions may demonstrate how RWH can be practiced, thus acting as a frontrunner for the dissemination of RWH to other types of rooftops. To narrow the water supply gap, considering rooftop RWH as an alternative water supply source is recommended. However, the present study assumed that financial constraints to install large sized storage tanks are considered as a possible challenge. Thus, future research is needed to investigate the cost-benefit balance along with the invention of a cheap storage tank as they may affect the potential contribution of RWH from rooftops.

  1. Public support for alcohol policies associated with knowledge of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Gilligan, Conor; Ward, Bernadette; Kippen, Rebecca; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Several options are advocated by policy experts to mitigate alcohol-related harms, although the most effective strategies often have the least public support. While knowledge of tobacco-related health risks predicts support for relevant public health measures, it is not known whether knowledge of alcohol health risks is similarly associated with the acceptability of policies intended to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. This study aims to gauge public support for a range of alcohol policies and to determine whether or not support is associated with knowledge of a long-term health risk of alcohol consumption, specifically cancer. 2482 adults in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, participated in an online survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between demographic data, alcohol consumption, smoking status, knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer and support for alcohol-related policies. Most participants were supportive of health warnings, restricting access to internet alcohol advertising to young people, and requiring information on national drinking guidelines on alcohol containers. Almost half of participants supported a ban on sport sponsorship, while less than 41% supported price increases, volumetric taxation, or reducing the number of retail outlets. Only 47% of participants identified drinking too much alcohol as a risk factor for cancer. Knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer was a significant predictor of support for all policies, while level of alcohol consumption had a significant inverse relationship with policy support. The finding that support for alcohol management policies is associated with awareness that drinking too much alcohol may contribute to cancer could assist in the planning of future public health interventions. Improving awareness of the long term health risks of alcohol consumption may be one avenue to increasing public support for effective alcohol harm-reduction policies

  2. From the Adam Smith Institute to the Zapatistas: An Internet Gateway to all Development Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Examines the World Bank Internet initiative, the Development Gateway. Describes the importance of the Bank as a knowledge bank and the threats posed by the Internet to its near monopoly of development thinking. Argues that the initiative reveals biases and misunderstandings in the World Bank's approach to knowledge for development. (CAJ)

  3. Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions: insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Buuren, van A.; Knieling, J.; Gottschick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large scale

  4. Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in a tertiary level teaching institution of rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Sharma, Chanderdeep; Thakur, Sita; Raina, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the nursing staff knowledge, attitude and practices about cervical cancer screening in a tertiary care teaching institute of rural India. A cross sectional, descriptive, interview- based survey was conducted with a pretested questionnaire among 262 staff nurses of a tertiary care teaching and research institute. In this study 77% respondents knew that Pap smear is used for detection of cervical cancer, but less than half knew that Pap smear can detect even precancerous lesions of cervix. Only 23.4% knew human papilloma virus infection as a risk factor. Only 26.7% of the respondents were judged as having adequate knowledge based on scores allotted for questions evaluating knowledge about cervical cancer and screening. Only 17 (7%) of the staff nurses had themselves been screened by Pap smear, while 85% had never taken a Pap smear of a patient. Adequate knowledge of cervical cancer and screening, higher parity and age >30 years were significantly associated with self screening for cervical cancer. Most nurses held a view that Pap test is a doctor procedure, and nearly 90% of nurses had never referred a patient for Pap testing. The majority of nursing staff in rural India may have inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer screening, and their attitude and practices towards cervical cancer screening could not be termed positive.

  5. Knowledge of palliative care among medical interns in a tertiary health institution in Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chukwunyere Nnadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative care is the proactive care which seeks to maximize quality of life for people and families facing life-threatening illnesses. Objectives: To ascertain the existing knowledge of palliative care among medical interns and determine the effect of a structured educational intervention on improvement of their knowledge levels. Subjects and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental, interventional study with a one group pre- and post-test design involving medical interns rotating through the various departments of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The study population was chosen by convenience sampling method. The interns completed a pre- and a post-test assessment following a structured educational intervention for the evaluation of knowledge of palliative care. Knowledge was evaluated by a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: A total number of 49 medical interns were recruited, among whom were 41 males and 8 females. Their ages ranged from 21 to 36 years with a mean of 27.7 (standard deviation 2.14 years. In the pretest, 11/49 (22.5% of the respondents had poor knowledge level of palliative care; however, in the postintervention, only 2/49 (4.1% of the respondents had poor knowledge. Similarly, good knowledge levels appreciated from 9/49 (18.4% to 14/49 (28.6% while very good knowledge increased from 10/49 (20.4% to 19/49 (38.8%. This effect was statistically significant (Chi-square test 11.655 df = 3, P = 0.009. Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of palliative care among the interns due to ignorance. Following an educational intervention, the knowledge levels appreciated significantly. Palliative care should be part of the medical curriculum.

  6. Collective symbolic coping with new technology: Knowledge, images and public discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Kronberger, Nicole; Seifert, Franz

    2002-09-01

    Using data from policy analyses, media analyses and a European-wide survey about public perceptions of biotechnology conducted in 1996 and again in 1999, it is shown how a country's public develops an everyday understanding of a new technology (genetic modification) construed as potentially harmful by the media. To understand the reliance on images and related beliefs, we propose a theory of collective symbolic coping. It identifies four steps: first, the creation of awareness; second, production of divergent images; third, convergence upon a couple of dominant images in the public sphere; fourth, normalization. It is suggested that symbolic coping occurs in countries where a recent increase in policy activity and of media reporting has alerted the public; that this public show a high proportion of beliefs in menacing images; that these beliefs are relatively independent of pre-existing popular science knowledge; and that they are functionally equivalent to scientific knowledge in providing judgmental confidence and reducing self-ascribed ignorance. These propositions are shown to be true in Austria and Greece. Several implications of the theory are discussed, including social representation theory and public understanding of science.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFERENCE MODEL TO INTEGRATED DESIGN MANAGEMENT ON PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Andery

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims discussing the design process carried out in public institutions. Since there are different players in the design process, including designers, coordinators, bureaucratic managers, the design development brings some problems that come from the lack of a contracting and design development model, as well as in the information flow between its stakeholders. Rework, delays in contracts deadlines and low quality of the final product are not unusual. Due to the complexity of the design process, it has been searched in the process modeling a valid option to fulfill that blank. A Referential Term was developed by creating a work flow to the institution’s design process through the systematization of solutions developed by other researchers. The mentioned Term makes possible a clear understanding of the design process, leads to the definition of each player responsibilities, defines design phases, providing a general plan and establishing a detailed and integrated vision of the job made by every agent involved. The research was conducted by the implementation of this Term of reference in two Projects of the institution. It is briefly presented an analysis of main aspects of the implementation, highlighting the improvement of contractual relations between designers and the institution, reduction of design duration, improvement in the information flow, as well as a better collaborative environment.

  8. The Ica-Atom using as access platform, dissemination and description of archival documents public institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu dos Santos Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information technology has caused changes in various segments of society. In archival area its presence is remarkable, so much that lately has increased the quantity of institutions that make use of computerized systems, repositories and platforms that automate activities such as description, diffusion, and even provide access to archival documentary heritage. Objective: To discuss the functionality and usefulness of the platform International Archives Council - Access to Memory (ICA-AtoM in archival description of activities, dissemination and access to archival documentary heritage. Methodology: bibliographical research, drawn from the archival legislation, especially through research resulting from Master's dissertations, articles published in journals of the Science field of Information and manuals produced by members of the Group of CNPq-UFSM Research: Electronic Management of archival documents - Ged / A. Results: It was observed that the platform is used to describe both the permanent documents, and to provide access to information recorded in current and intermediate documents, in order to streamline access to documentary resources of public institutions. Conclusions: It is considered that the ICA-Atom besides serving the description, can provide an authentic environment for the secure storage and as a source of evidence of digital and digitized institutional documents, as well as to provide for preservation and long term access if It is connected to a RDC-Arq, like Archivematica, for example.

  9. Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  11. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-07-21

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  12. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Twichell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94% felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%. Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82% and allergen-free tables (44% should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55% and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%. Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  13. Knowledge and Attitude about Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Public Health Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bony Wiem Lestari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a significant public health problem and poses a threat to global tuberculosis (TB control. In 2015, at least 504 new MDR-TB cases were identified in Indonesia. Treating MDR-TB patients is very challenging. It may take more than two years for MDR-TB treatment. Therefore, it is crucial healthcare workers (HCWs are knowledgeable about MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to measure level of knowledge and attitude regarding MDR-TB among HCWs in public health centres. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 73 Public Health Centres in Bandung the capital of West Java Province from August until November 2015. The samples were 73 TB nurses and 32 laboratory staff. A self-administered questionnaire was given comprising 27 knowledge questions and 29 attitude questions. Correlation between knowledge and attitude scores was calculated by Pearson correlation test. Results: The majority of study participants were women (82.9%, married (92.4%, nursing staff (65.7% with history of TB training (98.1%. Most of the participants were 40-59 years old (69.5% with working experience in TB programme < 10 years (69.5%. Less than half (38.1% of study participants had good knowledge. In terms of attitude, more than half (53.3% of study participants had a positive attitude towards MDR-TB. Conclusions: The level of knowledge among HCWs about MDR-TB is still at an unacceptable level. Certain educational interventions aim to ensure prompt diagnosis, implement infection control and accurate treatment should be established among those HCWs.

  14. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  15. KBTAC [Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center] - The EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute]-sponsored knowledge-based technology application center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Wood, R.M.; Scherer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has announced the establishment of the Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center (KBTAC), whose goal is to assist member utilities with expert system technology and applications. The center, established November 7, 1989, is located on the campus of Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, and will be operated jointly by Kaman Sciences Corporation and the university. The mission of the KBTAC is to assist EPRI member utilities to develop, test, and transfer expert systems into nuclear power plant operations, maintenance, and administration

  16. European practices of providing of efficiency of self-organizations institutions of population in the context of public services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Serohina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research revealed that European countries devote sufficient attention to ensuring the effectiveness of the institutions of self-organization in the context of their public services. The most common areas where they operate are a system of health, education and assistance during emergencies. The study showed that in the development of public services, there were significant transformations in terms of subject-provider. Historically it was confessional organizations working on a voluntary basis, and linked their activity with the realization of Christian mission. Subsequently, when there had been formation of a «welfare state», the state took over responsibility for the area of public services. In favor of institutions of self-organization has been a change in the system when it became clear that they are best in the provide public services, especially in the social sphere, because they are the demonstrating of social needs. The main mechanisms of cooperation between institutions of self-organization and the public sector are, first, subsidies for statutory activities of the organization. Another mechanism is delegating services or outsourcing and in this case contracts mostly are for one year with possibility of further extension. In addition there is auxiliary element of providing of effectiveness institutions of self-organization, it consists in deprivation of their donors from taxes. Although institutions of self-organization are financed mainly by public authorities, they remain independent, because they have opportunity of funding from other sources. German experience showed that the starting point in the system of public services is the understanding of the necessity of paying taxes as acknowledgment of the rights of all members of society. That is why every taxpayer expects to receive public services at the appropriate level. This unwritten rule contributes to a very high level of provision of public services through an adequate

  17. Comparing Public and Private Institutions That Have and Have Not Implemented Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems: A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendhil, Geetha R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this national study was to utilize quantitative methods to examine institutional characteristics, financial resource variables, personnel variables, and customer variables of public and private institutions that have and have not implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, from a resource dependence perspective.…

  18. Stakeholders and public involvement for flood protection: traditional river management organisations for a better consideration of local knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Stephan; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to understand how traditional, highly participatory, local organisations for flood protection have been institutionalised into current river management policy, and to what extent this has impacted on wider participatory processes of producing knowledge. Traditionally, flood protection strategies have been based upon scientific knowledge but have often ignored the capacities of local actors to contribute to the development of the policy. Thus, there may be a gap between scientists, stakeholders and the public that favours controversies and leads to opposition to flood protection projects. In order to reduce this gap and to increase incorporation of local knowledge, participatory processes are set up. They are considered as allowing the integration of all the actors concerned by flood risks to discuss their positions and to develop alternative solutions. This is a particularly important goal in the Swiss political system where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project. In order to support implementation of participatory processes, federal funding includes a special grant to cover the additional costs due to these actions. It is considered that, since its introduction in 2008, this grant certainly furthered participatory processes for flood protection projects and fostered water management policy implementation. However, the implication of stakeholders and public in decision-making processes is much well-established than modern river management often assumes. In some regions, flood protection tasks have been traditionally assumed by local organisations such as dyke corporations (DCs). These comprise land and property owners who are DC members and have to participate in flood protection

  19. Confidence in public institutions: A focus group study on views on the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, K; Rosstorp, F; Rohdén, H

    2016-09-27

    From a public health perspective among the working population, it is very important that confidence in the welfare system is high, ensuring the citizens economic security and protecting them from economic stress when falling ill. The aim of this study was to explore how people with experience of health insurance perceive their confidence in the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (SSIA). Eight focus groups (n = 41) were conducted and each group met on one occasion. The participants described a systemic change in the work of the SSIA where the rule-of-law was disregarded, with arbitrary assessment, and no transparency. The reception by the SSIA shaped the image of the SSIA. The participants described vulnerability in relation to the SSIA. They felt mistrusted, which left a feeling of impotence that worsened their health. Experiencing vulnerability left a strong impression and affected the participants' confidence negatively. The following has to be acknowledged to prevent clients from experiencing impaired health, promote return-to-work possibilities, and to push public confidence in the institution in a more positive direction: Politicians and public administrators need to clarify the regulations. The decision-making process needs to be transparent and just. The entire procedure, including continuity as well as a personal, nice reception, has to be ensured.

  20. THE IMPACT OF NEW INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ioan UŞURELU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The studied field has suffered continuous transformation, both in interaction with other scientific fields and in constituent sub-classes, for discovering and understanding more deeply the contemporary economic realities under the impact of major trends of world development. This paper aims to analyze the location and the effects of information and communication technologies within the public accounting in order to evaluate the effects of this element on accounting research, teaching and professional practice. In a comprehensive approach of public institutions accounting, new information and communication technologies represent a tool that facilitates the accounting function and realizes the connection between the transmitter and the receiver, both within and outside the organization, not just at the micro and macro economic level but also at the micro and macro social one. The advantages of recent progress of information and communication technologies are obvious for the organizations management. It highlights the developments and challenges represented by these new technologies for researchers and professionals in the idea of performing a broad and flexible view of public accounting enabling them to provide useful services for all categories of users of accounting information.

  1. Institutional Learning and Knowledge Transfer Across Epistemic Communities New Tools of Global Governance

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias G; Popescu, Denisa

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, as the pace of globalization has accelerated, operational issues of international coordination have often been overlooked.  For example, the global financial crisis that began in 2007 is attributed, in part, to a lack of regulatory oversight.  As a result, supranational organizations, such as the G-20, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, have prioritized strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions. Prevailing characteristics of the global economic systems, such as the increasing power of financial institutions, changes in the structure of global production, decline in the authority of nation-states over their national economy, and  creation of global institutional setting, e.g., global governance have created the conditions for a naturally evolving process towards enabling national epistemic communities to create in...

  2. A Proposed Architecture for Implementing a Knowledge Management System in the Brazilian National Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira Barbosa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Because their services are based decisively on the collection, analysis and exchange of clinical information or knowledge, within and across organizational boundaries, knowledge management has exceptional application and importance to health care organizations. This article proposes a conceptual framework for a knowledge management system, which is expected to support both hospitals and the oncology network in Brazil. Under this holistic single-case study, triangulation of multiple sources of data collection was used by means of archival records, documents and participant observation, as two of the authors were serving as INCA staff members, thus gaining access to the event and its documentation and being able to perceive reality from an insider point of view. The benefits derived from the present status of the ongoing implementation, so far, are: (i speediness of cancer diagnosis and enhanced quality of both diagnosis and data used in epidemiological studies; (ii reduction in treatment costs; (iii relief of INCA’S labor shortage; (iii improved management performance; (iv better use of installed capacity; (v easiness of massive (explicit knowledge transference among the members of the network; and (vi increase in organizational capacity of knowledge retention (institutionalization of procedures.

  3. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African Schools of Public Health: strengthening human and financial resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its importance in providing evidence for health-related policy and decision-making, an insufficient amount of health systems research (HSR) is conducted in low-income countries (LICs). Schools of public health (SPHs) are key stakeholders in HSR. This paper, one in a series of four, examines human and financial resources capacities, policies and organizational support for HSR in seven Africa Hub SPHs in East and Central Africa. Methods Capacity assessment done included document analysis to establish staff numbers, qualifications and publications; self-assessment using a tool developed to capture individual perceptions on the capacity for HSR and institutional dialogues. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with Deans from each SPH and Ministry of Health and non-governmental officials, focusing on perceptions on capacity of SPHs to engage in HSR, access to funding, and organizational support for HSR. Results A total of 123 people participated in the self-assessment and 73 KIIs were conducted. Except for the National University of Rwanda and the University of Nairobi SPH, most respondents expressed confidence in the adequacy of staffing levels and HSR-related skills at their SPH. However, most of the researchers operate at individual level with low outputs. The average number of HSR-related publications was only capacity. This study underscores the need to form effective multidisciplinary teams to enhance research of immediate and local relevance. Capacity strengthening in the SPH needs to focus on knowledge translation and communication of findings to relevant audiences. Advocacy is needed to influence respective governments to allocate adequate funding for HSR to avoid donor dependency that distorts local research agenda. PMID:24888371

  4. A knowledge management tool for public health: health-evidence.ca

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    Dobbins Maureen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultimate goal of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE activities is to facilitate incorporation of research knowledge into program and policy development decision making. Evidence-informed decision making involves translation of the best available evidence from a systematically collected, appraised, and analyzed body of knowledge. Knowledge management (KM is emerging as a key factor contributing to the realization of evidence-informed public health decision making. The goal of health-evidence.ca is to promote evidence-informed public health decision making through facilitation of decision maker access to, retrieval, and use of the best available synthesized research evidence evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Methods The systematic reviews that populate health evidence.ca are identified through an extensive search (1985-present of 7 electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, BIOSIS, and SportDiscus; handsearching of over 20 journals; and reference list searches of all relevant reviews. Reviews are assessed for relevance and quality by two independent reviewers. Commonly-used public health terms are used to assign key words to each review, and project staff members compose short summaries highlighting results and implications for policy and practice. Results As of June 2010, there are 1913 reviews in the health-evidence.ca registry in 21 public health and health promotion topic areas. Of these, 78% have been assessed as being of strong or moderate methodological quality. Health-evidence.ca receives approximately 35,000 visits per year, 20,596 of which are unique visitors, representing approximately 100 visits per day. Just under half of all visitors return to the site, with the average user spending six minutes and visiting seven pages per visit. Public health nurses, program managers, health promotion workers, researchers, and program coordinators are

  5. Wanted: interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and knowledge translation and exchange training for students of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Lipi; Banerjee, Ananya T; MacLennan, Mary E; Gorczynski, Paul F; Zinszer, Kate A

    2011-01-01

    Students vocalized their concern with public health training programs in Canada at the 2010 CPHA Centennial Conference. Given these concerns, we reviewed the objectives and curricula of public health graduate (master's) programs in Canada. Our objective was to understand to what extent public and population health graduate programs in Canada support interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) training. This was achieved through a review of all public and population health master's programs in Canada identified from the public health graduate programs listed on the Public Health Agency of Canada website (n = 33) plus an additional four programs that were not originally captured on the list. Of the 37 programs reviewed, 28 (76%) stated that interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary or cross-disciplinary training opportunities are of value to their program, with 12 programs (32%) providing multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary training opportunities in their curriculum. Only 14 (38%) of the 37 programs provided value statements of KTE activities in their program goals or course objectives, with 10 (27%) programs offering KTE training in their curriculum. This review provides a glimpse into how public health programs in Canada value and support interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration as well as KTE activities.

  6. Who "Owns" the University? Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom in an Age of Knowledge Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Cris; Taitz, Mira

    2012-01-01

    The neoliberal reframing of universities as economic engines and the growing emphasis on "third stream" commercial activities are global phenomena albeit with significant local variations. This article uses the concept of "ownership" to examine how these processes are impacting on institutional self-understandings and…

  7. Public Administration, Social Responsibility and Sustainability, the Commitment of Public Education Institutions: Instituto Federal Fluminense Case Study

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    Isabel Grigorio Freitas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available School is part of the community and as such should provide ongoing discussions which are conducive to creating a more just society, striving to provide educational and vocational training in order to educate citizens who are free, able to think critically, and supportive of each other. In pursuit of this objective, education emerges as a springboard for sustainable development with social inclusion, bringing down certain barriers created by the need to meet government targets, and discussing the options associated to local characteristics, empowering people who are looking for a more dignified life.The objectives of this research are to analyse the commitment of public teaching institutions in the area of social development and sustainability; identify the main difficulties of implementing social projects according to federal government guidelines, considering not only the general characteristics, but also those given by local communities; and understand the importance of education for improving communal living conditions, helping strengthen collaboration between communities and schools in tackling these social issues and identifying practices currently adopted. This will be done by reviewing the literature and case studies available, aiming to improve the management of future actions.The method employed to answer the research question included the use of questionnaires and interviews, direct observation by the author, literature review and a study of best practices dentified throughout the research process, the use of the concept of social responsibility and sustainability to analyse public policies focused on education, and the case study of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia to improve the handling and understanding of research data.It became apparent that the biggest difficulties encountered in the projects created by the federal government and operated by the Instituto Federal Fluminense had to do with lack of

  8. Adverse drug reactions reporting : Knowledge and opinion of general public in Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Elkalmi, Ramadan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-lela, Omar Qutaiba; Jawad Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Al-Shami, Abdul Kareem; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system. Methods: An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (15 items) was designed. The questionnaire was subjected to face validity and content validity. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.71. This study recruited proportionately large convenience sample of the general public in Penang. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted over a w...

  9. Extending knowledge of the public awareness of aphasia in the Balkans: Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Mile; Matić, Dušanka; Kovač, Ana; Vuković, Irena; Code, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Public awareness of aphasia has been surveyed in a number of countries revealing that it is universally low. We report results of surveys in the Balkan countries Serbia and Montenegro and compare results with data from Croatia and Slovenia. Convenience surveys of the general public were conducted in public places like shopping centers/malls and parks in Serbia (N = 400) and Montenegro (N = 500) using an adapted version of the public awareness of aphasia survey questionnaire. Respondents were asked whether they have heard of aphasia and tested with questions about aphasia. Information on gender, age, occupation and education was recorded. Twelve percent (Serbia) and 11% (Montenegro) had heard of aphasia, but just 4% (Serbia) and 3.2% (Montenegro) had a basic knowledge of aphasia. Age, gender and occupation interacted variably with awareness. Between 16% (Slovenia) and 60% (Croatia) said they had heard of aphasia (10.5% overall mean for the four countries) and basic knowledge of aphasia across the four countries ranged between 3.2 and 7%. Levels of awareness of aphasia in the Balkans are low and variably associated with age, gender, socio-economic and educational levels. Respondents with some knowledge of aphasia gained it through personal or professional interaction with aphasia or the media. The data provide a basis for awareness raising in Balkan countries to reduce stigmatization, improve community access and understanding. Implications for rehabilitation Awareness of aphasia is low universally, even among healthcare workers. Low public awareness of a condition, like aphasia, results in under-funded research and service provision. In order to raise public awareness of aphasia we need to know how many members of the general public know about it. Improvements in public awareness could positively affect funding, the quality of services, and the public understanding and acceptance of individuals with aphasia in the community. Improving awareness of aphasia in

  10. 78 FR 20666 - Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/National Science Foundation Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0345] Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/ National Science Foundation Public Workshop... public workshop; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing its...

  11. Knowledge Management and Czech Self-Governments: Empirical Investigations into the Application of Knowledge Management to Public Administration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špaček David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although knowledge management has become the subject of an enormous quantity of articles and books in recent times, certain more problematic aspects of it remain neglected. Firstly, literature addressing knowledge management concentrates almost exclusively on business organizations and fails to provide details or recommendations adequate to effective application within the sphere of public administration. This holds especially true for Czech academic literature. Secondly, despite a reasonable number of articles on knowledge management in scientific journals, information about perceptions of knowledge-management activities, procedures and tools within organizations lacks detail. The purpose of this article is to investigate and summarize the activities, procedures and tools in use for dealing with knowledge within Czech self-governments and to discuss the main empirical findings. Although the quantitative survey herein does not provide fully representative data, it is still in a position to indicate that knowledge management in Czech public administration tends to be underdeveloped as well as undervalued.

  12. Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in a UK hospital: should public campaigns change focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Christianne; Kildonaviciute, Kornelija; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Scibor-Stepien, Aleksandra; Santos, Reem; Aliyu, Sani H; Cooke, Fiona J; Pacey, Sarah; Holmes, Alison H; Enoch, David A

    2017-01-01

    The rising global tide of antimicrobial resistance is a well-described phenomenon. Employing effective and innovative antimicrobial stewardship strategies is an essential approach to combat this public health threat. Education of the public and patients is paramount to enable the success of such strategies. A panel of hospital multidisciplinary healthcare professionals was set up and a short quiz containing true/false statements around antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was designed and piloted. An educational leaflet with the correct replies and supporting information was also produced and disseminated. Participants were recruited on a single day (18 November 2015) from the hospital outpatient clinics and the hospital outpatient pharmacy waiting room. One hundred and forty-five completed quizzes were returned, providing a total of 1450 answers. Overall, 934 of 1450 (64%) statements were scored correctly whilst 481 (33%) were scored incorrectly; 35 (3%) statements were left unscored. We speculate that these results may demonstrate that respondents understood the statements, as only a small proportion of statements were left unanswered. The question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial resistance and the question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial stewardship obtained the most incorrect replies (85% and 72%, respectively). However, a specific factual recall question regarding only one microorganism (MRSA) received the most correct responses (99%). We describe a simple, innovative method of engagement with patients and the general public to help educate and disseminate important public health messages around antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. We also identified the need for public health campaigns to address the knowledge gaps found around this topic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Analysis of the workload of bank tellers of a Brazilian public institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Simoni S; Albieri, Ana Carolina S; Bonugli, Gustavo P; Greghi, Marina F

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades there have been many changes in the banking sector organization. It has been also observed the mutual growing of musculoskeletal and mental disorders. This study investigated the workload of bank tellers at a Brazilian public institution. It was performed the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). Three employees participated in this study. During the analysis process, three research instruments were applied: Inventory of Work and Risk of Illness, Yoshitake Fatigue Questionnaire and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, beyond the realization of footage recordings and the self-confrontation. The results indicated the existence of an excess of workload on the evaluated workstations, mainly in relation to mental order constraints, that overlaps the physical aspects. Thereby it was found that the employees tend to adopt strategies trying to reduce the impacts of the excess of workload, in order to regulate it.

  14. Biospecimen quality program in the biobank of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health

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    Liv Paltiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological material collected, processed and stored in biobanks are important research tools and it is important to minimize preanalytical variations to provide researchers with high quality biological material that will give reproducible results. Methods: To minimize the preanalytical variations caused by sample collection, processing and storage, we have established a biospecimen quality program. It consists of quality assurance aspects as well as quality control programs to measure adherence to protocols and sample integrity. The quality control program includes measurements and evaluation of the DNA quality and quantity before storage, i.e. concentration, purity, fragmentation and PCR success, and long term storage programs for plasma, urine and RNA. Conclusions: The Biobank at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health has established a biospecimen quality program that ensures high quality specimens and provides the documentation required to use the biomaterial in a best possible way.

  15. Public and Private Institutions: Educating Civil Society about European Security Concerns

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    Rafael Bardají

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available As an specialist in strategic studies and political adviser, the author developes three basic ideas in his speech: 1 the objective necessity of strategic thinking to increase defense awareness, with the goal of ameliorating the relations between civil society and the Armed Forces, and to create a strategic culture to help to make more permeable the Administration decision-making process; 2 public and private institutions have to understand each other, despite the fact that tradition and time pressures do negatively weigh on Administration decision-making; 3 both parts –Administration and specialists in security– have to make the effort of becoming more flexible, on the one hand, and more capable of producing relevant studies in political terms, on the other.

  16. PATIENTS' SATISFACTION WITH HEALTH SERVICES AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF KOSOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Berisha, Merita; Hoxha, Rina; Gashi, Sanije; Begolli, Ilir; Salihu, Drita; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2016-06-01

    Purpose of the research is to assess patient satisfaction with the quality of health services provided in National Institute of Public Health of Kosova. Study was observational and cross-sectional. Interviews were conducted with 625 clients of IPH. Inclusion criteria for enrollment in the study were patients above 18 years old, with verbally informed consent. In our study, access to IPH, efficacy, patient-provider interpersonal communication, and explanations regarding procedures, readiness to answer to patients need and physical settings and appearance are valued satisfactorily whereas cleanliness was rated with minimal grades. Evaluated 12 quality components, were scored with average mark 3.6. SWOT analysis, and fishbone diagram should be used on regular bases and a new position for a manager for administrative issues, is opened, complaints box and list of rights and responsibilities of patients were dislocated in a more visible place, and internal staff turnover, is introduced.

  17. Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs) or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria. PMID:29160843

  18. Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lynn Reas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria.

  19. Knowledge and Attitude of Students of Post-secondary Institutions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of. 161 million, of ... leading cause. Trachoma is particularly a disease of children and. 6, 7 ... This study intends to determine the attitude, perception and knowledge of .... older respondents are more likely than younger ones to know more about the causes of ...

  20. Lived experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Temane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caring for intellectually disabled people can be demanding for student nurses who are novices in the nursing profession. To ensure that quality nursing care is provided, student nurses should have an understanding of and a positive attitude towards intellectually disabled people. Nursing intellectually disabled people can be a challenge for the student nurses. Therefore, student nurses need to be able to deal with challenges of caring for intellectually disabled people. Objective: This article aims to explore and describe experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution. Design and method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Data were collected through individual in-depth phenomenological interviews, naïve sketches and field notes. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the collected data. Results were contextualised within the literature and measures to ensure trustworthiness were adhered to. Ethical principals were also applied throughout the research process. Results: Five themes emerged from the data. Student nurses experienced a profoundly unsettling impact on their whole being when caring for intellectually disabled people; they developed a sense of compassion and a new way of looking at life, and experienced a need for certain physical, mental and spiritual needs to be met. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that student nurses were challenged in caring for intellectually disabled people. However, they developed a sense of awareness that intellectually disabled people have a need to be cared for like any other person. Keywords: experiences, student nurses, caring, intellectually disabled people, public psychiatric institution

  1. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  2. Design Failure Affecting Maintenance Management on Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

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    Agus Salim Nuzaihan Aras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of government building defect is keeping on reporting in the media and arising since 2007. These issues of building defects, maintenance and management have existing and it is deliberated up to the parliament level. The government keep continue increased the maintenance allowance in National Budgetary in every year. However, the building disasters and failures keep going develop their number of cases in Malaysia. Most of the issues are related with a weak maintenance management and faulty in design. This reflects to a poorly building condition, create discomfort and danger environment to the building users. Besides, it will result to a low quality building condition and reflect to a weak building maintenance management. Building defects arise through inappropriate or poor design, specification, construction and it will give an impact to maintenance management itself [1]. Errors in the design of the building are being debated and becoming a reason of major factor in building defect reproduction [2]. Thus, this issue will discover the major cause in building design failure that develop the building defects and verify the impact of design defects towards building maintenance management. The study involved with the public higher education institution in Malaysia focusing on main campuses and the distribution of questionnaire to the facility and maintenance management department. This research is aimed to produce a better understanding on the impact of building design failure towards the institution facilities’ condition.

  3. Institutional transparency improves public perception of lab animal technicians and support for animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Han, Zetta; Robbins, Jesse; Weary, Daniel M

    2018-01-01

    The use of animals in research is controversial and often takes place under a veil of secrecy. Lab animal technicians responsible for the care of animals at research institutions are sometimes described as performing 'dirty work' (i.e. professions that are viewed as morally tainted), and may be stigmatized by negative perceptions of their job. This study assessed if transparency affects public perceptions of lab animal technicians and support for animal research. Participants (n = 550) were randomly assigned to one of six scenarios (using a 3x2 design) that described identical research varying only the transparency of the facility (low, high) and the species used (mice, dogs, cows). Participants provided Likert-type and open-ended responses to questions about the personal characteristics (warmth, competence) of a hypothetical lab technician 'Cathy' and their support for the described research. Quantitative analysis showed participants in the low-transparency condition perceived Cathy to be less warm and were less supportive of the research regardless of animal species. Qualitative responses varied greatly, with some participants expressing support for both Cathy and the research. These results suggest that increasing transparency in lab animal institutions could result in a more positive perception of lab animal researchers and the work that they do.

  4. Benchmarking, social partnership and higher remuneration : wage settling institutions and the public-private sector wage gap in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Elish; O'Connell, Philip J.; Mc Guinness, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    Policy paper This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2006 National Employment Surveys to analyse the public-private sector wage gap in Ireland. In particular, we investigate the impact of awards implemented under a number of wage setting institutions on the pay differential. These include the pay increases awarded by the Public Service Benchmarking Body in its first report and the increases given to higher-level posts in the public sector by the Review Body on Higher Remuneration in the ...

  5. Institutional Restrictions on Scientific Productivity: The Case Study of a Mexican Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Metlich Medlich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors which restrict research is not only important for universities but for their professors. In this paper different aspects are researched and identified, which may influence scientific productivity. As a basis for this paper 48 interviews were conducted with researchers from a State Public University. These researchers were chosen including those from the highest level in the National System of Researchers (of Mexico, SNI for its acronym in Spanish Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, to those who have not yet entered it. The results sustain that professors have been submitted to requirements that hinder the development of their multiple tasks, among those stand out: produce knowledge, teach, and tutor students, follow internal and surrounding policies.

  6. Entry-to-practice public health nursing competencies: A Delphi method and knowledge translation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Ruth; Chircop, Andrea; Baker, Cynthia; Dietrich Leurer, Marie; Duncan, Susan; Wotton, Donalda

    2018-06-01

    Sustaining and strengthening nurses 'contributions to public and population health in the 21st century depends in part on nursing education. Clearly articulated entry-to-practice competencies will contribute to the capacity of undergraduate nursing education programs to prepare graduates to promote local, national and global population health. The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing created the Public Health Task Force to develop consensus on core, national entry-to-practice competencies in public health nursing for undergraduate nursing students and to support these competencies with corresponding online teaching strategies. Delphi approach. Nurses with public health experience in education and practice, and representatives from other public health professional organizations across Canada. The three-phased competency development included: 1) an environmental scan; 2) an iterative process to draft competencies; and 3) a modified Delphi process to confirm the final competency framework using face to face consultations and a survey. The knowledge translation strategy involved soliciting submissions of teaching strategies for peer-review and subsequent inclusion in an interactive online resource. 242 public health educators and practitioners participated in the consensus consultation. The final document outlined five competency statements with 19 accompanying indicators. A total of 123 teaching strategies were submitted for the online resource, of which 50 were accepted as exemplary teaching strategies. This competency development process can provide guidance for the development of competencies in other countries, thus strengthening public health nursing education globally. The decision to intentionally level the competencies to entry-to-practice, as opposed to an advanced level, enhanced their application to undergraduate nursing education. The development of the additional inventory of teaching strategies created a sustainable innovative resource for public

  7. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won

    2016-05-01

    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  8. Employees' perceptions of the effectiveness and fairness of performance management in a South African public sector institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Makhubela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The implementation of performance management systems (PMSs and performance appraisals (PAs by public managers remains a challenge and necessitates an investigation into employees’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the PMS and the fairness of PA. Research purpose: This study investigated the association between employee involvement, performance-oriented culture, management commitment and the effectiveness of a PMS. Six factors that determine and influence employees’ perceptions of PA fairness were also investigated. Motivation for the study: Employees’ experiences of the implementation and practice of PMSs and PAs by public managers may differ from what is intended. The motivation for this study was to quantify employee perceptions of the effectiveness of a PMS and the fairness of PA to establish if there is a discrepancy between what is intended and how they are implemented and practiced. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study conducted a census on a total population of 140 employees in a public sector institution. A questionnaire comprising three sections was used to collect data: Section A contained biographical questions, Section B comprised questions on the contextual factors that measure the perceived effectiveness of the PMS while Section C comprised questions related to the perceived fairness of PA. Main findings: The results show that employees perceive their PMS to be ineffective and their PAs to be unfair. The mean perception scores for PA fairness for the Assets and Facilities Department were significantly lower than those of the Human Resources Department. This is indicative of some deficiencies in the appraisal process in the Assets and Facilities Department. Respondents occupying general positions returned significantly lower mean scores for PA fairness compared to those in managerial and professional positions, which indicates serious shortcomings in their appraisal process. Practical

  9. The effectiveness of knowledge translation strategies used in public health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaRocca Rebecca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature related to the effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT strategies used in public health is lacking. The capacity to seek, analyze, and synthesize evidence-based information in public health is linked to greater success in making policy choices that have the best potential to yield positive outcomes for populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of KT strategies used to promote evidence-informed decision making (EIDM among public health decision makers. Methods A search strategy was developed to identify primary studies published between 2000–2010. Studies were obtained from multiple electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Searches were supplemented by hand searching and checking the reference lists of included articles. Two independent review authors screened studies for relevance, assessed methodological quality of relevant studies, and extracted data from studies using standardized tools. Results After removal of duplicates, the search identified 64, 391 titles related to KT strategies. Following title and abstract review, 346 publications were deemed potentially relevant, of which 5 met all relevance criteria on full text screen. The included publications were of moderate quality and consisted of five primary studies (four randomized controlled trials and one interrupted time series analysis. Results were synthesized narratively. Simple or single KT strategies were shown in some circumstances to be as effective as complex, multifaceted ones when changing practice including tailored and targeted messaging. Multifaceted KT strategies led to changes in knowledge but not practice. Knowledge translation strategies shown to be less effective were passive and included access to registries of pre-processed research evidence or print materials. While knowledge brokering did not have a significant effect generally

  10. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

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    S. Ravi Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  11. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  12. System evaluation of logistics performance: Proposal for a supply network in a Public Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Oliveira Cardoso Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent quest for efficiency in public companies in Brazil was one of the motives to elaborate this paper, which had a public Institution of Higher Education (IHE as its subject of study. The IHE profiled possesses a multi-campus structure and the distribution of its consumer items is performed by the institution’s own warehouse. Through field research, it became apparent that the supply of these items had some problems, such as items out of stock, orders with delayed delivery, items past their shelf life etc. Therefore, this paper article aimed to propose an evaluation system of the logistical services at the IHE studied, based on performance indicators developed from mangers’ perceptions about the problems occurring in the distribution of consumer items. In addition, an index, calculated from diverse indicators, was proposed which would be able to express the performance of the logistics service of the IHE studied, and reflect the perceptions of the main users of this service. It is understood that the solution proposed here can be applied to any two-echelon supply network.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception Regarding Biostatistics Among Postgraduate Students in Dental Institutions of Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Gautami S Penmetsa; Kavyamala Dubba; Zabirunnisa Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Biostatistics is a discipline concerned with how we ought to make decisions when analysing biomedical data. As statistics is desirable at every stage of research to obtain scientifically important information and reliable results, the importance of biostatistics should definitely be informed to the researchers in health sciences. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and perception of dental professionals towards biostatistics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study w...

  14. “What attracts knowledge workers? The role of space, social connections, institutions, jobs and amenities”

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Miguélez; Rorina Moreno

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to identify the determinants of the geographical mobility of skilled individuals, such as inventors, across European regions. Their mobility contributes to the geographical diffusion of knowledge and reshapes the geography of talent. We test whether geography, amenities, job opportunities and social proximity between inventors’ communities, and the so-called National System of Innovation, drive in- and out-flows of inventors between pairs of regions. We use a c...

  15. Defending the social value of knowledge as a safeguard for public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Felicitas S

    2017-09-01

    The 'socially valuable knowledge' (SVK) principle has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important guiding principles for biomedical research involving human subjects. The principle states that the potential of producing socially valuable knowledge is a necessary requirement, although not sufficient, for the ethical conduct of research projects. This is due to the assumption that the social value of knowledge avoids exploitation of research subjects and justifies the use of health resources. However, more recently, several authors have started interrogating the validity of SVK in research and offered various lines of argument against the SVK principle as a necessary constraint to research. In this article, I will reconstruct the main arguments of this discussion between defenders and debunkers of the SVK principle and offer a third way to consider the social value of knowledge in research studies. I will argue that the social value of knowledge can be supported by an independent justification. This justification of the SVK principle addresses the rationality and common interest of researchers. Thus, I will introduce the SVK principle as a safeguarding principle for public trust based on a conceptual framework by Alex John London. My approach justifies keeping the principle as a precautionary and rational requirement for human health research that all rational stakeholders can agree upon. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Task performance fraud risk assessment on forensic accountant and auditor knowledge and mindset in Nigerian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson Popoola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses task performance fraud risk assessment and forensic accountant and auditor knowledge and mindset in the Nigerian public sector. The aim of the study is to examine the fraud risk assessment in the Nigerian public sector through the efficient utilisation of forensic accountant and auditor knowledge and mindset. The effect will enhance the corporate governance and accountability practices among public sector accountants and auditors in Nigeria

  17. Knowledge Management Framework for Emerging Infectious Diseases Preparedness and Response: Design and Development of Public Health Document Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizun; Gonzalez, Mila C; Morse, Stephen S; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2017-10-11

    There are increasing concerns about our preparedness and timely coordinated response across the globe to cope with emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). This poses practical challenges that require exploiting novel knowledge management approaches effectively. This work aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge management framework that addresses the existing challenges in sharing and reusing public health knowledge. We propose a systems engineering-inspired ontology-driven knowledge management approach. It decomposes public health knowledge into concepts and relations and organizes the elements of knowledge based on the teleological functions. Both knowledge and semantic rules are stored in an ontology and retrieved to answer queries regarding EID preparedness and response. A hybrid concept extraction was implemented in this work. The quality of the ontology was evaluated using the formal evaluation method Ontology Quality Evaluation Framework. Our approach is a potentially effective methodology for managing public health knowledge. Accuracy and comprehensiveness of the ontology can be improved as more knowledge is stored. In the future, a survey will be conducted to collect queries from public health practitioners. The reasoning capacity of the ontology will be evaluated using the queries and hypothetical outbreaks. We suggest the importance of developing a knowledge sharing standard like the Gene Ontology for the public health domain. ©Zhizun Zhang, Mila C Gonzalez, Stephen S Morse, Venkat Venkatasubramanian. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 11.10.2017.

  18. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey."nMethods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions."nResults: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease."nConclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF. "n Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Public knowledge, Survey, Turkey

  19. Assessment of public knowledge about the scope of practice of vascular surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Alik; Long, Brandon M; Lauterbach, Stephen R; Bohannon, Todd; Siegal, Carolyn L

    2010-03-01

    During the past decade, there has been a sharp increase in the number of vascular procedures performed in the United States. Due to the increase in the size of the aging population, this trend is predicted to continue. Despite this, general public knowledge about vascular surgery appears low. This gap may significantly affect the success of vascular surgery as a specialty. To objectively define knowledge about vascular surgery, we administered a questionnaire to both a sample of the general population and medical students. The Vascular Surgery Knowledge Questionnaire (VSQ), a 58-item multiple choice survey, was designed to assess knowledge about the field of vascular surgery, including types of procedures commonly performed, presenting illnesses, training, and financial compensation. VSQ was tested for reliability and validity. It was administered to a sample of the general population (GP) and first year medical students (MS) via a random digit dial telephone survey and a paper-based survey, respectively. VSQ Score was derived by calculating the percent of questions from the 38-item, non-demographic part of the questionnaire answered correctly and expressed in numerical form. The maximum score possible was 100. Statistical analysis was used to assess differences in VSQ scores. Two hundred GP and 160 MS subjects completed the questionnaire. The mean VSQ score for GP and MS groups was 54 and 67 (P .05). These findings support our hypothesis that there is a significant knowledge deficit among both the general population and medical students about the field of vascular surgery. This has protean implications for the future of our specialty and public health in the United States.

  20. Internet use, online information seeking and knowledge among third molar patients attending public dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, K; Sambrook, P; Armfield, J M; Brennan, D S

    2017-09-01

    While Australians are searching the internet for third molar (TM) information, the usefulness of online sources may be questioned due to quality variation. This study explored: (i) internet use, online information-seeking behaviour among TM patients attending public dental services; and (ii) whether patients' TM knowledge scores are associated with the level of internet use and eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) scores. Baseline survey data from the 'Engaging Patients in Decision-Making' study were used. Variables included: sociodemographics, internet access status, online information-seeking behaviour, eHEALS, the Control Preferences Scale (CPS) and TM knowledge. Participants (N = 165) were mainly female (73.8%), aged 19-25 years (42.4%) and had 'secondary school or less' education (58.4%). A majority (N = 79, 52.7%) had sought online dental information which was associated with active decisional control preference (odds ratio = 3.1, P = 0.034) and higher educational attainment (odds ratio = 2.7, P = 0.040). TM knowledge scores were not associated with either the level of internet use (F (2,152) = 2.1, P = 0.094, χ 2 = 0.0310) or the eHEALS scores (r = 0.147, P = 0.335). 'The internet-prepared patient' phenomena exists among public TM patients and was explained by preference for involvement in decision-making. However, internet use was not associated with better TM knowledge. Providing TM patients with internet guidance may be an opportunity to improve TM knowledge. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  1. How Consumer Trust in Financial Institutions Influences Relationships Between Knowledge, Cognitive Effort and Financial Healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Trust not only relates to customer trust in individual financial companies (i.e., narrow-scope trust) but also relates to the broader business context in which consumers carry out their financial decisions (i.e., broad-scope trust). Based on two surveys comprising 1,155 bank consumers and 764...... pension consumers, respectively, the results of this study indicate that broad-scope trust negatively moderates relations between knowledge and financial healthiness and between cognitive effort and financial healthiness. In addition, it is demonstrated that broad-scope trust negatively influences...... cognitive effort and positively influences financial healthiness....

  2. Public attitudes toward biofuels. Effects of knowledge, political partisanship, and media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.

  3. Knowledge of Rabies Prevention in Vietnamese Public Health and Animal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K A T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Van, K D; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an invariably fatal, but preventable zoonotic disease. Despite a national programme for its prevention and control, the number of rabies associated deaths in Vietnam has increased in recent years. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2012 to assess and compare the knowledge, awareness and practices of 189 public health workers (PHW) and animal health workers (AHW) attending a joint training course for professionals from provinces in northern Vietnam with the highest number of deaths from rabies. Questionnaires facilitating self-evaluation were provided, and total knowledge scores were calculated (maximum 38 points) and categorized into: 'high' (>30 points), 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (animal health and public health professionals attending joint training activities aimed at strengthening rabies prevention and control. To ensure effective prevention and control of rabies requires that AHW and PHW not only coordinate and collaborate, but have a common knowledge and understanding of rabies prevention and control measures. This study provides important baseline data in a relatively unexplored area of research that can focus future interventions and research. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Knowledge, perceptions and media use of the Dutch general public and healthcare workers regarding Ebola, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schol, Lianne G C; Mollers, Madelief; Swaan, Corien M; Beaujean, Desirée J M A; Wong, Albert; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-08

    The Ebola outbreak in West-Africa triggered risk communication activities to promote adequate preventive behaviour in the Netherlands. Our study investigated the level of knowledge, perceptions, and media use regarding Ebola. In December 2014, an online questionnaire was administered to the Dutch population (n = 526) and Health Care Workers (HCW) (n = 760). The mean knowledge score (range 0-15) of HCW (m = 13.3;SD = 1.4) was significantly higher than the general public (m = 10.8;SD = 2.0). No significant difference was found in perceived severity and susceptibility. Perceived fear of the general public (m = 2.5; SD = 0.8) was significantly higher than among HCW (m = 2.4; SD = 0.7). Respondents primarily used television to obtain information. While Ebola was perceived severe, it did not lead to excessive fear or perceived susceptibility for developing the disease. Nonetheless, our research showed that knowledge with respect to human-to-human transmission is low, while this is crucial to complying with preventive measures. Our study reveals priorities for improving risk communication.

  5. Knowledge and utilization of contraceptive devices among unmarried undergraduate students of a tertiary institution in Kano State, Nigeria 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zainab Datti; Sule, Ibrahim Baffa; Abolaji, Mohammed Lukman; Mohammed, Yahaya; Nguku, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Students in the universities mostly live independently from their parents or guardians, some of them for the first time. This gives them freedom and opportunity for high risk behavior such as unplanned and unprotected sex. The results of such sexual experimentation may include unplanned and or unwanted pregnancies that may lead to unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. Contraception has the potential to prevent unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and STIs. This study aimed at assessing the general knowledge on contraceptives, sexual practices, and level of utilization of contraceptives devices among unmarried students of the Bayero University Kano. We did an institutional based cross-sectional descriptive study. We administered a pretested, self-administered, structured questionnaire to randomly selected unmarried undergraduate students of the institution. We analyzed data using Microsoft Excel 2016 and Epi-info7. A total of 300 students were interviewed. The median age for respondents was 23 years with an age range of 16-25 years. Male respondents made up 61.3% (184) while the females made up the remaining 38.7% (116). Also, 158(47.33%) of respondents lived outside the school campus, while 158(52.67%) lived in the school hostels. Knowledge on contraception was 87.7% among respondents with internet (91%) and media (89.3%) as the commonest sources of knowledge. Proportion of sexually active students was 10.67%, while prevalence of contraceptive utilization among sexually active students was 15.63%. About 8(25%) had their sexual debut at knowledge on contraceptive used was high among the respondents, utilization of contraceptives among sexually active students was low, thus creating a window for possible unintended and unwanted pregnancies among these group of students.

  6. The Multi-Campus System's Role in Maintaining Institutional Diversity in Texas, Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Institutional diversity is a long-held value in U.S. higher education with origins dating back 300 years to pre-Revolutionary colonial colleges. Institutional diversity is still valued today, but Institutional theory predicts that institutional organizations, such as universities, will homogenize without intervention to prevent loss of diversity.…

  7. Parties heed (with caution): Public knowledge of and attitudes towards party finance in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer; Fisher, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform ( Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act ) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just 'too much money' in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov's online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions - Anti-Party Finance and Reformers . As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance.

  8. Survey of public knowledge about Echinococcus multilocularis in four European countries: Need for proactive information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romig Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public information about prevention of zoonoses should be based on the perceived problem by the public and should be adapted to regional circumstances. Growing fox populations have led to increasing concern about human alveolar echinococcosis, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. In order to plan information campaigns, public knowledge about this zoonotic tapeworm was assessed. Methods By means of representative telephone interviews (N = 2041, a survey of public knowledge about the risk and the prevention of alveolar echinococcosis was carried out in the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Switzerland in 2004. Results For all five questions, significant country-specific differences were found. Fewer people had heard of E. multilocularis in the Czech Republic (14% and France (18% compared to Germany (63% and Switzerland (70%. The same effect has been observed when only high endemic regions were considered (Czech Republic: 20%, France: 17%, Germany: 77%, Switzerland: 61%. In France 17% of people who knew the parasite felt themselves reasonably informed. In the other countries, the majority felt themselves reasonably informed (54–60%. The percentage that perceived E. multilocularis as a high risk ranged from 12% (Switzerland to 43% (France. In some countries promising measures as deworming dogs (Czech Republic, Switzerland were not recognized as prevention options. Conclusion Our results and the actual epidemiological circumstances of AE call for proactive information programs. This communication should enable the public to achieve realistic risk perception, give clear information on how people can minimize their infection risk, and prevent exaggerated reactions and anxiety.

  9. DYSFUNCTIONS IN THE APPLICATION OF THE MANAGERIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS: THE REPORTING IMPROPRIETIES, THE INFORMATION AND THE COMMUNICATION STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRĂCIUN Liviu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development level of managerial control systems in the Romanian public entities is not a remarkable one, on the contrary, some institutions do not understand the real usefulness of the internal control system and the related set of standards; the compliance is determined only by the regulatory norms. The practice of implementing the internal control proves that the perception of executives and middle managers regarding that system is not a favourable and supporting one. The managers face difficulties caused by the ambiguity of some of the standards, poorly understood, and for which the body of laws does not provide advices. Thus, some institutions report the high compliance of standards, although the reality shows numerous inconsistencies. Other public institutions assess their own level of implementation only partially, but do not identify improvement solutions. Because of the lacking of benchmarking initiatives and knowledge transferring between institutions, the picture of this situation indicates dysfunctions that influence the efficiency of the activities and the achievement of the objectives. In this paper, we will analyze the correlation between the observed shortcomings in the implementation of three of the most important standards, namely the Reporting improprieties, the Information and the Communication. The methodology used is an analytical and exploratory one and critically examines the implementation status of these three standards in more than 40 public institutions in Dolj County, Romania. Also, by analyzing the answers to the questionnaire, our study identifies differences in interpretation and implementation of these standards between certain types of organizations (given the heterogeneity of the investigated sample. The results show a high interdependence between this control standards and our proposals focus on the strengthening of the interpersonal skills and the personal relationships. Our study is directed toward the

  10. A New Agenda for Teaching Public Administration and Public Policy in Brazil: Institutional Opportunities and Educational Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sandra; Almeida, Lindijane S. B.; Lucio, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons and teaching objectives of an array of new undergraduate courses on public administration and public policy management which have emerged recently in Brazil. While in 2001 there were only two undergraduate courses teaching formal public administration in the country, by 2015, they had risen to 40, and also…

  11. ELEMENTS OF MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION CABIMAS MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Castillo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is an advance of a wider investigation, in which the objective is to analyze overall maintenance management in public institutions of higher education in the municipality Cabimas, hence in this development describes the elements of the management maintenance present in these institutions. Authors were consulted such as Duffuaa et al. (2010, Clemenza (2010, Zambrano and Leal (2006 , Robbins and Coulter (2005 y Martínez (2007 among others. The research is descriptive, non-experimental   design, transactional  and  field.  We  used  a population   census,  for  a  total  of   twenty-three  (23   research  subjects,  belonging  to  the Universidad   del   Zulia    Núcleo   Costa   Oriental   del   Lago,  Universidad    Nacional Experimental  Rafael  Maria Baralt and  Instituto Universitario Tecnológico  Cabimas. To collect data, a questionnaire was composed of twenty-two (22 items, which was validated by the trial of six (6 experts, with 0.99 reliability by Cronbach alpha coefficient.  We conclude that the elements planning, organizing, scheduling, execution and control, have a high presence in maintenance management, not the human resource and security elements.

  12. A Framework for the Self-Evaluation of the Functioning of Public Institutions: Incentive Towards an Increased Quality or Merely a Formality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Public administration can no longer ignore quality. Total Quality Management is trying to change the philosophy of the area. There are many TQM-inspired tools that can help this process: quality (or excellence awards, ISO standards, Common Assessment Framework (CAF. CAF is a tool developed by the European Union in order to assess the capacity of public institutions to produce quality. Comprised of two main dimensions, enablers and results, nine criteria and 27 sub-criteria, the instrument allows a self-evaluation of the state of a specific institution. Romania intends to apply this framework in public administration. We have tried to see how this can work and several problems did occur: essential ingredients are missing – mainly systematic planning and performance measurement. Beside this, subjectivity and lack of commitment and knowledge can undermine such assessments. Romanian Public Administration Reform Strategy needs to start from the beginning, involving the entire organization towards quality, planning, developing and improving constantly performance measurement systems, without those being impossible to speak of quality management.

  13. Oral Cancer: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Awareness in Undergraduate Dental Students and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Skerman, Emma; Khan, Usman; George, Roy

    To evaluate the knowledge of signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with oral cancer amongst undergraduate dental students and members of the general public. This study was open for a period of six months (Jan-June, 2013) to all undergraduate dental students in the 4th and 5th year of the dental science programme and dental patients attending the School of Dentistry, Griffith University, Australia. The survey evaluated the knowledge and awareness of clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors of oral cancers. A total of 100 undergraduate students and 150 patients provided informed consent and participated in this survey study. Both patients and dental students were aware of the importance of early detection of oral cancer. With the exception of smoking and persistent ulceration, this study indicated that the knowledge about oral cancer, its signs, symptoms and risk factors was limited amongst participants. This study highlights the need to raise awareness and knowledge pertaining to oral cancer, not only in the general community but also amongst those in the dental field. Specific points of concern were the common intraoral sites for oral cancer, erythroplakia as a risk factor, the synergistic action of smoking and alcohol, and HPV (human papilloma virus) as risk factors for oral cancer.

  14. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  15. Teacher Externships as a Practice of Inter-organizational Collaboration Between Institutions of Higher Education and Public and Private Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Stine; Just, Sine Nørholm

    The present paper takes a practice theoretical approach (Rouse, 2006) to investigating the extent to which the phenomenon of teacher externships can be used as an initiative for creating long-lasting and strong collaborations between institutions of higher education and public and private...... at institutions of higher education within the region of Zealand, Denmark entered into collaborations with 35 public and private organizations, we present two preliminary conclusions: existing networks are strengthened and broadened through externships, and teachers feel enlightened by the experience...... on Danish universities to ‘turn to practice’, we ask how externships may contribute to the inter-organizational collaboration between institutions of higher education and public and private organizations. Based on a qualitative analysis of an externship program in which a total of 25 lecturers...

  16. Working at the nexus between public health policy, practice and research. Dynamics of knowledge sharing in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Maria W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joining the domains of practice, research and policy is an important aspect of boosting the quality performance required to tackle complex public health problems. “Joining domains” implies a departure from the linear and technocratic knowledge-translation approach. Integrating the practice, research and policy triangle means knowing its elements, appreciating the barriers, identifying possible cooperation strategies and studying strategy effectiveness under specified conditions. This article examines the dynamic process of developing an Academic Collaborative Centre for Public Health in the Netherlands, with the objective of achieving that the three domains of policy, practice and research become working partners on an equal footing. Method An interpretative hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the phenomenon of collaboration at the nexus between the three domains. The project was explicitly grounded in current organizational culture and routines, applied to nexus action. In the process of examination, we used both quantitative (e.g. records and qualitative data (e.g., interviews and observations. The data were interpreted using the Actor-Network, Institutional Re-Design and Blurring the Boundaries theories. Results Results show commitment at strategic level. At the tactical level, however, managers were inclined to prioritize daily routine, while the policy domain remained absent. At the operational level, practitioners learned to do PhD research in real-life practice and researchers became acquainted with problems of practice and policy, resulting in new research initiatives. Conclusion We conclude that working at the nexus is an ongoing process of formation and reformation. Strategies based on Institutional Re-Design theories in particular might help to more actively stimulate managers’ involvement to establish mutually supportive networks.

  17. Working at the nexus between public health policy, practice and research. Dynamics of knowledge sharing in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Maria W; De Leeuw, Evelyne; Hoeijmakers, Marjan; De Vries, Nanne K

    2012-10-17

    Joining the domains of practice, research and policy is an important aspect of boosting the quality performance required to tackle complex public health problems. "Joining domains" implies a departure from the linear and technocratic knowledge-translation approach. Integrating the practice, research and policy triangle means knowing its elements, appreciating the barriers, identifying possible cooperation strategies and studying strategy effectiveness under specified conditions.This article examines the dynamic process of developing an Academic Collaborative Centre for Public Health in the Netherlands, with the objective of achieving that the three domains of policy, practice and research become working partners on an equal footing. An interpretative hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the phenomenon of collaboration at the nexus between the three domains. The project was explicitly grounded in current organizational culture and routines, applied to nexus action. In the process of examination, we used both quantitative (e.g. records) and qualitative data (e.g., interviews and observations). The data were interpreted using the Actor-Network, Institutional Re-Design and Blurring the Boundaries theories. Results show commitment at strategic level. At the tactical level, however, managers were inclined to prioritize daily routine, while the policy domain remained absent. At the operational level, practitioners learned to do PhD research in real-life practice and researchers became acquainted with problems of practice and policy, resulting in new research initiatives. We conclude that working at the nexus is an ongoing process of formation and reformation. Strategies based on Institutional Re-Design theories in particular might help to more actively stimulate managers' involvement to establish mutually supportive networks.

  18. Decoding the agenda: An analytical model for manifest and latent knowledge of the public agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Andréu Abela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show a model of analysis based on the hypothesis of the agenda-setting but with a clear longitudinal, multidimensional and multiparadigmatic component. Design/methodology: The theory of the media agenda (agenda setting is one of the most applied communication theories in diversity of social science fields for studying the direct and cumulative effects of the media on the audiences. Decoding the agenda is a methodological model derived from this theory that strives to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of the effects of the messages broadcasted by the media on the public opinion. Our methodological and multidimensional model, as a difference to other multi-method and triangular models, exchanges and analyzes quantitative and qualitative data in a comprehensive way. Contribution and results: In this article are presented the results of diverse pieces of research on the influence of the media in the analysis of social issues. Possible areas of application of the model in the economic sphere are indicated, especially in market and business studies. Research limitations: The topics of study, for a good application of the model in its whole temporal and dimensional breadth, require building good secondary quantitative and qualitative data bases. Practical implications: The results provided by the studies in which the model has been applied improve over time the knowledge of the influence of the media on the social, economic and political agendas. Social implications: Better understanding of the agenda setting of social issues in the public opinion. Added value: The implementation of the agenda decoder model improves the knowledge of the cumulative influence of the issues raised by the media on the public opinion.

  19. PARTAKE Survey of Public Knowledge and Perceptions of Clinical Research in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita; Sharma, Pooja; Khan, Danish; MV, Deepa; Alam, Sazid; Jain, Sarika; Alapati, Bhavana; Mittal, Sanjay; Singh, Padam

    2013-01-01

    Background A public that is an informed partner in clinical research is important for ethical, methodological, and operational reasons. There are indications that the public is unaware or misinformed, and not sufficiently engaged in clinical research but studies on the topic are lacking. PARTAKE – Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment is a program aimed at increasing public awareness and partnership in clinical research. The PARTAKE Survey is a component of the program. Objective To study public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research. Methods A 40-item questionnaire combining multiple-choice and open-ended questions was administered to 175 English- or Hindi-speaking individuals in 8 public locations representing various socioeconomic strata in New Delhi, India. Results Interviewees were 18–84 old (mean: 39.6, SD±16.6), 23.6% female, 68.6% employed, 7.3% illiterate, 26.3% had heard of research, 2.9% had participated and 58.9% expressed willingness to participate in clinical research. The following perceptions were reported (% true/% false/% not aware): ‘research benefits society’ (94.1%/3.5%/2.3%), ‘the government protects against unethical clinical research’ (56.7%/26.3%/16.9%), ‘research hospitals provide better care’ (67.2%/8.7%/23.9%), ‘confidentiality is adequately protected’ (54.1%/12.3%/33.5%), ‘participation in research is voluntary’ (85.3%/5.8%/8.7%); ‘participants treated like ‘guinea pigs’’ (20.7%/53.2%/26.0%), and ‘compensation for participation is adequate’ (24.7%/12.9%/62.3%). Conclusions Results suggest the Indian public is aware of some key features of clinical research (e.g., purpose, value, voluntary nature of participation), and supports clinical research in general but is unaware of other key features (e.g., compensation, confidentiality, protection of human participants) and exhibits some distrust in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials

  20. PARTAKE survey of public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Burt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A public that is an informed partner in clinical research is important for ethical, methodological, and operational reasons. There are indications that the public is unaware or misinformed, and not sufficiently engaged in clinical research but studies on the topic are lacking. PARTAKE - Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment is a program aimed at increasing public awareness and partnership in clinical research. The PARTAKE Survey is a component of the program. OBJECTIVE: To study public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research. METHODS: A 40-item questionnaire combining multiple-choice and open-ended questions was administered to 175 English- or Hindi-speaking individuals in 8 public locations representing various socioeconomic strata in New Delhi, India. RESULTS: Interviewees were 18-84 old (mean: 39.6, SD ± 16.6, 23.6% female, 68.6% employed, 7.3% illiterate, 26.3% had heard of research, 2.9% had participated and 58.9% expressed willingness to participate in clinical research. The following perceptions were reported (% true/% false/% not aware: 'research benefits society' (94.1%/3.5%/2.3%, 'the government protects against unethical clinical research' (56.7%/26.3%/16.9%, 'research hospitals provide better care' (67.2%/8.7%/23.9%, 'confidentiality is adequately protected' (54.1%/12.3%/33.5%, 'participation in research is voluntary' (85.3%/5.8%/8.7%; 'participants treated like 'guinea pigs'' (20.7%/53.2%/26.0%, and 'compensation for participation is adequate' (24.7%/12.9%/62.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the Indian public is aware of some key features of clinical research (e.g., purpose, value, voluntary nature of participation, and supports clinical research in general but is unaware of other key features (e.g., compensation, confidentiality, protection of human participants and exhibits some distrust in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials. Larger, cross

  1. Science in the public sphere a history of lay knowledge and expertise

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto-Galan, Agusti

    2016-01-01

    Science in the Public Sphere presents a broad yet detailed picture of the history of science popularization from the Renaissance to the twenty-first century. Global in focus, it provides an original theoretical framework for analysing the political load of science as an instrument of cultural hegemony and giving a voice to expert and lay protagonists throughout history. Organised into a series of thematic chapters spanning diverse periods and places, this book covers subjects such as the representations of science in print, the media, classrooms and museums, orthodox and heterodox practices, the intersection of the history of science with the history of technology, and the ways in which public opinion and scientific expertise have influenced and shaped one another across the centuries. It concludes by introducing the "participatory turn" of the twenty-first century, a new paradigm of science popularization and a new way of understanding the construction of knowledge. Highly illustrated throughout and coveri...

  2. NETWORKS AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE: THE CASE OF A PUBLIC INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION OF MINAS GERAIS – BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimilson Eduardo da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the presentation of the social network of partnerships in 2010 around a Federal Institution of Higher Education – IFES, located at Minas Gerais State. The aim of this paper is to show how the practices of formal partnerships can contribute to the formation of democratic governance. The approach was quantitative, using as tool of the collecting data, a documental research. We analyzed the database of a body responsible for the management of the instruments of partnerships agreements and we classified the partner institutions in public, private, third sector, individuals and foreign institutions. The results were the construction of sociograms as a graphic representation showing the main elements of democratic governance. The survey revealed that partnerships as institutional practices can contribute for the establishment of a network of democratic governance, guided by a leading organization. Thereby, it can form partnerships of following types: public-public and public-private, permeated by the dimensions of governance (rules of governance defined, management (the practice of technology management, autonomy (respect to institutional abilities, mutuality (mutual responsibility, confidence and reciprocity (strengthening of teaching, research and extension activities. In this sense, the social network formed by partnerships can be categorized as a “network of democratic governance”.

  3. Institutional innovation and public extension services' provision: the case of Marche Regional Administration Reform in central Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Magistris, de T.

    2011-01-01

    A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of

  4. Engineering Knowledge and Student Development: An Institutional and Pedagogical Critique of Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofeng

    Educators have recommended the integration of engineering and the liberal arts as a promising educational model to prepare young engineers for global economic, environmental, sociotechnical, and ethical challenges. Drawing upon philosophy of technology, engineering studies, and educational psychology, this dissertation examines diverse visions and strategies for integrating engineering and liberal education and explores their impacts on students' intellectual and moral development. Based on archival research, interviews, and participant observation, the dissertation presents in-depth case studies of three educational initiatives that seek to blend engineering with the humanities, social sciences, and arts: Harvey Mudd College, the Picker Engineering Program at Smith College, and the Programs in Design and Innovation at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The research finds that learning engineering in a liberal arts context increases students' sense of "owning" their education and contributes to their communication, teamwork, and other non-technical professional skills. In addition, opportunities for extensive liberal arts learning in the three cases encourage some students to pursue alternative, less technocentric approaches to engineering. Nevertheless, the case studies suggest that the epistemological differences between the engineering and liberal arts instructors help maintain a technical/social dualism among most students. Furthermore, the dissertation argues a "hidden curriculum," which reinforces the dominant ideology in the engineering profession, persists in the integrated programs and prevents the students from reflecting on the broad social context of engineering and critically examining the assumptions upheld in the engineering profession.

  5. Institutional delivery in India, 2004-14: unravelling the equity-enhancing contributions of the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William; Perkins, Jessica M; Kumar, Saroj; Rajpal, Sunil; Subramanian, S V

    2018-06-01

    To achieve faster and equitable improvements in maternal and child health outcomes, the government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission in 2005. This paper describes the equity-enhancing role of the public sector in increasing use of institutional delivery care services in India between 2004 and 2014. Information on 24 661 births from nationally representative survey data for 2004 and 2014 is analysed. Concentration index is computed to describe socioeconomic-rank-related relative inequalities in institutional delivery and decomposition is used to assess the contributions of public and private sectors in overall socioeconomic inequality. Multilevel logistic regression is applied to examine the changes in socioeconomic gradient between 2004 and 2014. The analysis finds that utilization of institutional delivery care in India increased from 43% in 2004 to 83% in 2014. The bulk of the increase was in public sector use (21% in 2004 to 53% in 2014) with a modest increase in private sector use (22% in 2004 to 30% in 2014). The shift from a pro-rich to pro-poor distribution of public sector use is confirmed. Decomposition analysis indicates that 51% of these reductions in socioeconomic inequality are associated with improved pro-poor distribution of public sector births. Multilevel logistic regressions confirm the disappearance of a wealth-based gradient in public sector births between 2004 and 2014. We conclude that public health investments in India have significantly contributed towards an equitable increase in the coverage of institutional delivery care. Sustained policy efforts are necessary, however, with an emphasis on education, sociocultural and geographical factors to ensure universal coverage of institutional delivery care services in India.

  6. Accessibility of a cadeirante in a public institution of higher education: routes and routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Silveira Cambruzzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The physical disability is group is heterogeneous, even within a “category”, since that covers a diversity, because each has a mechanism to organize in spaces in which attends but all participate of the same challenges. However, due to the challenges encountered by persons with disabilities in establishing routes and routines within a University is that we have developed this research. We chose search access of physically disabled person in your external displacement of student housing to the classroom and the classroom until the Secretariat Department that frequents. Research whose goal is the identification and analysis of routes as its accessibility, on the campus of a public institution of higher education. The survey was submitted to the Ethics Committee that approves their implementation. Direct observations were performed, as well as records via photos and footage, which were authorized by the University. The information collected were analyzed qualitatively as the standards of the Brazilian Association of technical norms and the guiding document for the Regional Council of engineering and architecture, Rio Grande do Sul, titled: Roadmap survey. In data analysis, we see that there are needs for providing accessibility with safety and convenience, as well as establish mechanisms for the community library and the University restaurant part of living as part of the University community and also, in the exercise of their constitutional rights.

  7. The participation of public institutions and private sector stakeholders to Devrekani Watershed management planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Öztürk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Watershed management is creating the ecological balance between human beings and habitats and natural resources especially water resources. In this study the nature and human beings and all of the components involving on human activities in nature were tried to be tackled and the strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities (SWOT analysis of the area were evaluated by prioritizing R’WOT (Ranking + SWOT analysis for ensuring the participation and evaluating the ideas and attitudes of public institutions and private sector which are interest groups of Devrekani Watershed. According to the analysis result, both of the participant groups stated that the planned Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP in the basin will negatively affect the natural resource value. The economical deficiency- for the local administration- and the lack of qualified labour force –for private sector- issues are determined as the most important issues. Having an environmental plan (EP, supporting the traditional animal husbandry were determined as the highest priority factors by the local administration group and the presence of forests and grasslands and the eco-tourism potential were determined as the highest priority factors for the private sector. Creating awareness to local administration group, who are one of the most important decision making mechanisms in the area and did not prefer threats in a high priority way, is foreseen according to the context of the study.

  8. The examination of radiological monitoring on Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Seiko [Okayama Prefectural Inst. for Environmental Science and Public Health (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the environment around Ningyotoge in the northern part of Okayama Prefecture. Environmental gamma ray measurement results were evaluated by TLD at the time of confirming an investigation using a continuous gamma ray monitor. Doses during that time span for passing persons and individuals in the area were lower than 89 nGy/h. We observed Fading for TLD. The result was that the Fading revision coefficient for the Tenno district in Ningyotoge between October 10, 1997 to December 18, 1997 was 1.02. That for the premises of the Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health was 1.05. The Tenno district in Ningyotoge during the period between June 29, 1998 to October 6, 1998 was 1.04. A relationship between the height from the ground and gamma ray dose was found. A straight line was shown by both logarithm graphs. We evaluated radioactive wastewater. When considering the processing of wastewater that flows into rivers, a discharge of zero release is desirable. We evaluated the BOD, COD, etc, as well as the radioactive materials that are processed by microbes such as Bacillus and Arthrobacter. (author)

  9. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers.

  10. Advertising strategies to increase public knowledge of the warning signs of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Frank L; Rubini, Frank; Black, Diane; Hodgson, Corinne S

    2003-08-01

    Public awareness of the warning signs of stroke is important. As part of an educational campaign using mass media, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario conducted public opinion polling in 4 communities to track the level of awareness of the warning signs of stroke and to determine the impact of different media strategies. Telephone surveys were conducted among members of the general public in 1 control and 3 test communities before and after mass media campaigns. The main outcome measure used to determine effectiveness of the campaigns was the ability to name > or =2 warning signs of stroke. In communities exposed to television advertising, ability to name the warning signs of stroke increased significantly. There was no significant change in the community receiving print (newspaper) advertising, and the control community experienced a decrease. Television increased the knowledge of both men and women and of people with less than a secondary school education but not of those > or =65 years of age. Intermittent, low-level television advertising was as effective as continuous, high-level television advertising. Results of this survey can be used to guide mass media-buying strategies for public health education.

  11. Sexual and Gender Minority Health Curricula and Institutional Support Services at U.S. Schools of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, Ali J; Drake, Carolyn B; Glick, Jennifer L; Claiborn, Camilla Scott; Seal, David

    2017-01-01

    Limited research has examined the ways in which public health training programs equip students to address health disparities affecting the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and other sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. This study outlines the availability of public health curricula on SGM health topics, and the prevalence of LGBT and SGM-inclusive institutional support services across CEPH-accredited U.S. schools of public health. Content analysis of all course offerings related to gender and sexuality revealed a limited focus on sexual and gender minority health: just 4.7% of courses contained keywords indicating that LGBT or SGM health topics were covered. Similar analysis of institutional support services available at U.S. schools of public health found that only 25% of schools had LGBT student organizations, and just 19% had an office of diversity that specifically advertised LGBT or SGM-inclusive programming or services on the institution's Web site. Finally, only two of 52 schools offered an educational certificate centered on LGBT health. These findings illustrate a significant need for enhanced curricular content and institutional support services that equip public health students to address SGM health disparities. Improvement in this area may encourage future health care professionals to work to reduce these disparities, to improve SGM persons' experiences in health care settings, and to generate further research in this area.

  12. THE IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE MANAGEMENT AND PROCESSING OF LARGE DATA VOLUMES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINA-ELENA STEGĂROIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a computerized society, technological resources become a source of identification for any community, institution or country. Globalization of information becomes a reality, all the resources having entered into a relationship of subordination with the World Wide Web, the information highways and the Internet. "Information technology - with its most important branch, data management computer science - enters a new era, in which the computer leads to the benefit of a navigable and transparent communication space, focusing on information". Therefore, in an information-based economy, information systems have been established which, based on management systems through the methods of algebra, with applications in economic engineering, have come to manage and process large volumes of data, especially in public institutions. Consequently, the Ministry of Public Affairs has implemented the “Increasing the public administration’s responsibility by modernising the information systems for generating the reports of the financial situations of public institutions” project (FOREXEBUG”, cod SMIS 34952, for which it received in 2012 non-refundable financing from the European Social Fund through the Operational Program for Developing the Administrative Capacity 2007-2013, based on which this paper will analyse the usefulness of implementing such a program in public institutions. Such a system aims to achieve a new form of reporting of budget execution and financial statements (including information related to legal commitments submitted monthly by each public institution in electronic, standardized, secure form, with increasing the reliability of data collected by cross-checking data from the treasury and providing reliable information for use by the Ministry of Finance, public institutions, other relevant institutions and the public, both at the level of detail and the consolidation possibilities at various levels, in parallel with their use for

  13. Remaking collective knowledge: An analysis of the complex and multiple effects of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katie

    2017-12-01

    This article provides an overview and critical analysis of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse and examines their multiple functions and complex effects. The article takes a broadly international view but focuses primarily on Australia, the UK and Ireland, jurisdictions in which there have been major national inquiries. Drawing on sociological and other social science literature, it begins by considering the forms, functions, and purposes of inquiries. An overview of emergent concerns with institutional abuse in the 1980s and 1990s is then provided, followed by an examination of the response of many governments since that time in establishing inquiries. Key findings and recommendations are considered. The final sections of the article explore the evaluation of inquiries, both during their operation and in their aftermath. Policy change and legislative reform are discussed but the focus is on aspects often underplayed or overlooked, including an inquiry's credibility, its role in processes of knowledge production, and the part it plays in producing social and cultural shifts. In the context of growing numbers of inquiries across Western democracies, including the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, it is argued that grasping the complexity of the inquiry mechanism, with its inherent tensions and its multiple effects, is crucial to evaluating inquiry outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The communications gap between scientists and public: More scientists and their institutions feel a need to communicate the results and nature of research with the public

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Scientists and scientific institutions see an increasing need for outreach and communication to counter potentially dangerous misconceptions about science, or misinformation by lobbying groups. Along these lines, communication from scientists to the public is becoming more professional and better targeted to the audience.

  15. Evaluation and enhancement of medical knowledge competency by monthly tests: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahman; Siddiqui, Nauman Saleem; Thotakura, Raja; Hasan, Syed Shafae; Luni, Faraz Khan; Sodeman, Thomas; Hinch, Bryan; Kaw, Dinkar; Hariri, Imad; Khuder, Sadik; Assaly, Ragheb

    2015-01-01

    In-training examination (ITE) has been used as a predictor of performance at the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certifying examination. ITE however may not be an ideal modality as it is held once a year and represents snapshots of performance as compared with a trend. We instituted monthly tests (MTs) to continually assess the performance of trainees throughout their residency. To determine the predictors of ABIM performance and to assess whether the MTs can be used as a tool to predict passing the ABIM examination. The MTs, core competencies, and ITE scores were analyzed for a cohort of graduates who appeared for the ABIM examination from 2010 to 2013. Logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of a successful performance at the ABIM examination. Fifty-one residents appeared for the ABIM examination between 2010 and 2013 with a pass rate of 84%. The MT score for the first year (odds ratio [OR] =1.302, CI =1.004-1.687, P=0.04) and second year (OR =1.125, CI =1.004-1.261, P=0.04) were independent predictors of ABIM performance along with the second-year ITE scores (OR =1.248, CI =1.096-1.420, P=0.001). The MT is a valuable tool to predict the performance at the ABIM examination. Not only it helps in the assessment of likelihood of passing the certification examination, it also helps to identify those residents who may require more assistance earlier during their residency. It may also highlight the areas of weakness in program curriculum and guide curriculum development.

  16. [Strategic decisions in public psychiatric institutions: a proposed method for resource analysis and allocation].

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    Micheletti, Pierre; Chierici, Piero; Durang, Xavier; Salvador, Nathalie; Lopez, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Because of its sector-based organization and extra-hospital care, public psychiatry has a unique position in healthcare. This paper describes the tools and procedures used to analyze and allocate the resources of the "Centre Hospitalier Alpes-Isère", a hospital serving a catchment population of 530,000 adults. A consensus-based approach was used to validate the selected indicators and included the participation of a geographer. Five levels of resource allocation were identified and classified using a decision tree. At each level, the relevant authorities and criteria were identified as key components of the decision-making process. This paper describes the first three levels of care provision. Focusing on adult care, a comparative assessment of the resources allocated to general psychiatric care and specialist care was conducted, in addition to a comparative assessment of the resources allocated to each of the hospital's four local centers. Geographical accessibility to extramural facilities was also assessed. A study of the characteristics of each general psychiatry clinic revealed significant disparities. The paper highlights several issues: the poor knowledge of psychiatric epidemiological data relating to the population within the catchment area, the difficulty of assessing non-consolidated data or indicators from multiple sources, and the limited and partial nature of geographical data for characterizing and evaluating health care in the hospital's peripheral clinics. Several studies are currently underway to assess the operational effectiveness of the tools and procedures used to analyze and allocate resources.

  17. Knowledge of reproductive and sexual rights among University students in Ethiopia: institution-based cross-sectional

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    Adinew Yohannes Mehretie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People have the right to make choices regarding their own sexuality, as far as they respect the rights of others. The knowledge of those rights is critical to youth’s ability to protect themselves from unwanted reproductive outcomes. Reproductive health targeted Millennium Development Goals will not be achieved without improving access to reproductive health. This study was aimed to assess knowledge of reproductive and sexual rights as well as associated factors among Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 642 regular undergraduate Wolaita Sodo University students selected by simple random sampling. A pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered using EPI info version 3.5.3 statistical software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was also carried out to see the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable. Results More than half (54.5% of the respondents were found to be knowledgeable about reproductive and sexual rights. Attending elementary and high school in private schools [AOR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.99], coming from urban areas [AOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.12], being student of faculty of health sciences [AOR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.22, 7.30], participation in reproductive health clubs [AOR: 3.11, 95% CI: 2.08, 4.65], utilization of reproductive health services [AOR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.49, 3.69] and discussing sexual issues with someone else [AOR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.48, 3.62], were positively associated with knowledge of reproductive and sexual rights. Conclusion The level of knowledge of students about reproductive and sexual rights was found to be low. The Ministry of Education has to incorporate reproductive and sexual

  18. Longitudinal investigation of public trust in institutions relative to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Switzerland.

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    Bangerter, Adrian; Krings, Franciska; Mouton, Audrey; Gilles, Ingrid; Green, Eva G T; Clémence, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic left a legacy of mistrust in the public relative to how outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are managed. To prepare for future outbreaks, it is crucial to explore the phenomenon of public trust in the institutions responsible for managing disease outbreaks. We investigated the evolution of public trust in institutions during and after the 2009 pandemic in Switzerland. We also explored respondents' perceptions of the prevention campaign and the roles of the government and media. A two-wave longitudinal survey was mailed to 2,400 members of the Swiss public. Wave 1 was in Spring 2009. Wave 2 was in Spring 2010. Six hundred and two participants responded in both waves. Participants indicated moderate to high levels of trust in medical organizations, the WHO, the Swiss government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the EU. On the other hand, trust in the media was low. Moreover, trust in almost all institutions decreased over time. Participants were satisfied with the amount of information received and indicated having followed official recommendations, but widespread concerns about the vaccine were evident. A large majority of participants agreed the vaccine might have unknown or undesirable side effects. Perceptions of the government's and the media's role in handling the outbreak were characterized by a substantial degree of skepticism and mistrust. Results show clear patterns of skepticism and mistrust on the part of the public relative to various institutions and their actions. Results underscore the importance of systematically investigating trust of the public relative to epidemics. Moreover, studies investigating the evolution of the public's memories of the pandemic over the coming years may be important to understand reactions to future pandemics. A systematic research program on trust can inform public health communication campaigns, enabling tailored communication initiatives.

  19. Longitudinal investigation of public trust in institutions relative to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Switzerland.

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    Adrian Bangerter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 H1N1 pandemic left a legacy of mistrust in the public relative to how outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are managed. To prepare for future outbreaks, it is crucial to explore the phenomenon of public trust in the institutions responsible for managing disease outbreaks. We investigated the evolution of public trust in institutions during and after the 2009 pandemic in Switzerland. We also explored respondents' perceptions of the prevention campaign and the roles of the government and media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-wave longitudinal survey was mailed to 2,400 members of the Swiss public. Wave 1 was in Spring 2009. Wave 2 was in Spring 2010. Six hundred and two participants responded in both waves. Participants indicated moderate to high levels of trust in medical organizations, the WHO, the Swiss government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the EU. On the other hand, trust in the media was low. Moreover, trust in almost all institutions decreased over time. Participants were satisfied with the amount of information received and indicated having followed official recommendations, but widespread concerns about the vaccine were evident. A large majority of participants agreed the vaccine might have unknown or undesirable side effects. Perceptions of the government's and the media's role in handling the outbreak were characterized by a substantial degree of skepticism and mistrust. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results show clear patterns of skepticism and mistrust on the part of the public relative to various institutions and their actions. Results underscore the importance of systematically investigating trust of the public relative to epidemics. Moreover, studies investigating the evolution of the public's memories of the pandemic over the coming years may be important to understand reactions to future pandemics. A systematic research program on trust can inform public health communication campaigns, enabling

  20. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, KNOWLEDGE CREATION AND SHARING: A STUDY OF THE INTEGRATED PUBLIC SAFETY SYSTEM IN THE BOARD OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS IN SANTA CATARINA

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    Indianara Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the role of information technology in the field of operation of public safety in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. More specifically, it was based on the following research problem: how does the use of information technology in the area of public safety influence the creation and sharing of knowledge in criminal investigations in the civilian police force, by means of police inquiry? From a methodological point of view, the study was conducted using a qualitative approach, having the character of a case study. The data collection techniques included the use of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and the analysis of documentation and physical artifacts. As far as the treatment and interpretation of the data is concerned, content analysis techniques were employed. The study showed that the use of information technology can provide actions which facilitate sharing, mainly of explicit knowledge, and which, as a result, characterize activities related to criminal investigation and the launching of police inquiries. These activities are lacking in strategies that provide the sharing of tacit knowledge and consequently the creation of knowledge. Moreover, it was found that the contribution of technology to knowledge creation and sharing in the criminal investigation process also depends on other variables of a contextual (e.g. institutional policies and individual nature (e.g. resistance.