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Sample records for public key cryptographic

  1. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  2. Cryptographic key generation using handwritten signature

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Manuel R.; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier

    2006-01-01

    M. Freire-Santos ; J. Fierrez-Aguilar ; J. Ortega-Garcia; "Cryptographic key generation using handwritten signature", Biometric Technology for Human Identification III, Proc. SPIE 6202 (April 17, 2006); doi:10.1117/12.665875. Copyright 2006 Society of Photo‑Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of...

  3. Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  4. Multi-biometrics based cryptographic key regeneration scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade , Sanjay Ganesh; Petrovska-Delacrétaz , Dijana; Dorizzi , Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Biometrics lack revocability and privacy while cryptography cannot detect the user's identity. By obtaining cryptographic keys using biometrics, one can achieve the properties such as revocability, assurance about user's identity, and privacy. In this paper, we propose a multi-biometric based cryptographic key regeneration scheme. Since left and right irises of a person are uncorrelated, we treat them as two independent biometrics and combine in our system. We propose ...

  5. A Key Management Method for Cryptographically Enforced Access Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zych, Anna; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem; Fernández-Medina, Eduardo; Yagüe, Mariemma I.

    Cryptographic enforcement of access control mechanisms relies on encrypting protected data with the keys stored by authorized users. This approach poses the problem of the distribution of secret keys. In this paper, a key management scheme is presented where each user stores a single key and is

  6. Efficient key management for cryptographically enforced access control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zych, Anna; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem

    Cryptographic enforcement of access control mechanisms relies on encrypting protected data with the keys stored by authorized users. This approach poses the problem of the distribution of secret keys. In this paper, a key management scheme is presented where each user stores a single key and is

  7. Generating cryptographic keys by radioactive decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Maurer, Ingo; Schmidt, Dieter; Smolik, Ludek

    2001-01-01

    We are presenting a new method for the generation of statistically genuine random bitstream with very high frequency which can be employed for cryptographic purposes. The method uses the feature of statistically unpredictable radioactive decays as the source of randomness. The measured quantity is the time distance between the responses of a small ionisation chamber due to the recording of ionising decay products. This time measurement is converted into states representing 0o r 1. The data generated in our experiment successfully passed FIPS PUB 140-1 and die hard statistical tests. For the simulation of systematic effects Monte Carlo techniques were used

  8. SIMPL Systems, or: Can We Design Cryptographic Hardware without Secret Key Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rührmair, Ulrich

    This paper discusses a new cryptographic primitive termed SIMPL system. Roughly speaking, a SIMPL system is a special type of Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) which possesses a binary description that allows its (slow) public simulation and prediction. Besides this public key like functionality, SIMPL systems have another advantage: No secret information is, or needs to be, contained in SIMPL systems in order to enable cryptographic protocols - neither in the form of a standard binary key, nor as secret information hidden in random, analog features, as it is the case for PUFs. The cryptographic security of SIMPLs instead rests on (i) a physical assumption on their unclonability, and (ii) a computational assumption regarding the complexity of simulating their output. This novel property makes SIMPL systems potentially immune against many known hardware and software attacks, including malware, side channel, invasive, or modeling attacks.

  9. Cryptographic Key Management in Delay Tolerant Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Anna Menesidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since their appearance at the dawn of the second millennium, Delay or Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs have gradually evolved, spurring the development of a variety of methods and protocols for making them more secure and resilient. In this context, perhaps, the most challenging problem to deal with is that of cryptographic key management. To the best of our knowledge, the work at hand is the first to survey the relevant literature and classify the various so far proposed key management approaches in such a restricted and harsh environment. Towards this goal, we have grouped the surveyed key management methods into three major categories depending on whether the particular method copes with (a security initialization, (b key establishment, and (c key revocation. We have attempted to provide a concise but fairly complete evaluation of the proposed up-to-date methods in a generalized way with the aim of offering a central reference point for future research.

  10. Modelling Cryptographic Keys in Dynamic Epistemic Logic with DEMO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Ditmarsch (Hans); D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); F.A.G. Sietsma (Floor); S.E. Simon (Sunil); not CWI et al; J.B. Perez; not CWI et al

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIt is far from obvious to find logical counterparts to cryptographic protocol primitives. In logic, a common assumption is that agents are perfectly rational and have no computational limitations. This creates a dilemma. If one merely abstracts from computational aspects, protocols

  11. A Symmetric Key Cryptographic Technique Through Swapping Bits in Binary Field Using p-Box Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Subhranil Som; Soumasree Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a symmetric key cryptographic algorithm named as “A Symmetric Key Cryptographic Technique Through Swapping Bits in Binary Field Using p-box Matrix“ is proposed. Secret sharing is a technique by which any information can be break down into small pieces. The secret can be reconstructed only when a sufficient number of pieces of shares are combined together; individual shares are of no use on their own. Traditional secret sharing scheme possesses high computational ...

  12. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  13. The generation of shared cryptographic keys through channel impulse response estimation at 60 GHz.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Derek P.; Forman, Michael A.; Dowdle, Donald Ryan

    2010-09-01

    Methods to generate private keys based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed as an alternative to standard key-management schemes. In this work, we discuss past work in the field and offer a generalized scheme for the generation of private keys using uncorrelated channels in multiple domains. Proposed cognitive enhancements measure channel characteristics, to dynamically change transmission and reception parameters as well as estimate private key randomness and expiration times. Finally, results are presented on the implementation of a system for the generation of private keys for cryptographic communications using channel impulse-response estimation at 60 GHz. The testbed is composed of commercial millimeter-wave VubIQ transceivers, laboratory equipment, and software implemented in MATLAB. Novel cognitive enhancements are demonstrated, using channel estimation to dynamically change system parameters and estimate cryptographic key strength. We show for a complex channel that secret key generation can be accomplished on the order of 100 kb/s.

  14. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    security properties have been proposed. We investigate constructions as well as limitations for preserving receiver anonymity when using public-key encryption (PKE). We use the constructive cryptography approach by Maurer and Renner and interpret cryptographic schemes as constructions of a certain ideal...... literature (IND-CCA, key-privacy, weak robustness). We also show that a desirable stronger variant, preventing the adversary from selective ”trial-deliveries” of messages, is unfortunately unachievable by any PKE scheme, no matter how strong. The constructive approach makes the guarantees achieved...... by applying a cryptographic scheme explicit in the constructed (ideal) resource; this specifies the exact requirements for the applicability of a cryptographic scheme in a given context. It also allows to decide which of the existing security properties of such a cryptographic scheme are adequate...

  15. Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Phyllis

    1991-01-01

    Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)

  16. Public key cryptography from weaker assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zottarel, Angela

    This dissertation is focused on the construction of public key cryptographic primitives and on the relative security analysis in a meaningful theoretic model. This work takes two orthogonal directions. In the first part, we study cryptographic constructions preserving their security properties also...... in the case the adversary is granted access to partial information about the secret state of the primitive. To do so, we work in an extension of the standard black-box model, a new framework where possible leakage from the secret state is taken into account. In particular, we give the first construction...

  17. An adaptive secret key-directed cryptographic scheme for secure transmission in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, K.; Jan, Z.; Khan, Z

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are memory and bandwidth limited networks whose main goals are to maximize the network lifetime and minimize the energy consumption and transmission cost. To achieve these goals, different techniques of compression and clustering have been used. However, security is an open and major issue in WSNs for which different approaches are used, both in centralized and distributed WSNs' environments. This paper presents an adaptive cryptographic scheme for secure transmission of various sensitive parameters, sensed by wireless sensors to the fusion center for further processing in WSNs such as military networks. The proposed method encrypts the sensitive captured data of sensor nodes using various encryption procedures (bitxor operation, bits shuffling, and secret key based encryption) and then sends it to the fusion center. At the fusion center, the received encrypted data is decrypted for taking further necessary actions. The experimental results with complexity analysis, validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method in terms of security in WSNs. (author)

  18. A Cryptographic SoC for Robust Protection of Secret Keys in IPTV DRM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghan; Yang, Hae-Yong; Yeom, Yongjin; Park, Jongsik

    The security level of an internet protocol television (IPTV) digital right management (DRM) system ultimately relies on protection of secret keys. Well known devices for the key protection include smartcards and battery backup SRAMs (BB-SRAMs); however, these devices could be vulnerable to various physical attacks. In this paper, we propose a secure and cost-effective design of a cryptographic system on chip (SoC) that integrates the BB-SRAM with a cell-based design technique. The proposed SoC provides robust safeguard against the physical attacks, and satisfies high-speed and low-price requirements of IPTV set-top boxes. Our implementation results show that the maximum encryption rate of the SoC is 633Mb/s. In order to verify the data retention capabilities, we made a prototype chip using 0.18µm standard cell technology. The experimental results show that the integrated BB-SRAM can reliably retain data with a 1.4µA leakage current.

  19. Architectural Building A Public Key Infrastructure Integrated Information Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ivanovich Korolev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article keeps under consideration the mattersto apply the cryptographic system having a public key to provide information security and to implya digital signature. It performs the analysis of trust models at the formation of certificates and their use. The article describes the relationships between the trust model and the architecture public key infrastructure. It contains conclusions in respect of the options for building the public key infrastructure for integrated informationspace.

  20. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  1. Automatic Inference of Cryptographic Key Length Based on Analysis of Proof Tightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    allows us to select a smaller security parameter). 5.5 Python Implementation We implement our software tool in the Python programming language...27 5.4 Second Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.5 Python Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.6...software tool, implemented in Python and leveraging the SymPy symbolic solver library; and • We validate our tool using the Schnorr public-key

  2. A Review of RSA and Public-Key Cryptosystems | Rabah | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study and analyze the RSA cryptosystems – a public-key cryptographic algorithm - a system that uses two sets of keys; one for encryption and the other for decryption. Key Words: Public-key cryptography, DH, RSA, Internet Security and attacks, Digital Signature, Message digest, Authentication, Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

  3. Centralized Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment - CRADA Final Report For CRADA Number NFE-11-03562

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, R. K. [ORNL; Peters, Scott [Sypris Electronics, LLC

    2014-05-28

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  4. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  5. Evaluating privacy-preserving record linkage using cryptographic long-term keys and multibit trees on large medical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian P; Borgs, Christian; Randall, Sean M; Schnell, Rainer

    2017-06-08

    Integrating medical data using databases from different sources by record linkage is a powerful technique increasingly used in medical research. Under many jurisdictions, unique personal identifiers needed for linking the records are unavailable. Since sensitive attributes, such as names, have to be used instead, privacy regulations usually demand encrypting these identifiers. The corresponding set of techniques for privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) has received widespread attention. One recent method is based on Bloom filters. Due to superior resilience against cryptographic attacks, composite Bloom filters (cryptographic long-term keys, CLKs) are considered best practice for privacy in PPRL. Real-world performance of these techniques using large-scale data is unknown up to now. Using a large subset of Australian hospital admission data, we tested the performance of an innovative PPRL technique (CLKs using multibit trees) against a gold-standard derived from clear-text probabilistic record linkage. Linkage time and linkage quality (recall, precision and F-measure) were evaluated. Clear text probabilistic linkage resulted in marginally higher precision and recall than CLKs. PPRL required more computing time but 5 million records could still be de-duplicated within one day. However, the PPRL approach required fine tuning of parameters. We argue that increased privacy of PPRL comes with the price of small losses in precision and recall and a large increase in computational burden and setup time. These costs seem to be acceptable in most applied settings, but they have to be considered in the decision to apply PPRL. Further research on the optimal automatic choice of parameters is needed.

  6. BIX Certificates: Cryptographic Tokens for Anonymous Transactions Based on Certificates Public Ledger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Muftic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of Internet, Web, and mobile technologies, a new category of applications and transactions that requires anonymity is gaining increased interest and importance. Examples of such new applications are innovative payment systems, digital notaries, electronic voting, documents sharing, electronic auctions, medical applications, and many others. In addition to anonymity, these applications and transactions also require standard security services: identification, authentication, and authorization of users and protection of their transactions. Providing those services in combination with anonymity is an especially challenging issue, because all security services require explicit user identification and authentication. To solve this issue and enable applications with security and also anonymity we introduce a new type of cryptographically encapsulated objects called BIX certificates. “BIX” is an abbreviation for “Blockchain Information Exchange.” Their purpose is equivalent to X.509 certificates: to support security services for users and transactions, but also enhanced with anonymity. This paper describes the structure and attributes of BIX certificate objects and all related protocols for their creation, distribution, and use. The BIX Certification Infrastructure (BCI as a distributed public ledger is also briefly described.

  7. Cryptographic robustness of practical quantum cryptography: BB84 key distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    In real fiber-optic quantum cryptography systems, the avalanche photodiodes are not perfect, the source of quantum states is not a single-photon one, and the communication channel is lossy. For these reasons, key distribution is impossible under certain conditions for the system parameters. A simple analysis is performed to find relations between the parameters of real cryptography systems and the length of the quantum channel that guarantee secure quantum key distribution when the eavesdropper's capabilities are limited only by fundamental laws of quantum mechanics while the devices employed by the legitimate users are based on current technologies. Critical values are determined for the rate of secure real-time key generation that can be reached under the current technology level. Calculations show that the upper bound on channel length can be as high as 300 km for imperfect photodetectors (avalanche photodiodes) with present-day quantum efficiency (η ∼ 20%) and dark count probability (p dark ∼ 10 -7 )

  8. RETRACTED: The Application of Symmetric Key Cryptographic Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lingling; Ji, Zhigang; Wang, Zhihui

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared in "Queen's 25th Biennial Symposium on Communications", page 168-172, print ISBN 978-1-4244-5709-0, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BSC.2010.5472979. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  9. Retraction notice to: "The Application of Symmetric Key Cryptographic Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lingling; Ji, Zhigang; Wang, Zhihui

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared in "Queen's 25th Biennial Symposium on Communications", page 168-172, print ISBN 978-1-4244-5709-0. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  10. Low-Power Public Key Cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEAVER,CHERYL L.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.; HAMILTON,VICTORIA A.; SCHROEPPEL,RICHARD C.; GONZALES,RITA A.; MILLER,RUSSELL D.; THOMAS,EDWARD V.

    2000-11-01

    This report presents research on public key, digital signature algorithms for cryptographic authentication in low-powered, low-computation environments. We assessed algorithms for suitability based on their signature size, and computation and storage requirements. We evaluated a variety of general purpose and special purpose computing platforms to address issues such as memory, voltage requirements, and special functionality for low-powered applications. In addition, we examined custom design platforms. We found that a custom design offers the most flexibility and can be optimized for specific algorithms. Furthermore, the entire platform can exist on a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or can be integrated with commercially available components to produce the desired computing platform.

  11. Cryptographic Boolean functions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Boolean functions are the building blocks of symmetric cryptographic systems. Symmetrical cryptographic algorithms are fundamental tools in the design of all types of digital security systems (i.e. communications, financial and e-commerce).Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications is a concise reference that shows how Boolean functions are used in cryptography. Currently, practitioners who need to apply Boolean functions in the design of cryptographic algorithms and protocols need to patch together needed information from a variety of resources (books, journal articles and other sources). This book compiles the key essential information in one easy to use, step-by-step reference. Beginning with the basics of the necessary theory the book goes on to examine more technical topics, some of which are at the frontier of current research.-Serves as a complete resource for the successful design or implementation of cryptographic algorithms or protocols using Boolean functions -Provides engineers and scient...

  12. Cryptanalysis of Compact-LWE and Related Lightweight Public Key Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianyan Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging Internet of Things (IoT, lightweight public key cryptography plays an essential role in security and privacy protection. With the approach of quantum computing era, it is important to design and evaluate lightweight quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms applicable to IoT. LWE-based cryptography is a widely used and well-studied family of postquantum cryptographic constructions whose hardness is based on worst-case lattice problems. To make LWE friendly to resource-constrained IoT devices, a variant of LWE, named Compact-LWE, was proposed and used to design lightweight cryptographic schemes. In this paper, we study the so-called Compact-LWE problem and clarify that under certain parameter settings it can be solved in polynomial time. As a consequence, our result leads to a practical attack against an instantiated scheme based on Compact-LWE proposed by Liu et al. in 2017.

  13. Cryptographic Research and NSA: Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davida, George I.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Cryptography Study Group accepted the claim made by the National Security Agency that some information in some publications concerning cryptology could be inimical to national security, and is allowing the establishment of a voluntary mechanism, on an experimental basis, for NSA to review cryptology manuscripts. (MLW)

  14. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  15. Cryptographic analysis on the key space of optical phase encryption algorithm based on the design of discrete random phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Li, Zengyan

    2013-07-01

    The key space of phase encryption algorithm using discrete random phase mask is investigated by numerical simulation in this paper. Random phase mask with finite and discrete phase levels is considered as the core component in most practical optical encryption architectures. The key space analysis is based on the design criteria of discrete random phase mask. The role of random amplitude mask and random phase mask in optical encryption system is identified from the perspective of confusion and diffusion. The properties of discrete random phase mask in a practical double random phase encoding scheme working in both amplitude encoding (AE) and phase encoding (PE) modes are comparably analyzed. The key space of random phase encryption algorithm is evaluated considering both the encryption quality and the brute-force attack resistibility. A method for enlarging the key space of phase encryption algorithm is also proposed to enhance the security of optical phase encryption techniques.

  16. Critical analysis of the Bennett-Riedel attack on secure cryptographic key distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-noise scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo B Kish

    Full Text Available Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1 argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

  17. Critical analysis of the Bennett-Riedel attack on secure cryptographic key distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-noise scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B; Abbott, Derek; Granqvist, Claes G

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

  18. Building Secure Public Key Encryption Scheme from Hidden Field Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate public key cryptography is a set of cryptographic schemes built from the NP-hardness of solving quadratic equations over finite fields, amongst which the hidden field equations (HFE family of schemes remain the most famous. However, the original HFE scheme was insecure, and the follow-up modifications were shown to be still vulnerable to attacks. In this paper, we propose a new variant of the HFE scheme by considering the special equation x2=x defined over the finite field F3 when x=0,1. We observe that the equation can be used to further destroy the special structure of the underlying central map of the HFE scheme. It is shown that the proposed public key encryption scheme is secure against known attacks including the MinRank attack, the algebraic attacks, and the linearization equations attacks. The proposal gains some advantages over the original HFE scheme with respect to the encryption speed and public key size.

  19. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation: Department of Defense Public Key Infrastructure and Key Management Infrastructure Token Protection Profile (Medium Robustness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-22

    may be derived from detailed inspection of the IC itself or from illicit appropriation of design information. Counterfeit smart cards can be mass...Infrastructure (PKI) as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair...interference devices (SQDIS), electrical testing, and electron beam testing. • Other attacks, such as UV or X-rays or high temperatures, could cause erasure

  20. Lightweight Cryptographic Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuen, Horace

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop new cryptographic techniques, and to modify the important existing ones, for applications to encryption and authentication in energy-constrained sensors...

  1. A novel, privacy-preserving cryptographic approach for sharing sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassa, Christopher A; Miller, Rachel A; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Objective DNA samples are often processed and sequenced in facilities external to the point of collection. These samples are routinely labeled with patient identifiers or pseudonyms, allowing for potential linkage to identity and private clinical information if intercepted during transmission. We present a cryptographic scheme to securely transmit externally generated sequence data which does not require any patient identifiers, public key infrastructure, or the transmission of passwords. Materials and methods This novel encryption scheme cryptographically protects participant sequence data using a shared secret key that is derived from a unique subset of an individual’s genetic sequence. This scheme requires access to a subset of an individual’s genetic sequence to acquire full access to the transmitted sequence data, which helps to prevent sample mismatch. Results We validate that the proposed encryption scheme is robust to sequencing errors, population uniqueness, and sibling disambiguation, and provides sufficient cryptographic key space. Discussion Access to a set of an individual’s genotypes and a mutually agreed cryptographic seed is needed to unlock the full sequence, which provides additional sample authentication and authorization security. We present modest fixed and marginal costs to implement this transmission architecture. Conclusions It is possible for genomics researchers who sequence participant samples externally to protect the transmission of sequence data using unique features of an individual’s genetic sequence. PMID:23125421

  2. New public key cryptosystem based on quaternions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcheva, Mariana; Karailiev, Kristian

    2017-12-01

    Quaternions are not commonly used in cryptography. Nevertheless, the noncommutativity of their multiplication makes them suitable for cryptographic purposes. In this paper we suggest a Diffie-Hellman like cryptosystem based on the the quaternions. Additionally, a computer realization of the protocol is given.

  3. Cryptographic quantum hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablayev, F. M.; Vasiliev, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    We present a version of quantum hash functions based on non-binary discrete functions. The proposed quantum procedure is ‘classical-quantum’, that is, it takes a classical bit string as an input and produces a quantum state. The resulting function has the property of a one-way function (pre-image resistance); in addition it has properties analogous to classical cryptographic hash second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. We also show that the proposed function can be naturally used in a quantum digital signature protocol.

  4. Cryptographic quantum hashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablayev, F M; Vasiliev, A V

    2014-01-01

    We present a version of quantum hash functions based on non-binary discrete functions. The proposed quantum procedure is ‘classical-quantum’, that is, it takes a classical bit string as an input and produces a quantum state. The resulting function has the property of a one-way function (pre-image resistance); in addition it has properties analogous to classical cryptographic hash second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. We also show that the proposed function can be naturally used in a quantum digital signature protocol. (letter)

  5. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  6. Low-power cryptographic coprocessor for autonomous wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna, Jakub; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2013-10-01

    The concept of autonomous wireless sensor networks involves energy harvesting, as well as effective management of system resources. Public-key cryptography (PKC) offers the advantage of elegant key agreement schemes with which a secret key can be securely established over unsecure channels. In addition to solving the key management problem, the other major application of PKC is digital signatures, with which non-repudiation of messages exchanges can be achieved. The motivation for studying low-power and area efficient modular arithmetic algorithms comes from enabling public-key security for low-power devices that can perform under constrained environment like autonomous wireless sensor networks. This paper presents a cryptographic coprocessor tailored to the autonomous wireless sensor networks constraints. Such hardware circuit is aimed to support the implementation of different public-key cryptosystems based on modular arithmetic in GF(p) and GF(2m). Key components of the coprocessor are described as GEZEL models and can be easily transformed to VHDL and implemented in hardware.

  7. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the "public exponent'' itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms. The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic...... groups. In all cases, security follows from a well de ned complexity assumption (the strong root assumption), without relying on random oracles. A smooth natural number has no big prime factors. The probability, that a random natural number not greater than x has all prime factors smaller than x1/u...

  8. Public-key encryption with chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarev, Ljupco; Sterjev, Marjan; Fekete, Attila; Vattay, Gabor

    2004-12-01

    We propose public-key encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps, which are generalization of well-known and commercially used algorithms: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), ElGamal, and Rabin. For the case of generalized RSA algorithm we discuss in detail its software implementation and properties. We show that our algorithm is as secure as RSA algorithm.

  9. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel

    This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk...... to implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational...... with appealing economic applications. Our implementation puts forward a notion of cryptographically blinded games that exploits the power of encryption to selectively restrict the information available to players about sampled action profiles, such that these desirable equilibria can be stably achieved...

  10. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  11. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  12. Cryptographic Primitives with Quasigroup Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Mileva, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Cryptology is the science of secret communication, which consists of two complementary disciplines: cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography is dealing with design and development of new primitives, algorithms and schemas for data enciphering and deciphering. For many centuries cryptographic technics have been applied in protection of secrecy and authentication in diplomatic, political and military correspondences and communications. Cryptanalysis is dealing with different attacks on c...

  13. Cryptographic Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2010-01-01

    functions, also called message authentication codes (MACs) serve data integrity and data origin authentication in the secret key setting. The building blocks of hash functions can be designed using block ciphers, modular arithmetic or from scratch. The design principles of the popular Merkle...

  14. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  15. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  16. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  17. Distributed protocols for digital signatures and public key encryption.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchta, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Distributed protocols allow a cryptographic scheme to distribute its operation among a group of participants (servers). This new concept of cryptosystems was introduced by Desmedt [56]. We consider two different flavours of distributed protocols. One of them considers a distributed model with n parties where all of these parties are honest. The other allows up to t − 1 parties to be faulty. Such cryptosystems are called threshold cryptosystems. The distribution of cryptographic process is ...

  18. Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Cheman

    A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.

  19. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  20. Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-03-01

    Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.

  1. Public information. Key issue paper no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power was welcomed from the outset because it promised highly economic and convenient energy, especially electricity. Even today, nuclear projects espoused by developing nations can stimulate enthusiasm and national pride. However, public unease concerning nuclear power safety was magnified by the accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986. The perceived problem of transport and long term storage of nuclear waste has added to public concerns, as has the risk of the possible proliferation of nuclear weapons. Public information strategies must recognize and seek to address these fears by pointing to the many cumulative years of trouble-free nuclear operations and by stressing the strict rules and oversight designed to protect workers and the public from accidents and radioactive releases. It is against this background that the following material has been compiled. It comes from a variety of sources and reflects the experience mainly of industrialized countries that have national nuclear programs. It is important to underline that it is descriptive rather than prescriptive in nature for two reasons: first, the IAEA is essentially a forum for pooling collective knowledge in this as in other fields; and secondly, the IAEA would not presume to offer a universal formula, since national circumstances vary according to specific political, demographic, social and other factors. Hence only certain parts of this paper may be of direct relevance to any given national situation. (author)

  2. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  3. Analysis and improvement for the performance of Baptista's cryptographic scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jun; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, K.W.; Zhou Tsing; Deng Yigui

    2006-01-01

    Based on Baptista's chaotic cryptosystem, we propose a secure and robust chaotic cryptographic scheme after investigating the problems found in this cryptosystem as well as its variants. In this proposed scheme, a subkey array generated from the key and the plaintext is adopted to enhance the security. Some methods are introduced to increase the efficiency. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient for practical use

  4. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor...

  5. Key Distribution and Changing Key Cryptosystem Based on Phase Retrieval Algorithm and RSA Public-Key Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieyu Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical image encryption has attracted more and more researchers’ attention, and the various encryption schemes have been proposed. In existing optical cryptosystem, the phase functions or images are usually used as the encryption keys, and it is difficult that the traditional public-key algorithm (such as RSA, ECC, etc. is used to complete large numerical key transfer. In this paper, we propose a key distribution scheme based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the RSA public-key algorithm, which solves the problem for the key distribution in optical image encryption system. Furthermore, we also propose a novel image encryption system based on the key distribution principle. In the system, the different keys can be used in every encryption process, which greatly improves the security of the system.

  6. Image encryption using fingerprint as key based on phase retrieval algorithm and public key cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.

  7. Simple Public Key Infrastructure Protocol Analysis and Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidergar, Alexander G

    2005-01-01

    ...). This thesis aims at proving the applicability of the Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI) as a means of PKC. The strand space approach of Guttman and Thayer is used to provide an appropriate model for analysis...

  8. Vehicle Authentication via Monolithically Certified Public Key and Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolev, Shlomi; Krzywiecki, Łukasz; Panwar, Nisha; Segal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular networks are used to coordinate actions among vehicles in traffic by the use of wireless transceivers (pairs of transmitters and receivers). Unfortunately, the wireless communication among vehicles is vulnerable to security threats that may lead to very serious safety hazards. In this work, we propose a viable solution for coping with Man-in-the-Middle attacks. Conventionally, Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is utilized for a secure communication with the pre-certified public key. H...

  9. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  10. Deducing trapdoor primitives in public key encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Chandra

    2005-03-01

    Semantic security of public key encryption schemes is often interchangeable with the art of building trapdoors. In the frame of reference of Random Oracle methodology, the "Key Privacy" and "Anonymity" has often been discussed. However to a certain degree the security of most public key encryption schemes is required to be analyzed with formal proofs using one-way functions. This paper evaluates the design of El Gamal and RSA based schemes and attempts to parallelize the trapdoor primitives used in the computation of the cipher text, thereby magnifying the decryption error δp in the above schemes.

  11. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is still in the initial stage, the key technology of the public opinion analysis is still as a starting point for in-depth study and discussion.

  12. Public key infrastructure building trusted applications and web services

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2004-01-01

    OVERVIEW OF PKI TECHNOLOGYPublic Key Infrastructures (PKIs): What Are They?Type of Certificate Authorities (CAS) ServicesPKI StandardsTypes of Vendor and Third-Party CA SystemsProtecting Private KeysCA System AttacksStolen Private Keys: What Can Be Done?Certificate Practice StatementsPKI ReadinessANALYZING AND DESIGNING PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURESPKI Design IssuesCost Justification and ConsiderationPKI Standards Design IssuesPKI Architectural Design ConsiderationsIMPLEMENTING PKIRequirementsImplementation ScheduleImplementation CostsPKI PerformanceMANAGING PKIRequesting a CertificateObtaining a

  13. Unbelievable security : Matching AES using public key systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Boyd, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) provides three levels of security: 128, 192, and 256 bits. Given a desired level of security for the AES, this paper discusses matching public key sizes for RSA and the ElGamal family of protocols. For the latter both traditional multiplicative groups of finite

  14. Public-Key Encryption with Non-interactive Opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Hofheinz, Dennis; Kiltz, Eike

    2008-01-01

    We formally define the primitive of public-key encryption with non-interactive opening (PKENO), where the receiver of a ciphertext C can, convincingly and without interaction, reveal what the result was of decrypting C, without compromising the scheme’s security. This has numerous applications...

  15. Public-key Encryption with Registered Keyword Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    Public-key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) enables a server to test whether a tag from a sender and a trapdoor from a receiver contain the same keyword. In this paper, we highlight some potential security concern, i.e. a curious server is able to answer whether any selected keyword is

  16. 76 FR 48807 - Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Certificate Action Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Infrastructure (PKI) technology to support electronic commerce between the USPTO and its customers. PKI is a set... security for its electronic commerce systems, the USPTO uses PKI technology to protect the integrity and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Public Key Infrastructure (PKI...

  17. A Verifiable Language for Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    We develop a formal language for specifying cryptographic protocols in a structured and clear manner, which allows verification of many interesting properties; in particular confidentiality and integrity. The study sheds new light on the problem of creating intuitive and human readable languages...

  18. On Boolean functions with generalized cryptographic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, A.; Nikov, V.S.; Nikova, S.I.; Preneel, B.; Canteaut, A.; Viswanathan, K.

    2004-01-01

    By considering a new metric, we generalize cryptographic properties of Boolean functions such as resiliency and propagation characteristics. These new definitions result in a better understanding of the properties of Boolean functions and provide a better insight in the space defined by this metric.

  19. Protecting Cryptographic Memory against Tampering Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Pratyay

    In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks. In prac......In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks....... In practice such attacks can be executed easily, e.g. by heating the device, as substantiated by numerous works in the past decade. Tampering attacks are a class of such physical attacks where the attacker can change the memory/computation, gains additional (non-black-box) knowledge by interacting...... with the faulty device and then tries to break the security. Prior works show that generically approaching such problem is notoriously difficult. So, in this dissertation we attempt to solve an easier question, known as memory-tampering, where the attacker is allowed tamper only with the memory of the device...

  20. An application of different dioids in public key cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durcheva, Mariana I., E-mail: mdurcheva66@gmail.com [Technical University of Sofia, Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, 8 Kliment Ohridski St., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria)

    2014-11-18

    Dioids provide a natural framework for analyzing a broad class of discrete event dynamical systems such as the design and analysis of bus and railway timetables, scheduling of high-throughput industrial processes, solution of combinatorial optimization problems, the analysis and improvement of flow systems in communication networks. They have appeared in several branches of mathematics such as functional analysis, optimization, stochastic systems and dynamic programming, tropical geometry, fuzzy logic. In this paper we show how to involve dioids in public key cryptography. The main goal is to create key – exchange protocols based on dioids. Additionally the digital signature scheme is presented.

  1. An application of different dioids in public key cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcheva, Mariana I.

    2014-01-01

    Dioids provide a natural framework for analyzing a broad class of discrete event dynamical systems such as the design and analysis of bus and railway timetables, scheduling of high-throughput industrial processes, solution of combinatorial optimization problems, the analysis and improvement of flow systems in communication networks. They have appeared in several branches of mathematics such as functional analysis, optimization, stochastic systems and dynamic programming, tropical geometry, fuzzy logic. In this paper we show how to involve dioids in public key cryptography. The main goal is to create key – exchange protocols based on dioids. Additionally the digital signature scheme is presented

  2. Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunyan; Li Xihan; Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently. (general)

  3. Lower and Upper Bounds for Deniable Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendlin, Rikke; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    the parties to change their internal state to make it look like a given ciphertext decrypts to a message different from what it really decrypts to. Deniable encryption was in this way introduced to allow to deny a message exchange and hence combat coercion. Depending on which parties can be coerced...... that it is impossible to construct a non-interactive bi-deniable public-key encryption scheme with better than polynomial security. Specifically, we give an explicit bound relating the security of the scheme to how efficient the scheme is in terms of key size. Our impossibility result establishes a lower bound...

  4. Key-phrase based classification of public health web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolamic, Ljiljana; Boyer, Célia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the public health web pages classification model based on key phrase extraction and matching. Easily extendible both in terms of new classes as well as the new language this method proves to be a good solution for text classification faced with the total lack of training data. To evaluate the proposed solution we have used a small collection of public health related web pages created by a double blind manual classification. Our experiments have shown that by choosing the adequate threshold value the desired value for either precision or recall can be achieved.

  5. Distributed public key schemes secure against continual leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akavia, Adi; Goldwasser, Shafi; Hazay, Carmit

    2012-01-01

    -secure against continual memory leakage. Our DPKE scheme also implies a secure storage system on leaky devices, where a value s can be secretely stored on devices that continually leak information about their internal state to an external attacker. The devices go through a periodic refresh protocol......In this work we study distributed public key schemes secure against continual memory leakage. The secret key will be shared among two computing devices communicating over a public channel, and the decryption operation will be computed by a simple 2-party protocol between the devices. Similarly...... against continual memory leakage, under the Bilinear Decisional Diffie-Hellman and $2$-linear assumptions. Our schemes have the following properties: 1. Our DPKE and DIBE schemes tolerate leakage at all times, including during refresh. During refresh the tolerated leakage is a (1/2-o (1),1)-fraction...

  6. Enhanced Matrix Power Function for Cryptographic Primitive Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligijus Sakalauskas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new enhanced matrix power function (MPF is presented for the construction of cryptographic primitives. According to the definition in previously published papers, an MPF is an action of two matrices powering some base matrix on the left and right. The MPF inversion equations, corresponding to the MPF problem, are derived and have some structural similarity with classical multivariate quadratic (MQ problem equations. Unlike the MQ problem, the MPF problem seems to be more complicated, since its equations are not defined over the field, but are represented as left–right action of two matrices defined over the infinite near-semiring on the matrix defined over the certain infinite, additive, noncommuting semigroup. The main results are the following: (1 the proposition of infinite, nonsymmetric, and noncommuting algebraic structures for the construction of the enhanced MPF, satisfying associativity conditions, which are necessary for cryptographic applications; (2 the proof that MPF inversion is polynomially equivalent to the solution of a certain kind of generalized multivariate quadratic (MQ problem which can be reckoned as hard; (3 the estimation of the effectiveness of direct MPF value computation; and (4 the presentation of preliminary security analysis, the determination of the security parameter, and specification of its secure value. These results allow us to make a conjecture that enhanced MPF can be a candidate one-way function (OWF, since the effective (polynomial-time inversion algorithm for it is not yet known. An example of the application of the proposed MPF for the Key Agreement Protocol (KAP is presented. Since the direct MPF value is computed effectively, the proposed MPF is suitable for the realization of cryptographic protocols in devices with restricted computation resources.

  7. Practical Implementation of Various Public Key Infrastructure Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Anatolievich Melnikov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short comparative analysis of the contemporary models of public key infrastructure (PKI and the issues of the PKI models real implementation. The Russian model of PKI is presented. Differences between the North American and West Europe models of PKI and Russian model of PKI are described. The problems of creation and main directions of further development and improvement of the Russian PKI and its integration into the global trust environment are defined.

  8. Improved security proofs and constructions for public-key cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jiaxin (M. Sc.)

    2016-01-01

    Diese Arbeit verbessert die Sicherheitsanalyse und Konstruktierbarkeit von Public-Key-Kryptographie: Der erste Teil der Arbeit schlägt einen vereinfachten Sicherheitsbeweis für digitale Signaturverfahren von kanonischen Identifikationsschemata über die klassischen Fiat-Shamir-Transformation im Random Oracle Modell vor. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit schlägt eine neue Variante der Message Authentication Codes (MACs) vor, die sogenannten affinen MACs. Außerdem wird eine generische Transform...

  9. Noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag

    2011-09-01

    We study the noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading wireless channels, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI). We present two results. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    We study the noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading wireless channels, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI). We present two results. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Quantum Security of Cryptographic Primitives

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardoni, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    We call quantum security the area of IT security dealing with scenarios where one or more parties have access to quantum hardware. This encompasses both the fields of post-quantum cryptography (that is, traditional cryptography engineered to be resistant against quantum adversaries), and quantum cryptography (that is, security protocols designed to be natively run on a quantum infrastructure, such as quantum key distribution). Moreover, there exist also hybrid models, where traditional crypto...

  12. Using Compilers to Enhance Cryptographic Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, E.; Barbosa, M.; Bernstein, D.; Damgård, I.; Page, D.; Pagter, J. I.; Sadeghi, A.-R.; Sovio, S.

    Developing high-quality software is hard in the general case, and it is significantly more challenging in the case of cryptographic software. A high degree of new skill and understanding must be learnt and applied without error to avoid vulnerability and inefficiency. This is often beyond the financial, manpower or intellectual resources avail-able. In this paper we present the motivation for the European funded CACE (Computer Aided Cryptography Engineering) project The main objective of CACE is to provide engineers (with limited or no expertise in cryptography) with a toolbox that allows them to generate robust and efficient implementations of cryptographic primitives. We also present some preliminary results already obtained in the early stages of this project, and discuss the relevance of the project as perceived by stakeholders in the mobile device arena.

  13. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  14. Error-correcting pairs for a public-key cryptosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellikaan, Ruud; Márquez-Corbella, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Code-based Cryptography (CBC) is a powerful and promising alternative for quantum resistant cryptography. Indeed, together with lattice-based cryptography, multivariate cryptography and hash-based cryptography are the principal available techniques for post-quantum cryptography. CBC was first introduced by McEliece where he designed one of the most efficient Public-Key encryption schemes with exceptionally strong security guarantees and other desirable properties that still resist to attacks based on Quantum Fourier Transform and Amplitude Amplification. The original proposal, which remains unbroken, was based on binary Goppa codes. Later, several families of codes have been proposed in order to reduce the key size. Some of these alternatives have already been broken. One of the main requirements of a code-based cryptosystem is having high performance t -bounded decoding algorithms which is achieved in the case the code has a t -error-correcting pair (ECP). Indeed, those McEliece schemes that use GRS codes, BCH, Goppa and algebraic geometry codes are in fact using an error-correcting pair as a secret key. That is, the security of these Public-Key Cryptosystems is not only based on the inherent intractability of bounded distance decoding but also on the assumption that it is difficult to retrieve efficiently an error-correcting pair. In this paper, the class of codes with a t -ECP is proposed for the McEliece cryptosystem. Moreover, we study the hardness of distinguishing arbitrary codes from those having a t -error correcting pair. (paper)

  15. Mechanical Verification of Cryptographic Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaochun; Ma, Xiaoqi; Huang, Scott C.-H.; Cheng, Maggie

    Information security is playing an increasingly important role in modern society, driven especially by the uptake of the Internet for information transfer. Large amount of information is transmitted everyday through the Internet, which is often the target of malicious attacks. In certain areas, this issue is vital. For example, military departments of governments often transmit a great amount of top-secret data, which, if divulged, could become a huge threat to the public and to national security. Even in our daily life, it is also necessary to protect information. Consider e-commerce systems as an example. No one is willing to purchase anything over the Internet before being assured that all their personal and financial information will always be kept secure and will never be leaked to any unauthorised person or organisation.

  16. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Wildlife Order 187; 4-D-FL-1218] Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property Pursuant to section 2 of Public Law 537, 80th Congress, approved May 19, 1948 (16 U.S.C. 667c), notice is hereby given that: 1. The General...

  17. Security of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Standards, Threats Analysis and Cryptographic Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyes Ben Hamida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads worldwide, road traffic accidents are currently recognized as a major public safety problem. In this context, connected vehicles are considered as the key enabling technology to improve road safety and to foster the emergence of next generation cooperative intelligent transport systems (ITS. Through the use of wireless communication technologies, the deployment of ITS will enable vehicles to autonomously communicate with other nearby vehicles and roadside infrastructures and will open the door for a wide range of novel road safety and driver assistive applications. However, connecting wireless-enabled vehicles to external entities can make ITS applications vulnerable to various security threats, thus impacting the safety of drivers. This article reviews the current research challenges and opportunities related to the development of secure and safe ITS applications. It first explores the architecture and main characteristics of ITS systems and surveys the key enabling standards and projects. Then, various ITS security threats are analyzed and classified, along with their corresponding cryptographic countermeasures. Finally, a detailed ITS safety application case study is analyzed and evaluated in light of the European ETSI TC ITS standard. An experimental test-bed is presented, and several elliptic curve digital signature algorithms (ECDSA are benchmarked for signing and verifying ITS safety messages. To conclude, lessons learned, open research challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  18. Protecting Cryptographic Keys and Functions from Malware Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    2009. 92 [17] D. Chaum and E. Van Heyst. Group signatures. In D. W. Davies, editor, Advances in Cryptology — Eurocrypt ’91, pages 257–265, Berlin...and David A. Patterson. Computer Architecture - A Quantitative Ap- proach. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pub-MORGAN-KAUFMANN:adr, third edition, 2002...to provide data secrecy for user appli- cations on a per-page basis. In David Gregg, Vikram S. Adve, and Brian N. Bershad, editors, Proceedings of the

  19. Cryptographic keys from noisy data, theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Biometric security systems that verify a person's identity by scanning fingers, hands, eye or face are becoming more and more common. As a result biometrics is one of the fastest growing industries. Applications for biometrics range from homeland security physical access to various facilities and

  20. A Key Generation Model for Improving the Security of Cryptographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptography is a mathematical technique that plays an important role in information security techniques for addressing authentication, interactive proofs, data origination, sender/receiver identity, non-repudiation, secure computation, data integrity and confidentiality, message integrity checking and digital signatures.

  1. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  2. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  3. Argumentation Key to Communicating Climate Change to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Argumentation plays an important role in how we communicate climate change science to the public and is a key component integrated throughout the Next Generation Science Standards. A scientific argument can be described as a disagreement between explanations with data being used to justify each position. Argumentation is social process where two or more individuals construct and critique arguments (Kuhn & Udell, 2003; Nussbaum, 1997). Sampson, Grooms, and Walker's (2011) developed a framework for understanding the components of a scientific argument. The three components start with a claim (a conjecture, conclusion, explanation, or an answer to a research question). This claim must fit the evidence (observations that show trends over time, relationships between variables or difference between groups). The evidence must be justified with reasoning (explains how the evidence supports the explanation and whey it should count as support). In a scientific argument, or debate, the controversy focuses on how data were collected, what data can or should be included, and what inferences can be made based on a set of evidence. Toulmin's model (1969) also includes rebutting or presenting an alternative explanation supported by counter evidence and reasoning of why the alternative is not the appropriate explanation for the question of the problem. The process of scientific argumentation should involve the construction and critique of scientific arguments, one that involves the consideration of alternative hypotheses (Lawson, 2003). Scientific literacy depends as much on the ability to refute and recognize poor scientific arguments as much as it does on the ability to present an effective argument based on good scientific data (Osborne, 2010). Argument is, therefore, a core feature of science. When students learn to construct a sound scientific argument, they demonstrate critical thinking and a mastery of the science being taught. To present a convincing argument in support of

  4. Public engagement with CCS: barriers, key issues and ways forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenias, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Although Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is recognised as a crucial transition technology to a low-carbon world, it has not been popular with the public or some governments (e.g. the UK). Also, despite its use in industrial processes for decades, CCS remains and unfamiliar technology for most publics. It is therefore important to foster top-down and bottom-up acceptance of large scale CCS. In an exploratory round of interviews we canvassed the views of British, Dutch, German and Norwegian experts (N=13) with previous experience in public engagement with CCS. They identified barriers and drivers for CCS deployment and public engagement with CCS. Thematic analysis revealed a small number of recurrent issues, including: (a) lack of political leadership on CCS; (b) lack of public knowledge on relevant technologies and (c) difficulty communicating why CCS is necessary. Emphasis on these barriers varied with the level of experts' engagement with the public. More interestingly, although most experts agreed on the importance of public engagement, their views divided between 'why' engage and 'how' best to do this. In a subsequent expert survey (N=99) interview findings were reinforced: public support was seen as important for CCS roll-out (72%), though lower than political support and funding. The survey also showed that local public was expected to experience most risks, while global public will experience most benefits; whereas local business is seen to benefit more than global. Experts were overwhelmingly positive about CCS - risks outweigh benefits, and are confident that CCS will play a major role in climate change mitigation (along with reduced energy demand and renewables). These findings will be expanded on and triangulated in a follow-up public survey which will benefit those involved with public engagement with CCS.

  5. Public Acceptance, a Key Issue of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1996-01-01

    A brief history of public acceptance of nuclear energy in Slovenia is given. While in former Yugoslavia a problem of public acceptance virtually did not exist because of undemocratic social system, it grew larger and larger with the process of democratization in late eighties. The first democratic government in Slovenia had to abandon its original idea for an early closure of the nuclear power plant Krsko. In 1995 and 1996 there were two attempts to organize the national referendum about the future of the plant. The lessons learned from the public debates in recent years could help other countries entering the nuclear program to prepare and implement efficient public information strategy. (author)

  6. Key Management Strategies for Safeguards Authentication and Encryption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coram, M.; Hymel, R.; McDaniel, M.; Brotz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Management of cryptographic keys for the authentication and encryption of safeguards data can be the critical weak link in the practical implementation of information security. Within the safeguards community, there is the need to validate that data has not been modified at any point since generation and that it was generated by the monitoring node and not an imposter. In addition, there is the need for that data to be transmitted securely between the monitoring node and the monitoring party such that it cannot be intercepted and read while in transit. Encryption and digital signatures support the required confidentiality and authenticity but challenges exist in managing the cryptographic keys they require. Technologies developed at Sandia National Laboratories have evolved in their use of an associated key management strategy. The first generation system utilized a shared secret key for digital signatures. While fast and efficient, it required that a list of keys be maintained and protected. If control of the key was lost, fraudulent data could be made to look authentic. The second generation changed to support public key / private key cryptography. The key pair is generated by the system, the public key shared, and the private key held internally. This approach eliminated the need to maintain the list of keys. It also allows the public key to be provided to anyone needing to authenticate the data without allowing them to spoof data. A third generation system, currently under development, improves upon the public key / private key approach to address a potential man-in-the-middle attack related to the sharing of the public key. In a planned fourth generation system, secure key exchange protocols will distribute session keys for encryption, eliminating another fixed set of keys utilized by the technology and allowing for periodic renegotiation of keys for enhanced security. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Information Leakage from Cryptographic Hardware via Common-Mode Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yu-Ichi; Homma, Naofumi; Mizuki, Takaaki; Sugawara, Takeshi; Kayano, Yoshiki; Aoki, Takafumi; Minegishi, Shigeki; Satoh, Akashi; Sone, Hideaki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    This paper presents a possibility of Electromagnetic (EM) analysis against cryptographic modules outside their security boundaries. The mechanism behind the information leakage is explained from the view point of Electromagnetic Compatibility: electric fluctuation released from cryptographic modules can conduct to peripheral circuits based on ground bounce, resulting in radiation. We demonstrate the consequence of the mechanism through experiments where the ISO/IEC standard block cipher AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is implemented on an FPGA board and EM radiations from power and communication cables are measured. Correlation Electromagnetic Analysis (CEMA) is conducted in order to evaluate the information leakage. The experimental results show that secret keys are revealed even though there are various disturbing factors such as voltage regulators and AC/DC converters between the target module and the measurement points. We also discuss information-suppression techniques as electrical-level countermeasures against such CEMAs.

  8. Cryptographic applications of analytic number theory complexity lower bounds and pseudorandomness

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The book introduces new ways of using analytic number theory in cryptography and related areas, such as complexity theory and pseudorandom number generation. Key topics and features: - various lower bounds on the complexity of some number theoretic and cryptographic problems, associated with classical schemes such as RSA, Diffie-Hellman, DSA as well as with relatively new schemes like XTR and NTRU - a series of very recent results about certain important characteristics (period, distribution, linear complexity) of several commonly used pseudorandom number generators, such as the RSA generator, Blum-Blum-Shub generator, Naor-Reingold generator, inversive generator, and others - one of the principal tools is bounds of exponential sums, which are combined with other number theoretic methods such as lattice reduction and sieving - a number of open problems of different level of difficulty and proposals for further research - an extensive and up-to-date bibliography Cryptographers and number theorists will find th...

  9. Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives using self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoying; Comeras, Jose Miguel M. Lobez; Park, Hongsik; Tang, Jianshi; Afzali, Ali; Tulevski, George S.; Hannon, James B.; Liehr, Michael; Han, Shu-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Information security underpins many aspects of modern society. However, silicon chips are vulnerable to hazards such as counterfeiting, tampering and information leakage through side-channel attacks (for example, by measuring power consumption, timing or electromagnetic radiation). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are a potential replacement for silicon as the channel material of transistors due to their superb electrical properties and intrinsic ultrathin body, but problems such as limited semiconducting purity and non-ideal assembly still need to be addressed before they can deliver high-performance electronics. Here, we show that by using these inherent imperfections, an unclonable electronic random structure can be constructed at low cost from carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are self-assembled into patterned HfO2 trenches using ion-exchange chemistry, and the width of the trench is optimized to maximize the randomness of the nanotube placement. With this approach, two-dimensional (2D) random bit arrays are created that can offer ternary-bit architecture by determining the connection yield and switching type of the nanotube devices. As a result, our cryptographic keys provide a significantly higher level of security than conventional binary-bit architecture with the same key size.

  10. A brief review of revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yang Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of ID-based cryptography has received much attention from researchers. However, how to revoke the misbehaviour/compromised user in ID-based public key cryptosystem becomes an important research issue. Recently, Tseng and Tsai proposed a novel public key cryptosystem called revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem (RIBE to solve the revocation problem. Later on, numerous research papers based on the Tseng-Tsai key RIBE were proposed. In this paper, we brief review Tseng and Tsai's RIBE. We hope this review can help the readers to understand the Tseng and Tsai's revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem.

  11. Cryptographic Trust Management Requirements Specification: Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Thomas W.

    2009-09-30

    The Cryptographic Trust Management (CTM) Project is being developed for Department of Energy, OE-10 by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). It is a component project of the NSTB Control Systems Security R&D Program.

  12. Information verification cryptosystem using one-time keys based on double random phase encoding and public-key cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2016-08-01

    A novel image encryption system based on double random phase encoding (DRPE) and RSA public-key algorithm is proposed. The main characteristic of the system is that each encryption process produces a new decryption key (even for the same plaintext), thus the encryption system conforms to the feature of the one-time pad (OTP) cryptography. The other characteristic of the system is the use of fingerprint key. Only with the rightful authorization will the true decryption be obtained, otherwise the decryption will result in noisy images. So the proposed system can be used to determine whether the ciphertext is falsified by attackers. In addition, the system conforms to the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS) due to the combination with the RSA public-key algorithm. The simulation results show that the encryption scheme has high robustness against the existing attacks.

  13. A Novel Key Distribution Solution for Combined Public/Secret Key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, an implementation over the new IPv6 Internet protocol is presented such that the system can be ported to both wired and wireless networking environments. Keywords: cryptography, key distribution, security server. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  14. Teaching Public Administration: Key Themes 1996-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, John

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the aim is to explore some of the key themes to emerge in the journal during the past two decades. Each selected theme will be reviewed in the light of issues raised in particular papers. The aim of this approach is, first, to facilitate reflection upon the contribution of the journal as its subject matter has moved from a concern…

  15. Cryptographic protocol security analysis based on bounded constructing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An efficient approach to analyzing cryptographic protocols is to develop automatic analysis tools based on formal methods. However, the approach has encountered the high computational complexity problem due to reasons that participants of protocols are arbitrary, their message structures are complex and their executions are concurrent. We propose an efficient automatic verifying algorithm for analyzing cryptographic protocols based on the Cryptographic Protocol Algebra (CPA) model proposed recently, in which algebraic techniques are used to simplify the description of cryptographic protocols and their executions. Redundant states generated in the analysis processes are much reduced by introducing a new algebraic technique called Universal Polynomial Equation and the algorithm can be used to verify the correctness of protocols in the infinite states space. We have implemented an efficient automatic analysis tool for cryptographic protocols, called ACT-SPA, based on this algorithm, and used the tool to check more than 20 cryptographic protocols. The analysis results show that this tool is more efficient, and an attack instance not offered previously is checked by using this tool.

  16. Key elements for a measurement framework for public sector innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Carter Walter; Lopez-Bassols, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of recent NESTI work on developing guidelines for measuring public sector innovation (PSI). The paper includes an update on various ongoing activities which will contribute to the development of a measurement framework for PSI and outlines a number of areas which...

  17. Information Secrecy And Public-Key Cryptography | Mekuria | Zede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject and need of information secrecy with emphasis to the choice of fully using an already established public channel is to be discussed. Related histories and current achievements made in the area of information hiding, notable persons who changed the course of its progress from ancient times to this last ...

  18. Informing the educators: one of the keys to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, G.C.; Reynolds, A.B.; Brenizer, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most difficult barriers to overcome in the task of gaining greater public acceptance of nuclear power is the widespread lack of correct information about the true risks and benefits of nuclear energy. The news media are the most prevalent sources of information for the public but they are highly constrained by the limits of space, time, and reader/viewer interest span in being able to cover this complex subject with any degree of completeness, much less with any degree of accuracy. Another source of information for the general public is the educational system, and while it also has its limitations, they are somewhat different from those faced by the media, and the educational system is generally considered to be a more credible information source than the media. This paper report on three programs undertaken in 1985 and 1986 by the Virginia Section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) in conjunction with the University of Virginia (UVA), the Virginia State Department of Education, and various nuclear industry participants. Each program had its unique features, successes, an failures. All-in-all, these programs have been reported as being quite successful in helping to reach the public through informing the educators

  19. Physically Unclonable Cryptographic Primitives by Chemical Vapor Deposition of Layered MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Armstrong, Darren; Alharbi, Somayah; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2017-12-26

    Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives are promising for securing the rapidly growing number of electronic devices. Here, we introduce physically unclonable primitives from layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) by leveraging the natural randomness of their island growth during chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We synthesize a MoS 2 monolayer film covered with speckles of multilayer islands, where the growth process is engineered for an optimal speckle density. Using the Clark-Evans test, we confirm that the distribution of islands on the film exhibits complete spatial randomness, hence indicating the growth of multilayer speckles is a spatial Poisson process. Such a property is highly desirable for constructing unpredictable cryptographic primitives. The security primitive is an array of 2048 pixels fabricated from this film. The complex structure of the pixels makes the physical duplication of the array impossible (i.e., physically unclonable). A unique optical response is generated by applying an optical stimulus to the structure. The basis for this unique response is the dependence of the photoemission on the number of MoS 2 layers, which by design is random throughout the film. Using a threshold value for the photoemission, we convert the optical response into binary cryptographic keys. We show that the proper selection of this threshold is crucial for maximizing combination randomness and that the optimal value of the threshold is linked directly to the growth process. This study reveals an opportunity for generating robust and versatile security primitives from layered transition metal dichalcogenides.

  20. Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corndorf, Eric

    With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic

  1. Detection of beamsplitting attack in a quantum cryptographic channel based on photon number statistics monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cryptography in theory allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source. In order to overcome this possibility, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. We present an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. This method can therefore be used with any existing protocol

  2. Key Performance Indicators of Public Universities Based on Quality Assessment Criteria in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukboonyasatit, Kritsana; Thanapaisarn, Chaiwit; Manmar, Lampang

    2011-01-01

    The research objective was to develop public universities' key performance indicators. Qualitative research and interviews were employed with each public university's senior executive and quality assessors. The sample group was selected by the office of the public sector development commission and Thailand's public universities can be separated…

  3. Cryptographically Secure Multiparty Computation and Distributed Auctions Using Homomorphic Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunay Kulshrestha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a robust framework that allows for cryptographically secure multiparty computations, such as distributed private value auctions. The security is guaranteed by two-sided authentication of all network connections, homomorphically encrypted bids, and the publication of zero-knowledge proofs of every computation. This also allows a non-participant verifier to verify the result of any such computation using only the information broadcasted on the network by each individual bidder. Building on previous work on such systems, we design and implement an extensible framework that puts the described ideas to practice. Apart from the actual implementation of the framework, our biggest contribution is the level of protection we are able to guarantee from attacks described in previous work. In order to provide guidance to users of the library, we analyze the use of zero knowledge proofs in ensuring the correct behavior of each node in a computation. We also describe the usage of the library to perform a private-value distributed auction, as well as the other challenges in implementing the protocol, such as auction registration and certificate distribution. Finally, we provide performance statistics on our implementation of the auction.

  4. Sustainability as the key to prioritize investments in public infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo-Bosch, Francesc; Aguado, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure construction, one of the biggest driving forces of the economy nowadays, requires a huge analysis and clear transparency to decide what projects have to be executed with the few resources available. With the aim to provide the public administrations a tool with which they can make their decisions easier, the Sustainability Index of Infrastructure Projects (SIIP) has been defined, with a multi-criteria decision system called MIVES, in order to classify non-uniform investments. This index evaluates, in two inseparable stages, the contribution to the sustainable development of each infrastructure project, analyzing its social, environmental and economic impact. The result of the SIIP allows to decide the order with which projects will be prioritized. The case of study developed proves the adaptability and utility of this tool for the ordinary budget management.

  5. Sustainability as the key to prioritize investments in public infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Bosch, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.pardo@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech. (Spain); Political Science Department, University of California - Berkeley (United States); Aguado, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.aguado@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech. (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Infrastructure construction, one of the biggest driving forces of the economy nowadays, requires a huge analysis and clear transparency to decide what projects have to be executed with the few resources available. With the aim to provide the public administrations a tool with which they can make their decisions easier, the Sustainability Index of Infrastructure Projects (SIIP) has been defined, with a multi-criteria decision system called MIVES, in order to classify non-uniform investments. This index evaluates, in two inseparable stages, the contribution to the sustainable development of each infrastructure project, analyzing its social, environmental and economic impact. The result of the SIIP allows to decide the order with which projects will be prioritized. The case of study developed proves the adaptability and utility of this tool for the ordinary budget management.

  6. Towards Public Key Encryption Scheme Supporting Equality Test with Fine-Grained Authorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a new category of public key encryption schemes which supports equality test between ciphertexts. With this new primitive, two users, who possess their own public/private key pairs, can issue token(s) to a proxy to authorize it to perform equality test between their

  7. Public Key Encryption Supporting Plaintext Equality Test and User-Specified Authorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a category of public key encryption schemes which supports plaintext equality test and user-specified authorization. With this new primitive, two users, who possess their own public/private key pairs, can issue token(s) to a proxy to authorize it to perform plaintext

  8. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  9. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Devi Munisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider’s premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  10. The Public-Key-Infrastructure of the Radiological Society of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, B.; Kaemmerer, M.; Klos, G.; Mildenberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encoding is based on the Public-Key-Procedure and permits the safe transmission of medical data. Furthermore it allows the use of an electronic signature provided that keys used belong to the key owner and that the key owner's identity is guaranteed by a trusted third party. Under the auspices of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) its IT-Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Informationstechnik, GIT) built up an appropriate Certification Authority including the required Public-Key-Infrastructure. These GIT certified PGP keys allow the legal use of telemedicine in Germany. Digital signatures based to those certified keys correspond to the advanced signature according to the German Signature Law

  11. The Public-Key-Infrastructure of the Radiological Society of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetze, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail: schuetze@medizin-informatik.org; Kaemmerer, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Klos, G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Mildenberger, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encoding is based on the Public-Key-Procedure and permits the safe transmission of medical data. Furthermore it allows the use of an electronic signature provided that keys used belong to the key owner and that the key owner's identity is guaranteed by a trusted third party. Under the auspices of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) its IT-Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Informationstechnik, GIT) built up an appropriate Certification Authority including the required Public-Key-Infrastructure. These GIT certified PGP keys allow the legal use of telemedicine in Germany. Digital signatures based to those certified keys correspond to the advanced signature according to the German Signature Law.

  12. On Cryptographic Information Security in Cloud Infrastructures: PKI and IBE Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Grigorevich Kogos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of cryptographic security methods in cloud infrastructure information security is analyzed. The cryptographic problems in cloudy infrastructures are chosen; the appropriate protocols are investigated; the appropriate mathematical problems are examined.

  13. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Interoperability: A Security Services Approach to Support Transfer of Trust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Public key infrastructure (PKI) technology is at a primitive stage characterized by deployment of PKIs that are engineered to support the provision of security services within individual enterprises, and are not able to support...

  14. A Review of RSA Cryptosystems and Cryptographic Protocols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of cryptography in information security over insecure open network in both the convectional, symmetric encryption and the public-key cryptography has witnessed tremendous developments over the years. No doubt, the public-key cryptography is an established technology in terms of modern approach in ...

  15. Measuring Public Leadership: Developing Scales for Four Key Public Leadership Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, Lars; Knies, Eva|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875421

    2016-01-01

    This article on public leadership contributes to the literature by (1) focusing on the ‘public’ aspect of leadership and (2) developing quantitative scales for measuring four public leadership roles. These roles all refer to the extent to which public leaders actively support their employees in

  16. Cryptographic robustness of a quantum cryptography system using phase-time coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    A cryptographic analysis is presented of a new quantum key distribution protocol using phase-time coding. An upper bound is obtained for the error rate that guarantees secure key distribution. It is shown that the maximum tolerable error rate for this protocol depends on the counting rate in the control time slot. When no counts are detected in the control time slot, the protocol guarantees secure key distribution if the bit error rate in the sifted key does not exceed 50%. This protocol partially discriminates between errors due to system defects (e.g., imbalance of a fiber-optic interferometer) and eavesdropping. In the absence of eavesdropping, the counts detected in the control time slot are not caused by interferometer imbalance, which reduces the requirements for interferometer stability.

  17. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Zou Liuhua; Cheung Yiuming; He Zhenya

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems has been proposed [B. Ranjan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 098702]. This scheme employs m-chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. Security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP) m , where N, P are the size of the key and the computational complexity of the linear functions respectively. In this Letter, the fundamental weakness of the cryptosystem is pointed out and a successful attack is described. Given the public keys and the initial vector, one can calculate the secret key based on Parseval's theorem. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the attacker can access to the secret key without difficulty. The lack of security discourages the use of such algorithm for practical applications

  18. Information security system based on virtual-optics imaging methodology and public key infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Lilong

    In this paper, we present a virtual-optical based information security system model with the aid of public-key-infrastructure (PKI) techniques. The proposed model employs a hybrid architecture in which our previously published encryption algorithm based on virtual-optics imaging methodology (VOIM) can be used to encipher and decipher data while an asymmetric algorithm, for example RSA, is applied for enciphering and deciphering the session key(s). For an asymmetric system, given an encryption key, it is computationally infeasible to determine the decryption key and vice versa. The whole information security model is run under the framework of PKI, which is on basis of public-key cryptography and digital signatures. This PKI-based VOIM security approach has additional features like confidentiality, authentication, and integrity for the purpose of data encryption under the environment of network.

  19. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Information Programs and Services, A/GIS/ IPS, Department of State, SA-2, 515 22nd Street, NW., Washington, DC... Department of State and Agency for International Development who have applied for cryptographic clearances as... that apply to all of its Privacy Act systems of records. These notices appear in the form of a...

  20. The Cryptographic Implications of the LinkedIn Data Breach

    OpenAIRE

    Gune, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Data security and personal privacy are difficult to maintain in the Internet age. In 2012, professional networking site LinkedIn suffered a breach, compromising the login of over 100 million accounts. The passwords were cracked and sold online, exposing the authentication credentials millions of users. This manuscript dissects the cryptographic failures implicated in the breach, and explores more secure methods of storing passwords.

  1. Bit-Oriented Quantum Public-Key Cryptosystem Based on Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, WanQing; Cai, QingYu; Zhang, HuanGuo; Liang, XiaoYan

    2018-06-01

    Quantum public key encryption system provides information confidentiality using quantum mechanics. This paper presents a quantum public key cryptosystem ( Q P K C) based on the Bell states. By H o l e v o' s theorem, the presented scheme provides the security of the secret key using one-wayness during the QPKC. While the QPKC scheme is information theoretic security under chosen plaintext attack ( C P A). Finally some important features of presented QPKC scheme can be compared with other QPKC scheme.

  2. Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Signals with Public Key Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Liang Tai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose separable reversible data hiding in an encrypted signal with public key cryptography. In our separable framework, the image owner encrypts the original image by using a public key. On receipt of the encrypted signal, the data-hider embeds data in it by using a data-hiding key. The image decryption and data extraction are independent and separable at the receiver side. Even though the receiver, who has only the data-hiding key, does not learn about the decrypted content, he can extract data from the received marked encrypted signal. However, the receiver who has only the private key cannot extract the embedded data, but he can directly decrypt the received marked encrypted signal to obtain the original image without any error. Compared with other schemes using a cipher stream to encrypt the image, the proposed scheme is more appropriate for cloud services without degrading the security level.

  3. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, S.; Suda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  4. Data Security Using Cryptographic Approach | Okoro | Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for data security in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) can not be overemphasized. In this paper, the use of symmetric and asymmetric key cryptographies to clearly achieve the required protection by means of prime number system and modular multiplicative inverse has been highlighted and ...

  5. Virtual-optical information security system based on public key infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Lilong; Niu, Hanben

    2005-01-01

    A virtual-optical based encryption model with the aid of public key infrastructure (PKI) is presented in this paper. The proposed model employs a hybrid architecture in which our previously published encryption method based on virtual-optics scheme (VOS) can be used to encipher and decipher data while an asymmetric algorithm, for example RSA, is applied for enciphering and deciphering the session key(s). The whole information security model is run under the framework of international standard ITU-T X.509 PKI, which is on basis of public-key cryptography and digital signatures. This PKI-based VOS security approach has additional features like confidentiality, authentication, and integrity for the purpose of data encryption under the environment of network. Numerical experiments prove the effectiveness of the method. The security of proposed model is briefly analyzed by examining some possible attacks from the viewpoint of a cryptanalysis.

  6. Trust Threshold Based Public Key Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    detection 49 [6,7] , authentication, access control, key management, iso- 50 lating misbehaving nodes for effective routing [6,8,9] , and 51 many other...83 84 85 aims to achieve: (a) resiliency against misbehaving nodes 86 in the network to maintain minimum security vulnerabil- 87 ity; (b...neighbor will decreas the misbehaving node’s direct competence trust. Fur thermore, this neighbor when acting as a recommended public key management in

  7. Cryptanalysis of the public key encryption based on multiple chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Linhua

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Ranjan proposed a novel public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems [Phys Lett 2005;95]. Unfortunately, Wang soon gave a successful attack on its special case based on Parseval's theorem [Wang K, Pei W, Zhou L, et al. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic system. Phys Lett A, in press]. In this letter, we give an improved example which can avoid the attack and point out that Wang cannot find the essential drawback of the technique. However, further experimental result shows Ruanjan's encryption technique is inefficient, and detailed theoretic analysis shows that the complexity to break the cryptosystem is overestimated

  8. Image encryption based on nonlinear encryption system and public-key cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Chi, Yingying

    2015-03-01

    Recently, optical asymmetric cryptosystem (OACS) has became the focus of discussion and concern of researchers. Some researchers pointed out that OACS was not tenable because of misunderstanding the concept of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS). We propose an improved cryptosystem using RSA public-key algorithm based on existing OACS and the new system conforms to the basic agreement of public key cryptosystem. At the beginning of the encryption process, the system will produce an independent phase matrix and allocate the input image, which also conforms to one-time pad cryptosystem. The simulation results show that the validity of the improved cryptosystem and the high robustness against attack scheme using phase retrieval technique.

  9. Information hiding based on double random-phase encoding and public-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yuan; Xin, Zhou; Alam, Mohammed S; Xi, Lu; Xiao-Feng, Li

    2009-03-02

    A novel information hiding method based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public-key cryptosystem is proposed. In the proposed technique, the inherent diffusion property of DRPE is cleverly utilized to make up the diffusion insufficiency of RSA public-key cryptography, while the RSA cryptosystem is utilized for simultaneous transmission of the cipher text and the two phase-masks, which is not possible under the DRPE technique. This technique combines the complementary advantages of the DPRE and RSA encryption techniques and brings security and convenience for efficient information transmission. Extensive numerical simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed technique.

  10. Multi-operation cryptographic engine: VLSI design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selimis, George; Koufopavlou, Odysseas

    2005-01-01

    The environment of smart card lacks of system resources but the commercial and economic transactions via smart cards demand the use of certificated and secure cryptographic methods. In this paper a cryptographic approach in hardware for smart cards is proposed. The proposed system supports two basic operations of cryptography, authentication and encryption. The basic component of system is the one round of DES algorithm which supports the DES, Triple DES and the ANSI X9.17 standards. The proposed system is efficient in terms of area resources and techniques for low power consumption have applied. Due to the fact that the system is for smart card applications the overall throughput outperforms the typical smart card throughput standards

  11. On another two cryptographic identities in universal Osborn loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Jaiyéolá

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by establishing an identity for universal Osborn loops, two other identities (of degrees 4 and 6 are deduced from it and they are recognized and recommended for cryptography in a similar spirit in which the cross inverse property (of degree 2 has been used by Keedwell following the fact that it was observed that universal Osborn loops that do not have the 3-power associative property or weaker forms of; inverse property, power associativity and diassociativity to mention a few, will have cycles (even long ones. These identities are found to be cryptographic in nature for universal Osborn loops and thereby called cryptographic identities. They were also found applicable to security patterns, arrangements and networks which the CIP may not be applicable to.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF NEURAL - CRYPTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM USING FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAM M. Z. OTHMAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern cryptography techniques are virtually unbreakable. As the Internet and other forms of electronic communication become more prevalent, electronic security is becoming increasingly important. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data. The design of the cryptography system is a conventional cryptography that uses one key for encryption and decryption process. The chosen cryptography algorithm is stream cipher algorithm that encrypt one bit at a time. The central problem in the stream-cipher cryptography is the difficulty of generating a long unpredictable sequence of binary signals from short and random key. Pseudo random number generators (PRNG have been widely used to construct this key sequence. The pseudo random number generator was designed using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN providing the required nonlinearity properties that increases the randomness statistical properties of the pseudo random generator. The learning algorithm of this neural network is backpropagation learning algorithm. The learning process was done by software program in Matlab (software implementation to get the efficient weights. Then, the learned neural network was implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA.

  13. NESSIE: A European Approach to Evaluate Cryptographic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Preneel, Bart

    2002-01-01

    The NESSIE project (New European Schemes for Signature, Integrity and Encryption) intends to put forward a portfolio containing the next generation of cryptographic primitives. These primitives will offer a higher security level than existing primitives, and/or will offer a higher confidence level, built up by an open evaluation process. Moreover, they should be better suited for the constraints of future hardware and software environments. In order to reach this goal, the project has launche...

  14. Secret-Key Agreement with Public Discussion subject to an Amplitude Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of secret-key agreement with public discussion subject to a peak power constraint A on the channel input. The optimal input distribution is proved to be discrete with finite support. To overcome the computationally heavy search for the optimal discrete distribution, several suboptimal schemes are proposed and shown numerically to perform close to the capacity. Moreover, lower and upper bounds for the secret-key capacity are provided and used to prove that the secret-key capacity converges for asymptotic high values of A, to the secret-key capacity with an average power constraint A2. Finally, when the amplitude constraint A is small (A ! 0), the secret-key capacity is proved to be asymptotically equal to the capacity of the legitimate user with an amplitude constraint A and no secrecy constraint.

  15. Secret-Key Agreement with Public Discussion subject to an Amplitude Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2016-04-06

    This paper considers the problem of secret-key agreement with public discussion subject to a peak power constraint A on the channel input. The optimal input distribution is proved to be discrete with finite support. To overcome the computationally heavy search for the optimal discrete distribution, several suboptimal schemes are proposed and shown numerically to perform close to the capacity. Moreover, lower and upper bounds for the secret-key capacity are provided and used to prove that the secret-key capacity converges for asymptotic high values of A, to the secret-key capacity with an average power constraint A2. Finally, when the amplitude constraint A is small (A ! 0), the secret-key capacity is proved to be asymptotically equal to the capacity of the legitimate user with an amplitude constraint A and no secrecy constraint.

  16. Toekomstvaste fysieke toegangsystemen : Public Key Infrastructure als oplossing voor fysiek toegangbeheer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhuis, G.; Olk, J.G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Voor fysieke toegangssystemen wordt veelal gebruik gemaakt van toegangspassen met een contactlose chip. Soms zijn deze passen ook nog voorzien van een PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) contactchip voor toegang tot ICT en/of het plaatsen van een digitale handtekening. Ook voor fysieke toegang bied PKI

  17. Gaussian elimination in split unitary groups with an application to public-key cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Mahalanobis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian elimination is used in special linear groups to solve the word problem. In this paper, we extend Gaussian elimination to split unitary groups. These algorithms have an application in building a public-key cryptosystem, we demonstrate that.

  18. A General Construction of IND-CCA2 Secure Public Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiltz, Eike; Malone-Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction....

  19. Public perceptions of key performance indicators of healthcare in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Herbert C; Harvey, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    To examine the relationship between public perceptions of key performance indicators assessing various aspects of the health-care system. Cross-sequential survey research. Annual telephone surveys of random samples of adult Albertans selected by random digit dialing and stratified according to age, sex and region (n = 4000 for each survey year). The survey questionnaires included single-item measures of key performance indicators to assess public perceptions of availability, accessibility, quality, outcome and satisfaction with healthcare. Cronbach's α and factor analysis were used to assess the relationship between key performance indicators focusing on the health-care system overall and on a recent interaction with the health-care system. The province of Alberta, Canada during the years 1996-2004. Four thousand adults randomly selected each survey year. Survey questions measuring public perceptions of healthcare availability, accessibility, quality, outcome and satisfaction with healthcare. Factor analysis identified two principal components with key performance indicators focusing on the health system overall loading most strongly on the first component and key performance indicators focusing on the most recent health-care encounter loading most strongly on the second component. Assessments of the quality of care most recently received, accessibility of that care and perceived outcome of care tended to be higher than the more general assessments of overall health system quality and accessibility. Assessments of specific health-care encounters and more general assessments of the overall health-care system, while related, nevertheless comprise separate dimensions for health-care evaluation.

  20. Design and analysis of cryptographic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan

    . From securing our passwords and personal data to protecting mobile communication from eavesdroppers and our electronic bank transactions from manipulation. These applications would be impossible without cryptography. The main topic of this thesis is the design and security analysis of the most......In today’s world computers are ubiquitous. They can be found in virtually any industry and most households own at least one personal computer or have a mobile phone. Apart from these fairly large and complex devices, we also see computers on a much smaller scale appear in everyday objects...... to this development. However, most of this communication happens over inherently insecure channels requiring methods to protect our communication. A further issue is the vast amount of data generated, which raises serious privacy concerns. Cryptography provides the key components for protecting our communication...

  1. An Attribute Involved Public Key Cryptosystem Based on P-Sylow Subgroups and Randomization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha GUNNALA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asymmetric Key Cryptosystem (AKC or Public Key Encryption (PKE is a mechanism used to encrypt the messages by using public key and decrypt the enciphered messages by using private key. Of late, the Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE is an expansion of asymmetric key encryption scheme that allows users to encrypt and decrypt the plaintext messages using the key based on the user’s credentials, called attributes, like social security number, PAN (Permanent Account Number, email ids or Aadhar number etc. Most of the existing ABE schemes rely on the multiple attributes from which the access control policies are derived. These policies define the users’ private keys, required for the decryption process and access to the confidential information. In this paper, we proposed a new attribute based asymmetric cryptosystem that uses the features of both the schemes: PKE and ABE. Here, we used a value of an attribute, personal to the user, for the encryption and the decryption process. This scheme assures that the receiver will only be able to access the secret data if recipient is shared with the valid attribute value. The asymmetric nature is this scheme is based on the concept of p-sylow sub-group assumption. In addition, the randomization factor is used in the encipherment process to strengthen the cipher further. The development of this cryptosystem is an embodiment where the merits of randomized asymmetric encryption technique and the attribute based encryption are integrated to achieve the authentication on top of confidentiality to secure the information transmission over the public networks.

  2. An adaptive cryptographic accelerator for network storage security on dynamically reconfigurable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Liu, Jing-Ning; Feng, Dan; Tong, Wei

    2008-12-01

    Existing security solutions in network storage environment perform poorly because cryptographic operations (encryption and decryption) implemented in software can dramatically reduce system performance. In this paper we propose a cryptographic hardware accelerator on dynamically reconfigurable platform for the security of high performance network storage system. We employ a dynamic reconfigurable platform based on a FPGA to implement a PowerPCbased embedded system, which executes cryptographic algorithms. To reduce the reconfiguration latency, we apply prefetch scheduling. Moreover, the processing elements could be dynamically configured to support different cryptographic algorithms according to the request received by the accelerator. In the experiment, we have implemented AES (Rijndael) and 3DES cryptographic algorithms in the reconfigurable accelerator. Our proposed reconfigurable cryptographic accelerator could dramatically increase the performance comparing with the traditional software-based network storage systems.

  3. An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Sang, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image was encrypted into two phase-only masks M1 and M2 via cascaded iterative Fourier transform (CIFT) algorithm. Then, the public-key encryption algorithm RSA was adopted to encrypt M2 into M2' . Finally, a host image was enlarged by extending one pixel into 2×2 pixels and each element in M1 and M2' was multiplied with a superimposition coefficient and added to or subtracted from two different elements in the 2×2 pixels of the enlarged host image. To recover the secret image from the stego-image, the two masks were extracted from the stego-image without the original host image. By applying public-key encryption algorithm, the key distribution was facilitated, and also compared with the image hiding method based on optical interference, the proposed method may reach higher robustness by employing the characteristics of the CIFT algorithm. Computer simulations show that this method has good robustness against image processing.

  4. Shor-Preskill-type security proof for quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won-Young; Wang Xiangbin; Matsumoto, Keiji; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2003-01-01

    We give a Shor-Preskill-type security proof to quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases [W.Y. Hwang et al., Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)]. First, we modify the Lo-Chau protocol once more so that it finally reduces to the quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases. Then we show how we can estimate the error rate in the code bits based on that in the checked bits in the proposed protocol, which is the central point of the proof. We discuss the problem of imperfect sources and that of large deviation in the error rate distributions. We discuss when the bases sequence must be discarded

  5. Understanding Price Elasticities to Inform Public Health Research and Intervention Studies: Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies. PMID:24028228

  6. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies.

  7. Blockchain-based Public Key Infrastructure for Inter-Domain Secure Routing

    OpenAIRE

    de la Rocha Gómez-Arevalillo , Alfonso; Papadimitratos , Panos

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A gamut of secure inter-domain routing protocols has been proposed in the literature. They use traditional PGP-like and centralized Public Key Infrastructures for trust management. In this paper, we propose our alternative approach for managing security associations, Secure Blockchain Trust Management (SBTM), a trust management system that instantiates a blockchain-based PKI for the operation of securerouting protocols. A main motivation for SBTM is to facilitate gradu...

  8. Review and Analysis of Cryptographic Schemes Implementing Threshold Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, ellipt ic curves and bilinear pairings were investigated. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, e.g. used in a mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency. The significance of the work is determined by the reduction of the level of counterfeit electronic documents, signed by certain group of users.

  9. A brief history of cryptology and cryptographic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, John F

    2013-01-01

    The science of cryptology is made up of two halves. Cryptography is the study of how to create secure systems for communications. Cryptanalysis is the study of how to break those systems. The conflict between these two halves of cryptology is the story of secret writing. For over 2,000 years, the desire to communicate securely and secretly has resulted in the creation of numerous and increasingly complicated systems to protect one's messages. Yet for every system there is a cryptanalyst creating a new technique to break that system. With the advent of computers the cryptographer seems to final

  10. Cryptographic pseudo-random sequence from the spatial chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuyan; Liu Shutang

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for pseudo-random binary sequence generation based on the spatial chaotic map is proposed. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRBS in cryptography, the proposed PRBS is subjected to statistical tests which are the well-known FIPS-140-1 in the area of cryptography, and correlation properties of the proposed sequences are investigated. The proposed PRBS successfully passes all these tests. Results of statistical testing of the sequences are found encouraging. The results of statistical tests suggest strong candidature for cryptographic applications.

  11. Non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag

    2011-06-01

    We study the Rayleigh fading non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of any channel. We present two results. At high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low-SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    We study the Rayleigh fading non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of any channel. We present two results. At high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low-SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. A Survey of Public Key Infrastructure-Based Security for Mobile Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ramadan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication security techniques are employed to guard the communication between the network entities. Mobile communication cellular systems have become one of the most important communication systems in recent times and are used by millions of people around the world. Since the 1990s, considerable efforts have been taken to improve both the communication and security features of the mobile communications systems. However, these improvements divide the mobile communications field into different generations according to the communication and security techniques such as A3, A5 and A8 algorithms for 2G-GSM cellular system, 3G-authentication and key agreement (AKA, evolved packet system-authentication and key agreement (EPS-AKA, and long term evolution-authentication and key agreement (LTE-AKA algorithms for 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP systems. Furthermore, these generations have many vulnerabilities, and huge security work is involved to solve such problems. Some of them are in the field of the public key cryptography (PKC which requires a high computational cost and more network flexibility to be achieved. As such, the public key infrastructure (PKI is more compatible with the modern generations due to the superior communications features. This paper surveys the latest proposed works on the security of GSM, CDMA, and LTE cellular systems using PKI. Firstly, we present the security issues for each generation of mobile communication systems, then we study and analyze the latest proposed schemes and give some comparisons. Finally, we introduce some new directions for the future scope. This paper classifies the mobile communication security schemes according to the techniques used for each cellular system and covers some of the PKI-based security techniques such as authentication, key agreement, and privacy preserving.

  14. Public Health Preparedness Funding: Key Programs and Trends From 2001 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Crystal R; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001. State and local preparedness at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initially received $940 million in FY2002 and resulted in significant preparedness gains, but funding levels have since decreased by 31%. Similarly, the Hospital Preparedness Program within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response was funded at a high of $515 million in FY2003, but funding was reduced by 50%. Investments in medical countermeasure development and stockpiling remained relatively stable. The United States has made significant progress in preparing for disasters and advancing public health infrastructure. To enable continued advancement, federal funding commitments must be sustained.

  15. On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server’s Public Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010: (1 the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2 the protocol cannot protect clients’ passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3 the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  16. Security for Key Management Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer , Steve; Steel , Graham; Warinschi , Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We propose a much-needed formal definition of security for cryptographic key management APIs. The advantages of our definition are that it is general, intuitive, and applicable to security proofs in both symbolic and computational models of cryptography. Our definition relies on an idealized API which allows only the most essential functions for generating, exporting and importing keys, and takes into account dynamic corruption of keys. Based on this we can define the ...

  17. Designing an ASIP for cryptographic pairings over Barreto-Naehrig curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammler, D.; Zhang, D.; Schwabe, P.; Scharwaechter, H.; Langenberg, M.; Auras, D.; Ascheid, G.; Mathar, R.; Clavier, C.; Gaj, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a design-space exploration of an application-specific instruction-set processor (ASIP) for the computation of various cryptographic pairings over Barreto-Naehrig curves (BN curves). Cryptographic pairings are based on elliptic curves over finite fields—in the case of BN curves a

  18. Energy efficient security in MANETs: a comparison of cryptographic and artificial immune systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhar, N.

    2010-01-01

    MANET is characterized by a set of mobile nodes in an inherently insecure environment, having limited battery capacities. Provisioning of energy efficient security in MANETs is, therefore, an open problem for which a number of solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we present an overview and comparison of the MANET security at routing layer by using the cryptographic and Artificial Immune System (AIS) approaches. The BeeAdHoc protocol, which is a Bio-inspired MANET routing protocol based on the foraging principles of honey bee colony, is taken as case study. We carry out an analysis of the three security frameworks that we have proposed earlier for securing BeeAdHoc protocol; one based on asymmetric key encryption, i.e BeeSec, and the other two using the AIS approach, i.e BeeAIS based on self non-self discrimination from adaptive immune system and BeeAIS-DC based on Dendritic Cell (DC) behavior from innate immune system. We extensively evaluate the performance of the three protocols through network simulations in ns-2 and compare with BeeAdHoc, the base protocol, as well as with state-of-the-art MANET routing protocols DSR and AODV. Our results clearly indicate that AIS based systems provide security at much lower cost to energy as compared with the cryptographic systems. Moreover, the use of dendritic cells and danger signals instead of the classical self non-self discrimination allows to detect the non-self antigens with greater accuracy. Based on the results of this investigation, we also propose a composite AIS model for BeeAdHoc security by combining the concepts from both the adaptive and the innate immune systems by modelling the attributes and behavior of the B-cells and DCs. (author)

  19. sPECTRA: a Precise framEwork for analyzing CrypTographic vulneRabilities in Android apps

    OpenAIRE

    Gajrani, J.; Tripathi, M.; Laxmi, V.; Gaur, M. S.; Conti, M.; Rajarajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Android applications (apps) deals with user's personal data. Users trust these apps and allow them to access all sensitive data. Cryptography, when employed in an appropriate way, can be used to prevent misuse of data. Unfortunately, cryptographic libraries also include vulnerable cryptographic services. Since Android app developers may not be cryptographic experts, this makes apps become the target of various attacks due to cryptographic vulnerabilities. In this work, we pres...

  20. Efficient KDM-CCA Secure Public-Key Encryption via Auxiliary-Input Authenticated Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available KDM[F]-CCA security of public-key encryption (PKE ensures the privacy of key-dependent messages f(sk which are closely related to the secret key sk, where f∈F, even if the adversary is allowed to make decryption queries. In this paper, we study the design of KDM-CCA secure PKE. To this end, we develop a new primitive named Auxiliary-Input Authenticated Encryption (AIAE. For AIAE, we introduce two related-key attack (RKA security notions, including IND-RKA and weak-INT-RKA. We present a generic construction of AIAE from tag-based hash proof system (HPS and one-time secure authenticated encryption (AE and give an instantiation of AIAE under the Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH assumption. Using AIAE as an essential building block, we give two constructions of efficient KDM-CCA secure PKE based on the DDH and the Decisional Composite Residuosity (DCR assumptions. Specifically, (i our first PKE construction is the first one achieving KDM[Faff]-CCA security for the set of affine functions and compactness of ciphertexts simultaneously. (ii Our second PKE construction is the first one achieving KDM[Fpolyd]-CCA security for the set of polynomial functions and almost compactness of ciphertexts simultaneously. Our PKE constructions are very efficient; in particular, they are pairing-free and NIZK-free.

  1. Enhanced diffie-hellman algorithm for reliable key exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan; Kumar, Chaithanya; Vincent, P. M. Durai Raj

    2017-11-01

    The Diffie -Hellman is one of the first public-key procedure and is a certain way of exchanging the cryptographic keys securely. This concept was introduced by Ralph Markel and it is named after Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Sender and Receiver make a common secret key in Diffie-Hellman algorithm and then they start communicating with each other over the public channel which is known to everyone. A number of internet services are secured by Diffie -Hellman. In Public key cryptosystem, the sender has to trust while receiving the public key of the receiver and vice-versa and this is the challenge of public key cryptosystem. Man-in-the-Middle attack is very much possible on the existing Diffie-Hellman algorithm. In man-in-the-middle attack, the attacker exists in the public channel, the attacker receives the public key of both sender and receiver and sends public keys to sender and receiver which is generated by his own. This is how man-in-the-middle attack is possible on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Denial of service attack is another attack which is found common on Diffie-Hellman. In this attack, the attacker tries to stop the communication happening between sender and receiver and attacker can do this by deleting messages or by confusing the parties with miscommunication. Some more attacks like Insider attack, Outsider attack, etc are possible on Diffie-Hellman. To reduce the possibility of attacks on Diffie-Hellman algorithm, we have enhanced the Diffie-Hellman algorithm to a next level. In this paper, we are extending the Diffie -Hellman algorithm by using the concept of the Diffie -Hellman algorithm to get a stronger secret key and that secret key is further exchanged between the sender and the receiver so that for each message, a new secret shared key would be generated. The second secret key will be generated by taking primitive root of the first secret key.

  2. In science communication, why does the idea of the public deficit always return? Exploring key influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldovsky, Brianne

    2016-05-01

    Despite mounting criticism, the deficit model remains an integral part of science communication research and practice. In this article, I advance three key factors that contribute to the idea of the public deficit in science communication, including the purpose of science communication, how communication processes and outcomes are conceptualized, and how science and scientific knowledge are defined. Affording science absolute epistemic privilege, I argue, is the most compelling factor contributing to the continued use of the deficit model. In addition, I contend that the deficit model plays a necessary, though not sufficient, role in science communication research and practice. Areas for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Newe, T

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided

  4. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y; Newe, T [Optical Fibre Sensors Research Centre, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2007-07-15

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided.

  5. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-01-01

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model

  6. Understanding key influencers' attitudes and beliefs about healthy public policy change for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Vu-Nguyen, Karen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; VanSpronsen, Eric; Reed, Shandy; Wild, T Cameron

    2014-11-01

    As overweight and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, the development of environmental and healthy public policy interventions across multiple sectors has been identified as a key strategy to address this issue. In 2009, a survey was developed to assess the attitudes and beliefs regarding health promotion principles, and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, among key policy influencers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Surveys were mailed to 1,765 key influencers from five settings: provincial government, municipal government, school boards, print media companies, and workplaces with greater than 500 employees. A total of 236 surveys were completed with a response rate of 15.0%. Findings indicate nearly unanimous influencer support for individual-focused policy approaches and high support for some environmental policies. Restrictive environmental and economic policies received weakest support. Obesity was comparable to smoking with respect to perceptions as a societal responsibility versus a personal responsibility, boding well for the potential of environmental policy interventions for obesity prevention. This level of influencer support provides a platform for more evidence to be brokered to policy influencers about the effectiveness of environmental policy approaches to obesity prevention. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. An Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Cyclic Automorphism Subgroups of Random Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Group-based cryptography is viewed as a modern cryptographic candidate solution to blocking quantum computer attacks, and key exchange protocols on the Internet are one of the primitives to ensure the security of communication. In 2016 Habeeb et al proposed a “textbook” key exchange protocol based on the semidirect product of two groups, which is insecure for use in real-world applications. In this paper, after discarding the unnecessary disguising notion of semidirect product in the protocol, we establish a simplified yet enhanced authenticated key agreement scheme based on cyclic automorphism subgroups of random orders by making hybrid use of certificates and symmetric-key encryption as challenge-and-responses in the public-key setting. Its passive security is formally analyzed, which is relative to the cryptographic hardness assumption of a computational number-theoretic problem. Cryptanalysis of this scheme shows that it is secure against the intruder-in-the-middle attack even in the worst case of compromising the signatures, and provides explicit key confirmation to both parties.

  8. Key Performance Indicators for Maintenance Management Effectiveness of Public Hospital Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Omar Mardhiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of management in maintenance aspect holds the key element in influencing the performance of overall maintenance management. Similarly, public hospital building needs an effective maintenance management as this type of building in nature is one of the most complex issues in the field of maintenance. Improper building maintenance management adopted by the organization significantly will interrupt the overall operation of the building. Therefore, this paper is aim to identifying the key performance indicator (KPI of effectiveness of maintenance management for the public hospital building. A total of 32 set of questionnaires were distributed to the maintenance manager for each hospital in the northern region of peninsular Malaysia by using self-administration strategy. The survey answer was analyzed by performing descriptive analysis in SPSS. Overall, the result of descriptive analysis shows that all the ten factors of effectiveness of maintenance management are accepted as KPI since the mean value is at least 3.93 which classified as important and significant. The most significant factor of effectiveness of maintenance management is task planning and scheduling with the mean score of 4.35. While less significant factor is identify as maintenance approach with the value of mean score is 3.93. The both results indicates that the management need to have well-structured planning for the maintenance works and also need to embrace the exact strategy of maintenance approach in order to achieved better overall performance of maintenance management. This study may draw a standard practice for the government in assessing the performance of public facilities in terms of maintenance management.

  9. Analysis and Implementation of Cryptographic Hash Functions in Programmable Logic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvydas Brukštus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this day’s world, more and more focused on data pro-tection. For data protection using cryptographic science. It is also important for the safe storage of passwords for this uses a cryp-tographic hash function. In this article has been selected the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function to implement and explore, based on fact that it is now a popular and safe. SHA-256 cryp-tographic function did not find any theoretical gaps or conflict situations. Also SHA-256 cryptographic hash function used cryptographic currencies. Currently cryptographic currency is popular and their value is high. For the measurements have been chosen programmable logic integrated circuits as they less effi-ciency then ASIC. We chose Altera Corporation produced prog-rammable logic integrated circuits. Counting speed will be inves-tigated by three programmable logic integrated circuit. We will use programmable logic integrated circuits belong to the same family, but different generations. Each programmable logic integ-rated circuit made using different dimension technology. Choo-sing these programmable logic integrated circuits: EP3C16, EP4CE115 and 5CSEMA5F31. To compare calculations perfor-mances parameters are provided in the tables and graphs. Re-search show the calculation speed and stability of different prog-rammable logic circuits.

  10. Public/private partners. Key factors in creating a strategic alliance for community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J C; Rashid, H; Galvin, V G; Essien, J D; Levine, L M

    1999-04-01

    The rapidly evolving American health system creates economic and societal incentives for public and private health organizations to collaborate. Despite the apparent benefits of collaboration, there is a paucity of information available to help local agencies develop partnerships. This study, itself a collaboration between a school of public health (SPH) and a Georgia health district, was undertaken to identify critical factors necessary to successfully initiate and sustain a public/private community health collaboration. Professional staff at the SPH conducted 26 standardized interviews involving participants from Cobb and Douglas counties Boards of Health; Promina Northwest (now known as Wellstar), a not-for-profit health system; and community stakeholders. Content analysis of each interview question was performed and comparisons were made both within each group and across groups. Trends were identified in the following key areas: vision of health care for Cobb and Douglas counties, forces driving collaboration, strengths of each organization, critical negotiating issues, and potential community gain resulting from the partnership. A shared vision between potential collaborators facilitates communication regarding strategies to achieve common goals. A previous history of working together in limited capacities allowed the partners to develop trust and respect for one another prior to entering negotiations. These factors, when taken in conjunction with each organization's strong leadership and knowledge of the community, build a strong foundation for a successful partnership.

  11. A Robust SRAM-PUF Key Generation Scheme Based on Polar Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin; Ignatenko, Tanya; Willems, Frans M. J.; Maes, Roel; van der Sluis, Erik; Selimis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) are relatively new security primitives used for device authentication and device-specific secret key generation. In this paper we focus on SRAM-PUFs. The SRAM-PUFs enjoy uniqueness and randomness properties stemming from the intrinsic randomness of SRAM memory cells, which is a result of manufacturing variations. This randomness can be translated into the cryptographic keys thus avoiding the need to store and manage the device cryptographic keys. Therefore...

  12. A novel authentication scheme using self-certified public keys for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dianli; Wen, Qiaoyan; Li, Wenmin; Zhang, Hua; Jin, Zhengping

    2015-06-01

    Telecare medical information systems (TMIS), with the explosive growth of communication technology and physiological monitoring devices, are applied increasingly to enable and support healthcare delivery services. In order to safeguard patients' privacy and tackle the illegal access, authentication schemes for TMIS have been investigated and designed by many researchers. Many of them are promising for adoption in practice, nevertheless, they still have security flaws. In this paper, we propose a novel remote authentication scheme for TMIS using self-certified public keys, which is formally secure in the ID-mBJM model. Besides, the proposed scheme has better computational efficiency. Compared to the related schemes, our protocol is more practical for telemedicine system.

  13. Funding ATLAS 2012 key indicators for publicly funded research in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

    2013-01-01

    The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...

  14. Healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI) and non-profit organization (NPO): essentials for healthcare data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami

    2004-01-01

    To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.

  15. Quantum key distribution and cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Originally proposed by classical cryptographers, the ideas behind Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) have attracted considerable interest among the quantum optics community, which has significantly helped bring these ideas to reality. Experimental realizations have quickly evolved from early lab demonstrations to QKD systems that are now deployed in real conditions and targeting commercial applications. Although QKD can be theoretically proven to rely on 'unconditional security proofs' and should thus be able to provide security levels unachievable through computationally-based cryptographic techniques, the debate on the cryptographic applications of QKD remains somehow controversial. It seems that a consensus on that matter cannot be reached without a careful analysis of assumptions and definitions related to security models used in classical or in quantum cryptography. In this talk, we will try to present a comprehensive synthesis on this topic. We have initiated this work as a contribution to the European IP SECOQC project, confronting views and knowledge among experimental and theoretical quantum physicists, as well as classical cryptographers. (author)

  16. Cryptographic framework for document-objects resulting from multiparty collaborative transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, A

    2000-01-01

    Multiparty transactional frameworks--i.e. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) or Health Level (HL) 7--often result in composite documents which can be accurately modelled using hyperlinked document-objects. The structural complexity arising from multiauthor involvement and transaction-specific sequencing would be poorly handled by conventional digital signature schemes based on a single evaluation of a one-way hash function and asymmetric cryptography. In this paper we outline the generation of structure-specific authentication hash-trees for the the authentication of transactional document-objects, followed by asymmetric signature generation on the hash-tree value. Server-side multi-client signature verification would probably constitute the single most compute-intensive task, hence the motivation for our usage of the Rabin signature protocol which results in significantly reduced verification workloads compared to the more commonly applied Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) protocol. Data privacy is handled via symmetric encryption of message traffic using session-specific keys obtained through key-negotiation mechanisms based on discrete-logarithm cryptography. Individual client-to-server channels can be secured using a double key-pair variation of Diffie-Hellman (DH) key negotiation, usage of which also enables bidirectional node authentication. The reciprocal server-to-client multicast channel is secured through Burmester-Desmedt (BD) key-negotiation which enjoys significant advantages over the usual multiparty extensions to the DH protocol. The implementation of hash-tree signatures and bi/multidirectional key negotiation results in a comprehensive cryptographic framework for multiparty document-objects satisfying both authentication and data privacy requirements.

  17. The construction of a public key infrastructure for healthcare information networks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, N

    2001-01-01

    The digital signature is a key technology in the forthcoming Internet society for electronic healthcare as well as for electronic commerce. Efficient exchanges of authorized information with a digital signature in healthcare information networks require a construction of a public key infrastructure (PKI). In order to introduce a PKI to healthcare information networks in Japan, we proposed a development of a user authentication system based on a PKI for user management, user authentication and privilege management of healthcare information systems. In this paper, we describe the design of the user authentication system and its implementation. The user authentication system provides a certification authority service and a privilege management service while it is comprised of a user authentication client and user authentication serves. It is designed on a basis of an X.509 PKI and is implemented with using OpenSSL and OpenLDAP. It was incorporated into the financial information management system for the national university hospitals and has been successfully working for about one year. The hospitals plan to use it as a user authentication method for their whole healthcare information systems. One implementation of the system is free to the national university hospitals with permission of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Another implementation is open to the other healthcare institutes by support of the Medical Information System Development Center (MEDIS-DC). We are moving forward to a nation-wide construction of a PKI for healthcare information networks based on it.

  18. Compact FPGA hardware architecture for public key encryption in embedded devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Flores, Luis; Morales-Sandoval, Miguel; Cumplido, René; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Algredo-Badillo, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    Security is a crucial requirement in the envisioned applications of the Internet of Things (IoT), where most of the underlying computing platforms are embedded systems with reduced computing capabilities and energy constraints. In this paper we present the design and evaluation of a scalable low-area FPGA hardware architecture that serves as a building block to accelerate the costly operations of exponentiation and multiplication in [Formula: see text], commonly required in security protocols relying on public key encryption, such as in key agreement, authentication and digital signature. The proposed design can process operands of different size using the same datapath, which exhibits a significant reduction in area without loss of efficiency if compared to representative state of the art designs. For example, our design uses 96% less standard logic than a similar design optimized for performance, and 46% less resources than other design optimized for area. Even using fewer area resources, our design still performs better than its embedded software counterparts (190x and 697x).

  19. Public Key-Based Need-to-Know Authorization Engine Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1553-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a public key-based authentication service plug-in based on LLNL's requirements, integrate the public key-based authentication with the Intra Verse authorization service adn the LLNL NTK server by developing a full-featured version of the prototyped Intra Verse need-to-know plug in; and to test the authorization and need-to-know plug-in in a secured extranet prototype among selected national Labs.

  20. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    , and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character......Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case...... also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication. The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature...

  1. Automated detection and classification of cryptographic algorithms in binary programs through machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hosfelt, Diane Duros

    2015-01-01

    Threats from the internet, particularly malicious software (i.e., malware) often use cryptographic algorithms to disguise their actions and even to take control of a victim's system (as in the case of ransomware). Malware and other threats proliferate too quickly for the time-consuming traditional methods of binary analysis to be effective. By automating detection and classification of cryptographic algorithms, we can speed program analysis and more efficiently combat malware. This thesis wil...

  2. Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-03-19

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  3. Small Private Key MQPKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwajeong Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate quadratic (MQ cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011, a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  4. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  5. Performance Evaluation of Public Key Based Authentication in Future Mobile Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambourakis Georgios

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available While mobile hosts are evolving into full-IP enabled devices, there is a greater demand to provide a more flexible, reconfigurable, and scalable security mechanism in mobile communication systems beyond 3G (B3G. Work has already begun on such an “all-IP” end-to-end solution, commonly referred to as 4G systems. Fully fledged integration between heterogeneous networks, such as 2.5G, UMTS, WLAN, Bluetooth, and the Internet, demands fully compatible, time-tested, and reliable mechanisms to depend on. SSL protocol has proved its effectiveness in the wired Internet and it will probably be the most promising candidate for future wireless environments. In this paper, we discuss existing problems related to authentication and key agreement (AKA procedures, such as compromised authentication vectors attacks, as they appear in current 2/2.5G/3G mobile communication systems, and propose how SSL, combined with public key infrastructure (PKI elements, can be used to overcome these vulnerabilities. In this B3G environment, we perceive authentication as a service, which has to be performed at the higher protocol layers irrespective of the underlying network technology. Furthermore, we analyze the effectiveness of such a solution, based on measurements of a “prototype” implementation. Performance measurements indicate that SSL-based authentication can be possible in terms of service time in future wireless systems, while it can simultaneously provide both the necessary flexibility to network operators and a high level of confidence to end users.

  6. Cryptographically supported NFC tags in medication for better inpatient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcanhan, Mehmet Hilal; Dalkılıç, Gökhan; Utku, Semih

    2014-08-01

    Reliable sources report that errors in drug administration are increasing the number of harmed or killed inpatients, during healthcare. This development is in contradiction to patient safety norms. A correctly designed hospital-wide ubiquitous system, using advanced inpatient identification and matching techniques, should provide correct medicine and dosage at the right time. Researchers are still making grouping proof protocol proposals based on the EPC Global Class 1 Generation 2 ver. 1.2 standard tags, for drug administration. Analyses show that such protocols make medication unsecure and hence fail to guarantee inpatient safety. Thus, the original goal of patient safety still remains. In this paper, a very recent proposal (EKATE) upgraded by a cryptographic function is shown to fall short of expectations. Then, an alternative proposal IMS-NFC which uses a more suitable and newer technology; namely Near Field Communication (NFC), is described. The proposed protocol has the additional support of stronger security primitives and it is compliant to ISO communication and security standards. Unlike previous works, the proposal is a complete ubiquitous system that guarantees full patient safety; and it is based on off-the-shelf, new technology products available in every corner of the world. To prove the claims the performance, cost, security and scope of IMS-NFC are compared with previous proposals. Evaluation shows that the proposed system has stronger security, increased patient safety and equal efficiency, at little extra cost.

  7. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,

  8. Trust Management for Public Key Infrastructures: Implementing the X.509 Trust Broker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Samer Wazan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI is considered one of the most important techniques used to propagate trust in authentication over the Internet. This technology is based on a trust model defined by the original X.509 (1988 standard and is composed of three entities: the certification authority (CA, the certificate holder (or subject, and the Relying Party (RP. The CA plays the role of a trusted third party between the certificate holder and the RP. In many use cases, this trust model has worked successfully. However, we argue that the application of this model on the Internet implies that web users need to depend on almost anyone in the world in order to use PKI technology. Thus, we believe that the current TLS system is not fit for purpose and must be revisited as a whole. In response, the latest draft edition of X.509 has proposed a new trust model by adding new entity called the Trust Broker (TB. In this paper, we present an implementation approach that a Trust Broker could follow in order to give RPs trust information about a CA by assessing the quality of its issued certificates. This is related to the quality of the CA’s policies and procedures and its commitment to them. Finally, we present our Trust Broker implementation that demonstrates how RPs can make informed decisions about certificate holders in the context of the global web, without requiring large processing resources themselves.

  9. An Enhanced Secure Identity-Based Certificateless Public Key Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Haiping; Li, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular sensor networks have been widely applied in intelligent traffic systems in recent years. Because of the specificity of vehicular sensor networks, they require an enhanced, secure and efficient authentication scheme. Existing authentication protocols are vulnerable to some problems, such as a high computational overhead with certificate distribution and revocation, strong reliance on tamper-proof devices, limited scalability when building many secure channels, and an inability to detect hardware tampering attacks. In this paper, an improved authentication scheme using certificateless public key cryptography is proposed to address these problems. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol provides an enhanced secure anonymous authentication, which is resilient against major security threats. Furthermore, the proposed scheme reduces the incidence of node compromise and replication attacks. The scheme also provides a malicious-node detection and warning mechanism, which can quickly identify compromised static nodes and immediately alert the administrative department. With performance evaluations, the scheme can obtain better trade-offs between security and efficiency than the well-known available schemes. PMID:29324719

  10. An Enhanced Secure Identity-Based Certificateless Public Key Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Haiping; Li, Dongfeng

    2018-01-11

    Vehicular sensor networks have been widely applied in intelligent traffic systems in recent years. Because of the specificity of vehicular sensor networks, they require an enhanced, secure and efficient authentication scheme. Existing authentication protocols are vulnerable to some problems, such as a high computational overhead with certificate distribution and revocation, strong reliance on tamper-proof devices, limited scalability when building many secure channels, and an inability to detect hardware tampering attacks. In this paper, an improved authentication scheme using certificateless public key cryptography is proposed to address these problems. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol provides an enhanced secure anonymous authentication, which is resilient against major security threats. Furthermore, the proposed scheme reduces the incidence of node compromise and replication attacks. The scheme also provides a malicious-node detection and warning mechanism, which can quickly identify compromised static nodes and immediately alert the administrative department. With performance evaluations, the scheme can obtain better trade-offs between security and efficiency than the well-known available schemes.

  11. Stakeholders' perception of key performance indicators (KPIs of public-private partnership (PPP projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabode Emmanuel Ogunsanmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates key performance indicators (KPIs that could improve performance of public-private partnership (PPP projects in Nigeria. The study objectives include a comparison of stakeholders’ perception on KPIs and to investigate if significant difference exists between stakeholders’ perceptions on most KPIs. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from various respondents who were recently involved in PPP projects. Random sampling technique was used to select forty-five (45 respondents out of which thirty-one (31 responses were used for the data analysis. The results indicate that top KPIs for performance improvement are levels of design complexity and technological advancement, and return on investment. Stakeholders agree on most of the rankings of the KPIs. The general perception of stakeholders was similar on most KPIs except for a few divergent opinions. The study findings have an implication for policy and decision making such that stakeholders could pay special attention to the KPIs identified, that could improve construction project performance. Finally the study recommends further research to explore KPIs for other procurement options.

  12. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-01-01

    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public

  13. Authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevassut, Olivier [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals A and B, communicating over a public network, and each holding a pair of matching public/private keys to agree on a session key. Protocols designed to deal with this problem ensure A (B resp.)that no other principals aside from B (A resp.) can learn any information about this value. These protocols additionally often ensure A and B that their respective partner has actually computed the shared secret value. A natural extension to the above cryptographic protocol problem is to consider a pool of principals agreeing on a session key. Over the years several papers have extended the two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange to the multi-party setting but no formal treatments were carried out till recently. In light of recent developments in the formalization of the authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange we have in this thesis laid out the authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange on firmer foundations.

  14. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    been proposed. The essay examines how the public considers the societal tradeoffs that are made to develop small-scale, in-view demonstration wind projects instead of larger facilities farther offshore. Results indicate that a strong majority of the public supports near-shore demonstration wind projects in both states. Primary reasons for support include benefits to wildlife, cost of electricity, and job creation, while the primary reasons for opposition include wildlife impacts, aesthetics, tourism, and user conflicts. These factors differ between coastal Delaware and greater Atlantic City and highlight the importance of local, community engagement in the early stages of development. The second essay examines the interaction of a new proposed use of the ocean---offshore wind---and a key existing ocean user group---commercial fishers. A key component of offshore wind planning includes consideration of existing uses of the marine environment in order to optimally site wind projects while minimizing conflicts. Commercial fisheries comprise an important stakeholder group, and may be one of the most impacted stakeholders from offshore renewable energy development. Concern of the fishing industry stems from possible interference with productive fishing grounds and access within wind developments resulting in costs from increased effort or reduction in catch. Success of offshore wind development may in part depend on the acceptance of commercial fishers, who are concerned about loss of access to fishing grounds. Using a quantitative, marine spatial planning approach in the siting of offshore wind projects with respect to commercial fishing in the mid-Atlantic, U.S., this essay develops a spatially explicit representation of potential conflicts and compatibilities between these two industries in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Areas that are highly valuable to the wind industry are determined through a spatial suitability model using variable cost per unit

  15. Proceedings from the 9th Annual Meeting of International Society for Medical Publication Professionals Roundtable Session: key insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcoe, Donna; Juneja, Renu; Scott, Gayle Nicholas; Sridharan, Kanaka; Williams-Hughes, Celeste

    2014-03-01

    During the 9th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP, April 29-May 1, 2013 in Baltimore, MD), ∼650 participants attended two of 13 available roundtable sessions. Participants included medical publication professionals from industry, communication agencies, and journals. DISCUSSION TOPICS: Roundtable participants discussed how to best interpret and implement various guidances, such as Good Publication Practices 2 (GPP2), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines, and the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. The impact of and compliance with Corporate Integrity agreements (CIAs) on medical publication planning practices was debated. Roundtable participants also discussed ways of advancing both advocacy for the medical publication professional field and internal and external collaborations. The development of review manuscripts, publications from regions newly emerging in publication planning, medical devices publications, and real-world experience publications were discussed. Participants also considered the benefits and uncertainties of new technologies in medical publications such as multimedia and social media. This is the first ever article to be published following the well-attended ISMPP roundtable sessions. The objective of this manuscript is to summarize key learnings that will aid continued discussions about challenges and opportunities facing medical publication professionals.

  16. A Public-key based Information Management Model for Mobile Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Diego; Sobrado, Igor

    2000-01-01

    Mobile code based computing requires development of protection schemes that allow digital signature and encryption of data collected by the agents in untrusted hosts. These algorithms could not rely on carrying encryption keys if these keys could be stolen or used to counterfeit data by hostile hosts and agents. As a consequence, both information and keys must be protected in a way that only authorized hosts, that is the host that provides information and the server that has sent the mobile a...

  17. Secure method for biometric-based recognition with integrated cryptographic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied.

  18. Secure Method for Biometric-Based Recognition with Integrated Cryptographic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied.

  19. Electronic signature for medical documents--integration and evaluation of a public key infrastructure in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, R; van der Haak, M; Hartmann, M; Haux, R; Schmücker, P

    2002-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine the user-oriented and legal requirements for a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) for electronic signatures for medical documents, and to translate these requirements into a general model for a signature system. A prototype of this model was then implemented and evaluated in clinical routine use. Analyses of documents, processes, interviews, observations, and of the available literature supplied the foundations for the development of the signature system model. Eight participants of the Department of Dermatology of the Heidelberg University Medical Center evaluated the implemented prototype from December 2000 to January 2001, during the course of an intervention study. By means of questionnaires, interviews, observations and database analyses, the usefulness and user acceptance of the electronic signature and its integration into electronic discharge letters were established. Since the major part of medical documents generated in a hospital are signature-relevant, they will require electronic signatures in the future. A PKI must meet the multitude of responsibilities and security needs required in a hospital. Also, the signature functionality must be integrated directly into the workflow surrounding document creation. A developed signature model, fulfilling user-oriented and legal requirements, was implemented using hard and software components that conform to the German Signature Law. It was integrated into the existing hospital information system of the Heidelberg University Medical Center. At the end of the intervention study, the average acceptance scores achieved were mean = 3.90; SD = 0.42 on a scale of 1 (very negative attitude) to 5 (very positive attitude) for the electronic signature procedure. Acceptance of the integration into computer-supported discharge letter writing reached mean = 3.91; SD = 0.47. On average, the discharge letters were completed 7.18 days earlier. The electronic signature is indispensable for the

  20. Public health ethics: key concepts and issues in policy and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawson, Angus

    2011-01-01

    .... Topics covered include the nature of public health ethics, the concepts of disease and prevention, risk and precaution, health inequalities and justice, screening, vaccination and disease control...

  1. Understanding and involvement: The key to public acceptance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development project of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) that is authorized under Public Law 96-164 ''to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense programs of the United States.'' The transportation and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes require an extensive public and media information program. This program must be able to respond to numerous information requests and concerns from state governments, citizens on the transportation routes, political leaders, public interest groups, emergency responders, and national and local media. The WIPP has developed a proactive program which aggressively provides information to these audiences through written and visual products, exhibits, presentations, and tours. As a result, thousands of interested parties have had their questions and concerns addressed, resulting in public understanding and support of the project's mission and its commitment to the safety of the public and the environment

  2. Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2007-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.

  3. Implementation of DoD Public Key Infrastructure Policy and Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. Federal agencies, including DoD, are increasingly using the World Wide Web and other Internet-based applications to provide on-line public access to information and services as well as to improve...

  4. Federal Agency Use of Public Key Technology for Digital Signatures and Authentication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyons-Burke, Kathy

    2000-01-01

    ... or authentication over open networks such as the Internet. This includes communications with other Federal or non-Federal entities, such as members of the public, private firms, citizen groups, and State and local Governments...

  5. Lobbying and Social Participation – Key Features for an Effective Public Administration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria IRIMIEȘ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying is one of the main structural elements of democratic governance and sustainable development and is essential to achieving competitive and effi cient administrative and decisional processes in local governance. Successfully implementing lobbying regulations and techniques is of extreme importance for any public system, where social participation in the decision-making process can strongly contribute to social, political and economic / fi nancial effi - ciency. Over the last 15 years, several legislative initiatives have tried to design a coherent framework for lobby, but they are still unapplied either due to insuffi cient public understanding of the concept, or due to more or less justifi ed uncertainties and fears. The necessity of regulating lobbying in Romania is placed in a context where an important number of anticorruption international and domestic recommendations and state reliability statistics, added to a certain lack of effectiveness in time and public money management, show that the public administration system needs to be reformed. And lobbying is, as the following article shows, a must for any public reform of public administration in Romania. The case of multilingual entrance signs / labels in Cluj-Napoca is an unquestionable and unbeatable example that the simple existence of legal frameworks of lobbying could turn into real time, energy and money savers.

  6. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  7. A Distributed Public Key Infrastructure Based on Threshold Cryptography for the HiiMap Next Generation Internet Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hanka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a security extension for the HiiMap Next Generation Internet Architecture is presented. We regard a public key infrastructure which is integrated into the mapping infrastructure of the locator/identifier-split addressing scheme. The security approach is based on Threshold Cryptography which enables a sharing of keys among the mapping servers. Hence, a more trustworthy and fair approach for a Next Generation Internet Architecture as compared to the state of the art approach is fostered. Additionally, we give an evaluation based on IETF AAA recommendations for security-related systems.

  8. Key Motivational Factors in the Retention of Three Generations of Public High School Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospichal, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the similarities and differences between five key motivational factors: (a) new teacher induction, (b) noninduction mentor support in the early years of teaching, (c) salary and benefits, (d) working conditions, and (e) administrative support influential in retention of employment in…

  9. Collaboration with HEIs: A Key Capacity Building Block for the Uganda Water and Sanitation Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaga, Sam

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of public service staff in developing countries is crucial for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Literature from developed countries shows that, working with higher education institutions (HEIs), industries have improved their human resource capacity through continuing professional development. This paper reports on research…

  10. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  11. A proactive public information policy: a key element for regulator independence and credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindelan, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The future of the nuclear industry will depend to a large extent on the perception that the members of the public have of it. However, our mission as regulatory bodies is not to change the pro-or anti- nuclear feelings of the public, but to set in them the confidence that the use currently made of nuclear energy is carried out with the greatest guarantees of safety. We should continue to avoid their feeling of fear without reasons or their perception of uncertainty regarding processes that are duly controlled and supervised. I am convinced that whatever progress we make in increasing transparency will lead to an increase in the public credibility of the organisations that we represent. The reason underlying our need for this credibility, this reputation for autonomy and efficiency, for good performance, is that without it we will not have sufficient authority in the eyes of the regulated sector or other private political and economic interests, and will not, therefore, be in a position to provide a sensation of confidence to the members of the public, whose tranquillity and interests are our obligation. (author)

  12. A Market Analysis of Publications, Trade Conferences, and Key Events for Fleet Readiness Center Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Win and Keep Big Customers. Austin: Bard Press, 2005. Kotler , Philip and Kevin Lane Keller. Marketing Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT A Market Analysis of Publications, Trade Conferences...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE December 2007 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: A Market

  13. Interviewing Key Informants: Strategic Planning for a Global Public Health Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Karen E.; Kassim, Anisa; Howze, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Goldie

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sustainable Management Development Program (SMDP) partners with low- and middle-resource countries to develop management capacity so that effective global public health programs can be implemented and better health outcomes can be achieved. The program's impact however, was variable. Hence, there…

  14. Analysis of cryptographic mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Glet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to analysis how malicious software is using cryptographic mechanisms. Reverse engineering were applied in order to discover mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3. At the end were given some useful advices how to improve CryptXXX.[b]Keyword:[/b] ransomware, software engineering, reverse engineering, RC4, RSA, malicious software

  15. CWI cryptanalyst discovers new cryptographic attack variant in Flame spy malware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R.J.F. Cramer (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractCryptanalyst Marc Stevens from the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in Amsterdam, known for breaking the https security in 2008 using a cryptanalytic attack on MD5, analyzed the recent Flame virus this week. He discovered that for this spy malware an as yet unknown cryptographic

  16. Cryptosystem based on two-step phase-shifting interferometry and the RSA public-key encryption algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X. F.; Peng, X.; Cai, L. Z.; Li, A. M.; Gao, Z.; Wang, Y. R.

    2009-08-01

    A hybrid cryptosystem is proposed, in which one image is encrypted to two interferograms with the aid of double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and two-step phase-shifting interferometry (2-PSI), then three pairs of public-private keys are utilized to encode and decode the session keys (geometrical parameters, the second random-phase mask) and interferograms. In the stage of decryption, the ciphered image can be decrypted by wavefront reconstruction, inverse Fresnel diffraction, and real amplitude normalization. This approach can successfully solve the problem of key management and dispatch, resulting in increased security strength. The feasibility of the proposed cryptosystem and its robustness against some types of attack are verified and analyzed by computer simulations.

  17. A Novel Method for Generating Encryption Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascalescu Ana Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the informational society, which has led to an impressive growth of the information volume circulating in the computer networks, has accelerated the evolution and especially the use of modern cryptography instruments. Today, the commercial products use standard cryptographic libraries that implement certified and tested cryptographic algorithms. Instead, the fragility ofencryption algorithms is given by compositional operations like key handling or key generation. In this sense, the article proposes an innovative method to generate pseudorandom numbers which can be used for the construction of secure stream encryption keys. The proposed method is based on the mathematical complements based on the algebra of the finite fields and uses a particularized structure of the linear feedback shift registers.

  18. Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on public lands: estimating density, activity, and diet in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; Kays, Roland; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    Feral and free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) can have strong negative effects on small mammals and birds, particularly in island ecosystems. We deployed camera traps to study free-ranging cats in national wildlife refuges and state parks on Big Pine Key and Key Largo in the Florida Keys, USA, and used spatial capture–recapture models to estimate cat abundance, movement, and activities. We also used stable isotope analyses to examine the diet of cats captured on public lands. Top population models separated cats based on differences in movement and detection with three and two latent groups on Big Pine Key and Key Largo, respectively. We hypothesize that these latent groups represent feral, semi-feral, and indoor/outdoor house cats based on the estimated movement parameters of each group. Estimated cat densities and activity varied between the two islands, with relatively high densities (~4 cats/km2) exhibiting crepuscular diel patterns on Big Pine Key and lower densities (~1 cat/km2) exhibiting nocturnal diel patterns on Key Largo. These differences are most likely related to the higher proportion of house cats on Big Pine relative to Key Largo. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from hair samples of free-ranging cats (n = 43) provided estimates of the proportion of wild and anthropogenic foods in cat diets. At the population level, cats on both islands consumed mostly anthropogenic foods (>80% of the diet), but eight individuals were effective predators of wildlife (>50% of the diet). We provide evidence that cat groups within a population move different distances, exhibit different activity patterns, and that individuals consume wildlife at different rates, which all have implications for managing this invasive predator.

  19. Istanbul Chamber of Certified Public Accountants (ISMMMO The Key Element of Accounting Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkim Mengülerek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to indicate the identity struggle of a profession, the endeavors in the journey from Association to Chamber, the steps taken within this context, the achievements in a short period of time, the organizational development of Istanbul Chamber of Certified Public Accountants (ISMMMO between 1990 and 2009, the social function of the Chamber and its contributions to the profession in terms of information and science. The Information Access Center (IAC, established in 2006, serves not only in Istanbul but all over Turkey. IAC collects all books and periodicals in the field of accountancy published in Turkey and tracks certain foreign publications. It also continues to improve its services with the accountancy bibliography (books, articles, daily newsletter, index of "Mali Çözüm (Finance Solutions" magazine, and through activies and studies in the Library Week.

  20. Istanbul Chamber of Certified Public Accountants (ISMMMO) The Key Element of Accounting Profession

    OpenAIRE

    İlkim Mengülerek

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to indicate the identity struggle of a profession, the endeavors in the journey from Association to Chamber, the steps taken within this context, the achievements in a short period of time, the organizational development of Istanbul Chamber of Certified Public Accountants (ISMMMO) between 1990 and 2009, the social function of the Chamber and its contributions to the profession in terms of information and science. The Information Access Center (IAC), established ...

  1. Trust and its ramification for the DoD public key infrastructure (PKI)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Carl M.

    2001-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Researchers have used a wide variety of trust definitions, leading to a plethora of meanings of the concept. But what does the word trust' mean? While most scholars provide their own definition of trust, they are dissatisfied regarding their own lack of consensus about what trust is. Trust is a cognitive function and modeling trust is an attempt to emulate the way a human assesses trust. Models of trust have been developed in an attemp...

  2. Public-private relationships in biobanking: a still underestimated key component of open innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Paul; Bréchot, Christian; Zatloukal, Kurt; Dagher, Georges; Clément, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Access to human bioresources is essential to the understanding of human diseases and to the discovery of new biomarkers aimed at improving the diagnosis, prognosis, and the predictive response of patients to treatments. The use of biospecimens is strictly controlled by ethical assessment, which complies with the laws of the country. These laws regulate the partnerships between the biobanks and industrial actors. However, private-public partnerships (PPP) can be limiting for several reasons, which can hamper the discovery of new biological tests and new active molecules targeted to human diseases. The bottlenecks and roadblocks in establishing these partnerships include: poor organization of the biobank in setting up PPP, evaluation of the cost of human samples, the absence of experience on the public side in setting up contracts with industry, and the fact that public and private partners may not share the same objectives. However, it is critical, in particular for academic biobanks, to establish strong PPP to accelerate translational research for the benefits of patients, and to allow the sustainability of the biobank. The purpose of this review is to discuss the main bottlenecks and roadblocks that can hamper the establishment of PPP based on solid and trusting relationships.

  3. A Scenario-Based Protocol Checker for Public-Key Authentication Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takamichi

    Security protocol provides communication security for the internet. One of the important features of it is authentication with key exchange. Its correctness is a requirement of the whole of the communication security. In this paper, we introduce three attack models realized as their attack scenarios, and provide an authentication-protocol checker for applying three attack-scenarios based on the models. We also utilize it to check two popular security protocols: Secure SHell (SSH) and Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS).

  4. Key Characteristics of Rehabilitation Quality Improvement Publications: Scoping Review From 2010 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago S; Papadimitriou, Christina; Pinho, Cátia S; Hoenig, Helen

    2017-09-28

    To characterize the peer-reviewed quality improvement (QI) literature in rehabilitation. Five electronic databases were searched for English-language articles from 2010 to 2016. Keywords for QI and safety management were searched for in combination with keywords for rehabilitation content and journals. Secondary searches (eg, references-list scanning) were also performed. Two reviewers independently selected articles using working definitions of rehabilitation and QI study types; of 1016 references, 112 full texts were assessed for eligibility. Reported study characteristics including study focus, study setting, use of inferential statistics, stated limitations, and use of improvement cycles and theoretical models were extracted by 1 reviewer, with a second reviewer consulted whenever inferences or interpretation were involved. Fifty-nine empirical rehabilitation QI studies were found: 43 reporting on local QI activities, 7 reporting on QI effectiveness research, 8 reporting on QI facilitators or barriers, and 1 systematic review of a specific topic. The number of publications had significant yearly growth between 2010 and 2016 (P=.03). Among the 43 reports on local QI activities, 23.3% did not explicitly report any study limitations; 39.5% did not used inferential statistics to measure the QI impact; 95.3% did not cite/mention the appropriate reporting guidelines; only 18.6% reported multiple QI cycles; just over 50% reported using a model to guide the QI activity; and only 7% reported the use of a particular theoretical model. Study sites and focuses were diverse; however, nearly a third (30.2%) examined early mobilization in intensive care units. The number of empirical, peer-reviewed rehabilitation QI publications is growing but remains a tiny fraction of rehabilitation research publications. Rehabilitation QI studies could be strengthened by greater use of extant models and theory to guide the QI work, consistent reporting of study limitations, and use of

  5. Understanding public sexual harassment : lesson plans and session guidance, key Stages 3 & 4.

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Gray, F.; Bullough, J.

    2017-01-01

    These lesson plans have been written by Dr. Fiona Vera-Gray at Durham University and Jayne Bullough from Rape Crisis South London (RASASC). They were created through a partnership project with Doll’s Eye Theatre, Purple Drum, RASASC, Dr. Maria Garner, and Dr. Fiona Vera-Gray. Lessons on public sexual harassment were drawn from the work of Dr. Vera-Gray at Durham University. The project was made possible by Durham Law School’s Impact Acceleration Grant from the Economics and ...

  6. Addressing College Drinking as a Statewide Public Health Problem: Key Findings From the Maryland Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Jernigan, David H

    2018-03-01

    Excessive drinking among college students is a serious and pervasive public health problem. Although much research attention has focused on developing and evaluating evidence-based practices to address college drinking, adoption has been slow. The Maryland Collaborative to Reduce College Drinking and Related Problems was established in 2012 to bring together a network of institutions of higher education in Maryland to collectively address college drinking by using both individual-level and environmental-level evidence-based approaches. In this article, the authors describe the findings of this multilevel, multicomponent statewide initiative. To date, the Maryland Collaborative has succeeded in providing a forum for colleges to share knowledge and experiences, strengthen existing strategies, and engage in a variety of new activities. Administration of an annual student survey has been useful for guiding interventions as well as evaluating progress toward the Maryland Collaborative's goal to measurably reduce high-risk drinking and its radiating consequences on student health, safety, and academic performance and on the communities surrounding college campuses. The experiences of the Maryland Collaborative exemplify real-world implementation of evidence-based approaches to reduce this serious public health problem.

  7. Benchmarking Non Public Hospitals in Puerto Rico: A Key Component in the Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisbel Ramos Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Benchmarking is considered a key component of the organizational performance measurement system. This study examines a sample of 53 profit and nonprofit hospitals registered in the American Hospital Directory, through four financial dimensions: liquidity, efficiency, profitability and capital structure. The purpose of the study is to validate whether the financial industry benchmark differs or not from a group of 17 selected financial ratios of profit and nonprofit hospitals, to determine if their financial performance is efficient or inefficient in the Puerto Rico health care system. The findings from the research show that 53% or more of the 17 selected financial ratios, compared globally, suggest being efficient in both types of hospitals. This means that these financial ratios were greater than or equal to the industry benchmark.

  8. Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal

    2011-01-01

    with security against malicious behavior. Our second contribution is complete Paillier [Pai99] threshold encryption scheme in the two-party setting with security against malicious behavior. Furthermore, we describe how to extend our protocols to the multiparty setting with dishonest majority. Our RSA key...... generation is comprised of the following: (i) a distributed protocol for generation of an RSA composite, and (ii) a biprimality test for verifying the validity of the generated composite. Our Paillier threshold encryption scheme uses the RSA composite as public key and is comprised of: (i) a distributed......The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite...

  9. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw

    2013-10-24

    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  10. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  11. Publication patterns on occupied Palestine in four key medical journals 1990-2016: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mads

    2018-02-21

    The atrocities in Syria have been covered in the four general medical weekly journals in the USA and the UK. Medical journal articles addressing political determinants of public health have rightly described and criticised the international community's failure to enforce humanitarian law while urging global bodies of power to ensure protection of civilians and civilian infrastructure and medical services. Discussions of the political influences on health of people in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip) seem to be considered politically out-of-bounds by some medical journals. This study used a keyword-based search to explore patterns of publication about the occupied Palestinian territory and Israel by four large US and European medical journals. The four highest ranked, peer-reviewed, international medical journals were searched: The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), The Lancet, and The British Medical Journal (BMJ). Searches were conducted between Sept 1 and Sept 6, using each journal's search engine with the keywords "Gaza", "West Bank" and the stems "Palestin*" and "Israel*" in all fields for the period Jan 1, 1990, to Sept 6, 2016. News and commentary articles were included in the findings. The searches found the term "Palestin*" in 49 articles from the two US journals (32 in JAMA; 17 in NEJM) and 694 articles in the two UK journals (236 in The Lancet; 458 in BMJ). "Israel*" was found in 840 articles in US journals (386 in JAMA; 454 in NEJM) and in 2972 articles in UK journals (1388 in The Lancet; 1584 in BMJ). "West Bank" was found in nine articles in US journals (nine in JAMA; none in NEJM) and in 297 articles from the UK (211 in The Lancet; 86 in BMJ). "Gaza" was found in 18 articles in US journals (15 from JAMA; three from NEJM) and in 487 articles in UK journals (324 in The Lancet; 166 in BMJ). Compared with the two US-based medical journals, the UK journals published

  12. Public Policies for ICT Update In Business: Some Key Indicators for Spain in the European Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Based on the new face of business in the twenty first century, this general review is aimed at analyzing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT as social technologies by Spanish enterprises in the European context, as a result of recent policy frameworks set at communitarian and national levels.Design/methodology/approach—The paper reviews the guidelines marked by European common policies with regards to ICT update in business, just as the translation of such standards in the Spanish area. From this framework, implications of ICT adoption in the social relationships with consumers, employees, business partners and public authorities are analyzed by providing some figures in the Spanish context in comparison with the European average.Findings—The analysis supports a positive effect of national policies on Spanish enterprises’ use of social technologies in the interactions with their internal and external stakeholders, while some differences can be reported attending size and sector criteria. In this respect, ICT penetration seems to be widespread in Spanish enterprises longer than ten employees, specially within informatics, telecommunications and audiovisuals, whereas automation of interactions is moderated in micro-enterprises in the manufacture, building, retailing, and transportation sectors.Research limitations/implications—The paper offers a general overview of the use of ICT as social technologies in Spanish enterprises based on public reports. However, further research should be oriented to analyze more in deep the impact of public policies on ICT adoption and usage in business, by explaining their determining factors and comparing different clusters of counties and major regions of the world.Practical implications—The analysis reported point to the need of reinforcing the Spanish positioning in the ICT European sector in the long term. In this sense, future policy measures should be devoted to

  13. Public Policies for ICT Update In Business: Some Key Indicators for Spain in the European Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lanero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Based on the new face of business in the twenty first century, this general review is aimed at analyzing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT as social technologies by Spanish enterprises in the European context, as a result of recent policy frameworks set at communitarian and national levels. Design/methodology/approach—The paper reviews the guidelines marked by European common policies with regards to ICT update in business, just as the translation of such standards in the Spanish area. From this framework, implications of ICT adoption in the social relationships with consumers, employees, business partners and public authorities are analyzed by providing some figures in the Spanish context in comparison with the European average.Findings—The analysis supports a positive effect of national policies on Spanish enterprises’ use of social technologies in the interactions with their internal and external stakeholders, while some differences can be reported attending size and sector criteria. In this respect, ICT penetration seems to be widespread in Spanish enterprises longer than ten employees, specially within informatics, telecommunications and audiovisuals, whereas automation of interactions is moderated in micro-enterprises in the manufacture, building, retailing, and transportation sectors.Research limitations/implications—The paper offers a general overview of the use of ICT as social technologies in Spanish enterprises based on public reports. However, further research should be oriented to analyze more in deep the impact of public policies on ICT adoption and usage in business, by explaining their determining factors and comparing different clusters of counties and major regions of the world.Practical implications—The analysis reported point to the need of reinforcing the Spanish positioning in the ICT European sector in the long term. In this sense, future policy measures should be devoted to

  14. Formal Analysis of Key Integrity in PKCS#11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Andrea; Focardi, Riccardo

    PKCS#11 is a standard API to cryptographic devices such as smarcards, hardware security modules and usb crypto-tokens. Though widely adopted, this API has been shown to be prone to attacks in which a malicious user gains access to the sensitive keys stored in the devices. In 2008, Delaune, Kremer and Steel proposed a model to formally reason on this kind of attacks. We extend this model to also describe flaws that are based on integrity violations of the stored keys. In particular, we consider scenarios in which a malicious overwriting of keys might fool honest users into using attacker's own keys, while performing sensitive operations. We further enrich the model with a trusted key mechanism ensuring that only controlled, non-tampered keys are used in cryptographic operations, and we show how this modified API prevents the above mentioned key-replacement attacks.

  15. What are the key organisational capabilities that facilitate research use in public health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Campbell, Danielle; Milat, Andrew; Haynes, Abby; Quinn, Emma

    2014-11-28

    Literature about research use suggests that certain characteristics or capabilities may make policy agencies more evidence attuned. This study sought to determine policy makers' perceptions of a suite of organisational capabilities identified from the literature as potentially facilitating research uptake in policy decision making. A literature scan identified eight key organisational capabilities that support research use in policy making. To determine whether these capabilities were relevant, practical and applicable in real world policy settings, nine Australian health policy makers were consulted in September 2011. We used an open-ended questionnaire asking what facilitates the use of research in policy and program decision making, followed by specific questions rating the proposed capabilities. Interviews were transcribed and the content analysed. There was general agreement that the capabilities identified from the literature were relevant to real world contexts. However, interviewees varied in whether they could provide examples of experiences with the capabilities, how essential they considered the different capabilities to be and how difficult they considered the capabilities were to achieve. Efforts to improve the use of research in policy decision making are likely to benefit from targeting multiple organisational capabilities, including staff skills and competence, tools such as templates and checklists to aid evidence use and leadership support for the use of research in policy development. However, such efforts should be guided by an understanding of how policy agencies use evidence and how they view their roles, and external factors such as resource constraints and availability of appropriate research.

  16. Art as a key tool for engaging the public with the ICESat-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, V.; Markus, T.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2), to be launched in the Fall of 2018, will measure the height of Earth from space using lasers, collecting the most precise and detailed account yet of our planet's elevation. The mission will allow scientists to investigate how global warming is changing the planet's icy polar regions and to take stock of Earth's vegetation. ICESat-2's emphasis on polar ice, as well as its unique measurement approach, has provided an intriguing and accessible focus for the mission's education and outreach programs. Sea ice and land ice are areas have experienced significant change in recent years. It is key to communicate what is happening, why we are measuring these areas and their importance to our global climate. Art is a powerful tool to inspire, engage, and provide an emotional connection to these remote areas. This paper will detail ICESat-2's art/science collaborations, including results from a unique collaboration with art and design school the Savannah College of Art Design (SCAD). Additional programs will be discussed including a multimedia live music program to engage on an emotional level, to communicate the importance of the polar regions to our global climate, and to inspire to take action.

  17. Security of Color Image Data Designed by Public-Key Cryptosystem Associated with 2D-DWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, R. K.; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2014-08-01

    In present times the security of image data is a major issue. So, we have proposed a novel technique for security of color image data by public-key cryptosystem or asymmetric cryptosystem. In this technique, we have developed security of color image data using RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) cryptosystem with two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT). Earlier proposed schemes for security of color images designed on the basis of keys, but this approach provides security of color images with the help of keys and correct arrangement of RSA parameters. If the attacker knows about exact keys, but has no information of exact arrangement of RSA parameters, then the original information cannot be recovered from the encrypted data. Computer simulation based on standard example is critically examining the behavior of the proposed technique. Security analysis and a detailed comparison between earlier developed schemes for security of color images and proposed technique are also mentioned for the robustness of the cryptosystem.

  18. On the Ergodic Secret-Key Agreement over Spatially Correlated Multiple-Antenna Channels with Public Discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-09-28

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fast-fading channels under correlated environment. We assume that transmit, legitimate receiver and eavesdropper antennas are correlated. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the correlation matrices. First, we derive the expression of the secret-key capacity under the considered setup. We prove that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the secret-key capacity consists in transmitting independent Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution to a numerical optimization problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming (i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode) to be capacity-achieving is derived. Moreover, we analyze the impact of correlation matrices on the system performance. Finally, we study the system’s performance in the two extreme power regimes. In the high-power regime, we provide closed-form expressions of the gain/loss due to correlation. In the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, we investigate the energy efficiency of the system by determining the minimum energy required for sharing a secret-key bit and the wideband slope while highlighting the impact of correlation matrices.

  19. Public health and social injustice are the key issues for the decriminalization of abortion in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Although the Second National Abortion Survey Gallup found that 88% of Mexicans believe abortion should be a woman's choice and 77% think the decriminalization of abortion would substantially reduce maternal mortality, abortion in Mexico remains governed by a 1931 criminal code. The survey was initiated by the Information and Reproductive Choice Group to provide information for the 1994 national debate on abortion. Supporters of legal abortion note that poor women resort to unsafe pregnancy terminations without regard to the criminal status of abortion. According to Patricia Mercado, co-founder of the Reproductive Choice Group, "You can be against abortion, but still allow it to be decriminalized. In other words, criminalization does not prevent women from having abortions, it only makes then have then in bad conditions. The idea is that women should be able to decide freely without risking problems of health and social justice." Despite public support for abortion legalization, survey results indicate widespread fear about acknowledging the existence of clandestine abortion. An estimated 1-2 million illegal abortions occur each year in Mexico, yet only 26% of survey respondents would admit to knowing a woman who had undergone illegal abortion.

  20. Resilience Analysis of Key Update Strategies for Resource-Constrained Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Severe resource limitations in certain types of networks lead to various open issues in security. Since such networks usually operate in unattended or hostile environments, revoking the cryptographic keys and establishing (also distributing) new keys – which we refer to as key update – is a criti...

  1. Parallel Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rahul; Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2017-01-01

    A prominent application of quantum cryptography is the distribution of cryptographic keys with unconditional security. Recently, such security was extended by Vazirani and Vidick (Physical Review Letters, 113, 140501, 2014) to the device-independent (DI) scenario, where the users do not need to trust the integrity of the underlying quantum devices. The protocols analyzed by them and by subsequent authors all require a sequential execution of N multiplayer games, where N is the security parame...

  2. Securing ad hoc wireless sensor networks under Byzantine attacks by implementing non-cryptographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir Ahmad Sofi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless sensor network (WSN is a collection of nodes that do not need to rely on predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. The level of security and performance are always somehow related to each other, therefore due to limited resources in WSN, cryptographic methods for securing the network against attacks is not feasible. Byzantine attacks disrupt the communication between nodes in the network without regard to its own resource consumption. This paper discusses the performance of cluster based WSN comparing LEACH with Advanced node based clusters under byzantine attacks. This paper also proposes an algorithm for detection and isolation of the compromised nodes to mitigate the attacks by non-cryptographic means. The throughput increases after using the algorithm for isolation of the malicious nodes, 33% in case of Gray Hole attack and 62% in case of Black Hole attack.

  3. Type-Based Automated Verification of Authenticity in Asymmetric Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sun, Yunde

    2011-01-01

    Gordon and Jeffrey developed a type system for verification of asymmetric and symmetric cryptographic protocols. We propose a modified version of Gordon and Jeffrey's type system and develop a type inference algorithm for it, so that protocols can be verified automatically as they are, without any...... type annotations or explicit type casts. We have implemented a protocol verifier SpiCa based on the algorithm, and confirmed its effectiveness....

  4. Secure Method for Biometric-Based Recognition with Integrated Cryptographic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to c...

  5. Secret-key agreement over spatially correlated fast-fading multiple-antenna channels with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-06-14

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fast-fading channels under correlated environment. We assume that transmit, legitimate receiver and eavesdropper antennas are correlated. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the correlation matrices. First, we derive the expression of the secret-key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we prove that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the secret-key capacity consists in transmitting independent Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution to a numerical optimization problem that we derive. A necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming (i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode) to be capacity-achieving is derived. Finally, we analyze the impact of correlation matrices on the system performance and provide closed-form expressions of the gain/loss due to correlation in the high power regime.

  6. Practical cryptographic strategies in the post-quantum era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, I. S.; Yunusov, R. R.; Kurochkin, Y. V.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum key distribution technologies promise information-theoretic security and are currently being deployed in com-mercial applications. We review new frontiers in information security technologies in communications and distributed storage applications with the use of classical, quantum, hybrid classical-quantum, and post-quantum cryptography. We analyze the cur-rent state-of-the-art, critical characteristics, development trends, and limitations of these techniques for application in enterprise information protection systems. An approach concerning the selection of practical encryption technologies for enterprises with branched communication networks is discussed.

  7. Techniques for Performance Improvement of Integer Multiplication in Cryptographic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brumnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of arithmetic operations performance in number fields is actively researched by many scientists, as evidenced by significant publications in this field. In this work, we offer some techniques to increase performance of software implementation of finite field multiplication algorithm, for both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms. The developed technique, called “delayed carry mechanism,” allows to preventing necessity to consider a significant bit carry at each iteration of the sum accumulation loop. This mechanism enables reducing the total number of additions and applies the modern parallelization technologies effectively.

  8. PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURE (PKI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Common Access Card (CAC)Enterprise Testing Overview:Established in 2003Performs test and evaluations of the DOD PKI CAC issuance systems from an enterprise level all...

  9. Delay and cost performance analysis of the diffie-hellman key exchange protocol in opportunistic mobile networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelistijanto, B.; Muliadi, V.

    2018-03-01

    Diffie-Hellman (DH) provides an efficient key exchange system by reducing the number of cryptographic keys distributed in the network. In this method, a node broadcasts a single public key to all nodes in the network, and in turn each peer uses this key to establish a shared secret key which then can be utilized to encrypt and decrypt traffic between the peer and the given node. In this paper, we evaluate the key transfer delay and cost performance of DH in opportunistic mobile networks, a specific scenario of MANETs where complete end-to-end paths rarely exist between sources and destinations; consequently, the end-to-end delays in these networks are much greater than typical MANETs. Simulation results, driven by a random node movement model and real human mobility traces, showed that DH outperforms a typical key distribution scheme based on the RSA algorithm in terms of key transfer delay, measured by average key convergence time; however, DH performs as well as the benchmark in terms of key transfer cost, evaluated by total key (copies) forwards.

  10. Public assessment of key performance indicators of healthcare in a Canadian province: the effect of age and chronic health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurullah, Abu Sadat; Northcott, Herbert C; Harvey, Michael D

    2014-01-15

    This study explores the effect of age and chronic conditions on public perceptions of the health system, as measured by the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of healthcare, in the province of Alberta in Canada. Drawing from data collected by Government of Alberta's Department of Health and Wellness, this research examines two key questions: (1) Do people in the 65+ age group rate the KPIs of healthcare (i.e., availability, accessibility, quality, outcome, and satisfaction) more favorably compared to people in younger age groups in Alberta? (2) Does the rating of KPIs of healthcare in Alberta vary with different chronic conditions (i.e., no chronic problem, chronic illnesses without pain, and chronic pain)? The findings indicate that people in the older age group tend to rate the KPIs of healthcare more favorably compared to younger age groups in Alberta, net of socio-demographic factors, self-reported health status, and knowledge and utilization of health services. However, people experiencing chronic pain are less likely to rate the KPIs of healthcare favorably compared to people with no chronic health problem in Alberta. Discussion includes implications of the findings for the healthcare system in the province.

  11. Cooperative Secret Sharing Using QR Codes and Symmetric Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Wai Chow

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Secret sharing is an information security technique where a dealer divides a secret into a collection of shares and distributes these to members of a group. The secret will only be revealed when a predefined number of group members cooperate to recover the secret. The purpose of this study is to investigate a method of distributing shares by embedding them into cover Quick Response (QR codes in a secure manner using cryptographic keys. The advantage of this approach is that the shares can be disseminated over public channels, as anyone who scans the QR codes will only obtain public information. Only authorized individuals who are in possession of the required keys will be able to recover the shares. This also means that when group members cooperate to recover a secret, the group can determine the presence of an illegitimate participant if the person does not produce a valid share. This study proposes a protocol for accomplishing this and discusses the underlying security of the protocol.

  12. Key exchange using biometric identity based encryption for sharing encrypted data in cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waleed K.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2017-05-01

    The main problem associated with using symmetric/ asymmetric keys is how to securely store and exchange the keys between the parties over open networks particularly in the open environment such as cloud computing. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) have been providing a practical solution for session key exchange for loads of web services. The key limitation of PKI solution is not only the need for a trusted third partly (e.g. certificate authority) but also the absent link between data owner and the encryption keys. The latter is arguably more important where accessing data needs to be linked with identify of the owner. Currently available key exchange protocols depend on using trusted couriers or secure channels, which can be subject to man-in-the-middle attack and various other attacks. This paper proposes a new protocol for Key Exchange using Biometric Identity Based Encryption (KE-BIBE) that enables parties to securely exchange cryptographic keys even an adversary is monitoring the communication channel between the parties. The proposed protocol combines biometrics with IBE in order to provide a secure way to access symmetric keys based on the identity of the users in unsecure environment. In the KE-BIOBE protocol, the message is first encrypted by the data owner using a traditional symmetric key before migrating it to a cloud storage. The symmetric key is then encrypted using public biometrics of the users selected by data owner to decrypt the message based on Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. Only the selected users will be able to decrypt the message by providing a fresh sample of their biometric data. The paper argues that the proposed solution eliminates the needs for a key distribution centre in traditional cryptography. It will also give data owner the power of finegrained sharing of encrypted data by control who can access their data.

  13. SHAMROCK: A Synthesizable High Assurance Cryptography and Key Management Coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    cryptographic functions such as Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) [5] to produce keywraps to orchestrate key exchanges between groups of devices. These...Storage (MPMS). This is done for two reasons: first, the mission package is encrypted using AES keywrap mode with the CEK [7], which is a special version...Zone 1) denoting ephemeral secrets such as dynamic keys. AES encryption is employed as a one-way function leading from the ephemeral Zone 1 to the

  14. Secure and Efficient Regression Analysis Using a Hybrid Cryptographic Framework: Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Md Nazmus; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Aziz, Md Momin Al; Wang, Shuang; Mohammed, Noman

    2018-03-05

    Machine learning is an effective data-driven tool that is being widely used to extract valuable patterns and insights from data. Specifically, predictive machine learning models are very important in health care for clinical data analysis. The machine learning algorithms that generate predictive models often require pooling data from different sources to discover statistical patterns or correlations among different attributes of the input data. The primary challenge is to fulfill one major objective: preserving the privacy of individuals while discovering knowledge from data. Our objective was to develop a hybrid cryptographic framework for performing regression analysis over distributed data in a secure and efficient way. Existing secure computation schemes are not suitable for processing the large-scale data that are used in cutting-edge machine learning applications. We designed, developed, and evaluated a hybrid cryptographic framework, which can securely perform regression analysis, a fundamental machine learning algorithm using somewhat homomorphic encryption and a newly introduced secure hardware component of Intel Software Guard Extensions (Intel SGX) to ensure both privacy and efficiency at the same time. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method provides a better trade-off in terms of security and efficiency than solely secure hardware-based methods. Besides, there is no approximation error. Computed model parameters are exactly similar to plaintext results. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of secure computation model using a hybrid cryptographic framework, which leverages both somewhat homomorphic encryption and Intel SGX, is not proposed or evaluated to this date. Our proposed framework ensures data security and computational efficiency at the same time. ©Md Nazmus Sadat, Xiaoqian Jiang, Md Momin Al Aziz, Shuang Wang, Noman Mohammed. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 05.03.2018.

  15. Correlation Immunity, Avalanche Features, and Other Cryptographic Properties of Generalized Boolean Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    satisfying the strict avalanche criterion,” Discrete Math ., vol. 185, pp. 29–39, 1998. [2] R.C. Bose, “On some connections between the design of... Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 149, pp. 73–86, 2005. [11] T.W. Cusick and P. Stănică, Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications, 2nd ed., San Diego...Stănică, “Bisecting binomial coefficients,” Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 227, pp. 70–83, 2017. [28] T. Martinsen, W. Meidl, and P. Stănică, “Generalized

  16. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  17. MiMC: Efficient encryption and cryptographic hashing with minimal multiplicative complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Martin; Grassi, Lorenzo; Rechberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    and cryptographic hash functions is to reconsider and simplify the round function of the Knudsen-Nyberg cipher from 1995. The mapping F(x) := x3 is used as the main component there and is also the main component of our family of proposals called “MiMC”. We study various attack vectors for this construction and give...... a new attack vector that outperforms others in relevant settings. Due to its very low number of multiplications, the design lends itself well to a large class of applications, especially when the depth does not matter but the total number of multiplications in the circuit dominates all aspects...

  18. MEANING OF THE BITCOIN CRYPTOGRAPHIC CURRENCY AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dopierała

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the new elements of virtual reality, which is the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. This thesis focuses on the condition and perspectives on development of the trading function of this instrument. The authors discuss the legal aspects of functioning of the Bitcoin, conduct a SWOT analysis of this cryptocurrency as a medium of exchange, and examin the scale of use of Bitcoin in transaction purposes. As of March 1, 2014 the trading system gradually develops and the strengths of this cryptographic currency outweigh its weaknesses, but the future of Bitcoin as a medium of exchange is difficult to determine.

  19. Understanding security failures of two authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-03-01

    Smart card based authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) enable doctors, nurses, patients and health visitors to use smart cards for secure login to medical information systems. In recent years, several authentication and key agreement schemes have been proposed to present secure and efficient solution for TMIS. Most of the existing authentication schemes for TMIS have either higher computation overhead or are vulnerable to attacks. To reduce the computational overhead and enhance the security, Lee recently proposed an authentication and key agreement scheme using chaotic maps for TMIS. Xu et al. also proposed a password based authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography. Both the schemes provide better efficiency from the conventional public key cryptography based schemes. These schemes are important as they present an efficient solution for TMIS. We analyze the security of both Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s schemes. Unfortunately, we identify that both the schemes are vulnerable to denial of service attack. To understand the security failures of these cryptographic schemes which are the key of patching existing schemes and designing future schemes, we demonstrate the security loopholes of Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s scheme in this paper.

  20. Research on the Maritime Communication Cryptographic Chip’s Compiler Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the process of ocean development, the technology for maritime communication system is a hot research field, of which information security is vital for the normal operation of the whole system, and that is also one of the difficulties in the research of maritime communication system. In this paper, a kind of maritime communication cryptographic SOC(system on chip is introduced, and its compiler framework is put forward through analysis of working mode and problems faced by compiler front end. Then, a loop unrolling factor calculating algorithm based on queue theory, named UFBOQ (unrolling factor based on queue, is proposed to make parallel optimization in the compiler frontend with consideration of the instruction memory capacity limit. Finally, the scalar replacement method is used to optimize unrolled code to solve the memory access latency on the parallel computing efficiency, for continuous data storage characteristics of cryptographic algorithm. The UFBOQ algorithm and scalar replacement prove effective and appropriate, of which the effect achieves the linear speedup.

  1. Perspectives on key principles of generalist medical practice in public service in sub-saharan africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Raymond V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The principles and practice of Family Medicine that arose in developed Western countries have been imported and adopted in African countries without adequate consideration of their relevance and appropriateness to the African context. In this study we attempted to elicit a priori principles of generalist medical practice from the experience of long-serving medical officers in a variety of African counties, through which we explored emergent principles of Family Medicine in our own context. Methods A descriptive study design was utilized, using qualitative methods. 16 respondents who were clinically active medical practitioners, working as generalists in the public services or non-profit sector for at least 5 years, and who had had no previous formal training or involvement in academic Family Medicine, were purposively selected in 8 different countries in southern, western and east Africa, and interviewed. Results The respondents highlighted a number of key issues with respect to the external environment within which they work, their collective roles, activities and behaviours, as well as the personal values and beliefs that motivate their behaviour. The context is characterized by resource constraints, high workload, traditional health beliefs, and the difficulty of referring patients to the next level of care. Generalist clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa need to be competent across a wide range of clinical disciplines and procedural skills at the level of the district hospital and clinic, in both chronic and emergency care. They need to understand the patient's perspective and context, empowering the patient and building an effective doctor-patient relationship. They are also managers, focused on coordinating and improving the quality of clinical care through teamwork, training and mentoring other health workers in the generalist setting, while being life-long learners themselves. However, their role in the community, was

  2. Introduction of Renal Key Performance Indicators Associated with Increased Uptake of Peritoneal Dialysis in a Publicly Funded Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Nigel D; McMahon, Lawrence P; Dowling, Gregory; Holt, Stephen G; Smith, Gillian; Safe, Maria; Knight, Richard; Fair, Kathleen; Linehan, Leanne; Walker, Rowan G; Power, David A

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Increased demand for treatment of end-stage kidney disease has largely been accommodated by a costly increase in satellite hemodialysis (SHD) in most jurisdictions. In the Australian State of Victoria, a marked regional variation in the uptake of home-based dialysis suggests that use of home therapies could be increased as an alternative to SHD. An earlier strategy based solely on increased remuneration had failed to increase uptake of home therapies. Therefore, the public dialysis funder adopted the incidence and prevalence of home-based dialysis therapies as a key performance indicator (KPI) for its health services to encourage greater uptake of home therapies. ♦ METHODS: A KPI data collection and bench-marking program was established in 2012 by the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services, with data provided monthly by all renal units in Victoria using a purpose-designed website portal. A KPI Working Group was responsible for analyzing data each quarter and ensuring indicators remained accurate and relevant and each KPI had clear definitions and targets. We present a prospective, observational study of all dialysis patients in Victoria over a 4-year period following the introduction of the renal KPI program, with descriptive analyses to evaluate the proportion of patients using home therapies as well as home dialysis modality survival. ♦ RESULTS: Following the introduction of the KPI program, the net growth of dialysis patient numbers in Victoria remained stable over 4 years, at 75 - 80 per year (approximately 4%). However, unlike the previous decade, about 40% of this growth was through an increase in home dialysis, which was almost exclusively peritoneal dialysis (PD). The increase was identified particularly in the young (20 - 49) and the elderly (> 80). Disappointingly, however, 67% of these incident patients ceased PD within 2 years of commencement, 46% of whom transferred to SHD. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a KPI program

  3. Key-Alternating Ciphers in a Provable Setting: Encryption Using a Small Number of Public Permutations (Extended Abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Knudsen, L.R.; Leander, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    show that the distribution of Fourier coefficients for the cipher over all keys is close to ideal. Lastly, we define a practical instance of the construction with t = 2 using AES referred to as AES2. Any attack on AES2 with complexity below 285 will have to make use of AES with a fixed known key...

  4. Investigation of Current State of Crytpography and Theoretical Implementation of a Cryptographic System for the Combat Service Support Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    34 Advances in Crypt g: Proceedings of CRYPTO 84,r o ... .. .. _ __...o ... .. ... ....... ed. by G.R. Blakely and D. Chaum . [Wagn84b] Wagner, Neal R...in Distributed Computer Systems," IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. C-35, No. 7, Jul. 86, pp. 583-590. Gifford, David K., "Cryptographic Sealing for

  5. Designing and implementing of improved cryptographic algorithm using modular arithmetic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kamarzarrin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the privacy and security of people information are two most important principles of electronic health plan. One of the methods of creating privacy and securing of information is using Public key cryptography system. In this paper, we compare two algorithms, Common And Fast Exponentiation algorithms, for enhancing the efficiency of public key cryptography. We express that a designed system by Fast Exponentiation Algorithm has high speed and performance but low power consumption and space occupied compared with Common Exponentiation algorithm. Although designed systems by Common Exponentiation algorithm have slower speed and lower performance, designing by this algorithm has less complexity, and easier designing compared with Fast Exponentiation algorithm. In this paper, we will try to examine and compare two different methods of exponentiation, also observe performance Impact of these two approaches in the form of hardware with VHDL language on FPGA.

  6. Investigating the effects various compilers have on the electromagnetic signature of a cryptographic executable

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frieslaar, Ibraheem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available with a discussion in Section 6. 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC ATTACKS This section discusses the side channel analysis attacks involving electromagnetic (EM) attacks against high frequency devices such as smartphones and systems utilizing ARM processors. As a program... by Aboulkassimi et al. [1]. Unfortunately, they added an intrusive factor by placing a MicroSD extension cable onto theMicroSD card to extract EM information. In addition, Goller and Sigl [17] attacked an Android smartphone executing public key cryptography...

  7. A System-Level Throughput Model for Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    discrete logarithms in a finite field [35]. Arguably the most popular asymmetric encryption scheme is the RSA algorithm, published a year later in...Theory, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 644-654, 1976. [36] G. Singh and S. Supriya, ’A Study of Encryption Algorithms ( RSA , DES, 3DES and AES) for Information...xv Dictionary QKD = Quantum Key Distribution OTP = One-Time Pad cryptographic algorithm DES = Data Encryption Standard 3DES

  8. Embedded Platform for Automatic Testing and Optimizing of FPGA Based Cryptographic True Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varchola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an evaluation platform for cryptographic True Random Number Generators (TRNGs based on the hardware implementation of statistical tests for FPGAs. It was developed in order to provide an automatic tool that helps to speed up the TRNG design process and can provide new insights on the TRNG behavior as it will be shown on a particular example in the paper. It enables to test sufficient statistical properties of various TRNG designs under various working conditions on the fly. Moreover, the tests are suitable to be embedded into cryptographic hardware products in order to recognize TRNG output of weak quality and thus increase its robustness and reliability. Tests are fully compatible with the FIPS 140 standard and are implemented by the VHDL language as an IP-Core for vendor independent FPGAs. A recent Flash based Actel Fusion FPGA was chosen for preliminary experiments. The Actel version of the tests possesses an interface to the Actel’s CoreMP7 softcore processor that is fully compatible with the industry standard ARM7TDMI. Moreover, identical tests suite was implemented to the Xilinx Virtex 2 and 5 in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with the performance of already published one based on the same FPGAs. It was achieved 25% and 65% greater clock frequency respectively while consuming almost equal resources of the Xilinx FPGAs. On the top of it, the proposed FIPS 140 architecture is capable of processing one random bit per one clock cycle which results in 311.5 Mbps throughput for Virtex 5 FPGA.

  9. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances.

  10. MPH education for the 21st century: motivation, rationale, and key principles for the new Columbia public health curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Linda P; Begg, Melissa D; Bayer, Ronald; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Public health is at a watershed moment. The world's health needs are changing, and complex problems require interdisciplinary approaches and systems-based solutions. Our longer lives and changing environments necessitate life-course and structural approaches to prevention. This argues strongly for public health graduate education that adequately prepares trainees to tackle emerging challenges and to lead now and in the future. Nearly a century of scholarship and scientific advances may offer a blueprint for training the next generation of public health leaders. We articulate a case for change; discuss some of the foundational principles that should guide public health education; and discuss what such a change might look like building on prior scholarship, on the examples set by other disciplines, and on our own experience.

  11. MPH Education for the 21st Century: Motivation, Rationale, and Key Principles for the New Columbia Public Health Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Linda P.; Begg, Melissa D.; Bayer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Public health is at a watershed moment. The world’s health needs are changing, and complex problems require interdisciplinary approaches and systems-based solutions. Our longer lives and changing environments necessitate life-course and structural approaches to prevention. This argues strongly for public health graduate education that adequately prepares trainees to tackle emerging challenges and to lead now and in the future. Nearly a century of scholarship and scientific advances may offer a blueprint for training the next generation of public health leaders. We articulate a case for change; discuss some of the foundational principles that should guide public health education; and discuss what such a change might look like building on prior scholarship, on the examples set by other disciplines, and on our own experience. PMID:24228646

  12. Public debates - key issue in the environmental licensing process for the completion of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, Ioan; Jelev, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    SN 'NUCLEARELECTRICA' S.A., the owner of Cernavoda NPP, organized, in 2001, several public consultations related to environmental impact of the completion of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2, as required by the Romanian environmental law, part of project approval. Public consultations on the environmental assessment for the completion of the Cernavoda NPP - Unit 2 took place in 2001 between August 15 and September 21 in accordance with the provisions of Law No. 137/95 and Order No. 125/96. Romanian environmental legislation, harmonization of national environmental legislation with European Union, Romanian legislative requirements, information distributed to the public, issues raised and follow-up, they all are topics highlighted by this paper and they are addressing the environmental licensing process of the Cernavoda 2 NPP. The public consultation process described fulfils all the Romanian requirements for carrying out meaningful consultation with its relevant shareholders. The process also satisfies EDC (Export Development Corporation - Canada) requirements for public consultation and disclosure with relevant shareholders in the host country. SNN is fully committed to consulting as necessary with relevant shareholders throughout the construction and operation of the Project. Concerns of the public have been taken into account with the operations of Unit 1 and will continue to be addressed during the Unit 2 Project

  13. Waste Oriented Innovation Culture-Transparency-Public Trust Cycle : Success Key for Nuclear Facility Management in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susetyo Hario Putero; Haryono B Santosa

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive matter that is a primary material in a nuclear facility, including nuclear power generation, is a part of hazardous materials. Its existence will lead a controversy, although the precise management system for handling it is available. Public sometimes reject the nuclear technology due to the lack of understanding and wrong perception on that technology, especially the radioactive waste treatment. So, strategies should be designed for correcting public perception, until public acceptance on utilization of nuclear technology in Indonesia increase. The innovation development on radioactive waste management was studied by observing and interviewing managements and operators of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Japan. The constructing of concept was based on study result. Based on assumption that the current state of the radioactive waste treatment is suitable and there is serious improvement of technology, therefore systematic and precise oriented corrective efforts of public perception could be done. Transparency, intensive communication, and public participation that show responsible action for emerging mutual trust are basic of strategy that should be developed. High level public acceptance on utilization of nuclear technology is expected to be able for stimulating and supporting sustainable technology innovation culture. (author)

  14. Designing key-dependent chaotic S-box with larger key space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ruming; Yuan Jian; Wang Jian; Shan Xiuming; Wang Xiqin

    2009-01-01

    The construction of cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) is an important concern in designing secure cryptosystems. The key-dependent S-boxes designed using chaotic maps have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the key space of such S-boxes does not seem to be sufficiently large due to the limited parameter range of discretized chaotic maps. In this paper, we propose a new key-dependent S-box based on the iteration of continuous chaotic maps. We explore the continuous-valued state space of chaotic systems, and devise the discrete mapping between the input and the output of the S-box. A key-dependent S-box is constructed with the logistic map in this paper. We show that its key space could be much larger than the current key-dependent chaotic S-boxes.

  15. Analyzing the Effectiveness of the Self-organized Public-Key Management System on MANETs under the Lack of Cooperation and the Impersonation Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo; Dos Santos, Aldri Luiz; Lima, Michele N.; Albini, Luiz Carlos Pessoa

    Among the key management schemes for MANETs, the Self-Organized Public-Key Management System (PGP-Like) is the main chaining-based key management scheme. It is fully self-organized and does not require any certificate authority. Two kinds of misbehavior attacks are considered to be great threats to PGP-Like: lack of cooperation and impersonation attacks. This work quantifies the impact of such attacks on the PGP-Like. Simulation results show that PGP-Like was able to maintain its effectiveness when submitted to the lack of cooperation attack, contradicting previously theoretical results. It correctly works even in the presence of more than 60% of misbehaving nodes, although the convergence time is affected with only 20% of misbehaving nodes. On the other hand, PGP-Like is completely vulnerable to the impersonation attack. Its functionality is affected with just 5% of misbehaving nodes, confirming previously theoretical results.

  16. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  17. Dissemination of public health information: key tools utilised by the NECOBELAC network in Europe and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Paola; Marsili, Daniela; Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Calderón, Carlos Agudelo

    2012-06-01

     Open Access (OA) to scientific information is an important step forward in communication patterns, yet we still need to reinforce OA principles to promote a cultural change of traditional publishing practices. The advantages of free access to scientific information are even more evident in public health where knowledge is directly associated with human wellbeing.  An OA 'consolidation' initiative in public health is presented to show how the involvement of people and institutions is fundamental to create awareness on OA and promote a cultural change. This initiative is developed within the project NEtwork of COllaboration Between Europe and Latin American Caribbean countries (NECOBELAC), financed by the European Commission.  Three actions are envisaged: Capacity building through a flexible and sustainable training programme on scientific writing and OA publishing; creation of training tools based on semantic web technologies; development of a network of supporting institutions.  In 2010-2011, 23 training initiatives were performed involving 856 participants from 15 countries; topic maps on scientific publication and OA were produced; 195 institutions are included in the network.  Cultural change in scientific dissemination practices is a long process requiring a flexible approach and strong commitment by all stakeholders. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group Health Information and Libraries Journal.

  18. An Efficient Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Scheme with Constant Ciphertext Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changji Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an acceleration of adoption of cloud computing among enterprises. However, moving the infrastructure and sensitive data from trusted domain of the data owner to public cloud will pose severe security and privacy risks. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a new cryptographic primitive which provides a promising tool for addressing the problem of secure and fine-grained data sharing and decentralized access control. Key-policy attribute-based encryption (KP-ABE is an important type of ABE, which enables senders to encrypt messages under a set of attributes and private keys are associated with access structures that specify which ciphertexts the key holder will be allowed to decrypt. In most existing KP-ABE scheme, the ciphertext size grows linearly with the number of attributes embedded in ciphertext. In this paper, we propose a new KP-ABE construction with constant ciphertext size. In our construction, the access policy can be expressed as any monotone access structure. Meanwhile, the ciphertext size is independent of the number of ciphertext attributes, and the number of bilinear pairing evaluations is reduced to a constant. We prove that our scheme is semantically secure in the selective-set model based on the general Diffie-Hellman exponent assumption.

  19. CRYPTOGRAPHIC SECURE CLOUD STORAGE MODEL WITH ANONYMOUS AUTHENTICATION AND AUTOMATIC FILE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmiya Murthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure cloud storage model that addresses security and storage issues for cloud computing environments. Security is achieved by anonymous authentication which ensures that cloud users remain anonymous while getting duly authenticated. For achieving this goal, we propose a digital signature based authentication scheme with a decentralized architecture for distributed key management with multiple Key Distribution Centers. Homomorphic encryption scheme using Paillier public key cryptosystem is used for encrypting the data that is stored in the cloud. We incorporate a query driven approach for validating the access policies defined by an individual user for his/her data i.e. the access is granted to a requester only if his credentials matches with the hidden access policy. Further, since data is vulnerable to losses or damages due to the vagaries of the network, we propose an automatic retrieval mechanism where lost data is recovered by data replication and file replacement with string matching algorithm. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposed model.

  20. A Certificate Authority (CA-based cryptographic solution for HIPAA privacy/security regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Ray

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA passed by the US Congress establishes a number of privacy/security regulations for e-healthcare systems. These regulations support patients’ medical privacy and secure exchange of PHI (protected health information among medical practitioners. Three existing HIPAA-based schemes have been studied but appear to be ineffective as patients’ PHI is stored in smartcards. Moreover, carrying a smartcard during a treatment session and accessing PHI from different locations results in restrictions. In addition, authentication of the smartcard presenter would not be possible if the PIN is compromised. In this context, we propose an MCS (medical center server should be located at each hospital and accessed via the Internet for secure handling of patients’ PHI. All entities of the proposed e-health system register online with the MCS, and each entity negotiates a contributory registration key, where public-key certificates issued and maintained by CAs are used for authentication. Prior to a treatment session, a doctor negotiates a secret session key with MCS and uploads/retrieves patients’ PHI securely. The proposed scheme has five phases, which have been implemented in a secure manner for supporting HIPAA privacy/security regulations. Finally, the security aspects, computation and communication costs of the scheme are analyzed and compared with existing methods that display satisfactory performance.

  1. Design and Analysis of Optimization Algorithms to Minimize Cryptographic Processing in BGP Security Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Vinay K; Montgomery, Doug

    2017-07-01

    The Internet is subject to attacks due to vulnerabilities in its routing protocols. One proposed approach to attain greater security is to cryptographically protect network reachability announcements exchanged between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routers. This study proposes and evaluates the performance and efficiency of various optimization algorithms for validation of digitally signed BGP updates. In particular, this investigation focuses on the BGPSEC (BGP with SECurity extensions) protocol, currently under consideration for standardization in the Internet Engineering Task Force. We analyze three basic BGPSEC update processing algorithms: Unoptimized, Cache Common Segments (CCS) optimization, and Best Path Only (BPO) optimization. We further propose and study cache management schemes to be used in conjunction with the CCS and BPO algorithms. The performance metrics used in the analyses are: (1) routing table convergence time after BGPSEC peering reset or router reboot events and (2) peak-second signature verification workload. Both analytical modeling and detailed trace-driven simulation were performed. Results show that the BPO algorithm is 330% to 628% faster than the unoptimized algorithm for routing table convergence in a typical Internet core-facing provider edge router.

  2. “Robots in Space” Multiagent Problem: Complexity, Information and Cryptographic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Bernstein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a multiagent algorithmic problem that we call Robot in Space (RinS: There are n ≥ 2 autonomous robots, that need to agree without outside interference on distribution of shelters, so that straight pathes to the shelters will not intersect. The problem is closely related to the assignment problem in Graph Theory, to the convex hull problem in Combinatorial Geometry, or to the path-planning problem in Artificial Intelligence. Our algorithm grew up from a local search solution of the problem suggested by E.W. Dijkstra. We present a multiagent anonymous and scalable algorithm (protocol solving the problem, give an upper bound for the algorithm, prove (manually its correctness, and examine two communication aspects of the RinS problem — the informational and cryptographic. We proved that (1 there is no protocol that solves the RinS, which transfers a bounded number of bits, and (2 suggested the protocol that allows robots to check whether their paths intersect, without revealing additional information about their relative positions (with respect to shelters. The present paper continues the research presented in Mars Robot Puzzle (a Multiagent Approach to the Dijkstra Problem (by E.V. Bodin, N.O. Garanina, and N.V. Shilov, published in Modeling and analysis of information systems, 18(2, 2011.

  3. Evaluation of 90nm 6T-SRAM as physical unclonable function for secure key generation in wireless sensor nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selimis, G.; Konijnenburg, M.; Ashouei, M.; Huisken, J.; de Groot, H.; van der Leest, V.; Schrijen, G.-J.; van Hulst, M.; Tuyls, P.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the unattended nature of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) deployment, each sensor can be subject to physical capture, cloning and unauthorized device alteration. In this paper, we use the embedded SRAM, often available on a wireless sensor node, for secure data (cryptographic keys, IDs)

  4. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as keys to the enhancement of public awareness about potential earth impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usikov, Denis A.

    2013-09-01

    The 2007 Planetary Defense Conference recommends "to provide or enhance Internet sites to show how threats evolve and to illustrate possible action scenarios". Thereby, establishment of informational and communicational AsteroidAware web-site with the exact, authentic data about the past and the present of Earth's impact events will assist in achievement of positive results and progress in different directions on political, international, social and scientific levels. Expanded ICT's capabilities for popularization of planetary defense can help in resolving the problem of low public interest. The project's primary intent lies in popularizing the concept of planetary defenses and attracting attention to the potential dangers that threaten the Earth from outer space. The result of the efforts falling into the boundaries of this project would be an increased amount of social participation in the process of developing solutions for and increasing awareness of potential collisions between various astral bodies and the Earth. The project is also aimed at creating a foundation for the interaction between scientists and executives from around the world to facilitate international efforts of searching for fitting measures towards lowering threat levels and developing strategies revolving around united actions against potential threats.

  5. Decoherence-full subsystems and the cryptographic power of a private shared reference frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We show that private shared reference frames can be used to perform private quantum and private classical communication over a public quantum channel. Such frames constitute a type of private shared correlation, distinct from private classical keys or shared entanglement, useful for cryptography. We present optimally efficient schemes for private quantum and classical communication given a finite number of qubits transmitted over an insecure channel and given a private shared Cartesian frame and/or a private shared reference ordering of the qubits. We show that in this context, it is useful to introduce the concept of a decoherence-full subsystem, wherein every state is mapped to the completely mixed state under the action of the decoherence

  6. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  7. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  8. Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.

  9. Security of subcarrier wave quantum key distribution against the collective beam-splitting attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, G P; Kozubov, A V; Gaidash, A A; Gleim, A V; Horoshko, D B

    2018-04-30

    We consider a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution (QKD) system, where quantum encoding is carried out at weak sidebands generated around a coherent optical beam as a result of electro-optical phase modulation. We study security of two protocols, B92 and BB84, against one of the most powerful attacks for this class of systems, the collective beam-splitting attack. Our analysis includes the case of high modulation index, where the sidebands are essentially multimode. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a subcarrier wave QKD system with realistic parameters is capable of distributing cryptographic keys over large distances in presence of collective attacks. We also show that BB84 protocol modification with discrimination of only one state in each basis performs not worse than the original BB84 protocol in this class of QKD systems, thus significantly simplifying the development of cryptographic networks using the considered QKD technique.

  10. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  11. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  12. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  13. A fingerprint key binding algorithm based on vector quantization and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Lv, Ke; He, Ning

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, researches on seamless combination cryptosystem with biometric technologies, e.g. fingerprint recognition, are conducted by many researchers. In this paper, we propose a binding algorithm of fingerprint template and cryptographic key to protect and access the key by fingerprint verification. In order to avoid the intrinsic fuzziness of variant fingerprints, vector quantization and error correction technique are introduced to transform fingerprint template and then bind with key, after a process of fingerprint registration and extracting global ridge pattern of fingerprint. The key itself is secure because only hash value is stored and it is released only when fingerprint verification succeeds. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our ideas.

  14. Secure Key Management in the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Jakobsen, Thomas Pelle; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2013-01-01

    information such as cryptographic keys. Applications like this include many cases where secure multiparty computation is outsourced to the cloud, and in particular a number of online auctions and benchmark computations with confidential inputs. We consider fully autonomous servers that switch between online......We consider applications involving a number of servers in the cloud that go through a sequence of online periods where the servers communicate, separated by offline periods where the servers are idle. During the offline periods, we assume that the servers need to securely store sensitive...... and offline periods without communicating with anyone from outside the cloud, and semi-autonomous servers that need a limited kind of assistance from outside the cloud when doing the transition. We study the levels of security one can – and cannot – obtain in this model, propose light-weight protocols...

  15. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.

  16. Research capacity and culture of the Victorian public health allied health workforce is influenced by key research support staff and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie; Miyazaki, Koki; Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchet, Matthew; Haines, Terry

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify and understand the self-rated research capacity and culture of the allied health workforce. METHODS. The present study was a cross-sectional survey. The Research Capacity and Culture tool was disseminated to all Victorian public health allied health departments. General demographic data were also collected, including the presence of an organisational allied health research lead. Five hundred and twenty fully completed surveys were returned by participants; all allied health disciplines and all grades were represented. One hundred and eighty-six participants had an organisational allied health research lead and 432 were located in a metropolitan-based health service. There were significant differences (P workforce identifies as a group that is ready to build the evidence to support clinical practice yet requires a whole-systems approach to do so. The results of the present study suggest that the development of key people to build capacity at a higher organisational level has a flow-down effect on research capacity and culture.

  17. Key improvements to XTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Verheul, E.R.; Okamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes improved methods for XTR key representation and parameter generation (cf. [4]). If the field characteristic is properly chosen, the size of the XTR public key for signature applications can be reduced by a factor of three at the cost of a small one time computation for the

  18. Methods of Generating Key Sequences Based on Parameters of Handwritten Passwords and Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lozhnikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern encryption methods are reliable if strong keys (passwords are used, but the human factor issue cannot be solved by cryptographic methods. The best variant is binding all authenticators (passwords, encryption keys, and others to the identities. When a user is authenticated by biometrical characteristics, the problem of protecting a biometrical template stored on a remote server becomes a concern. The paper proposes several methods of generating keys (passwords by means of the fuzzy extractors method based on signature parameters without storing templates in an open way.

  19. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W

    2013-11-01

    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Secured Session-key Distribution using control Vector Encryption / Decryption Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim; Khaleqdad Khan, ANM; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Frequent key changes are very much desirable for the secret communications and are thus in high demand. A session-key distribution technique has been designed and implemented using the programming language C on which the communication between the end-users is encrypted is used for the duration of a logical connection. Each session-key is obtained from the key distribution center (KDC) over the same networking facilities used for end-user communication. The control vector is cryptographically coupled with the session-key at the time of key generation in the KDC. For this, the generated hash function, master key and the session-key are used for producing the encrypted session-key, which has to be transferred. All the operations have been performed using the C programming language. This process can be widely applicable to all sorts of electronic transactions online or offline; commercially and academically.(authors)

  1. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Holst Madsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unique identifiers (UID are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI, incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of

  2. Key Ingredients-Target Groups, Methods and Messages, and Evaluation-of Local-Level, Public Interventions to Counter Stigma and Discrimination: A Lived Experience Informed Selective Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Laura J; Gordon, Sarah E; Reeves, Racheal A

    2018-04-01

    A proliferation of recent literature provides substantial direction as to the key ingredients-target groups, messages and methods, and evaluation-of local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination. This paper provides a selective narrative review of that literature from the perspective or standpoint of anti-stigma experts with lived experience of mental distress, the key findings of which have been synthesised and presented in diagrammatic overviews (infographics). These are intended to guide providers in planning, delivering and evaluating lived experience-directed local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination in accord with current best practice.

  3. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amioy Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  4. Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-28

    Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.

  5. All-optical cryptography of M-QAM formats by using two-dimensional spectrally sliced keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbade, Marcelo L F; Cvijetic, Milorad; Messani, Carlos A; Alves, Cleiton J; Tenenbaum, Stefan

    2015-05-10

    There has been an increased interest in enhancing the security of optical communications systems and networks. All-optical cryptography methods have been considered as an alternative to electronic data encryption. In this paper we propose and verify the use of a novel all-optical scheme based on cryptographic keys applied on the spectral signal for encryption of the M-QAM modulated data with bit rates of up to 200 gigabits per second.

  6. Quantum cryptography with a predetermined key, using continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. D.

    2000-12-01

    Correlations of the type discussed by EPR in their original 1935 paradox for continuous variables exist for the quadrature phase amplitudes of two spatially separated fields. These correlations were first experimentally reported in 1992. We propose to use such EPR beams in quantum cryptography, to transmit with high efficiency messages in such a way that the receiver and sender may later determine whether eavesdropping has occurred. The merit of the new proposal is in the possibility of transmitting a reasonably secure yet predetermined key. This would allow relay of a cryptographic key over long distances in the presence of lossy channels.

  7. A Composed Protocol of Quantum Identity Authentication Plus Quantum Key Distribution Based on Squeezed States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chaojing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    It is established that a single quantum cryptography protocol usually cooperates with other cryptographic systems, such as an authentication system, in the real world. However, few protocols have been proposed on how to combine two or more quantum protocols. To fill this gap, we propose a composed quantum protocol, containing both quantum identity authentication and quantum key distribution, using squeezed states. Hence, not only the identity can be verified, but also a new private key can be generated by our new protocol. We also analyze the security under an optimal attack, and the efficiency, which is defined by the threshold of the tolerant error rate, using Gaussian error function. (general)

  8. Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi Ahamed, Shaik

    2016-01-01

    In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA2) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA2 based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA2 based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA2 based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box. PMID:27733924

  9. Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadari, Bhoopal Rao; Rafi Ahamed, Shaik

    2016-09-01

    In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA 2 ) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA 2 based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA 2 based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA 2 based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box.

  10. An Analysis of the Computer Security Ramifications of Weakened Asymmetric Cryptographic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    OpenVPN (Yonan). TLS (and by extension SSL) obviously rely on encryption to provide the confidentiality, integrity and authentication services it...Secure Shell (SSH) Transport Layer Protocol.” IETF, Jan. 2006. <tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4253> Yonan, James, and Mattock. " OpenVPN ." SourceForge...11 May 2012. <http://sourceforge.net/projects/ openvpn /> 92 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 074-0188 The public reporting

  11. On cryptographic security of end-to-end encrypted connections in WhatsApp and Telegram messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Zapechnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the available possibilities for improving secure messaging with end-to-end connections under conditions of external violator actions and distrusted service provider. We made a comparative analysis of cryptographic security mechanisms for two widely used messengers: Telegram and WhatsApp. It was found that Telegram is based on MTProto protocol, while WhatsApp is based on the alternative Signal protocol. We examine the specific features of messengers implementation associated with random number generation on the most popular Android mobile platform. It was shown that Signal has better security properties. It is used in several other popular messengers such as TextSecure, RedPhone, GoogleAllo, FacebookMessenger, Signal along with WhatsApp. A number of possible attacks on both messengers were analyzed in details. In particular, we demonstrate that the metadata are poorly protected in both messengers. Metadata security may be one of the goals for further studies.

  12. Fault-tolerant quantum cryptographic protocols with collective detection over the collective amplitude damping channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Su, Qi; Li, Yan-Bing; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol, which can be immune to collective amplitude damping noise, is proposed with collective detection strategy. Then a multi-party quantum secret sharing (MQSS) protocol and a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol are introduced as two applications of the proposed QKD protocol. Except for one participant who is responsible for preparing and measuring quantum states, the rest of the users in each of these protocols only need to perform certain unitary operations due to the utilization of collective detection. Therefore, in addition to the advantage of being secure against collective amplitude damping noise, the proposed protocols still have the advantages of higher qubit efficiency and lower cost for implementation. Moreover, the security of these protocols is guaranteed by theorems on quantum operation discrimination. (papers)

  13. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Selim Hossain

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM, which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance ([Formula: see text] and Area × Time × Energy (ATE product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature.

  14. A Theoretical and Experimental Comparison of One Time Pad Cryptography using Key and Plaintext Insertion and Transposition (KPIT and Key Coloumnar Transposition (KCT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryo Utomo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One Time Pad (OTP is a cryptographic algorithm that is quite easy to be implemented. This algorithm works by converting plaintext and key into decimal then converting into binary number and calculating Exclusive-OR logic. In this paper, the authors try to make the comparison of OTP cryptography using KPI and KCT so that the ciphertext will be generated more difficult to be known. In the Key and Plaintext Insertion (KPI Method, we modify the OTP algorithm by adding the key insertion in the plaintext that has been splitted. Meanwhile in the Key Coloumnar Transposition (KCT Method, we modify the OTP algorithm by dividing the key into some parts in matrix of rows and coloumns. Implementation of the algorithms using PHP programming language.

  15. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  16. Fractional optical cryptographic protocol for data containers in a noise-free multiuser environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Alexis; Barrera, John Fredy; Zea, Alejandro Vélez; Torroba, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    Optical encryption systems have great potential for flexible and high-performance data protection, making them an area of rapid development. However, most approaches present two main issues, namely, the presence of speckle noise, and the degree of security they offer. Here we introduce an experimental implementation of an optical encrypting protocol that tackles these issues by taking advantage of recent developments in the field. These developments include the introduction of information containers for noise free information retrieval, the use of multiplexing to allow for a multiple user environment and an architecture based on the Joint fractional Fourier transform that allows increased degrees of freedom and simplifies the experimental requirements. Thus, data handling via QR code containers involving multiple users processed in a fractional joint transform correlator produce coded information with increased security and ease of use. In this way, we can guarantee that only the user with the correct combination of encryption key and security parameters can achieve noise free information after deciphering. We analyze the performance of the system when the order of the fractional Fourier transform is changed during decryption. We show experimental results that confirm the validity of our proposal.

  17. Systematic Management of Change Is the Key to Successful Staff Development. An Initial Study of the Bloomfield Public Schools Staff Development Project. Teacher Essentials, Styles & Strategies (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Nicholas; Morris, Harold

    Confronted by a maturing staff, lower teacher turnover rates, declining enrollments, and more sophisticated instructional methods, the Bloomfield (New Jersey) Public School District adopted an ambitious staff development initiative in 1983. This paper describes the planning and implementation strategies used to launch Bloomfield's Teaching…

  18. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-05-01

    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public-key cryptography, secret-key distribution and symmetric encryption. Such techniques are deemed secure based on the assumption of limited computational abilities of a wiretapper. Given the relentless progress in computational capacities and the dynamic topology and proliferation of modern wireless networks, the relevance of the previous techniques in securing communications is more and more questionable and less and less reliable. In contrast to this paradigm, PLS does not assume a specific computational power at any eavesdropper, its premise to guarantee provable security via employing channel coding techniques at the physical layer exploiting the inherent randomness in most communication systems. In this dissertation, we investigate a particular aspect of PLS, which is secret-key agreement, also known as secret-sharing. In this setup, two legitimate parties try to distill a secret-key via the observation of correlated signals through a noisy wireless channel, in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of the secret-key. Additionally, a noiseless public channel is made available to the legitimate parties to exchange public messages that are also accessible to the eavesdropper. Recall that key agreement is an important aspect toward realizing secure communications in the sense that the key can be used in a one-time pad scheme to send the confidential message. In the first part, our focus is on secret-sharing over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. We study the fundamental relationship relating the probability of error and a given target secret-key rate in the high power regime. This is characterized through the diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) concept, that we define for our model and then

  19. Key Theories from Critical Medical Anthropology for Public Health Research. Part II: Medicine in the Social System, Medicine as a Social System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Carroll

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes four significant theoretical concepts from the field of Critical Medical Anthropology in two parts: in the first part, biopower/discipline and explanatory models; in the second, structural violence, and identity politics and biological citizenship. The four subjects reviewed here have been chosen for their importance to our understanding of human behaviors related to health and illness, as well as for the impact that they can have on theory, research, and practice in the field of public health. These critical theories can provide new ways of thinking about professional roles, medical decisions, disease diagnosis and etiology, treatment adherence, prevention messaging, and all sorts of health-related behaviors and systems of understanding. They can also help public health researchers shed light on the human beliefs and activities that shape patterns of disease within and across populations. Whether a research question is being formulated or research findings are being analyzed, the critical social theories outlined here can foster a more holistic understanding of the human element in any public health project.

  20. Silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed polarization-based discrete variable quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M; DeRose, Christopher T; Boynton, Nicholas; Urayama, Junji; Camacho, Ryan; Pomerene, Andrew; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S; Lentine, Anthony L

    2017-05-29

    We demonstrate a silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed discrete variable quantum key distribution that employs a common structure for transmit and receive functions. The device is intended for use in polarization-based quantum cryptographic protocols, such as BB84. Our characterization indicates that the circuit can generate the four BB84 states (TE/TM/45°/135° linear polarizations) with >30 dB polarization extinction ratios and gigabit per second modulation speed, and is capable of decoding any polarization bases differing by 90° with high extinction ratios.

  1. The University of Canberra quantum key distribution testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshkumar, G.; Edwards, P.J.; Cheung, W.N.; Barbopoulos, L.O.; Pham, H.; Hazel, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We describe the design, operation and preliminary results obtained from a quantum key distribution (QKD) testbed constructed at the University of Canberra. Quantum cryptographic systems use shared secret keys exchanged in the form of sequences of polarisation coded or phase encoded single photons transmitted over an optical communications channel. Secrecy of this quantum key rests upon fundamental laws of quantum physics: measurements of linear or circular photon polarisation states introduce noise into the conjugate variable and so reveal eavesdropping. In its initial realisation reported here, pulsed light from a 650nm laser diode is attenuated by a factor of 10 6 , plane-polarised and then transmitted through a birefringent liquid crystal modulator (LCM) to a polarisation sensitive single photon receiver. This transmitted key sequence consists of a 1 kHz train of weak coherent 100ns wide light pulses, polarisation coded according to the BB84 protocol. Each pulse is randomly assigned one of four polarisation states (two orthogonal linear and two orthogonal circular) by computer PCA operated by the sender ('Alice'). This quaternary polarisation shift keyed photon stream is detected by the receiver ('Bob') whose computer (PCB) randomly chooses either a linear or a circular polarisation basis. Computer PCB is also used for final key selection, authentication, privacy amplification and eavesdropping. We briefly discuss the realisation of a mesoscopic single photon QKD source and the use of the testbed to simulate a global quantum key distribution system using earth satellites. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  2. Modified Baptista type chaotic cryptosystem via matrix secret key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariffin, M.R.K.; Noorani, M.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, M.S. Baptista proposed a chaotic cryptosystem using the ergodicity property of the simple low-dimensional and chaotic logistic equation. Since then, many cryptosystems based on Baptista's work have been proposed. However, over the years research has shown that this cryptosystem is predictable and vulnerable to attacks and is widely discussed. Among the weaknesses are the non-uniform distribution of ciphertexts and succumbing to the one-time pad attack (a type of chosen plaintext attack). In this Letter, our objective is to modify the chaotic cryptographic scheme proposed previously. We use a matrix secret key such that the cryptosystem would no longer succumb to the one-time pad attack

  3. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  4. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  5. Optimal attacks on qubit-based Quantum Key Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Daan; Škorić, Boris

    2018-03-01

    Quantum Key Recycling (QKR) is a quantum cryptographic primitive that allows one to reuse keys in an unconditionally secure way. By removing the need to repeatedly generate new keys, it improves communication efficiency. Škorić and de Vries recently proposed a QKR scheme based on 8-state encoding (four bases). It does not require quantum computers for encryption/decryption but only single-qubit operations. We provide a missing ingredient in the security analysis of this scheme in the case of noisy channels: accurate upper bounds on the required amount of privacy amplification. We determine optimal attacks against the message and against the key, for 8-state encoding as well as 4-state and 6-state conjugate coding. We provide results in terms of min-entropy loss as well as accessible (Shannon) information. We show that the Shannon entropy analysis for 8-state encoding reduces to the analysis of quantum key distribution, whereas 4-state and 6-state suffer from additional leaks that make them less effective. From the optimal attacks we compute the required amount of privacy amplification and hence the achievable communication rate (useful information per qubit) of qubit-based QKR. Overall, 8-state encoding yields the highest communication rates.

  6. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  7. Anticollusion Attack Noninteractive Security Hierarchical Key Agreement Scheme in WHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Health Monitoring Systems (WHMS have potential to change the way of health care and bring numbers of benefits to patients, physicians, hospitals, and society. However, there are crucial barriers not only to transmit the biometric information but also to protect the privacy and security of the patients’ information. The key agreement between two entities is an essential cryptography operation to clear the barriers. In particular, the noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme becomes an attractive direction in WHMS because each sensor node or gateway has limited resources and power. Recently, a noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme has been proposed by Kim for WHMS. However, we show that Kim’s cryptographic scheme is vulnerable to the collusion attack if the physicians can be corrupted. Obviously, it is a more practical security condition. Therefore, we proposed an improved key agreement scheme against the attack. Security proof, security analysis, and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed scheme gains enhanced security and more efficiency than Kim’s previous scheme while inheriting its qualities of one-round communication and security properties.

  8. Breaking chaotic shift key communication via adaptive key identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Haipeng; Han Chongzhao; Liu Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive parameter identification method for breaking chaotic shift key communication from the transmitted signal in public channel. The sensitive dependence property of chaos on parameter mismatch is used for chaos adaptive synchronization and parameter identification. An index function about the synchronization error is defined and conjugate gradient method is used to minimize the index function and to search the transmitter's parameter (key). By using proposed method, secure key is recovered from transmitted signal generated by low dimensional chaos and hyper chaos switching communication. Multi-parameters can also be identified from the transmitted signal with noise

  9. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  10. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  11. Two-Round Password-Only Authenticated Key Exchange in the Three-Party Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first provably-secure three-party password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE protocol that can run in only two communication rounds. Our protocol is generic in the sense that it can be constructed from any two-party PAKE protocol. The protocol is proven secure in a variant of the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000 without any idealized assumptions on the cryptographic primitives used. We also investigate the security of the two-round, three-party PAKE protocol of Wang, Hu and Li (2010 and demonstrate that this protocol cannot achieve implicit key authentication in the presence of an active adversary.

  12. Security bound of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Alber, Gernot

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the security bounds of quantum-cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases, thus extending the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution scheme to higher dimensions. Under the assumption of general coherent attacks, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of such quantum-cryptography schemes. This bound is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions such an equivalence is generally no longer valid

  13. Coherent eavesdropping attacks in tomographic quantum cryptography: Nonequivalence of quantum and classical key distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, J.Y.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kwek, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that - for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography - the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks

  14. Mobile Device Based Dynamic Key Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor network (WSN applications have tended to transmit data hop by hop, from sensor nodes through cluster nodes to the base station. As a result, users must collect data from the base station. This study considers two different applications: hop by hop transmission of data from cluster nodes to the base station and the direct access to cluster nodes data by mobile users via mobile devices. Due to the hardware limitations of WSNs, some low-cost operations such as symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are used to implement a dynamic key management. The session key can be updated to prevent threats of attack from each communication. With these methods, the data gathered in wireless sensor networks can be more securely communicated. Moreover, the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with related schemes. In addition, an NS2 simulation is developed in which the experimental results show that the designed communication protocol is workable.

  15. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA with 128, 192, and 256-Bit Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junko; Fukunaga, Toshinori

    This paper describes a differential fault analysis (DFA) attack against CLEFIA. The proposed attack can be applied to CLEFIA with all supported keys: 128, 192, and 256-bit keys. DFA is a type of side-channel attack. This attack enables the recovery of secret keys by injecting faults into a secure device during its computation of the cryptographic algorithm and comparing the correct ciphertext with the faulty one. CLEFIA is a 128-bit blockcipher with 128, 192, and 256-bit keys developed by the Sony Corporation in 2007. CLEFIA employs a generalized Feistel structure with four data lines. We developed a new attack method that uses this characteristic structure of the CLEFIA algorithm. On the basis of the proposed attack, only 2 pairs of correct and faulty ciphertexts are needed to retrieve the 128-bit key, and 10.78 pairs on average are needed to retrieve the 192 and 256-bit keys. The proposed attack is more efficient than any previously reported. In order to verify the proposed attack and estimate the calculation time to recover the secret key, we conducted an attack simulation using a PC. The simulation results show that we can obtain each secret key within three minutes on average. This result shows that we can obtain the entire key within a feasible computational time.

  16. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  17. Architecture for the Secret-Key BC3 Cryptography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sasongko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is a very important aspect in data security. The focus of research in this field is shifting from merely security aspect to consider as well the implementation aspect. This paper aims to introduce BC3 algorithm with focus on its hardware implementation. It proposes architecture for the hardware implementation for this algorithm. BC3 algorithm is a secret-key cryptography algorithm developed with two considerations: robustness and implementation efficiency. This algorithm has been implemented on software and has good performance compared to AES algorithm. BC3 is improvement of BC2 and AE cryptographic algorithm and it is expected to have the same level of robustness and to gain competitive advantages in the implementation aspect. The development of the architecture gives much attention on (1 resource sharing and (2 having single clock for each round. It exploits regularity of the algorithm. This architecture is then implemented on an FPGA. This implementation is three times smaller area than AES, but about five times faster. Furthermore, this BC3 hardware implementation has better performance compared to BC3 software both in key expansion stage and randomizing stage. For the future, the security of this implementation must be reviewed especially against side channel attack.

  18. Revealing of photon-number splitting attack on quantum key distribution system by photon-number resolving devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols. (paper)

  19. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  20. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  1. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  2. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  3. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  4. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  5. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 5. Quantum key distribution using three ... This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum ...

  6. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  7. Key distribution in PKC through Quantas

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Goel

    2010-01-01

    Cryptography literally means "The art & science of secret writing & sending a message between two parties in such a way that its contents cannot be understood by someone other than the intended recipient". and Quantum word is related with "Light". Thus, Quantum Cryptography is a way of descripting any information in the form of quantum particles. There are no classical cryptographic systems which are perfectly secure. In contrast to Classical cryptography which depends upon Mathematics, Quant...

  8. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  9. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  10. Energy-efficient key distribution using electrocardiograph biometric set for secure communications in wireless body healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinyang; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Gu, Ming; Li, Mingze; Chung, Siu-Leung

    2011-10-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute the keys using the electrocardiograph biometrics. BodyKey represents the biometric features as ordered set, and deals with the biometric variations using set reconciliation. In this way, only limited necessary information needs to be communicated for key agreement, and the total energy consumption for key distribution can thus be reduced. Experiments on the PhysioBank Database show that BodyKey can perform an energy consumption rate of 0.01 mJ/bit with an equal accuracy rate of 97.28%, allowing the system to be used as an energy-efficient key distribution scheme for secure communications in WBSN.

  11. Architecture for the Secret-Key BC3 Cryptography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sasongko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is a very important aspect in data security. The focus of research in this field is shifting from merely security aspect to consider as well the  implementation  aspect.  This  paper  aims  to  introduce  BC3  algorithm  with focus  on  its  hardware  implementation.  It  proposes  an  architecture  for  the hardware  implementation  for  this  algorithm.  BC3  algorithm  is  a  secret-key cryptography  algorithm  developed  with  two  considerations:  robustness  and implementation  efficiency.  This  algorithm  has  been  implemented  on  software and has good performance compared to AES algorithm. BC3 is improvement of BC2 and AE cryptographic algorithm and it is expected to have the same level of robustness and to gain competitive advantages in the implementation aspect. The development of the architecture gives much attention on (1 resource sharing and (2  having  single  clock  for  each  round.  It  exploits  regularity  of  the  algorithm. This architecture is then implemented on an FPGA. This implementation is three times smaller area than AES, but about five times faster. Furthermore, this BC3 hardware  implementation  has  better  performance  compared  to  BC3  software both in key expansion stage and randomizing stage. For the future, the security of this implementation must be reviewed especially against side channel attack.

  12. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  13. Cryptographic Aspects of Quantum Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Spedalieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides achieving secure communication between two spatially-separated parties,another important issue in modern cryptography is related to secure communication intime, i.e., the possibility to confidentially store information on a memory for later retrieval.Here we explore this possibility in the setting of quantum reading, which exploits quantumentanglement to efficiently read data from a memory whereas classical strategies (e.g., basedon coherent states or their mixtures cannot retrieve any information. From this point ofview, the technique of quantum reading can provide a new form of technological security fordata storage.

  14. Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...

  15. Energy-Efficient Implementation of ECDH Key Exchange for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Christian; Mader, Roland; Koschuch, Manuel; Großschädl, Johann; Szekely, Alexander; Tillich, Stefan

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are playing a vital role in an ever-growing number of applications ranging from environmental surveillance over medical monitoring to home automation. Since WSNs are often deployed in unattended or even hostile environments, they can be subject to various malicious attacks, including the manipulation and capture of nodes. The establishment of a shared secret key between two or more individual nodes is one of the most important security services needed to guarantee the proper functioning of a sensor network. Despite some recent advances in this field, the efficient implementation of cryptographic key establishment for WSNs remains a challenge due to the resource constraints of small sensor nodes such as the MICAz mote. In this paper we present a lightweight implementation of the elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange for ZigBee-compliant sensor nodes equipped with an ATmega128 processor running the TinyOS operating system. Our implementation uses a 192-bit prime field specified by the NIST as underlying algebraic structure and requires only 5.20 ·106 clock cycles to compute a scalar multiplication if the base point is fixed and known a priori. A scalar multiplication using a random base point takes about 12.33 ·106 cycles. Our results show that a full ECDH key exchange between two MICAz motes consumes an energy of 57.33 mJ (including radio communication), which is significantly better than most previously reported ECDH implementations on comparable platforms.

  16. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  17. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  18. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  19. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  20. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  1. Chaos-based encryption keys and neural key-store for cloud-hosted data confidentiality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosola, NN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available learning and cryptography, using neural networks. In their research, [7] proposes artificial intelligence techniques to invent cryptosystems to curb eavesdropping. The research proposes two artificial neural networks for develop a cryptographic... or UP. REFERENCES [1] A. Shawish and M. Salama, 2014. Cloud Computing: Paradigms and Technologies, F. Xhafa and N. Bessis (eds.), Inter-cooperative Collective Intelligence: Techniques and Applications, Studies in Computational Intelligence 495, DOI...

  2. Enhancing LoRaWAN Security through a Lightweight and Authenticated Key Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Iborra, Ramon; Sánchez-Gómez, Jesús; Pérez, Salvador; Fernández, Pedro J; Santa, José; Hernández-Ramos, José L; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2018-06-05

    Luckily, new communication technologies and protocols are nowadays designed considering security issues. A clear example of this can be found in the Internet of Things (IoT) field, a quite recent area where communication technologies such as ZigBee or IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) already include security features to guarantee authentication, confidentiality and integrity. More recent technologies are Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LP-WAN), which also consider security, but present initial approaches that can be further improved. An example of this can be found in Long Range (LoRa) and its layer-two supporter LoRa Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), which include a security scheme based on pre-shared cryptographic material lacking flexibility when a key update is necessary. Because of this, in this work, we evaluate the security vulnerabilities of LoRaWAN in the area of key management and propose different alternative schemes. Concretely, the application of an approach based on the recently specified Ephemeral Diffie⁻Hellman Over COSE (EDHOC) is found as a convenient solution, given its flexibility in the update of session keys, its low computational cost and the limited message exchanges needed. A comparative conceptual analysis considering the overhead of different security schemes for LoRaWAN is carried out in order to evaluate their benefits in the challenging area of LP-WAN.

  3. Enhancing LoRaWAN Security through a Lightweight and Authenticated Key Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Luckily, new communication technologies and protocols are nowadays designed considering security issues. A clear example of this can be found in the Internet of Things (IoT field, a quite recent area where communication technologies such as ZigBee or IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN already include security features to guarantee authentication, confidentiality and integrity. More recent technologies are Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LP-WAN, which also consider security, but present initial approaches that can be further improved. An example of this can be found in Long Range (LoRa and its layer-two supporter LoRa Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN, which include a security scheme based on pre-shared cryptographic material lacking flexibility when a key update is necessary. Because of this, in this work, we evaluate the security vulnerabilities of LoRaWAN in the area of key management and propose different alternative schemes. Concretely, the application of an approach based on the recently specified Ephemeral Diffie–Hellman Over COSE (EDHOC is found as a convenient solution, given its flexibility in the update of session keys, its low computational cost and the limited message exchanges needed. A comparative conceptual analysis considering the overhead of different security schemes for LoRaWAN is carried out in order to evaluate their benefits in the challenging area of LP-WAN.

  4. Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, C.; Abidin, A.; Lorünser, T.; Peev, M.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.; Larsson, J.-Å.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how adversaries with large computing resources can break quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not information-theoretically secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced, it was shown to prevent straightforward man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact, we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols, we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols, the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD post-processing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.

  5. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  6. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  7. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  8. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  9. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  10. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  11. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  12. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  13. Chocolate Key Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Dale J.; Brown, Ezra A.; Norton, Anderson H.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptography is the science of hidden or secret writing. More generally, cryptography refers to the science of safeguarding information. Cryptography allows people to use a public medium such as the Internet to transmit private information securely, thus enabling a whole range of conveniences, from online shopping to personally printed movie…

  14. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  15. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  16. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  17. A Polynomial Subset-Based Efficient Multi-Party Key Management System for Lightweight Device Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ning, Huansheng; Ghafoor, AtaUllah

    2017-03-24

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices to measure sensitive data that are highly vulnerable to security attacks due to their constrained resources. In a similar manner, the internet-based lightweight devices used in the Internet of Things (IoT) are facing severe security and privacy issues because of the direct accessibility of devices due to their connection to the internet. Complex and resource-intensive security schemes are infeasible and reduce the network lifetime. In this regard, we have explored the polynomial distribution-based key establishment schemes and identified an issue that the resultant polynomial value is either storage intensive or infeasible when large values are multiplied. It becomes more costly when these polynomials are regenerated dynamically after each node join or leave operation and whenever key is refreshed. To reduce the computation, we have proposed an Efficient Key Management (EKM) scheme for multiparty communication-based scenarios. The proposed session key management protocol is established by applying a symmetric polynomial for group members, and the group head acts as a responsible node. The polynomial generation method uses security credentials and secure hash function. Symmetric cryptographic parameters are efficient in computation, communication, and the storage required. The security justification of the proposed scheme has been completed by using Rubin logic, which guarantees that the protocol attains mutual validation and session key agreement property strongly among the participating entities. Simulation scenarios are performed using NS 2.35 to validate the results for storage, communication, latency, energy, and polynomial calculation costs during authentication, session key generation, node migration, secure joining, and leaving phases. EKM is efficient regarding storage, computation, and communication overhead and can protect WSN-based IoT infrastructure.

  18. Information Theoretic Secret Key Generation: Structured Codes and Tree Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitinawarat, Sirin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with a multiterminal source model for secret key generation by multiple network terminals with prior and privileged access to a set of correlated signals complemented by public discussion among themselves. Emphasis is placed on a characterization of secret key capacity, i.e., the largest rate of an achievable secret key,…

  19. The Crypto Controversy : A Key Conflict in the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the book is twofold: to provide an overall, in-depth, and impartial analysis of the issues at stake, and to bridge the gap between technology and law, between governments and privacy activists, between cryptographers and law-enforcement agencies.

  20. The Crypto Controversy: A Key Conflict in the Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Koops, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the book is twofold: to provide an overall, in-depth, and impartial analysis of the issues at stake, and to bridge the gap between technology and law, between governments and privacy activists, between cryptographers and law-enforcement agencies.

  1. Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK) ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... No Abstract. Keywords: MANET; key management scheme; simulation environment ...

  2. Key-note speaker: Predictors of weight loss after preventive Health consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S

    2018-01-01

    Invited key-note speaker ved conferencen: Preventive Medicine and Public Health Conference 2018, July 16-17, London.......Invited key-note speaker ved conferencen: Preventive Medicine and Public Health Conference 2018, July 16-17, London....

  3. An enhanced chaotic key-based RC5 block cipher adapted to image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragallah, Osama S.

    2012-07-01

    RC5 is a block cipher that has several salient features such as adaptability to process different word lengths with a variable block size, a variable number of rounds and a variable-length secret key. However, RC5 can be broken with various attacks such as correlation attack, timing attack, known plaintext correlation attack and differential attacks, revealing weak security. We aimed to enhance the RC5 block cipher to be more secure and efficient for real-time applications while preserving its advantages. For this purpose, this article introduces a new approach based on strengthening both the confusion and diffusion operations by combining chaos and cryptographic primitive operations to produce round keys with better pseudo-random sequences. Comparative security analysis and performance evaluation of the enhanced RC5 block cipher (ERC5) with RC5, RC6 and chaotic block cipher algorithm (CBCA) are addressed. Several test images are used for inspecting the validity of the encryption and decryption algorithms. The experimental results show the superiority of the suggested enhanced RC5 (ERC5) block cipher to image encryption algorithms such as RC5, RC6 and CBCA from the security analysis and performance evaluation points of view.

  4. DNA Cryptography and Deep Learning using Genetic Algorithm with NW algorithm for Key Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Shruti; Kaur, Harleen; Chang, Victor

    2017-12-05

    Cryptography is not only a science of applying complex mathematics and logic to design strong methods to hide data called as encryption, but also to retrieve the original data back, called decryption. The purpose of cryptography is to transmit a message between a sender and receiver such that an eavesdropper is unable to comprehend it. To accomplish this, not only we need a strong algorithm, but a strong key and a strong concept for encryption and decryption process. We have introduced a concept of DNA Deep Learning Cryptography which is defined as a technique of concealing data in terms of DNA sequence and deep learning. In the cryptographic technique, each alphabet of a letter is converted into a different combination of the four bases, namely; Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T), which make up the human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Actual implementations with the DNA don't exceed laboratory level and are expensive. To bring DNA computing on a digital level, easy and effective algorithms are proposed in this paper. In proposed work we have introduced firstly, a method and its implementation for key generation based on the theory of natural selection using Genetic Algorithm with Needleman-Wunsch (NW) algorithm and Secondly, a method for implementation of encryption and decryption based on DNA computing using biological operations Transcription, Translation, DNA Sequencing and Deep Learning.

  5. Productivity in Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Simpson

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses issues arising in the measurement of productivity in public services. Compared to measuring productivity in the private sector difficulties arise because the output of public services is often un-priced and because some public services are consumed collectively. A key problem is measuring the full range of outputs and quality improvements delivered by public sector organisations that are valued by society. Without comprehensive measures of output productivity statistics m...

  6. Public-channel cryptography based on mutual chaos pass filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Einat; Gross, Noam; Kopelowitz, Evi; Rosenbluh, Michael; Khaykovich, Lev; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2006-10-01

    We study the mutual coupling of chaotic lasers and observe both experimentally and in numeric simulations that there exists a regime of parameters for which two mutually coupled chaotic lasers establish isochronal synchronization, while a third laser coupled unidirectionally to one of the pair does not synchronize. We then propose a cryptographic scheme, based on the advantage of mutual coupling over unidirectional coupling, where all the parameters of the system are public knowledge. We numerically demonstrate that in such a scheme the two communicating lasers can add a message signal (compressed binary message) to the transmitted coupling signal and recover the message in both directions with high fidelity by using a mutual chaos pass filter procedure. An attacker, however, fails to recover an errorless message even if he amplifies the coupling signal.

  7. Foundations of mechanism design: A tutorial Part 1 – Key concepts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    social choice theory (The Nobel Foundation 2007), computer science (Nisan et al .... progress in the recent past in applying cryptographic tools and techniques to ...... Again by making use of statistical independence we can rewrite the above ...

  8. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  9. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  10. Key figures for the regional- and distribution grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikingstad, S.

    1996-02-01

    In Norway, improving the efficiency of the hydroelectric grid operation is a stated goal of the Energy Act. Several studies have identified potential profits of such improvement. This publication focuses on costs and improvement potentials. Publication of key figures may stimulate grid owners, boards and administrations to improve the operating efficiency of their grids. The publication shows key figures for the regional- and distribution grid and is based on accounting data for 1994. The key figures are divided into: (1) Cost structure: The key figures express the relative contributions of each cost component to the total income of the grid, (2) Costs and physical quantities: The key figures show the cost of delivering the transport services, (3) Physical quantities: The key figures describe the working conditions of the energy utility. It appears that the cost structure of the sector varies considerably. The same is true of the cost related to the delivery of grid services. 30 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  12. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  13. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  14. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  15. Deterrence of device counterfeiting, cloning, and subversion by substitution using hardware fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Bauer, Todd M; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-09-30

    Deterrence of device subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a computing device for authenticating a hardware platform of the computing device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware platform. The PUF circuit is used to generate a PUF value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the PUF value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the computing device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  16. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  17. Quadratic Sieve integer factorization using Hadoop

    OpenAIRE

    Ghebregiorgish, Semere Tsehaye

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer Science Integer factorization problem is one of the most important parts in the world of cryptography. The security of the widely-used public-key cryptographic algorithm, RSA [1], and the Blum Blum Shub cryptographic pseudorandom number generator [2] heavily depend on the presumed difficulty of factoring a number to its prime constituents. As the size of the number to be factored gets larger, the difficulty of the problem increases enormously. Thi...

  18. Russia - Public Expenditure Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of the Public Expenditure Review (PER) is to assist the Ministry of Finance (MOF) in identifying opportunities for efficiency gains in some key categories of government expenditure. In this context, policy makers face two related fiscal dilemmas. First, how can expenditure efficiency are increased to provide public services with fewer resources? Second, how can the fi...

  19. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  20. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute ... on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). ... nature of flows is clearly understood with the help of advanced instrumentation.

  1. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) enhanced file transfer over secure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    arises from the problem of rendezvous, and solved by asserting that in any pair of communicating applications, one side must start execution and wait (indefinitely) for the other side to connect. Applications that initiate communication is called clients, and a server is one that wait for incoming communication request from ...

  2. Security Issues of the Digital Certificates within Public Key Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic byte level interpretation of an X.509 v3 digital certificate according to ASN.1 DER/BER encoding. The reasons for byte level analysis are various and important. For instance, a research paper has mentioned how a PKI security may be violated by MD5 collision over information from the certificates. In order to develop further studies on the topic a serious knowledge about certificate structure is necessary.

  3. Introduction to public-key cryptography (Chapter 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avanzi, R.; Lange, T.; Cohen, H.; Frey, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the basic building blocks for cryptography based on the discrete logarithm problem that will constitute the main motivation for considering the groups studied in this book. We also briefly introduce the RSA cryptosystem as for use in practice it is still an important

  4. New security notions and relations for public-key encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepahi, R.; Pieprzyk, J.; Shahandashti, S.F.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2012-01-01

    Since their introduction, the notions of indistinguishability and non-malleability have been changed and extended by different authors to support different goals. In this paper, we propose new flavors of these notions, investigate their relative strengths with respect to previous notions, and

  5. Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    across the Global Information Grid (GIG) and at rest. Using authoritative data, obtained via face-to-face identity proofing, PKI creates a credential ...operating on a network by provision of assured PKI-based credentials for any device on that network. ​​​​PKI Increment One made significant...provide assured/secure validation of revocation of an electronic/ digital credential . 2.DoD PKI shall support assured revocation status requests of

  6. Compact Public-Key Implementations for RFID and Sensor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, Lejla; Sakiyama, Kazuo; Verbauwhede, Ingrid M. R.

    Embedded systems have become extremely important and new applications are taking a larger portion of the market every day. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and sensor nodes are recent and challenging examples and they imply very low budgets for the number of gates, power, bandwidth, etc. while they often require security solutions.

  7. Human Resources Development: The Key to Sustainable Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Librarianship and Information Science in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. A certificateless public key encryption based return routability ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SENTHILKUMAR MATHI

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... environment of IPv6 mobility, the MN obtains a Home-of address (HoA) from its ... attacks such as replay, man-in-the-middle, reflection and amplification attacks. .... Proposed protocol architecture. Table 1. Notations used in ...

  9. Implementation and Analysis Audio Steganography Used Parity Coding for Symmetric Cryptography Key Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afany Zeinata Firdaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's era of communication, online data transactions is increasing. Various information even more accessible, both upload and download. Because it takes a capable security system. Blowfish cryptographic equipped with Audio Steganography is one way to secure the data so that the data can not be accessed by unauthorized parties. In this study Audio Steganography technique is implemented using parity coding method that is used to send the key cryptography blowfish in e-commerce applications based on Android. The results obtained for the average computation time on stage insertion (embedding the secret message is shorter than the average computation time making phase (extracting the secret message. From the test results can also be seen that the more the number of characters pasted the greater the noise received, where the highest SNR is obtained when a character is inserted as many as 506 characters is equal to 11.9905 dB, while the lowest SNR obtained when a character is inserted as many as 2006 characters at 5,6897 dB . Keywords: audio steganograph, parity coding, embedding, extractin, cryptography blowfih.

  10. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  11. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hatzinakos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN, which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1 a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2 a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  12. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  13. Revocable identity-based proxy re-signature against signing key exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Chunlin; Ma, Tingchun; Wang, Jinli; Wang, Caifen

    2018-01-01

    Identity-based proxy re-signature (IDPRS) is a novel cryptographic primitive that allows a semi-trusted proxy to convert a signature under one identity into another signature under another identity on the same message by using a re-signature key. Due to this transformation function, IDPRS is very useful in constructing privacy-preserving schemes for various information systems. Key revocation functionality is important in practical IDPRS for managing users dynamically; however, the existing IDPRS schemes do not provide revocation mechanisms that allow the removal of misbehaving or compromised users from the system. In this paper, we first introduce a notion called revocable identity-based proxy re-signature (RIDPRS) to achieve the revocation functionality. We provide a formal definition of RIDPRS as well as its security model. Then, we present a concrete RIDPRS scheme that can resist signing key exposure and prove that the proposed scheme is existentially unforgeable against adaptive chosen identity and message attacks in the standard model. To further improve the performance of signature verification in RIDPRS, we introduce a notion called server-aided revocable identity-based proxy re-signature (SA-RIDPRS). Moreover, we extend the proposed RIDPRS scheme to the SA-RIDPRS scheme and prove that this extended scheme is secure against adaptive chosen message and collusion attacks. The analysis results show that our two schemes remain efficient in terms of computational complexity when implementing user revocation procedures. In particular, in the SA-RIDPRS scheme, the verifier needs to perform only a bilinear pairing and four exponentiation operations to verify the validity of the signature. Compared with other IDPRS schemes in the standard model, our SA-RIDPRS scheme greatly reduces the computation overhead of verification.

  14. Password Authenticated Key Exchange and Protected Password Change Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose new password authenticated key exchange (PAKE and protected password change (PPC protocols without any symmetric or public-key cryptosystems. The security of the proposed protocols is based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model. The proposed scheme can resist both forgery server and denial of service attacks.

  15. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  16. Implications of Key Performance Indicator Issues in Ontario Universities Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Ontario, Canada, has required that data on specific key performance indicators (KPIs) be made public by its publicly funded universities. The information is intended to be used by universities to demonstrate their achievements, to improve their programmes and services, and to…

  17. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  18. Performance in Public Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Boesen, Andreas; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    of management and performance are classified. The results illustrate how a systematization of the conceptual space of performance in public organizations can help researchers select what to study and what to leave out with greater accuracy while also bringing greater clarity to public debates about performance.......Performance in public organizations is a key concept that requires clarification. Based on a conceptual review of research published in 10 public administration journals, this article proposes six distinctions to describe the systematic differences in performance criteria: From which stakeholder...

  19. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  20. A Secure and Robust User Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Hierarchical Multi-medical Server Environment in TMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2015-09-01

    The telecare medicine information system (TMIS) helps the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Recently, Amin and Biswas presented a smart card based user authentication and key agreement security protocol usable for TMIS system using the cryptographic one-way hash function and biohashing function, and claimed that their scheme is secure against all possible attacks. Though their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function, we show that their scheme has several security pitfalls and design flaws, such as (1) it fails to protect privileged-insider attack, (2) it fails to protect strong replay attack, (3) it fails to protect strong man-in-the-middle attack, (4) it has design flaw in user registration phase, (5) it has design flaw in login phase, (6) it has design flaw in password change phase, (7) it lacks of supporting biometric update phase, and (8) it has flaws in formal security analysis. In order to withstand these security pitfalls and design flaws, we aim to propose a secure and robust user authenticated key agreement scheme for the hierarchical multi-server environment suitable in TMIS using the cryptographic one-way hash function and fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous security analysis including the formal security analysis using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, the formal security analysis under the random oracle model and the informal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. Furthermore, we simulate our scheme using the most-widely accepted and used Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The simulation results show that our scheme is also secure. Our scheme is more efficient in computation and communication as compared to Amin-Biswas's scheme and other related schemes. In addition, our scheme supports extra functionality features as compared to

  1. New Construction of PVPKE Scheme and Its Application in Information Systems and Mobile Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Minqing Zhang; Xu An Wang; Xiaoyuan Yang; Weihua Li

    2015-01-01

    In SCN12, Nieto et al. discussed an interesting property of public key encryption with chosen ciphertext security, that is, ciphertexts with public verifiability. Independently, we introduced a new cryptographic primitive, CCA-secure publicly verifiable public key encryption without pairings in the standard model (PVPKE), and discussed its application in proxy reencryption (PRE) and threshold public key encryption (TPKE). In Crypto’09, Hofheiz and Kiltz introduced the group of signed quadrati...

  2. Setting objectives for managing Key deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wagner, Tyler; Stauffer, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for the protection and management of Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) because the species is listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purpose of the ESA is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. There are a host of actions that could possibly be undertaken to recover the Key deer population, but without a clearly defined problem and stated objectives it can be difficult to compare and evaluate alternative actions. In addition, management goals and the acceptability of alternative management actions are inherently linked to stakeholders, who should be engaged throughout the process of developing a decision framework. The purpose of this project was to engage a representative group of stakeholders to develop a problem statement that captured the management problem the FWS must address with Key deer and identify objectives that, if met, would help solve the problem. In addition, the objectives were organized in a hierarchical manner (i.e., an objectives network) to show how they are linked, and measurable attributes were identified for each objective. We organized a group of people who represented stakeholders interested in and potentially affected by the management of Key deer. These stakeholders included individuals who represented local, state, and federal governments, non-governmental organizations, the general public, and local businesses. This stakeholder group met five full days over the course of an eight-week period to identify objectives that would address the following problem:“As recovery and removal from the Endangered Species list is the purpose of the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service needs a management approach that will ensure a sustainable, viable, and healthy Key deer population. Urbanization has affected the behavior and population dynamics of the Key deer and the amount and characteristics

  3. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  4. Key-data of energy (June 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The energy actors and the economical context of energy are changing: the world exchanges and the deregulation of markets impose to dispose of reliable and relevant indicators to understand the French energy choices and stakes and to compare them with the European and worldwide data. This 2001 edition of the key energy data of France aims at shading light on the French energy policy which is based on: an imperative of supply security, an abatement of CO 2 emissions and a respect of environment, a growth of the economic competitiveness, a maintenance of the public utility missions, and on employment. Graphs, curves, charts and appendixes illustrate and complete this document. (J.S.)

  5. A Distributed Shared Key Generation Procedure Using Fractional Keys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poovendran, Radha; Corson, M. S; Baras, J. S

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of distributed key generation and recovery algorithms suitable for group communication systems where the group membership is either static or slowly time-varying, and must be tightly controlled...

  6. Accountability in district nursing practice: key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Public trust and confidence in district nurses is essential to the nurse-patient relationship that underpins effective care and treatment. That trust and confidence has even greater focus for district nurses who care for patients in their own homes. Those patients need to be able to count on the professionalism and probity of their district nurses. The professionalism and probity of district nurses is based on their accountability, which protects the public by imposing standards on district nurses and holds them answerable for their acts and omissions. This is the first of a series of articles on accountability in district nursing practice to mark the introduction of the revised Nursing and Midwifery Code on the 31 March 2015. This month's article considers the key concepts of accountability.

  7. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  8. One-way quantum key distribution: Simple upper bound on the secret key rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple method to obtain an upper bound on the achievable secret key rate in quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that use only unidirectional classical communication during the public-discussion phase. This method is based on a necessary precondition for one-way secret key distillation; the legitimate users need to prove that there exists no quantum state having a symmetric extension that is compatible with the available measurements results. The main advantage of the obtained upper bound is that it can be formulated as a semidefinite program, which can be efficiently solved. We illustrate our results by analyzing two well-known qubit-based QKD protocols: the four-state protocol and the six-state protocol

  9. Public Affairs: Maintaining Credibility While Evolving with Strategic Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Carla M

    2007-01-01

    Public affairs has been identified as a key component of strategic communication, but incorporating public affairs within a strategic communication framework within the military, without compromising...

  10. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  11. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  12. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Luan Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol

  13. Password-based authenticated key exchange scheme using smart card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhong, Shaojun

    2013-03-01

    A protocol that allows any two entities to negotiate a shared session key is commonly called a key exchange protocol. If the protocol provides a function to authenticate each other, we call the protocol authenticated key exchange protocol (AKE). Password authentication key exchange (PAKE) is the AKE protocol in which the two entities share a humanmemorable password. Most of current PAKE relies on the existence of a public key infrastructure, which sometime is impossible for a certain environments such as low computational device due to the computation overhead. In this paper, we propose password-based authenticated key exchange using smart card. Compared to previous PAKE, our protocol is more efficient because our protocol is based on ECC. Thereby, the proposed protocol can be well applied to low computation device.

  14. Keys of educational change in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín De la Herrán Gascón

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the educational system in Ecuador. The Ecuadorian education system arouses international interest, especially in Latin America. In this essay we will try to answer these questions: What might be the relevant keys from the public education in Ecuador? Why has it reached its present level of development, particularly in inclusive education? What fundaments and policies are behind the results of the goals from Education for All (EFA 2000-2015 From the Dakar framework for Action? (World Education Forum, 2000. In light of these issues, the goal is to understand key factors and reasons that have contributed to the development of the Ecuadorian public education. In terms of methodology, the approach is qualitative, dialectical, documentary and descriptive (Mc Millan and Schumacher, 2005. The research is proposed as a case study, where the choice of the case is justified by its novelty, its degree of development and its emphasis on inclusion and equity in all educational levels. With this aim, it is made a descriptive analysis of the rules underlying the changes in the educational system in Ecuador in the last three decades and it is carried out, particularly since 2008, following the last Constitution (Constituent Assembly, 2008. Tables as an analytical contribution of the authors are offered. Also data endorsed by authors and agencies of maximum national and international prestige are detailed and they realize the effectiveness of policies and such changes.

  15. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  16. Secret key rates in quantum key distribution using Renyi entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bratzik, Sylvia; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The secret key rate r of a quantum key distribution protocol depends on the involved number of signals and the accepted ''failure probability''. We reconsider a method to calculate r focusing on the analysis of the privacy amplification given by R. Renner and R. Koenig (2005). This approach involves an optimization problem with an objective function depending on the Renyi entropy of the density operator describing the classical outcomes and the eavesdropper system. This problem is analyzed for a generic class of QKD protocols and the current research status is presented.

  17. Three state quantum key distribution for small keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)

  18. Calculation of key reduction for B92 QKD protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Miralem; Partila, Pavol; Tovarek, Jaromir; Voznak, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) can be used with the highest level of security for distribution of the secret key, which is further used for symmetrical encryption. B92 is one of the oldest QKD protocols. It uses only two non-orthogonal states, each one coding for one bit-value. It is much faster and simpler when compared to its predecessors, but with the idealized maximum efficiencies of 25% over the quantum channel. B92 consists of several phases in which initial key is significantly reduced: secret key exchange, extraction of the raw key (sifting), error rate estimation, key reconciliation and privacy amplification. QKD communication is performed over two channels: the quantum channel and the classical public channel. In order to prevent a man-in-the-middle attack and modification of messages on the public channel, authentication of exchanged values must be performed. We used Wegman-Carter authentication because it describes an upper bound for needed symmetric authentication key. We explained the reduction of the initial key in each of QKD phases.

  19. Public management and governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovaird, A. G; Löffler, Elke

    2009-01-01

    ... how the process of governing needs to be fundamentally altered if a government is to retain public trust and make better use of society's resources. Key themes covered include: ■ ■ ■ ■ the challenges and pressures which governments experience in an international context; the changing functions of modern government in the global economy; the 'mixed ec...

  20. Science, Public Engagement with

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2015-01-01

    regarding their definition in institutional practice. Science and technology studies scholars have been especially active in challenging prevailing policy assumptions in this area and in considering how science–public relations might be reinterpreted and reconstructed. This article presents some of the key...

  1. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  2. An Expressive, Lightweight and Secure Construction of Key Policy Attribute-Based Cloud Data Sharing Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guofen; Hong, Hanshu; Xia, Yunhao; Sun, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is an interesting cryptographic technique for flexible cloud data sharing access control. However, some open challenges hinder its practical application. In previous schemes, all attributes are considered as in the same status while they are not in most of practical scenarios. Meanwhile, the size of access policy increases dramatically with the raise of its expressiveness complexity. In addition, current research hardly notices that mobile front-end devices, such as smartphones, are poor in computational performance while too much bilinear pairing computation is needed for ABE. In this paper, we propose a key-policy weighted attribute-based encryption without bilinear pairing computation (KP-WABE-WB) for secure cloud data sharing access control. A simple weighted mechanism is presented to describe different importance of each attribute. We introduce a novel construction of ABE without executing any bilinear pairing computation. Compared to previous schemes, our scheme has a better performance in expressiveness of access policy and computational efficiency.

  3. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-09-21

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism.

  4. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Wook Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many Internet of Things (IoT services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism.

  5. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  6. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  7. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  8. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  9. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  10. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  11. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  12. [Key informers. When and How?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, R

    2009-03-01

    When information obtained through duly designed and developed studies is not available, the solution to certain problems that affect the population or that respond to certain questions may be approached by using the information and experience provided by the so-called key informer. The key informer is defined as a person who is in contact with the community or with the problem to be studied, who is considered to have good knowledge of the situation and therefore who is considered an expert. The search for consensus is the basis to obtain information through the key informers. The techniques used have different characteristics based on whether the experts chosen meet together or not, whether they are guided or not, whether they interact with each other or not. These techniques include the survey, the Delphi technique, the nominal group technique, brainwriting, brainstorming, the Phillips 66 technique, the 6-3-5 technique, the community forum and the community impressions technique. Information provided by key informers through the search for consensus is relevant when this is not available or cannot be obtained by other methods. It has permitted the analysis of the existing neurological care model, elaboration of recommendations on visit times for the out-patient neurological care, and the elaboration of guidelines and recommendations for the management of prevalent neurological problems.

  13. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  14. Application of quantum key distribution for mutual identification - experimental realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, M.; Haderka, O.; Hendrych, M.

    1998-01-01

    A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are 're fuelled' from a shared secret key transferred over a quantum channel. The question of authentication of information sent over a public channel is discussed. An apparatus using two unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers has been built, and quantum key distribution and 'quantum identification' have been successfully tested through a single-mode optical fibre at 830 nm, employing low intensity coherent states (below 0,1 photons per pulse). (author)

  15. Security of quantum key distributions with entangled qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durt, Thomas; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Chen, Jing-Ling; Kwek, L. C.

    2004-03-01

    We consider a generalization of Ekert's entanglement-based quantum cryptographic protocol where qubits are replaced by N - or d -dimensional systems (qudits). In order to study its robustness against optimal incoherent attacks, we derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper during a cloning-based individual attack. In doing so, we generalize Cerf’s formalism for cloning machines and establish the form of the most general cloning machine that respects all the symmetries of the problem. We obtain an upper bound on the error rate that guarantees the confidentiality of qudit generalizations of the Ekert’s protocol for qubits.

  16. PACE: Proactively Secure Accumulo with Cryptographic Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-27

    will be replaced with the values from the decrypted destination field. PACE encrypts data using AES and supports the following modes: CTR, CFB, CBC, OFB...2) Searchable Encryption : PACE also support searching for encrypted data. This is done using AES in SIV mode [11] to provide deterministic encryption ...row ”Alphabet”), then the search term is encrypted deterministically, and that term is searched on the server. Because AES does not preserve the

  17. Recursion vs. Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek's spect...... of messages in the sense of Amadio, Lugiez and Vanackere. We conclude by showing that reachability analysis for a replicative variant of the protocol becomes decidable....

  18. Recursion Versus Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some very recent techniques from process algebra to draw interesting conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbee...

  19. Cryptographic Techniques for Privacy Preserving Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    has been done to investigate the privacy implications of stylometry, however. Several researchers have considered whether the author of an academic ...Interface and Classification Society of North America, 2005. [66] H. Maurer, F. Kappe, and B. Zaka. Plagiarism —a survey. Journal of Universal Com- puter

  20. Cryptographically-Enhanced Privacy for Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Automated recommender systems are used to help people find interesting content or persons in the vast amount of information available via the internet. There are different types of recommender systems, for example collaborative filtering systems and content-based recommender systems. However, all

  1. A Formal Language for Cryptographic Protocol Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    L;KAB; AgKBS ; fA; TAgKAB (4) B sends to A: fTA + 1gKAB Here A and B are two principals. By sending the rst message, A requests of the...A: CertB; fAKBgKA ; algchoiceB; fmd (fAKBgKA ; algchoiceB ; NA; alglistA)gK1 B (3) A sends to B: fAKAgKB ; fmd (fAKAgKB ; fAKBgKA)gK1 A CertX is a...alglistA 3. B sends to C: CertB ; fAKBgKC ; algchoiceB; fmd (fAKBgKC ; algchoiceB ; NA; alglistA)gK1 B (intercepted by I) 4. IB sends to A : CertB

  2. CryptosFS: Fast Cryptographic Secure NFS

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shanahan, Declan

    2000-01-01

    The issue of security in file-systems is as relevant today as when the first file system was developed. Current file system implementations rely heavily on centralised security mechanisms such as access control lists. The problem of security in file systems was made more complicated by the introduction of remote access to files. Storing information on a remote server has the potential to introduce additional security weaknesses into the file system model. The client, the commun...

  3. Deep Learning Based Cryptographic Primitive Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Gregory D.; Bellekens, Xavier J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptovirological augmentations present an immediate, incomparable threat. Over the last decade, the substantial proliferation of crypto-ransomware has had widespread consequences for consumers and organisations alike. Established preventive measures perform well, however, the problem has not ceased. Reverse engineering potentially malicious software is a cumbersome task due to platform eccentricities and obfuscated transmutation mechanisms, hence requiring smarter, more efficient detection s...

  4. Threshold quantum cryptograph based on Grover's algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jianzhong; Qin Sujuan; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a threshold quantum protocol based on Grover's operator and permutation operator on one two-qubit signal. The protocol is secure because the dishonest parties can only extract 2 bits from 3 bits information of operation on one two-qubit signal while they have to introduce error probability 3/8. The protocol includes a detection scheme to resist Trojan horse attack. With probability 1/2, the detection scheme can detect a multi-qubit signal that is used to replace a single-qubit signal, while it makes every legitimate qubit invariant

  5. On Protocol Security in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    you as possible. This is the general problem of secure multiparty computation. The usual way of formalizing the problem is to say that a number of parties who do not trust each other wish to compute some function of their local inputs, while keeping their inputs as secret as possible and guaranteeing...... the channels by which they communicate. A general solution to the secure multiparty computation problem is a compiler which given any feasible function describes an efficient protocol which allows the parties to compute the function securely on their local inputs over an open network. Over the past twenty...... years the secure multiparty computation problem has been the subject of a large body of research, both research into the models of multiparty computation and research aimed at realizing general secure multiparty computation. The main approach to realizing secure multiparty computation has been based...

  6. Safety culture and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl NPP accident a public acceptance has become a key factor in nuclear power development all over the world. Therefore, nuclear safety culture should be based not only on technical principles, responsibilities, supervision, regulatory provisions, emergency preparedness, but the public awareness of minimum risk during the operation and decommissioning of NPPs, radioactive waste management, etc. (author)

  7. Public Engagement in Energy Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, Jako; Mulder, Henk A. J.

    Public Engagement in Research is a key element in "Responsible Research and Innovation"; a cross-cutting issue in current European research funding. Public engagement can advance energy R&D, by delivering results that are more in-line with society's views and demands; and collaboration also unlocks

  8. The key events of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the main events or changes or issues that occurred in 2012 in France in the different sectors of activities of the ASN (control, public information, management of accidental situations, and international cooperation) or that had an impact on the activities of ASN (changes in national or european regulations for instance)

  9. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  10. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  11. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  12. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  13. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  14. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  15. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  16. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  17. Appraisal of key performance indicators on road infrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) are being practiced in most parts of the world, the need to adopt a system mechanism to evaluate the performance is imperative. The paper evaluates sustainable key performance indicators (KPIs) with a view to appreciating times of improved performance or otherwise. Eleven ...

  18. Constituting Public Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael

    2013-01-01

    understanding of science to those of public engagement with science and technology (PEST), and the histories, or genealogies, of such models. Data from two qualitative studies-a case study of one of the United Kingdom'ssix Beacons for Public Engagement and a study of contract research staff-are used......This article uses data from two U.K. studies in order to explore the meanings attached to public engagement. It focuses on two issues of importance to contemporary discussions of science communication: the degree to which there has been a smooth transition, in practice, from models of public...... to characterize the ways in which U.K. academic communities understand PEST. It is argued that engagement is construed as multiple, relational, and outcomes oriented, with seven key outcomes ranging from better research to empowered individuals. These differences are traced to personal and professional...

  19. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  20. Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal

    2012-01-01

    The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite wi...