WorldWideScience

Sample records for public involvement activities

  1. Public involvement in environmental activities: Initiatives and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to communicate the results of environmental studies and involve the public in environmental decisions have increased nationwide. Outreach efforts at two US Department of Energy sites (i.e., the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State and the Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle) have used a broad spectrum of communications media, including technical articles (open literature and symposium publications, annual and topical reports); information brochures and fact sheets; video productions; interactive exhibits; presentations at scientific, technical, civic, and other public meetings; and proactive interactions with the news media and with local, state, federal, and other agencies. In addition, representatives of local communities now operate offsite environmental monitoring stations and Native Americans are involved in studying cultural resources, fisheries, and other issues at Hanford and a program to obtain environmental samples from neighbor's property is underway at the Pantex Plant. All major environmental programs, such as the multi-year effort to reconstruct past radiological doses to offsite human populations at Hanford, are now conducted with open public participation

  2. PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY AWARENESS AND ALERT ACTIVITIES: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sue; Cook, Alison; Miles, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the experiences, benefits, and challenges of patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) from a publicly funded early awareness and alert (EAA) system in the United Kingdom. Using email, telephone, a Web site portal, Twitter and focus groups, patients and the public were involved and engaged in the recognized stages of an EAA system: identification, filtration, prioritization, early assessment, and dissemination. Approaches for PPIE were successfully integrated into all aspects of the National Institute for Health Research Horizon Scanning Research and Intelligence Centre's EAA system. Input into identification activities was not as beneficial as involvement in prioritization and early assessment. Patients gave useful insight into the Centre's Web site and engaging patients using Twitter has enabled the Centre to disseminate outputs to a wider audience. EAA systems should consider involving and engaging with patients and the public in identification, prioritization, and assessment of emerging health technologies where practicable. Further research is required to examine the value and impact of PPIE in EAA activities and in the early development of health technologies.

  3. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  4. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Strech, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1) uncertainty about outcomes, 2) diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3) the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs). The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research. PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction. After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%). The paper presents qualitative details. The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  5. Do Public Involvement Activities in Biomedical Research and Innovation Recruit Representatively? A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Bossert, Sabine; Strech, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement activities (PIAs) may contribute to the governance of ethically challenging biomedical research and innovation by informing, consulting with and engaging the public in developments and decision-making processes. For PIAs to capture a population's preferences (e.g. on issues in whole genome sequencing, biobanks or genome editing), a central methodological requirement is to involve a sufficiently representative subgroup of the general public. While the existing literature focusses on theoretical and normative aspects of 'representation', this study assesses empirically how such considerations are implemented in practice. It evaluates how PIA reports describe representation objectives, the recruitment process and levels of representation achieved. PIA reports were included from a systematic literature search if they directly reported a PIA conducted in a relevant discipline such as genomics, biobanks, biotechnology or others. PIA reports were analyzed with thematic text analysis. The text analysis was guided by an assessment matrix based on PIA-specific guidelines and frameworks. We included 46 relevant reports, most focusing on issues in genomics. 27 reports (59%) explicitly described representation objectives, though mostly without adjusting eligibility criteria and recruiting methods to the specific objective. 11 reports (24%) explicitly reported to have achieved the intended representation; the rest either reported failure or were silent on this issue. Representation of study samples in PIAs in biomedical research and innovation is currently not reported systematically. Improved reporting on representation would not only improve the validity and value of PIAs, but could also contribute to PIA results being used more often in relevant policy and decision-making processes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Summary of Epidemiology Studies or Activities Involving Workers at the Savannah River Site or the Surrounding Public: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.T.

    2002-10-18

    There have been numerous health studies or related activities over time that have involved workers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or the surrounding public. While most of these epidemiology studies or activities have been performed by external agencies, it has proved useful to provide interested parties an overall summary of such activities. The first such summary was provided in an October 1998 report. The 1998 summary was updated in a February 2000 report. This report provides an update on the status or findings of epidemiology studies or activities involving SRS workers or the surrounding public, as an update to the previous summaries.

  7. A non-linear decision making process for public involvement in environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.R.; Kastenberg, W.

    1995-01-01

    The international industrial and governmental institutions involved in radioactive waste management and environmental remediation are now entering a new era in which they must significantly expand public involvement. Thus the decision making processes formerly utilized to direct and guide these institutions must now be shifted to take into consideration the needs of many more stakeholders than ever before. To meet this challenge, they now have the job of developing and creating a new set of accurate, sufficient and continuous self-regulating and self-correcting information pathways between themselves and the many divergent stakeholder groups in order to establish sustainable, trusting and respectful relationships. In this paper the authors introduce a new set of non-linear, practical and effective strategies for interaction. These self-regulating strategies provide timely feedback to a system, establishing trust and creating a viable vehicle for staying open and responsive to the needs out of which change and balanced adaptation can continually emerge for all stakeholders. The authors present a decision making process for public involvement which is congruent with the non-linear ideas of holographic and fractal relationships -- the mutual influence between related parts of the whole and the self-symmetry of systems at every level of complexity

  8. How does the regulator effectively involve the public in its activities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Degueldre, D.

    2006-01-01

    As a variety of viewpoints and subjects were given in the different representations. The following is a summary: - Regulator commitments regarding public participation and experience gained in terms of effectiveness, visibility and credibility. The way the public hearings/meetings are organised and how they are used in the regulatory process. - How public participation is expected to be in the frame of the new proposed site selection procedure for radioactive waste disposal facility. This new process expects stakeholder involvement from the very beginning, even during the development of the site selection procedure itself, consisting of steps very precisely structured. - Regulator experience on responding to sensitive or 'high emotional' situations reminding the three main key-principles: (1) preparation to have an opportunity to have success; (2) always being honest, even during an 'emergency'; (3) start by understanding correctly the issue. - On how to speak about radioactivity to school children in the frame of an issue of a specific newspaper dedicated for children (8-12 years). Additional local actions in schools were also mentioned. (author)

  9. Public involvement in the priority setting activities of a wait time management initiative: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Rebecca A; Laupacis, Andreas; Levinson, Wendy; Martin, Douglas K

    2007-11-16

    As no health system can afford to provide all possible services and treatments for the people it serves, each system must set priorities. Priority setting decision makers are increasingly involving the public in policy making. This study focuses on public engagement in a key priority setting context that plagues every health system around the world: wait list management. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting for the Ontario Wait Time Strategy, with special attention to public engagement. This study was conducted at the Ontario Wait Time Strategy in Ontario, Canada which is part of a Federal-Territorial-Provincial initiative to improve access and reduce wait times in five areas: cancer, cardiac, sight restoration, joint replacements, and diagnostic imaging. There were two sources of data: (1) over 25 documents (e.g. strategic planning reports, public updates), and (2) 28 one-on-one interviews with informants (e.g. OWTS participants, MOHLTC representatives, clinicians, patient advocates). Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. The Ontario Wait Time Strategy partially meets the four conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness'. The public was not directly involved in the priority setting activities of the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Study participants identified both benefits (supporting the initiative, experts of the lived experience, a publicly funded system and sustainability of the healthcare system) and concerns (personal biases, lack of interest to be involved, time constraints, and level of technicality) for public involvement in the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Additionally, the participants identified concern for the consequences (sustainability, cannibalism, and a class system) resulting from the Ontario Wait Times Strategy. We described and evaluated a wait time management initiative (the Ontario Wait Time Strategy) with special attention to public

  10. Public involvement in the priority setting activities of a wait time management initiative: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laupacis Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As no health system can afford to provide all possible services and treatments for the people it serves, each system must set priorities. Priority setting decision makers are increasingly involving the public in policy making. This study focuses on public engagement in a key priority setting context that plagues every health system around the world: wait list management. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting for the Ontario Wait Time Strategy, with special attention to public engagement. Methods This study was conducted at the Ontario Wait Time Strategy in Ontario, Canada which is part of a Federal-Territorial-Provincial initiative to improve access and reduce wait times in five areas: cancer, cardiac, sight restoration, joint replacements, and diagnostic imaging. There were two sources of data: (1 over 25 documents (e.g. strategic planning reports, public updates, and (2 28 one-on-one interviews with informants (e.g. OWTS participants, MOHLTC representatives, clinicians, patient advocates. Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. Results The Ontario Wait Time Strategy partially meets the four conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness'. The public was not directly involved in the priority setting activities of the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Study participants identified both benefits (supporting the initiative, experts of the lived experience, a publicly funded system and sustainability of the healthcare system and concerns (personal biases, lack of interest to be involved, time constraints, and level of technicality for public involvement in the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Additionally, the participants identified concern for the consequences (sustainability, cannibalism, and a class system resulting from the Ontario Wait Times Strategy. Conclusion We described and evaluated a wait time management initiative (the Ontario

  11. Efficiency improvement of the investment and innovation activities in the transport facility construction field with public-private partnership involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayeva, Marina; Serebryakova, Yelena; Shalnev, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    Growing demand to increase the investment volume in modernization and development projects for transport infrastructure define the urgency of the current study. The amount of private sector investments in the field is insufficient to implement the projects for road construction due to their significant capital intensity and long payoff period. The implementation of social significant infrastructure projects on the principles of public-private partnership is one of the key strategic directions of growth for transport facilities. The authors come up with a concept and methodology for modeling the investment and innovation activity in the transport facility construction. Furthermore, there is developed a model to find the balance between public and private sector investments in implementing construction projects for transport infrastructure with involvement of PPP (further - public-private partnership). The suggested concepts aim to improve the efficiency rate of the investment and innovation activity in the field of transport facility construction on the basis of public and private sectors collaboration.

  12. The role of public involvement in managing political conflict: A comparative case study of public involvement activities in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzoumis, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    A model of political conflict based on the components of scope, intensity and visibility is used to rank the degree of conflict for states hosting a low-level radioactive waste facility in the US. Data were gathered from sixty-five telephone interviews and comparisons made with ten national experts. Public involvement and compensation packages (reviewed in Chapter IV) to be potential conflict management tools for practitioners. The role of the governor and the complexity of the siting process are two additional factors that are important in escalating a conflict. Technical factors of complexity and source of the waste along with the past performance of the company handling the facility have no link to conflict. Conflict escalation is proposed as a means towards understanding the agenda-building process

  13. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management – tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vitale

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1 the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2 the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  14. Stakeholder involvement activities in Slovakia. NRA's Commitment to Transparent Regulatory Process. Stakeholder Involvement in the French Regulatory Process - From Public Information to Public Participation. Stakeholder involvement in nuclear decision making in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, Marta Chairperson; Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; Nuclear Regulation Authority - NRA; Ferapontov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Session 2 focused on the regulatory perspectives related to stakeholder involvement in the regulatory decision-making process. Presentations provided the audience with information regarding the international and national legal framework implemented in the Slovak Republic, in France, in Japan and in Russia. Examples of stakeholder involvement, as well as some tools used for this purpose, were presented and discussed. The value of consistency and complementarity between international and national requirements was highlighted. Presentations and discussion confirmed the very close tie between the way the stakeholder involvement process is conducted and the public confidence and perception of reliability the regulatory body may gain, or lose. The four presentations confirmed that stakeholder involvement is a key challenge for maintaining regulatory body credibility, independence and legitimacy. All countries confirmed their commitment to trying to make their stakeholder involvement processes as open, visible, transparent and comprehensive as possible. Involvement represents a long and permanent process which requires investment of time, human resources and money, as well as the ability to reach out, to listen, to share, and to take input into account, while keeping in view the goal of delivering decisions that are as rational and objective as possible. Involving stakeholders is more than informing or communicating. The earlier the stakeholders are involved in the decision-making process, the greater the chance of success. If losing credibility is easy, all regulatory bodies agreed on the long process needed to recover it

  15. Balance of individuals at different age involved in physical activity – review of publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Winiarska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Balance is what we call the ability to control the center of gravity over the support plane in a given environment (also defined as the ability to maintain a vertical position of the body without the help of another person and the ability of regaining  balance during and after motion. Not only is inner ear responsible for mandating balance but also proprioceptors, cerebellum,  properly functioning nervous system and well-trained movement organs or efficient effector.  Postural control also is also affected by genetic conditions and primitive reactive strategies. Included to them are ankle strategy, that is restoring the center of gravity only by movements of the hocks, the hip strategy which is restoring the center of gravity by violent hip movements and step-by-step strategy in which making a step is required to restore the center of gravity. The balance system is quite complex. Damage to even on of the element of this system causes postural instability. In the case of disturbance of balance system , it can be indirectly influenced by nervous system through feedback, priming motion and motor control learning. Improved balance can be achieved with equivalent training. The aim of the study was to analyze different authors’ research on athlete balance. Five selected research articles on athletes have been analyzed. The authors have demonstrated a high level of effectiveness in balance training in the process of developing and improving the sense of balance. Individuals who have been in the past or are physically active now retain a better body balance.

  16. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  17. Public involvement in nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J. De La

    1993-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the environment has gained an understandable degree of political prominence, drawing attention to the concept of direct participation of the public in decision-making. As part of that process, the first World Environmental Conference in Stockholm in 1972, the final act of the 1975 Helsinki Conference, the Global Nature Charter of the UN General Assembly of 1982 and the 1992 Rio conference have all increased the obligation of governments to inform their publics, and to give individuals and all categories of the public some degree of involvement in decisions that will directly affect their surroundings. The use of nuclear energy fits clearly into this process. Uncertainty in the public mind about the scientific foundation of nuclear-energy exploitation often motivates the public to intervene in the decision-making process, as does fear of catastrophic consequences. There can also be a specific reaction -crystallizing on nuclear energy - against uncontrolled technological and unlimited industrial development. In any event, there is a direct relationship between public pressure for participation and the perception of the ability - or inability - of the relevant authorities to act with a genuine sense of the wider interest. But, although the nuclear industry has often been taken as a scapegoat, the problems of public acceptance and government management that it raises are not substantially different from those in other branches of heavy industry, particularly in their social and environmental impacts. Indeed, in a large number of countries (France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States are examples) the mechanisms for public participation are broadly similar for both conventional industrial and nuclear installations

  18. Participant and Public Involvement in Refining a Peer-Volunteering Active Aging Intervention: Project ACE (Active, Connected, Engaged).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withall, Janet; Thompson, Janice L; Fox, Kenneth R; Davis, Mark; Gray, Selena; de Koning, Jolanthe; Lloyd, Liz; Parkhurst, Graham; Stathi, Afroditi

    2018-03-19

    Evidence for the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle among older adults is strong, yet only a small proportion of older people meet physical activity recommendations. A synthesis of evidence identified "best bet" approaches, and this study sought guidance from end-user representatives and stakeholders to refine one of these, a peer-volunteering active aging intervention. Focus groups with 28 older adults and four professional volunteer managers were conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 older volunteers. Framework analysis was used to gauge participants' views on the ACE intervention. Motives for engaging in community groups and activities were almost entirely social. Barriers to participation were lack of someone to attend with, lack of confidence, fear of exclusion or "cliquiness" in established groups, bad weather, transport issues, inaccessibility of activities, ambivalence, and older adults being "set in their ways". Motives for volunteering included "something to do," avoiding loneliness, the need to feel needed, enjoyment, and altruism. Challenges included negative events between volunteer and recipient of volunteering support, childcare commitments, and high volunteering workload. Peer-volunteering approaches have great potential for promotion of active aging. The systematic multistakeholder approach adopted in this study led to important refinements of the original ACE intervention. The findings provide guidance for active aging community initiatives highlighting the importance of effective recruitment strategies and of tackling major barriers including lack of motivation, confidence, and readiness to change; transport issues; security concerns and cost; activity availability; and lack of social support.

  19. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  20. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government's decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state's opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE's progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada's opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE's activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE's radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE's low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department's past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials

  1. Lessons learned in NEPA public involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.D.; Glore, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    'In recent years Uncle Sam has been asking citizens for their help in improving the environment. The government is learning that with public input it can better prioritize environmental problems and more effectively direct limited funding.' The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), like many other government regulations, is a 'living law.' Although there are agency and Council guidelines, it is practical application, based on past practices and case law that refines the Act's broad concepts. The specifics of how to meet requirements are constantly being honed and melded to fit the unique situational needs of an agency, a project, or a public. This fluidity presents a challenge for stakeholder involvement activities. Communication practioners and project managers may have room for creativity and customized approaches, but they also find less than clear direction on what it takes to successfully avoid challenges of non-compliance. Because of the continuing uncertainty on how to involve the public meaningfully, it is vital to share important lessons learned from NEPA projects. The following practical suggestions are derived primarily from experiences with the Department of Energy's first ever complex-wide and site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS)-the Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs EIS (SNF ampersand INEL EIS)

  2. Enhancing public involvement in assistive technology design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracey; Kenney, Laurence; Barker, Anthony T; Cooper, Glen; Good, Tim; Healey, Jamie; Heller, Ben; Howard, David; Matthews, Martin; Prenton, Sarah; Ryan, Julia; Smith, Christine

    2015-05-01

    To appraise the application of accepted good practice guidance on public involvement in assistive technology research and to identify its impact on the research team, the public, device and trial design. Critical reflection and within-project evaluation were undertaken in a case study of the development of a functional electrical stimulation device. Individual and group interviews were undertaken with lay members of a 10 strong study user advisory group and also research team members. Public involvement was seen positively by research team members, who reported a positive impact on device and study designs. The public identified positive impact on confidence, skills, self-esteem, enjoyment, contribution to improving the care of others and opportunities for further involvement in research. A negative impact concerned the challenge of engaging the public in dissemination after the study end. The public were able to impact significantly on the design of an assistive technology device which was made more fit for purpose. Research team attitudes to public involvement were more positive after having witnessed its potential first hand. Within-project evaluation underpins this case study which presents a much needed detailed account of public involvement in assistive technology design research to add to the existing weak evidence base. The evidence base for impact of public involvement in rehabilitation technology design is in need of development. Public involvement in co-design of rehabilitation devices can lead to technologies that are fit for purpose. Rehabilitation researchers need to consider the merits of active public involvement in research.

  3. Public involvement in danish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refslund Poulsen, N.; Breinholt Larsen, F.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on ''Public involvment in the Danish energy policy. The nuclear power issue'' was carried out as part of the project on ''Public involvment in decision-making related to science and technology'' performed by the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry of the OECD in Paris. The historical development of Danish energy policy is briefly described. An account is given of the nuclear controversy, and the development of public opinion is outlined. The public debate has been very widespread and intense, by far the most comprehensive debate since that concerning the European Communities. Assuming that the development of public opinion reflects the relative success or failure of the contending parties, the opponents of nuclear energy seem to have done best. Opinion polls showed some marked deviations among the electorate according to different variables. The most striking were those observed in relation to sex, age, education, and political preferences. One chapter treats the attitude of public authorities to extended public involvment, and special accounts are given of the Energy Information Committee, and the Energy Council. Finally the prime movers of the nuclear debate are dealt with, in particular the Organization for Information on Nuclear Energy OOA, which opposes nuclear power. (B.P.)

  4. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  5. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  6. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  7. Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

    ‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

  8. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  9. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to open decision-making and builds the necessary community trust that sustains the Army in the long... and agencies. (f) Further guidance on public participation requirements (to potentially be used for...

  10. Public involvement in the decision making process, Argentine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clein, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a young participative democracy the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (C.N.E.A.), technical and legal responsible for radioactive waste management, is developing a plan for the close out of tailings facilities from past mining and milling operations and the environmental restoration of nine different sites in six provinces all over the country. In the first site, Malargue Facility, different activities have been developed promoting public involvement in the decision making process. The lessons learned and the experience acquired have given the background for the systematization of public consultation in the ongoing and future stages of the plan. Malargue's experience in this field will be analyzed stressing on different aspects considered of importance for the design of a communicational strategy adapted to the characteristics of a society without experience in this field. The influence of public concern on conservative bias of technical decisions will be evaluated. (author)

  11. 7 CFR 1940.331 - Public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... environmental review status of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's funding applications... actions that will affect floodplains, wetlands, important farmlands, prime rangelands or prime forest...

  12. Public involvement in the dose reconstruction study: the colorado story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Norma C.; Lockhart, Ann J.

    2000-01-01

    soil near the plant to measure the amount of plutonium and other radioactive materials present. Some sediment samples from nearby Standley Lake also were analyzed. This unique process educated and involved participants in a meaningful way. The measured plutonium concentrations, were largely consistent with the concentrations and distribution of radioactive materials found by other soil studies of the area. These public involvement activities made more citizens in communities near the plant aware of the research and also educated them about the complex processes and issues involved in reconstructing historical releases from a nuclear weapons plant. When the findings of the project were announced in August 1999, the most critical concerned citizens had a good understanding of how the work was done and what the results meant. The study team heard little public opposition for the research results at the end of the project. A proactive public involvement program allowed the team to address issues as they arose, rather than at the end of the study. (author)

  13. Integrating education, training and communication for public involvement in EIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, Irina; Oprea, Marcel; Guta, Cornelia; Guta, Vasilica

    2003-01-01

    We are going towards a globalized world, this involving the integration of every activity and every person. The public involvement in the development process is evident, taking into account that any objective will affect the people and the negative feedback could influence the result of the investment. Generally the public could be influenced by amplification of negative evaluated consequences, resulting psychosocial effects leading to illness or anxieties. This problem will be resolved by the public access to information provided by experts. A real-time interactive communication system is proposed as an open tool in order to facilitate decision-making by access to rapid and reliable information. The main task of the system is to collect, process, display and exchange the information relative to environmental impact assessment (EIA), to provide assistance, to receive specific opinions, being also proposed for public understanding of the field. The education and training integration will mitigate the barriers, which may inhibit the interaction and communication process. To increase learning will assure specialists-public interaction and a good information flow for knowledge exchange. The paper will outline key approaches in reaching agreement on the people educational process importance. The impact of development will be available to the public revealing the positive consequences, such as increased employment and income. An effective way to avoid negative reactions consists of the extensive consultation to identify the concerns and needs of the public, the access to suggestive and attractive programs for education and training. The system is developed as a modern information module, integrated into complex international management systems. It can be placed everywhere, everybody could access the facilities for education, world experience and training. Providing a real-time response to citizen concerns, the system represents an economic and rapid way to mitigate the

  14. Occupational accidents involving biological material among public health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive research aimed to recognize the occurrence of work accidents (WA) involving exposure to biological material among health workers at Public Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A quantitative approach was adopted. In 2004, 155 accidents were notified by means of the Work Accident Communication (WAC). Sixty-two accidents (40%) involved exposure to biological material that could cause infections like Hepatitis and Aids. The highest number of victims (42 accidents) came from the category of nursing aids and technicians. Needles were responsible for 80.6% of accidents and blood was the biological material involved in a majority of occupational exposure cases. This subject needs greater attention, so that prevention measures can be implemented, which consider the peculiarities of the activities carried out by the different professional categories.

  15. Cultivating public involvement: Going beyond the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, J.B.; Gleason, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Congress, recognizing that States, Indian tribes, and local governments have a unique and vested interest in the siting of high-level radioactive waste facilities, gave these parties special rights to participate in this country's high-level radioactive waste management program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as amended. However, as the program progresses, it has become increasingly clear that, in addition to these affected parties, many other groups and individuals are interested in what happens to the radioactive waste generated by commercial nuclear reactors and defense-related facilities. In an effort to address the interests of these other groups and individuals, the US DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is expanding its public involvement activities by inviting representatives from a wider range of organizations to join in a dialogue on issues related to high-level waste disposal. Why are we doing this? Because we believe that involving more people in the program will increase understanding of the critical importance of finding a safe and environmentally responsible way to deal with nuclear waste. Furthermore, thoughtful exchanges with the public will increase our awareness of how this program may affect others. Ultimately, our goal is to help build public trust and confidence in the Federal Government's ability to accomplish its mission and in the fairness and competence of the decisionmaking process. This paper explains the rationale and objectives for OCRWM's expanded public involvement efforts; describes the process used to identify and solicit the involvement of additional parties; highlights interactions with several groups contacted to date; and reports on the early results of these consultations

  16. Public involvement in environmental, safety and health issues at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Laura L.; Morgan, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The state of public involvement in environmental, safety, and health issues at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex is assessed through identification of existing opportunities for public involvement and through interviews with representatives of ten local citizen groups active in these issues at weapons facilities in their communities. A framework for analyzing existing means of public involvement is developed. On the whole, opportunities for public involvement are inadequate. Provisions for public involvement are lacking in several key stages of the decision-making process. Consequently, adversarial means of public involvement have generally been more effective than cooperative means in motivating change in the Weapons Complex. Citizen advisory boards, both on the local and national level, may provide a means of improving public involvement in Weapons Complex issues. (author)

  17. Involvement. Senior citizens' recreational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, U B

    1992-06-01

    During the last 18 years, senior citizens in Viborg, Denmark, have participated in study circles based on the theory of impression pedagogy and socially relevant activities. They arrange excursions at home and abroad and make films about the trips. They teach schoolchildren, students at folk high schools, and nurses, as well as occupational therapists and physiotherapists. They publish poems and books, write role plays, stage musicals, sing in choirs, and function as tour guides in town. They set up educational color slide programmes on preventing bone fractures, dealing with the problem of reduced hearing, and the importance of healthy food and exercise. They travel abroad and talk about Denmark and the conditions for senior citizens in our country. With the support of the Danish Ministry for Social Affairs, they produce videos about their activities as a source of inspiration to others. The use of drugs by the participants in the study circles has declined, while the level of activities has increased, and none of the participants has ever had to enter residential care.

  18. Public involvement plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    For the past few years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has increased its efforts to involve the public in environmental management decisions. On the national level, Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary has declared public involvement one of DOE's most important objectives. On the local level, citizens are taking the microphone at DOE public hearings to voice their opinions and ask tough, detailed questions about proposed cleanup plans. To ensure that it hears, understands and responds to public input from all of its neighbors, DOE-Oak Ridge Operations has developed an Environmental Management Public Involvement Program to keep stakeholders--those affected or potentially affected by cleanup programs--informed about environmental management work on the Oak Ridge Reservation and opportunities for public comment. This Public Involvement Plan contains information about the Oak Ridge Public Involvement Program its history, goals and proposed interactions with stakeholders. It also contains information to help area citizens become involved or increase their involvement in helping DOE make responsible environmental management decisions

  19. Public involvement in multi-objective water level regulation development projects-evaluating the applicability of public involvement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaentaenen, Ari; Marttunen, Mika

    2005-01-01

    Public involvement is a process that involves the public in the decision making of an organization, for example a municipality or a corporation. It has developed into a widely accepted and recommended policy in environment altering projects. The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) took force in 2000 and stresses the importance of public involvement in composing river basin management plans. Therefore, the need to develop public involvement methods for different situations and circumstances is evident. This paper describes how various public involvement methods have been applied in a development project involving the most heavily regulated lake in Finland. The objective of the project was to assess the positive and negative impacts of regulation and to find possibilities for alleviating the adverse impacts on recreational use and the aquatic ecosystem. An exceptional effort was made towards public involvement, which was closely connected to planning and decision making. The applied methods were (1) steering group work, (2) survey, (3) dialogue, (4) theme interviews, (5) public meeting and (6) workshops. The information gathered using these methods was utilized in different stages of the project, e.g., in identifying the regulation impacts, comparing alternatives and compiling the recommendations for regulation development. After describing our case and the results from the applied public involvement methods, we will discuss our experiences and the feedback from the public. We will also critically evaluate our own success in coping with public involvement challenges. In addition to that, we present general recommendations for dealing with these problematic issues based on our experiences, which provide new insights for applying various public involvement methods in multi-objective decision making projects

  20. Public Relations Manager Involvement in Strategic Issue Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzen, Martha M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study that seeks to build theoretical understanding of how public relations practitioner involvement in one type of strategic organizational decision making--strategic issue diagnosis--is related to shared values with top management, diagnosis accuracy, strategy pursued, and the power of the public relations function. (TB)

  1. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  2. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.L.; Hoopes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ''envoys,'' is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers

  3. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, K.L. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States); Hoopes, J. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project

    1993-10-24

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ``envoys,`` is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers.

  4. Building Public Confidence in Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2002-01-01

    Achieving public acceptance has become a central issue in discussions regarding the future of nuclear power and associated nuclear activities. Effective public communication and public participation are often put forward as the key building blocks in garnering public acceptance. A recent international workshop in Finland provided insights into other features that might also be important to building and sustaining public confidence in nuclear activities. The workshop was held in Finland in close cooperation with Finnish stakeholders. This was most appropriate because of the recent successes in achieving positive decisions at the municipal, governmental, and Parliamentary levels, allowing the Finnish high-level radioactive waste repository program to proceed, including the identification and approval of a proposed candidate repository site. Much of the workshop discussion appropriately focused on the roles of public participation and public communications in building public confidence. It was clear that well constructed and implemented programs of public involvement and communication and a sense of fairness were essential in building the extent of public confidence needed to allow the repository program in Finland to proceed. It was also clear that there were a number of other elements beyond public involvement that contributed substantially to the success in Finland to date. And, in fact, it appeared that these other factors were also necessary to achieving the Finnish public acceptance. In other words, successful public participation and communication were necessary but not sufficient. What else was important? Culture, politics, and history vary from country to country, providing differing contexts for establishing and maintaining public confidence. What works in one country will not necessarily be effective in another. Nonetheless, there appear to be certain elements that might be common to programs that are successful in sustaining public confidence and some of

  5. Building Public Confidence in Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2002-01-01

    Achieving public acceptance has become a central issue in discussions regarding the future of nuclear power and associated nuclear activities. Effective public communication and public participation are often put forward as the key building blocks in garnering public acceptance. A recent international workshop in Finland provided insights into other features that might also be important to building and sustaining public confidence in nuclear activities. The workshop was held in Finland in close cooperation with Finnish stakeholders. This was most appropriate because of the recent successes in achieving positive decisions at the municipal, governmental, and Parliamentary levels, allowing the Finnish high-level radioactive waste repository program to proceed, including the identification and approval of a proposed candidate repository site Much of the workshop discussion appropriately focused on the roles of public participation and public communications in building public confidence. It was clear that well constructed and implemented programs of public involvement and communication and a sense of fairness were essential in building the extent of public confidence needed to allow the repository program in Finland to proceed. It was also clear that there were a number of other elements beyond public involvement that contributed substantially to the success in Finland to date. And, in fact, it appeared that these other factors were also necessary to achieving the Finnish public acceptance. In other words, successful public participation and communication were necessary but not sufficient. What else was important? Culture, politics, and history vary from country to country, providing differing contexts for establishing and maintaining public confidence. What works in one country will not necessarily be effective in another. Nonetheless, there appear to be certain elements that might be common to programs that are successful in sustaining public confidence, and some of

  6. Public involvement in decision making process in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.; Diaconu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Decision Making Process (DMP) in nuclear field is influenced by multiple factors such as: complex technical aspects, diversity of stakeholders, long term risks, psychological stresses, societal attitudes, etc. General public is sometimes considered as the only one of stakeholders, the involvement of the public being seen as a factor to obtain the acceptance in the late phase of DMP. Generally it is assessed by public consultation on the environment impact studies and by approval of the sitting through the local authorities decision. Modern society uses methods to involve public from the beginning of DMP. The paper shows a general view of the methods and tools used in Europe for public involvement in DMP. The process of construction of a continuous democratic dialog inside of Romanian Stakeholder Group (RSG) in the frame of the FP6-COWAM2 and CIP projects is presented with a focusing of the barriers and factors of disturbing the trust and collaboration between stakeholders. The influence on the public acceptance is also discussed. (authors)

  7. Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

  8. Operationalising active involvement in the EU water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis; Fritsch, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    We identify two key stages in the river basin planning process under the Water Framework Directive: the selection of instruments for a programme of measures to achieve the environmental targets, and disproportionate cost analysis to determine whether selected measures involve high costs. Some EU...... of actively involving non-state actors, which can be summarised as increasing the effectiveness of policy and improving its implementation. Criticising the emerging economic decision-making approach, we argue that economic analyses could result in a missed opportunity to capitalise on the potential benefits...... of involvement. The article discusses the appropriateness of actively involving the public during the two aforementioned decision-making stages and suggests concrete ways in which active involvement may be operationalised. We conclude that member states should not implement a minimum form of participation...

  9. Power to the people: To what extent has public involvement in applied health research achieved this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is required for applied health research funded in the UK. One of the largest funders, the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), makes it clear that it values the knowledge of patients and the public. As a result, there are now many resources to make sure that the public voice is included in decision-making about research. However, there is concern that the public voice still has limited impact on research decision-making. This article asks to what extent has power shifted from the scientific research community to the public? It looks at how much power and impact patients and members of the public have about research by asking: How do the public contribute to deciding which research areas and which research projects should be funded? How do they influence how the research is carried out? The article argues that there is evidence that the public voice is present in research decision-making. However, there is less evidence of a change in the power dynamic between the scientific research community and the public. The public involved in research are not always equal partners. The scientific research community still has the loudest voice and patients and the public do not always feel sufficiently empowered to challenge it. Public involvement in applied health research is a pre-requisite for funding from many funding bodies. In particular the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) in the UK, clearly states that it values lay knowledge and there is an expectation that members of the public will participate as research partners in research. As a result a large public involvement infrastructure has emerged to facilitate this. However, there is concern that despite the flurry of activity in promoting public involvement, lay knowledge is marginalised and has limited impact on research decision-making. This article asks to what extent has power shifted from the scientific research community to the public? It discusses the meaning of power and

  10. Stakeholders Involvement in Performance Management in Public General Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Ploom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing concerns with the legitimacy and efficiency of public spending, performance management as a part of world-wide public sector reform, called New Public Management (NPM has taken place. This is also the case of educational sector. In Estonian education system, legislation formally enables to design an integrated performance management system. But there is few research done to investigate how these policies and regulations ought to be put into force in order to gain the benefits considering the schools' and pupils' better performance. This study investigates how different stakeholders are involved into the performance management in Estonian general schools. The study is based on empirical survey data gathered from 303 schools providing secondary education in Estonia. The research findings have three main implications. Firstly, the paper contributes to the scarce knowledge about implementation of performance management issues in public schools. Our analysis revealed that compilation of school development plans in Estonian schools is rather a formal obligation. Therefore we propose that the analysis and discussion of the school development plans is needed to organize on regional level, involving all main stakeholders of a school. Secondly, we suggest that in the circumstances of a decentralised education system, like in Estonia, it is needed to implement, central practical performance assessment principles and guidance for the schools. Thirdly, it is highly necessary to improve schools’ cooperation with different stakeholder groups. Also the framework involving different stakeholder groups in the decentralized schools management system should be built up.

  11. Low and intermediate level waste repositories: public involvement aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Fleming, Peter M.; Soares, Wellington A.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear energy acceptance creates several problems, and one of the most important is the disposal of the radioactive waste. International experiences show that not only environmental, radiological and technical questions have to be analyzed, but the public opinion about the project must be considered. The objective of this article is to summarize some public involvement aspects associated with low and intermediate level waste repositories. Experiences from USA, Canada, South Africa, Ukraine and other countries are studied and show the importance of the population in the site selection process for a repository. (author)

  12. Risoe Publication Activities in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, Hanne; Bennov, Solvejg

    1998-08-01

    Risoe's publication and lecture activities in the last decades are presented through data of total number of publications, distribution of types of publications, number of citations to the international scientific journal articles, and institutions with which Risoe has published the largest number of articles. The data are derived from Risoe's in-house Publications Database and from the Risoe Institutional Citation Report database produced by the Institute for Scientific Information. The largest part of the report contains a list of references to the scientific and technical journal articles, books, reports, lectures, and to publications for a broader readership authored by researchers at Risoe National Laboratory during the year 1997. The references are organised according to the programme areas of Risoe. (au)

  13. Motivation and involvement toward physical activity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence involvement of university students to participate in physical activity. 400 students comprising 200 men and 200 women were used as the main respondents were respond to the adapted Exercise Motivations Inventory questionnaire. It revealed that highest ...

  14. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  15. AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

  16. Public Involvement in Decisions to Avoid Costly Consequences Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, Judy

    2006-01-01

    There should be an agreement of goals in any project that could produce harm. Why are we developing this technology? Who benefits and who pays? What would a 'cleanup' entail? There must be consideration of alternatives with a focus on reducing harm rather than just meeting allowable limits or promising that they will be met in the future. When alternatives are weighed, the burden should be on the proponent of the activity to provide truthful information to the public and provide access and resources necessary for participation. There must be a formal, legal obligation or duty to consider science as well as non-scientific information. It should not be up to those harmed to prove the damage and force the responsible parties to make retribution. It should be the burden of the proponents to measure potential risks, and prove that the benefits to everyone outweigh the risks to everyone. The role of government in decision making should also be redefined. The considerations now seem to be limited to whether or not an action is 'legal' or if it is 'safe'. There should also be a determination that it is 'necessary'. That may seem to be a very difficult question but put simply, if there are alternatives then a thing is not 'necessary'. Governmental decision makers would say: 'We acknowledge that our world will never be free from risk. However, any risk that is unnecessary or not freely chosen is not acceptable'. There must be a move away from situations where prior, important decisions resulted in winners and losers; wealthy beneficiaries and underprivileged victims. There must be recognition that decision making needs to be inclusive, extensive and democratic and that the end products and final results are necessary and worthwhile before projects begin. They must be visible, accessible, and must reflect the cost of doing business which includes taking the time, finding the information and involving the people who will work together to make sure that harm is avoided and

  17. Alzheimer Europe's position on involving people with dementia in research through PPI (patient and public involvement)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gove, Dianne; Diaz-Ponce, Ana; Georges, Jean

    2018-01-01

    This paper reflects Alzheimer Europe's position on PPI (patient and public involvement) in the context of dementia research and highlights some of the challenges and potential risks and benefits associated with such meaningful involvement. The paper was drafted by Alzheimer Europe in collaboration...... with members of INTERDEM and the European Working Group of People with Dementia. It has been formally adopted by the Board of Alzheimer Europe and endorsed by the Board of INTERDEM and by the JPND working group 'Dementia Outcome Measures - Charting New Territory'. Alzheimer Europe is keen to promote...

  18. Stakeholder involvement in international conventions governing civil nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerechts, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Mr Emmerechts explained that international conventions have varying positions on stakeholders and their involvement depending upon the intent of the legislator and the field they cover, ranging from a narrow to a broad interpretation. He addressed stakeholder involvement in two other international conventions governing civil nuclear activities, namely the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention), both concluded under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). He noted that the Convention on Nuclear Safety remains a 'traditional' international legal instrument, focusing on governments and governmental bodies as the main stakeholders and limiting obligations regarding the involvement of the public and intergovernmental organisations to their receiving information and observing. Likewise, the Joint Convention limits obligations regarding public involvement to access to information, notably as to the siting of proposed facilities. However, he noted that in the European Union, the Directive on Nuclear Safety (2014/87/Euratom) and the Directive for the Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste (2011/70/Euratom) have more advanced public participation requirements in nuclear decision making. Mr Emmerechts explained that the substantial differences between nuclear legislation and the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions with regards to public involvement requirements could partly be explained by the technicality of nuclear information and by issues related to nuclear security

  19. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: public involvement and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greber, M.A.; Frech, E.R.; Hillier, J.A.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities undertaken to provide information to the public about the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program as well as the opportunities for public involvement in the direction and development of the disposal concept through government inquiries and commissions and specific initiatives undertaken by AECL. Public viewpoints and the major issues identified by the public to be of particular concern and importance in evaluating the acceptability of the concept are described. In addition, how the issues have been addressed during the development of the disposal concept or how they could be addressed during implementation of the disposal concept are presented. There is also discussion of public perspectives of risk, the ethical aspects of nuclear fuel waste disposal, and public involvement in siting a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  20. Strategies for broadening public involvement in space developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    There is widespread public interest in and goodwill toward the space program. For NASA's plans for the next 25 years to be achieved, this public reservoir of support needs to be tapped and channeled. NASA endeavors have to reach out beyond the scientific, technological, and aerospace communities to foster wider participation in space exploration and exploitation. To broaden NASA support and spread out the financing of space activities, recommendations for consideration are offered in the area of economics, political, institutional, international, and managerial areas.

  1. 'The public is too subjective': public involvement at different levels of health-care decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litva, Andrea; Coast, Joanna; Donovan, Jenny; Eyles, John; Shepherd, Michael; Tacchi, Jo; Abelson, Julia; Morgan, Kieran

    2002-06-01

    There are a number of impulses towards public participation in health care decision making including instrumentalist, communitarian, educative and expressive impulses and the desire for increased accountability. There has, however, been little research looking systematically at the public's preferences for being involved in particular types of rationing decisions, nor indeed, has there been a critical examination of the degree of involvement desired by the public. The research reported here uses findings from focus groups and in-depth interviews to explore these questions. Eight focus groups were conducted with a total of 57 informants, four amongst randomly selected members of the public and four with informants from health and non-health related organisations. Nineteen interviews were conducted to allow the elaboration of focus group comments, to probe views more deeply and to pursue emerging themes. The findings show variations in the willingness of members of the public to be involved in health care decisions and consistency across the different forms of the public as represented by the focus groups with randomly selected citizens and pre-existing organisations. There was a strong desire in all the groups for the public to be involved both at the system and programme levels, with much less willingness to be involved at the individual level. At the system and programme levels informants generally favoured consultation, without responsibility for decisions, but with the guarantee that their contribution would be heard and that decisions taken following consultation would be explained. At the patient level informants felt that the public should participate only by setting criteria for deciding between potential beneficiaries of treatment. The public has much to contribute, particularly at the system and programme levels, to supplement the inputs of health care professionals.

  2. Public acceptance in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunescu, A.; Stiopol, M.; Manole, F.; Petran, C.; Chiper, L.

    1998-01-01

    All over the world the most part of population considers nuclear power as the energy of the future. To reinforce this opinion some fundamental requirements should be met, namely: - nuclear facilities and power plants should be safe and competitive in point of costs; - nuclear activity should record no severe accidents; - to make actual progress in the field of radwaste management and disposal; - to actually witness and increase of electric power demands. In Romania the activities related to the nuclear research and power sum-up about 40 years of experience and these can be structured as per the following directions: - nuclear power and related activities (industrial, mining, processing, storage); - research reactors; - nuclear sciences and techniques and their applications. Public opinion information is aimed at assisting such activities and make the public familiar with the concepts typical for the nuclear field. Generally, there is a feeling of fear on the part of the officials in supporting the nuclear. The basic cause would be application of on incomplete and obsolete model when educating the public opinion. That model leads to the conclusion that the open expression of one's support in favour of nuclear is a political risk. A new, more, comprehensive model leading to different conclusions was conceived and finalized lately. The two models are different from each other by 3 characteristic elements: - influence of perception; - approach of the opinion; - definition of the support. The paper describes the actions undertaken in Romania in order to fulfill these requirements

  3. Public Involvement in Decisions to Avoid Costly Consequences Later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, Judy [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2006-09-15

    There should be an agreement of goals in any project that could produce harm. Why are we developing this technology? Who benefits and who pays? What would a 'cleanup' entail? There must be consideration of alternatives with a focus on reducing harm rather than just meeting allowable limits or promising that they will be met in the future. When alternatives are weighed, the burden should be on the proponent of the activity to provide truthful information to the public and provide access and resources necessary for participation. There must be a formal, legal obligation or duty to consider science as well as non-scientific information. It should not be up to those harmed to prove the damage and force the responsible parties to make retribution. It should be the burden of the proponents to measure potential risks, and prove that the benefits to everyone outweigh the risks to everyone. The role of government in decision making should also be redefined. The considerations now seem to be limited to whether or not an action is 'legal' or if it is 'safe'. There should also be a determination that it is 'necessary'. That may seem to be a very difficult question but put simply, if there are alternatives then a thing is not 'necessary'. Governmental decision makers would say: 'We acknowledge that our world will never be free from risk. However, any risk that is unnecessary or not freely chosen is not acceptable'. There must be a move away from situations where prior, important decisions resulted in winners and losers; wealthy beneficiaries and underprivileged victims. There must be recognition that decision making needs to be inclusive, extensive and democratic and that the end products and final results are necessary and worthwhile before projects begin. They must be visible, accessible, and must reflect the cost of doing business which includes taking the time, finding the information and involving the people who

  4. Public involvement in cleanup - the Rocky Flats experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.; Pennock, S.; Schassburger, R.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant recently completed and implemented the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plan for public involvement in environmental restoration of the site. The plan was developed in cooperation with the plant's regulators, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Health. In addition, citizens near the plant played a significant role in shaping the document through extensive community interviews and public comment. The result of these cooperative efforts is a plan that meets and exceeds the applicable federal and state community relations requirements for a cleanup program. In fact, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has used the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plants a model for similar plans at other federal facilities. Plan development, however, is only the starting point for an effective community relations effort. The Rocky Flats Plant and the public will face many challenges together as we implement the plan and build a partnership for addressing environmental cleanup issues. (author)

  5. US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts

  6. Public information activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijima, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the public information (PI) activities in Japan. At present in Japan 51 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation contributing with a capacity of about 440 G We, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity is produced by nuclear power. An investigation conducted by Advisory Committee for Energy resulted in the following guidelines in the advancing the Nuclear Power Policy: - maintain transparency in determining policy and reflect the voice of people, making information available to the public; - promote mutual understanding between areas that produce electricity by nuclear power and those that consume electricity; - cultivate an awareness of energy issues amongst the public to encourage them to take issues regarding Japan's energy policy to heart. Concerning the current PI, the following actions are undertaken at a nationwide scale: - for all people, supplying information by mass media, internet and holding lecture meetings and panel discussions etc; - for women, advertisements in journals; - for youth, educational materials, exhibition of energy etc; - for teachers, seminars; for opinion leaders, sending newsletters on nuclear energy. In areas for planned or constructed nuclear plants the PI actions are addressed to all people, women, fishermen, farmers and opinion leaders. There are given the responses to the following three questions addressed to the public concerning the nuclear power: - do you think whether we need nuclear power plants? - do you think whether nuclear power plants are safe? - what mechanism do you think generates energy during the production of nuclear power. A discussion of the results is presented. As future objectives of PI activities the following are in view: to cultivate reliability, to aware of information about nuclear power, to promote awareness of nuclear power, to promote mutual understanding of nuclear power. In conclusion, the need is stressed to make the PI activities more effective, to find

  7. Public information activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector

    1998-01-01

    This is a presentation involving a description of the main guidelines and conditions under which nuclear activities have been performed in Argentina, both concerning the autonomous development for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and with regard to the way in which the community was informed of the attained levels. The particulars of each approach are shown as to delineate historical evolution as a function of the various stages of technological development. (author)

  8. Partners in projects: preparing for public involvement in health and social care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jacqueline H; Pyer, Michelle; Wray, Paula; Taylor, Jane

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, several UK and, international funders of health and social care related research have adopted the policy of requiring explicit evidence of the 'public' voice in all aspects of project design. For many academic researchers engaged within research, evaluations or audit projects, this formal requirement to actively engage members of the public will present them with both benefits and challenges to securing knowledgeable, skilled, and confident lay representation onto project teams. This could potentially lead to the exploitation of those individuals who are available, appropriately informed, and adequately prepared for such activities. Currently, much of the preparation of patients or members of the public for research involvement tends to be aligned to specific projects; however, with the call for greater active and meaningful involvement of lay representatives in future national and international funding applications, there is clearly a growing need to 'train' sufficient numbers of confident and competent representatives to meet this growing demand. This paper describes the development of a specifically designed research awareness training programme and underpinning theoretical model, which has been specifically designed to support active and meaningful lay involvement in research, evaluations and audit projects. Developed over a four year period, the course is a culmination of learning extracted from a series of four completed research projects, which have incorporated an element of public and patient involvement (PPI) training in their overall design. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing a public involvement policy for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Summerson, J.; Gleason, M.E.; Reyes, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is entering its second decade. Given the Department of Energy's current efforts toward openness and culture change, the role of stakeholders is likely to evolve throughout the 1990s to enable greater participation by these external parties in making program decisions. Although the program has a tradition of inviting its stakeholders to review and comment on its activities, it also is known for employing on occasion what has been derisively called a open-quotes decide-announce-defendclose quotes strategy. Program efforts to involve the public have come under considerable criticism for being inadequate, inconsistent, lacking in follow-through, and offered on a sporadic and selective basis. The program is vulnerable to these criticisms because ground rules for public involvement have never been firmly established as part of the program's routine operations. This deficiency has contributed, in part, to stakeholder doubts about the program's sincerity in engaging in a meaningful dialogue with them. The program and its stakeholders both could benefit from an official public involvement policy that would serve as a guidepost for interactions between program officials and stakeholders. Such a policy, developed in concert with stakeholders, would ensure that all parties understand how stakeholder participation is to occur. This paper reviews (1) events establishing the need for a formal public involvement policy; (2) public involvement initiatives that will inform the process of developing a new policy; (3) current efforts to develop a Department of Energy public involvement policy; and (4) key elements for inclusion in a public involvement policy developed specifically for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

  10. A patient and public involvement (PPI) toolkit for meaningful and flexible involvement in clinical trials - a work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Heather J; Short, Hannah; Harman, Nicola L; Hickey, Helen R; Gamble, Carrol L; Woolfall, Kerry; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    Funders of research are increasingly requiring researchers to involve patients and the public in their research. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research can potentially help researchers make sure that the design of their research is relevant, that it is participant friendly and ethically sound. Using and sharing PPI resources can benefit those involved in undertaking PPI, but existing PPI resources are not used consistently and this can lead to duplication of effort. This paper describes how we are developing a toolkit to support clinical trials teams in a clinical trials unit. The toolkit will provide a key 'off the shelf' resource to support trial teams with limited resources, in undertaking PPI. Key activities in further developing and maintaining the toolkit are to: ● listen to the views and experience of both research teams and patient and public contributors who use the tools; ● modify the tools based on our experience of using them; ● identify the need for future tools; ● update the toolkit based on any newly identified resources that come to light; ● raise awareness of the toolkit and ● work in collaboration with others to either develop or test out PPI resources in order to reduce duplication of work in PPI. Background Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is increasingly a funder requirement due to the potential benefits in the design of relevant, participant friendly, ethically sound research. The use and sharing of resources can benefit PPI, but available resources are not consistently used leading to duplication of effort. This paper describes a developing toolkit to support clinical trials teams to undertake effective and meaningful PPI. Methods The first phase in developing the toolkit was to describe which PPI activities should be considered in the pathway of a clinical trial and at what stage these activities should take place. This pathway was informed through review of the type and timing of PPI activities within

  11. Our Light or Starlight? Citizen Science, Public Involvement and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2010-10-01

    With half of the world's population now living in cities, many urban dwellers have never experienced the wonderment of pristinely dark skies and maybe never will. Light pollution is obscuring people's long-standing natural heritage to view stars. The GLOBE at Night program (www.globeatnight.org) is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations online to a world map. In the last 5 years, GLOBE at Night has been the most productive public light pollution monitoring campaign, collecting over 52,000 observations in a two-week period annually. This year, during the moonless two weeks in March, the campaign set a record high of over 17,800 measurements from people in 86 countries. Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and ``Dark Skies Rangers'' activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. The GLOBE at Night data from different years can be compared to look for trends over time or with population density maps. The data can also be used to search for dark sky oases or to monitor lighting ordinance compliance. Most recently

  12. A voice from the high wire: Public involvement in a co-operative siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, D.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The author is a public consultation and communications consultant to the Siting Task Force (STF), Low level Radioactive Waste Management. The STF is a Canadian government-appointed yet independent body implementing a voluntary, co-operative siting process for a long term storage or disposal facility for 1 million cubic metres of LLRW. The presentation will document the experiences of and lessons learned by the author during her role developing and implementing a public involvement program for the process. The Co-operative Siting Process is a new approach to siting controversial facilities. It is based on the belief that communities should accept such a facility in their backyard and not be forced against their will on technical or political grounds. A formal 'ground rules-up-front' process was developed and is now being carried out, with completion slated for April, 1995. Putting these rules and theories into practice has resulted in significant changes being made to the work plan for technical activities, and in a sober second look at the intricacies involved in planning and carrying out a thorough and efficient public involvement program that remain practical and cost-effective. There is a delicate balancing act between meaningful public participation that lays the foundation for trust, confidence and consensus, and public involvement that can result in the process being side-tracked and legitimate solutions and technical activities becoming mired in political and personal agendas

  13. The public participation handbook: making better decisions through citizen involvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, James L

    2005-01-01

    "Internationally renowned facilitator and consultant James L. Creighton offers a practical guide to designing and facilitating public participation in environmental and public policy decision making...

  14. Mechanisms and techniques for public involvement in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, M.

    1986-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, a successful public participation program on the hazardous waste issue was organized in the form of a Hazardous Waste Citizens Advisory Group. This advisory group developed a plan for a disposal facility that included siting criteria for the disposal site, public environment policy, permitting requirements, and Superfund policy. Some of the success of the Pennsylvania program rests with the fact that the governor supports the hazardous waste program. Pennsylvanians have found that the success of a public participation program depends on commitment from the top leadership in the state. This top leadership must seriously consider public recommendations on hazardous waste disposal and must encourage consistency in the public participation program statewide. Public participation must not be confused with public relations. Public relations reaches only in an outward direction. Public participation is a two-way street. It was found that there is more support for a public participation program if the public develops the criteria for the program

  15. Public services involved in the energy and telecomunication sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salini, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evolution of the energy and telecomunication public services. The article runs through the main stages in the public services' history and shows how open market rules may cause the future dissolution of public service notion. The conclusion wishes the hastening of public services privatisation and a Corporate Governance reform as a mean to pursue general interest [it

  16. Decree-Law No. 48568 of 4 September 1968 - Competence of the J.E.N. to undertake scientific and technical inspections of private or public bodies involved in nuclear research or nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Under this Decree-Law, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) is empowered to inspect on a regular basis all establishments and installations involved in nuclear activities. These inspections are made to ensure that the installations are operated safely and efficiently and that radiation protection measures are properly applied. (NEA) [fr

  17. Public health genetic counselors: activities, skills, and sources of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge.

  18. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  19. Active audiences and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Masip

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC, appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information on the motivations that drive citizens to actively participate through the mechanisms that the media make available to them on their own websites or through social networks. There is a similar lack of information on the role that users attribute to their involvement in the functioning of the media and whether it contributes to improving their democratic function. This article aims to shed some light on this subject.

  20. Women's role for public acceptance - WEN activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Kiyoe

    1999-01-01

    WEN (Women's Energy Network) is a national network of women working professionally in the field of public relations or technologies in various energy-related companies and organizations or interested in energy public acceptance (PA) activities including nuclear PA. This paper describes goals, organization, activities of WEN, and survey on public consciousness. 10 figs

  1. Public Relations as Promotional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira CURRI-MEMETI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  2. Supporting public involvement in research design and grant development: a case study of a public involvement award scheme managed by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Twiddy, Maureen; Baird, Wendy; Birks, Yvonne; Clarke, Clare; Beever, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing health research. Resources should be available for researchers to fund the involvement of the public in the development of their grants. To describe a funding award scheme to support public involvement in grant development, managed by an NIHR Research Design Service (RDS). Case examples of how the award contributed to successful grant applications and findings from a recent evaluation of the scheme are presented. A case study of resource provision to support public involvement activities in one region of England. University and NHS-based researchers, and members of the public. Between 2009 and 2012, the RDS approved 45 public involvement funding awards (totalling nearly £19,000). These awards contributed to 27 submitted applications at the time of writing, of which 11 were successful (totalling over £7.5 million). The evaluation revealed difficulties encountered by some researchers when involving the public in grant development, which led to suggestions about how the scheme could be improved. This award scheme represents an efficient method of providing researchers with resources to involve the public in grant development and would appear to represent good value for money. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Risoe publication activities in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennov, Solvejg

    1999-04-01

    The report contains a list of references to the scientific and technical journal articles, books, reports, lectures published in full text, and to publications for a broader readership authored by researchers at Risoe National Laboratory and published in 1998. If the publication mentioned in the reference is electronically available the link to the web-address is added. The references are organised according to the programme areas of Risoe. The text is introduced by total number of publications, distribution of types of publications, number of citations to the international scientific journal articles, institutions with which Risoe has published the largest number of articles, and journals in which Risoe has published most articles. The data are derived from Risoe's in-house Publications Database and from the Risoe Institutional Citation Report database produced by the Institute for Scientific Information. (au)

  4. Risoe publication activities in 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennov, Solvejg [ed.

    1999-04-01

    The report contains a list of references to the scientific and technical journal articles, books, reports, lectures published in full text, and to publications for a broader readership authored by researchers at Risoe National Laboratory and published in 1998. If the publication mentioned in the reference is electronically available the link to the web-address is added. The references are organised according to the programme areas of Risoe. The text is introduced by total number of publications, distribution of types of publications, number of citations to the international scientific journal articles, institutions with which Risoe has published the largest number of articles, and journals in which Risoe has published most articles. The data are derived from Risoe`s in-house Publications Database and from the Risoe Institutional Citation Report database produced by the Institute for Scientific Information. (au)

  5. Innovating job activation by involving employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Paul; van Berkel, Rik

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the nature of innovative employer-oriented activation policies, which aim to influence employers’ willingness to hire or possibly train and guide the unemployed. These policies may focus on responsibilities with regards to activation, which offer services to employers or

  6. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  7. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  8. The power of symbolic capital in patient and public involvement in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Louise; Boylan, Anne-Marie; Snow, Rosamund; Staniszewska, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    Policy-makers and health research funders increasingly require researchers to demonstrate that they have involved patients in the design and conduct of research. However, the extent to which patients and public have the power to get involved on an equal footing is dependent on their economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital. To explore power relations in patient and public involvement (PPI) in research, particularly how patients may wield symbolic capital to develop a more equal relationship. Narrative interviews with a maximum variation sample of 38 people involved as patients, carers or public in health research, analysed thematically. Symbolic capital may be demonstrated in a range of ways (sometimes alongside or in the absence of other forms of capital): illness experience, technical illness knowledge and the challenging outsider. Symbolic capital is unstable and dependent on others for recognition and legitimacy. Nonetheless, participants identify a gradual shift in power relations over time. Research into PPI has been conceptually and theoretically poor, limiting our understanding of its mechanisms and wider contextual elements. Our findings demonstrate the importance of reflecting on the forms of power and capital wielded by the health research community, and of acknowledging the way in which PPI is challenging the status quo. As one of the first papers to conceptualize how different forms of symbolic capital operate and their critical role in challenging the balance of power, our findings may help researchers better plan their PPI activities and reflect on their own power. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Involving the public in epidemiological public health research: a qualitative study of public and stakeholder involvement in evaluation of a population-wide natural policy experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson de Cuevas, Rachel; Nylén, Lotta; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2018-04-20

    Public involvement in research is considered good practice by European funders; however, evidence of its research impact is sparse, particularly in relation to large-scale epidemiological research. To explore what difference public and stakeholder involvement made to the interpretation of findings from an evaluation of a natural policy experiment to influence the wider social determinants of health: 'Flexicurity'. Stockholm County, Sweden. Members of the public from different occupational groups represented by blue-collar and white-collar trade union representatives. Also, members of three stakeholder groups: the Swedish national employment agency; an employers' association and politicians sitting on a national labour market committee. Total: 17 participants. Qualitative study of process and outcomes of public and stakeholder participation in four focused workshops on the interpretation of initial findings from the flexicurity evaluation. New insights from participants benefiting the interpretation of our research findings or conceptualisation of future research. Participants sensed more drastic and nuanced change in the Swedish welfare system over recent decades than was evident from our literature reviews and policy analysis. They also elaborated hidden developments in the Swedish labour market that were increasingly leading to 'insiders' and 'outsiders', with differing experiences and consequences for financial and job security. Their explanation of the differential effects of the various collective agreements for different occupational groups was new and raised further potential research questions. Their first-hand experience provided new insights into how changes to the social protection system were contributing to the increasing trends in poverty among unemployed people with limiting long-standing illness. The politicians provided further reasoning behind some of the policy changes and their intended and unintended consequences. These insights fed into

  10. Low and intermediate level waste repositories: Socioeconomic aspects and public involvement. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    Waste management facilities are needed to protect the environment and improve public health for the long term future. One significant challenge is to inform the public on the relative hazards of radioactive waste compared to other hazards in our modern society and to get the acceptance of the appropriate members of the public for these necessary facilities. Over the entire life cycle of these facilities, the projects must be managed without expending a disproportionate share of the collective resources. Public involvement plays a key role and the sophisticated and extensive public education systems that exist provide a vital service to gain public acceptance. There is a full range of compensation and benefit programmes used as incentives for hosting a LILW facility. Even if exemptions exist the experience in most countries indicate the direct/indirect incentives as a necessary part of gaining public acceptance. The countries, regions and local communities have their own established processes to make public decisions. Each organization developing a site must select and implement the methods that are acceptable within their framework of laws and regulations. A three day workshop on socio-economic issues and public involvement practices and approaches for developing and operating repositories for low and intermediate level waste took place in the IAEA headquarters on 9-11 November 2005. The workshop provided a forum where experts from Member States shared their experiences in non-technical aspects of planning, licensing and operating LILW disposal facilities. Description of both principles and practices applied in particular countries provides a useful overview of potential approaches in application of non-technical issues during a repository lifecycle. Participants presented approaches and practices applied in their countries, established new contacts and were able to take advantage of activities and experiences from abroad. There were 25 interesting presentations

  11. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  12. Ethics Literacy and "Ethics University": Two Intertwined Models for Public Involvement and Empowerment in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel; Hirschberg, Irene; Meyer, Antje; Baum, Annika; Hainz, Tobias; Neitzke, Gerald; Seidel, Gabriele; Dierks, Marie-Luise

    2015-01-01

    Informing lay citizens about complex health-related issues and their related ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) is one important component of democratic health care/research governance. Public information activities may be especially valuable when they are used in multi-staged processes that also include elements of information and deliberation. This paper presents a new model for a public involvement activity on ELSA (Ethics University) and evaluation data for a pilot event. The Ethics University is structurally based on the "patient university," an already established institution in some German medical schools, and the newly developed concept of "ethics literacy." The concept of "ethics literacy" consists of three levels: information, interaction, and reflection. The pilot project consisted of two series of events (lasting 4 days each). The thematic focus of the Ethics University pilot was ELSA of regenerative medicine. In this pilot, the concept of "ethics literacy" could be validated as its components were clearly visible in discussions with participants at the end of the event. The participants reacted favorably to the Ethics University by stating that they felt more educated with regard to the ELSA of regenerative medicine and with regard to their own abilities in normative reasoning on this topic. The Ethics University is an innovative model for public involvement and empowerment activities on ELSA theoretically underpinned by a concept for "ethics literacy." This model deserves further refinement, testing in other ELSA topics and evaluation in outcome research.

  13. Why orphan drug coverage reimbursement decision-making needs patient and public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Conor M W; Wilcox, Elizabeth; Burgess, Michael; Lynd, Larry D

    2015-05-01

    Recently there has been an increase in the active involvement of publics and patients in healthcare and research, which is extending their roles beyond the passive recipients of medicines. However, there has been noticeably less work engaging them into decision-making for healthcare rationing exercises, priority setting, health technology assessment, and coverage decision-making. This is particularly evident in reimbursement decision-making for 'orphan drugs' or drugs for rare diseases. Medicinal products for rare disease offer particular challenges in coverage decision-making because they often lack the 'evidence of efficacy' profiles of common drugs that have been trialed on larger populations. Furthermore, many of these drugs are priced in the high range, and with limited health care budgets the prospective opportunity costs of funding them means that those resources cannot be allocated elsewhere. Here we outline why decision-making for drugs for rare diseases could benefit from increased levels of publics and patients involvement, suggest some possible forms that involvement could take, and advocate for empirical experimentation in this area to evaluate the effects of such involvement. Focus is given to the Canadian context in which we are based; however, potentialities and challenges relating to involvement in this area are likely to be similar elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A typology of place attachment and activity involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Mowen; Alan R. Graefe; Randy J. Virden

    1998-01-01

    While previous research suggests that place attachment and activity involvement impact visitor perceptions, it has not examined the simultaneous effects of these affective constructs. This study develops a typology of both place attachment and activity involvement. It examines variations between attachment-involvement levels and visitor evaluations of quality. Results...

  15. Broadening Public Participation in Systematic Reviews: A Case Example Involving Young People in Two Configurative Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Rees, Rebecca; Brady, Louca-Mai; Kavanagh, Josephine; Oliver, Sandy; Thomas, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies. Methods: Two consultative workshops were carried out with a group of young…

  16. Public relations activities in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is a major industrial company employing 15,000 people and supporting another 50,000 jobs in British industry through it`s isnvestment program. BNFL is frequently in the news, mainly because of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The company`s public relation policy is described in this report.

  17. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  18. Behavioral aspects of emergency management and public involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowsky, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of risk communication is undisputed. Although communication problems result less from little or poor planning but more from false assumptions and prejudice. The ideologies of the masses and of dangerous mass behavior during crisis and emergencies as well as a so-called 'false' risk perception of lay-people are seen and analyzed as major misconceptions which prevent from including the perspective of the affected population and their basic needs. The traditional risk communication, which is based on definitions of experts, condemns the fears and outrage of the people as irrational and inappropriate, who therefore feel excluded and not taken seriously. Thus, risk communication does not match both the problem and the addressee. Consequently, enhancing crisis communication becomes important to industry, government and the public. Better knowledge and preparedness will increase public acceptance of and confidence in ability to manage high consequence technologies as well as emergency situations, whereas failed communications increase public skepticism with the tendency to result in general risk avoidance. (orig.) [de

  19. Public relations activities at JAPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyabu, Kumi

    2011-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) is the only electric power company in Japan solely engaged in nuclear energy. In order to fulfill our role as a pioneer in nuclear power generation, various projects have been undertaken, including the construction of the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan and the construction, operation and decommissioning of power plants in Tokaimura in Ibaraki prefecture and in Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture. JAPC is an electric nuclear power generation company which sells electricity directly to the electric companies. Since JAPC doesn't have retail customers, it has limited opportunities to come in contact with local residents. It is essential to gain the confidence and understanding of nuclear power by local residents in order to promote our projects and to manage our nuclear power plants. Under these circumstances, JAPC has steadily developed public relations in local areas and surrounding neighborhoods through an action policy of two-way communication. In this presentation, the two-way communication public relations policy will be explained. I would like to describe the achievements of the two-way communication policy by referring to the results of public opinion surveys conducted in Ibaraki and Fukui prefectures. (author)

  20. Behavioral aspects of emergency management and public involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowsky, W.R. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Katastrophenforschungsstelle

    1999-05-01

    The importance of risk communication is undisputed. Although communication problems result less from little or poor planning but more from false assumptions and prejudice. The ideologies of the masses and of dangerous mass behavior during crisis and emergencies as well as a so-called `false` risk perception of lay-people are seen and analyzed as major misconceptions which prevent from including the perspective of the affected population and their basic needs. The traditional risk communication, which is based on definitions of experts, condemns the fears and outrage of the people as irrational and inappropriate, who therefore feel excluded and not taken seriously. Thus, risk communication does not match both the problem and the addressee. Consequently, enhancing crisis communication becomes important to industry, government and the public. Better knowledge and preparedness will increase public acceptance of and confidence in ability to manage high consequence technologies as well as emergency situations, whereas failed communications increase public skepticism with the tendency to result in general risk avoidance. (orig.) 9 refs. [Deutsch] Die Bedeutung von Risiko-Kommunikation steht ausser Zweifel. Gleichwohl scheitert gerade bei Unfaellen, Stoerfaellen und Katastrophen Risiko-Kommunikation an Missverstaendnissen und Vorurteilen, weniger an mangelhafter Planung oder Vorbereitung. Noch immer verstellen ueberkommene Annahmen ueber Massenverhalten und die Gefaehrlichkeit des Menschen in der Masse, aber auch von der falschen Risikowahrnehmung der Laienschaft den Blick auf die Aengste und Beduerfnisse der Betroffenen. Die traditionelle Risiko-Kommunikation ist vor allem PR, die auf Definitionen von Experten aufsetzt und Sicherheit betont, statt die Sichtweite der Bevoelkerung aufzugreifen und in kooperatives Handeln umzusetzen. Folglich fuehlen sich die Betroffenen eher ausgegrenzt und nicht ernst genommen, so dass sie letztlich mit Ablehnung bis hin zur Risikoaversion

  1. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies

  2. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County

  3. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  4. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  5. Maintenance Policy in Public-Transport Involving Government Subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, U. S.; Bayuzetra, Y.; Gunawan, L. E.; Husniah, H.

    2018-02-01

    A public transport with government subsidy is considered to encourage the sustainability of the transportation. The transportations revenue is determined by the maximum of the uptimes of the vehicle. In this paper, we study a one-dimensional maintenance policy for new vehicle which is characterized by age parameter. We consider that the degradation of the vehicle is affected by the age of the vehicle, and modelled by using a one-dimensional approach. The owner performs both preventive and corrective maintenance actions, and the preventive maintenance action will reduce the vehicle failure rate and hence it will decrease the corrective maintenance cost during the life time of the vehicle. The decision problem for the owner is to find the optimal preventive maintenance time of the vehicle of each subsidy option offered by maximizing the expected profit for each subsidy.

  6. Some experiences of public meetings/involvement in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemberg, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Bo Stroemberg from SKI presented recent Swedish experiences of public meetings organised in connection with site investigations and the regular review of RD and D programmes. He introduced examples of stakeholder concerns that have been expressed during RD and D programme reviews. Academic institutions have identified needs for additional research. Environmental groups have raised concerns about potential disruptive events and degradation mechanisms. They have called attention to deficiencies related to decision-making processes, and recommended alternative approaches for site and method selection. Municipalities and local authorities have been critical about the insufficient degree of transparency, while other authorities have focused on legal responsibility, transport safety, and security issues, among others. Next, Mr Stroemberg highlighted examples of technical comments concerning long-term safety. Some of these referred to catastrophic impacts of earthquakes, especially the formation of new fractures, which could invalidate the KBS-3 concept. Others called attention to scenarios of deliberate human intrusion, if for example the repository was excavated as an archaeological site. Some comments concerned the issue of retrievability, the greatest advantage of the KBS-3 method, but also its most important shortcoming, since it would necessitate monitoring and surveillance indefinitely. Some suggested that an inland site with regional recharge conditions should be used, while others proposed the use of deep boreholes, i.e., the location of the repository in deep stagnant conditions. Mr Stroemberg concluded that questions and comments put during public meetings represent useful information to the experts for the identification of issues to be addressed by RD and D

  7. Involving the public into HEP through IT challenges and projects

    CERN Document Server

    Adam Bourdarios, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has recently setup three outreach projects and global challenges which have a strong IT component and could not have been envisaged without the growth of general public computing resources and network connectivity. HEP has exciting and difficult problems like the extraction of the Higgs boson signal, and at the same time data scientists have advanced algorithms. The goal of the Higgs Machine Learning (HiggsML) project was to bring the two together by a “challenge”: machine learning experts could compete online to obtain the best Higgs→ττ signal significance on a set of ATLAS fully simulated Monte Carlo signal and background events. The first challenge of this kind ran from May to September 2014, drawing considerable attention, and new projects followed in the context of the CERN open data initiative. Higgs Hunters is the only physics-related project hosted on a web-based citizen science platform called Zooniverse. Volunteers usually contributing to space, natural world and huma...

  8. Patient and public involvement in primary care research - an example of ensuring its sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Clare; Carter, Pam; Rhodes, Carol; Taylor, Robert; Beech, Roger; Dziedzic, Krysia; Blackburn, Steven; Hughes, Rhian; Ong, Bie Nio

    2016-01-01

    The international literature on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research covers a wide range of issues, including active lay involvement throughout the research cycle; roles that patients/public can play; assessing impact of PPI and recommendations for good PPI practice. One area of investigation that is less developed is the sustainability and impact of PPI beyond involvement in time-limited research projects. This paper focuses on the issues of sustainability, the importance of institutional leadership and the creation of a robust infrastructure in order to achieve long-term and wide-ranging PPI in research strategy and programmes. We use the case of a Primary Care Research Centre to provide a historical account of the evolution of PPI in the Centre and identified a number of key conceptual issues regarding infrastructure, resource allocation, working methods, roles and relationships. The paper concludes about the more general applicability of the Centre's model for the long-term sustainability of PPI in research.

  9. Public Involvement in Environmental Issues with Reference to Jajahan Kuala Krai, Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghazi Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems are very serious and complex to be resolved through science approach, technical and legislation solely. Hence, the inclucive and active involvement and participation of civil is wanted. Civil society is inter parties interested and sure they involved directly with every planned development project and practiced at area they. Earlier study has proven that public societal involvement in environmental issue is still low and minimum. The study conducted in Jajahan Kuala Krai, Kelantan is intended to find out how far population knowledge in study area on environmental issues and the level of involvement the in said issue. This study involved 174 respondents. The study between demographic factor with respondent knowledge in environmental issues shows that is a significant relationship between respondent income and education with value of p respectively 0.039 and 0.036. The association between demographic factor with respondent's knowledge in local environmental issue on the other hand shows that there are significant relationship between gender, age, income, education and resident period with the value of p respectively 0.045, 0.000, 0.029, 0.046 and 0.000. For demographic factor in association with environmental issues, has shown that there is a significant relationship between age, income, education and resident period with the value of p respectively 0.036, 0.041, 0.001 and 0.001. The results that found respondent income factor and education did influence on respondents knowledge level and involvement in environmental issues. As a conclusion, an actively engaged society in related environmental issues is very important due to the assurance of environmental quality that always will be protected.

  10. Re-establishing the relationship with the public: Regional journalism and citizens' involvement in the news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.A.H.M.; Schaap, G.J.; Bardoel, J.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Public journalism is viewed by many as a solution to the decreasing media presence and public involvement in regional news media. Core values in this approach are public deliberation, participation, and connectedness. This study investigates the added value of a citizen-centred approach to

  11. Ethics literacy and 'ethics university'. Two intertwined models for public involvement and empowerment in bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStrech

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informing lay citizens about complex health-related issues and their related ethical, legal and social aspects (ELSA is one important component of democratic health care/research governance. Public information activities may be especially valuable when they are used in multi-staged processes that also include elements of information and deliberation. Objectives: This paper presents a new model for a public involvement activity on ELSA (ethics university and evaluation data for a pilot event. Methods: The ethics university is structurally based on the ‘patient university’, an already established institution in some German medical schools, and the newly developed concept of ‘ethics literacy’. The concept of ‘ethics literacy’ consists of three levels: information, interaction, and reflection. The pilot project consisted of two series of events (lasting four days each.Results: The thematic focus of the ethics university pilot was ELSA of regenerative medicine. In this pilot the concept of ‘ethics literacy’ could be validated as its components were clearly visible in discussions with participants at the end of the event. The participants reacted favorably to the ethics university by stating that they felt more educated with regard to the ELSA of regenerative medicine and with regard to their own abilities in normative reasoning on this topic.Conclusion: The ethics university is an innovative model for public involvement and empowerment activities on ELSA theoretically underpinned by a concept for ‘ethics literacy’. This model deserves further refinement, testing in other ELSA topics and evaluation in outcome research .

  12. Public expectations as we look to the future: stake holder involvement and public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.D.; Edwards, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Institute for Alternative Futures are involved in an ongoing project on The Future of Radiation Protection. The Futures project explores the most important radiation-related challenges that may emerge between now and 2025, and the role of stakeholders in influencing future decisions to meet those challenges. First, interviews and small group discussions with over 125 thought leaders in the radiation protection community elicited a wide range of views and possibilities for the future. This information was crafted into four scenarios of how issues related to radiation protection might unfold over the next 25 years. Scenarios developed in the project explore a wide range of plausible radiation protection futures, from highly desirable futures to futures dominated by problems and crises. The scenarios are not predictions of the future, but rather tools to help people think broadly about the future and the prospects for improved methods of stakeholder and regulator interaction. Then, these scenarios were used as a framework for discussion in six sessions with participants from industry, science, environmental groups, and federal and state agencies concerned with radiation issues. One of the most promising results of these discussions is the identification of a common ground among diverse participants through agreement on 'principles for guiding action'. These principles - pollution/exposure prevention, public right-to-know, total accounting, risk harmonization/cumulative risk assessment, inclusive science, regional or place-based tailoring, and stewardship - can become 'a common language' of communicating with stakeholders about the regulatory decision making process, and may transcend traditional debates and revitalize the field of radiation protection. (author)

  13. Towards a pedagogy for patient and public involvement in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan de Bere, Sam; Nunn, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of current knowledge on the engagement of patients and the public, referred to here as patient and public involvement (PPI), and calls for the development of robust and theoretically informed strategies across the continuum of medical education. The study draws on a range of relevant literatures and presents PPI as a response process in relation to patient-centred learning agendas. Through reference to original research it discusses three key priorities for medical educators developing early PPI pedagogies, including: (i) the integration of evidence on PPI relevant to medical education, via a unifying corpus of literature; (ii) conceptual clarity through shared definitions of PPI in medical education, and (iii) an academically rigorous approach to managing complexity in the evaluation of PPI initiatives. As a response to these challenges, the authors demonstrate how activity modelling may be used as an analytical heuristic to provide an understanding of a number of PPI systems that may interact within complex and dynamic educational contexts. The authors highlight the need for a range of patient voices to be evident within such work, from its generation through to dissemination, in order that patients and the public are partners and not merely objects of this endeavour. To this end, this paper has been discussed with and reviewed by our own patient and public research partners throughout the writing process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Activating the Forces of Public Service Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    Employees with higher public service motivation (PSM) are likely to perform better in public service jobs. However, research on how practitioners may capitalize on this knowledge is sparse. This article expands the understanding of how to activate employee PSM, which is understood as a human...... resource that is present in the work environment. Using a randomized survey experiment with 528 law students, this article shows how low-intensity treatments may activate PSM and how the effect of PSM activation efforts compares with efforts to activate another, less self-determined type of motivation...

  15. Avenues for Scientist Involvement in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Dalton, H.; Bleacher, L.; Scalice, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is charged by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) with engaging, extending, and supporting the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in planetary science education activities in order to help them more effectively and efficiently share NASA science with all learners. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for planetary scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - E/PO. The Forum provides opportunities for community members to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested planetary scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend annual E/PO community meetings and meetings of opportunity at science and education conferences. The Forum also provides professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in planetary science to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), are coordinated by the Forum; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - currently is being researched by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations will be made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also in production is a "one-stop-shop" of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be used in conjunction with E/PO activities. Further supporting higher-education efforts, the Forum coordinates a network of planetary science

  16. Avenues for Scientist Involvement in Earth and Space Science Education and Public Outreach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Gross, N. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Smith, D.; Meinke, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums are charged with engaging, extending, supporting, and coordinating the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in Earth and space science education activities. This work is undertaken to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall national NASA science education and outreach effort made up of individual efforts run by these education professionals. This includes facilitating scientist engagement in education and outreach. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - education or outreach. The Forums provide opportunities for earth and space scientists to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend E/PO strategic meetings. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in science, to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as Earth Science Week (http://www.earthsciweek.org), and the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) are coordinated by the Forums; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - are provided by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations are made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also available is a 'one-stop shop' of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be

  17. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement.   To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research.   Mixed methods including a two-round Delphi study with pre-specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow-up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self-selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed.   Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement.   This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement. Objective  To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research. Methods  Mixed methods including a two‐round Delphi study with pre‐specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow‐up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self‐selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed. Results  Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement. Conclusions  This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. PMID:21324054

  19. Evaluating public involvement in research design and grant development: Using a qualitative document analysis method to analyse an award scheme for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Muir, Delia; Brereton, Louise; Allmark, Christine; Barber, Rosemary; Harris, Lydia; Hodges, Brian; Khan, Samaira; Baird, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS) for Yorkshire and Humber has been running a public involvement funding scheme since 2008. This scheme awards researchers a small amount of money to help them get involvement from patients and/or the public. Involvement activities take place at the time when researchers are planning studies, and when they are completing application forms to request funding for a proposed research project. After the public involvement activities researchers are asked to write a report for the RDS describing what they did with the public involvement funding. This study analysed those reports using an approach which included members of a public involvement panel in the data analysis process. The aim of the work was to see what the views and experiences of researchers who received funding were, and what might be learned for the future of the scheme. Twenty five reports were analysed. Four main themes were identified, these described: the added value of public involvement; aspects to consider when planning and designing public involvement; different roles of public contributors; and aspects of valuing public member contributions. The group approach to analysis was successful in enabling involvement of a variety of individuals in the process. The findings of the study provide evidence of the value of public involvement during the development of applications for research funding. The results also indicate that researchers recognise the variety in potential roles for the public in research, and acknowledge how involvement adds value to studies. Background A regional Research Design Service, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, introduced a small grant in 2008, to support public involvement (often known as patient and public involvement [PPI]) activities during the development of applications for research funding. Successful applicants are requested to submit a report detailing how the grant

  20. Fathers of Children in Public Preschool Programs: A Study of School Involvement and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noggle, Amy Kappel

    2012-01-01

    In this quantitative study, I examined the involvement levels of fathers of children attending public preschool programs using the Family Involvement Questionnaire; I also examined fathers' satisfaction with school contact and involvement experiences using the Parent Satisfaction with Educational Experiences scale. Additionally, I…

  1. Public involvement in research within care homes: benefits and challenges in the APPROACH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, Katherine; Goodman, Claire; Morbey, Hazel; Davies, Sue L; Masey, Helen; Dickinson, Angela; Martin, Wendy; Victor, Christina

    2016-12-01

    Public involvement in research (PIR) can improve research design and recruitment. Less is known about how PIR enhances the experience of participation and enriches the data collection process. In a study to evaluate how UK care homes and primary health-care services achieve integrated working to promote older people's health, PIR was integrated throughout the research processes. This paper aims to present one way in which PIR has been integrated into the design and delivery of a multisite research study based in care homes. A prospective case study design, with an embedded qualitative evaluation of PIR activity. Data collection was undertaken in six care homes in three sites in England. Six PIR members participated: all had prior personal or work experience in care homes. Qualitative data collection involved discussion groups, and site-specific meetings to review experiences of participation, benefits and challenges, and completion of structured fieldwork notes after each care home visit. PIR members supported recruitment, resident and staff interviews and participated in data interpretation. Benefits of PIR work were resident engagement that minimized distress and made best use of limited research resources. Challenges concerned communication and scheduling. Researcher support for PIR involvement was resource intensive. Clearly defined roles with identified training and support facilitated involvement in different aspects of the data collection process. This can also ensure that vulnerable older people who participate in research have a positive experience that reinforces the value of their views. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Public interface and waste management planning: An approach for integrating community involvement in waste strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiques, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Public involvement and information programs have bridged a communication abyss and allowed waste management policy-makers to understand legitimate public concerns. The perception often held by waste generators that technical concerns had greater validity than institutional issues is being altered as managers realize that information failures can halt a program as abruptly as technical ones. The role and level of involvement of the public in establishing waste management policies has changed dramatically over the past decade. Once the domain only of the generators and regulators, effective waste management strategy development must now make early provisions for public and local government involvement. By allowing public decision makers to participate in the initial planning process and maintain involvement throughout the implementation, many institutional barriers can be avoided. In today's climate, such barriers may represent direct costs, such as litigation, or indirect costs, such as delay, deferral, or duplication of work. Government programs have historically enjoyed a degree of insulation from public involvement factors on the basis of national security, defense, or the greater public good. However, such programs are no longer sacrosanct. Today, the cost of cleaning up past environmental impact can leave little or no money to meet present program objectives. Thus failure to get a public consensus before beginning remedial action can have a major impact on the allocation of scarce resources. Specific approaches to integrating the public into the planning phase of waste management will be addressed, including audience identification, issue analysis and tracking, prioritization of concerns, and information tool development

  3. Scientists: Get Involved in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach! Here’s How!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.; Wessen, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is a team of educators, scientists, and outreach professionals funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) that supports SMD scientists currently involved in E/PO - or interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts - to find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. There are many current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in E/PO. The Forum provides tools for responding to NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities (webinars and online proposal guides), a one-page Tips and Tricks guide for scientists to engage in education and public outreach, and a sampler of activities organized by thematic topic and NASA’s Big Questions in planetary science. Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org); the Year of the Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), a presentation of thematic resources that includes background information, missions, the latest in planetary science news, and educational products, for use in the classroom and out, for teaching about the solar system organized by topic - volcanism, ice, astrobiology, etc.; and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share resources and information about teaching Earth and space sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials, news, funding opportunities, and the latest education research. Also recently developed, the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker) offers an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects - giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections - with audiences. Learn more about the

  4. Changes in photosynthesis and activities of enzymes involved in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tolerance, respectively were used to investigate the oxygen consumption rate of photosystem I, the oxygen evolution rate of photosystem II, cab transcript levels, and activities of enzymes involved in photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle.

  5. Youth Involvement In Rural Development Activities In Ogba District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This is because they are major stakeholders in the development process. This study investigates youth involvement in rural development activities in Ogba district of Rivers state, Nigeria. Data was collected from 120 randomly selected youths ...

  6. Disentangling patient and public involvement in healthcare decisions: why the difference matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Tritter, Jonathan Q

    2017-01-01

    Patient and public involvement has become an integral aspect of many developed health systems and is judged to be an essential driver for reform. However, little attention has been paid to the distinctions between patients and the public, and the views of patients are often seen to encompass those of the general public. Using an ideal-type approach, we analyse crucial distinctions between patient involvement and public involvement using examples from Sweden and England. We highlight that patients have sectional interests as health service users in contrast to citizens who engage as a public policy agent reflecting societal interests. Patients draw on experiential knowledge and focus on output legitimacy and performance accountability, aim at typical representativeness, and a direct responsiveness to individual needs and preferences. In contrast, the public contributes with collective perspectives generated from diversity, centres on input legitimacy achieved through statistical representativeness, democratic accountability and indirect responsiveness to general citizen preferences. Thus, using patients as proxies for the public fails to achieve intended goals and benefits of involvement. We conclude that understanding and measuring the impact of patient and public involvement can only develop with the application of a clearer comprehension of the differences. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  7. Public acceptance activities by the Rokkasho project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushida, Yasunori

    1993-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, incorporated by mainly ten Japanese utilities, engages in constructing and operating nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as reprocessing, uranium enrichment and low level radioactive waste disposal at Rokkasho village in Aomori prefecture, 600 kilometers north of Tokyo, where is the most northern part of Honshu island. This presentation deals with the situation concerning the Rokkasho project and our public acceptance activities. The expansion of anti nuclear movement was spread not only Aomori prefecture but also all over Japan, affected strongly by the Chernobyl accident. In 1988,16 anti-nuclear groups including labor-union organized a committee for the purpose of a campaign to collect signatures for opposing nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Those groups brought in a lawsuit against the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, for stopping the construction of enrichment plant. Facing furious anti nuclear fuel cycle movements in Aomori prefecture, the Federation of Electric Power Companies decided to re strengthen the public acceptance activities and established the Nuclear Fuel Joint head office together with Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co.and Japan Nuclear Fuel Industry Co. To this new organization many excellent members were dispatched from all electric power companies. The target area for public acceptance activities expanded from the surrounding area to all area of Aomori prefecture. The first policy of public acceptance activities is 'Appealing by face to face' which means the direct personal contact with people being anxious about nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The second main policy is 'Seeing the plant itself is better than persuading orally.' Survey conducted by a newspaper company in respect with the public acceptance of Rokkasho project in July 1989 July 1992 showed a favorable change of the public acceptance. However, one also has to recognize that most of people still have anxiety about the nuclear fuel cycle facilities and we shall

  8. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  9. Integrating social science knowledge into natural resource management public involvement practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    This PhD study explores the long-recognized challenge of integrating social science knowledge into NRM public involvement practice theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, the study draws on research from adult learning, continuing rofessional education and professional knowledge development...... to better understand how social science knowledge can benefit NRM public involvement practice. Empirically, the study explores the potential of NRM continuing professional education as a means for introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. The study finds social science knowledge can...... be of value to NRM public involvement prospectively and retrospectively; and that continuing professional education can be an effective means to introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. In the design of NRM continuing professional education focused on social science knowledge...

  10. Enhancing the discussion of alternatives in EIA using principle component analysis leads to improved public involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, Tetsuya; Huang, Guangwei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the effectiveness of principle component analysis (PCA) as a method of alternatives analysis useful for improving the discussion of alternatives and public involvement. This study examined public consultations by applying quantitative text analysis (QTA) to the minutes of meetings and showed a positive correlation between the discussion of alternatives and the sense of public involvement. The discussion of alternatives may improve public involvement. A table of multiple criteria analysis for alternatives with detailed scores may exclude the public from involvement due to the general public's limited capacity to understand the mathematical algorithm and to process too much information. PCA allowed for the reduction of multiple criteria down to a small number of uncorrelated variables (principle components), a display of the merits and demerits of the alternatives, and potentially made the identification of preferable alternatives by the stakeholders easier. PCA is likely to enhance the discussion of alternatives and as a result, lead to improved public involvement.

  11. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  12. Playing Goffman's Information Game: A Classroom Activity Involving Student Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Charles Allan

    2017-01-01

    Goffman's dramaturgical approach is frequently used to introduce undergraduate students to the sociological understanding of human interaction. While a number of scholars have designed engaging student activities that highlight Goffman's approach, most of these activities tend to involve atypical embarrassing interactions or norm-breaking…

  13. Selective patient and public involvement: The promise and perils of pharmaceutical intervention for autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Ginny; Starr, Sandy; Rodogno, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    was to scrutinize patient and public involvement (PPI) by a pan-European biomedical consortium working to develop drugs to treat autism. We aimed to use this as an example to illustrate how PPI has been utilized in biomedical research. Setting, participants and analysis: Two public events, one in the UK and one...

  14. How embedded is public involvement in mainstream health research in England a decade after policy implementation? A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patricia; Mathie, Elspeth; Poland, Fiona; Keenan, Julia; Howe, Amanda; Munday, Diane; Kendall, Sally; Cowe, Marion; Staniszewska, Sophie; Goodman, Claire

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To explore how embedded patient and public involvement is within mainstream health research following two decades of policy-driven work to underpin health research with patient and public involvement in England. Methods Realist evaluation using Normalization Process Theory as a programme theory to understand what enabled patient and public involvement to be embedded as normal practice. Data were collected through a national scoping and survey, and qualitative methods to track patient and public involvement processes and impact over time within 22 nationally funded research projects. Results In research studies that were able to create reciprocal working relationships and to embed patient and public involvement this was contingent on: the purpose of patient and public involvement being clear; public contributors reflecting research end-beneficiaries; researchers understanding the value of patient and public involvement; patient and public involvement opportunities being provided throughout the research and ongoing evaluation of patient and public involvement. Key contested areas included: whether to measure patient and public involvement impact; seeking public contributors to maintain a balance between being research-aware and an outsider standpoint seen as 'authentically' lay; scaling-up patient and public involvement embedded within a research infrastructure rather than risk token presence and whether patient and public involvement can have a place within basic science. Conclusions While patient and public involvement can be well-integrated within all types of research, policy makers should take account of tensions that must be navigated in balancing moral and methodological imperatives.

  15. Qualified public involvement in the decision making process of siting a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify the most important characteristics required for the qualification of local communities for participating in the process of defining a specific site for a radioactive waste repository. It also compares the strategies used by Hungary, United Kingdom and Belgium to stimulate the public participation in the decision-making process of building and operating a radioactive waste repository, considering both the stepwise process and the spontaneous candidacy. Two main aspects are discussed as prerequisites to constitute a qualified public. The first aspect is how well the person or entity can be considered an effective representative of the community affected by the repository. This means the conditions the representative has to speak on behalf of the community and participate in the decision making process as its voice. The second characteristic is the level and quality of the information that the community and its representatives must have to participate actively in the decision-making process and what can be done to improve this status. Referring to the strategy to public involvement, this paper discusses the importance of transparency in the process, aiming the credibility of the entrepreneur as the first pace to gaining the confidence of the public affected by the project. Implementing an open dialog and listening to the needs and claims of the population are the first steps to being accepted as a true partner of the community. Preliminary discussions and explanations are important to introduce the subject and to reduce beliefs of false threats in the affected community. The constitution of a local committee is suggested, to act as a legal and formal channel to facilitate the partnership between local community, neighbors and the entrepreneur in order to achieve a positive result in the whole process. (author)

  16. 'Flying markets': activating public spaces in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.; Sezer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Marketplaces can be used by city planners as urban development strategies because they have the potential to turn open spaces in the city into public space, thereby improving both the social and the spatial qualities of those spaces. In Amsterdam, however, marketplaces currently fail to activate

  17. Chicago section activities to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.L.; Keffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicago section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an active organization with ∼450 members. The local section territory encompasses northern Illinois and includes in its territory all six of Commonwealth Edison Company's (CECo's) nuclear generating stations as well as Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Included in the territory are several large engineering firms - ABB Impell, Bechtel, Fluor Daniel, and Sargent ampersand Lundy. The national headquarters of the ANS is also located within the local section boundaries. All these organizations are represented in the local section membership and provide access to abundant technical resources that can be used to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power. An important attribute of any local section that enables it to perform interesting programs and be active in the community is its financial resources. The Chicago section has a strong financial base because of its ability to raise funds by participating in and sponsoring ANS topical and other meetings. For instance, in 1991, they sponsored and were actively involved in the Emergency Preparedness Topical Meeting held in Chicago. In 1992, they were actively involved in sponsoring the organizational activities of the ANS/ENS International Meeting, which will celebrate the 50th year of nuclear fission. The financial and technical resources of the Chicago section continue to contribute to a successful program of public education and public acceptance activities regarding the nuclear industry

  18. Behind the Scenes of Public Construction Clients – Collecting Data on Commissioning Activities and Organisational Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, M.H.; Eisma, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of public commissioning activity is fairly limited, with national and European research primarily focusing on large scale projects, European procurement procedures and new construction. However, most construction activities involve small scale projects and assignments performed by

  19. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, W. T.; Villasor, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included

  20. The Oskarshamn model for public involvement in the siting of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahagen, H. [Ahagen and Co (Sweden); CarIsson, Torsten [Mayor, Oskarshamn (Sweden); Hallberg, K. [Local Competence Building, Oskarshamn (Sweden); Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby(Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The Oskarshamn model has so far worked extremely well as a tool to achieve openness and public participation. The municipality involvement has been successful in several aspects, e.g.: It has been possible to influence the program, to a large extent, to meet certain municipality conditions and to ensure the local perspective. The local competence has increased to a considerable degree. The activities generated by the six working groups with a total of 40 members have generated a large number of contacts with various organisations, schools, mass media, individuals in the general public and interest groups. For the future, clarification of the disposal method and site selection criteria as well as the site selection process as such is crucial. The municipality has also emphasised the importance of SKB having shown the integration between site selection criteria, the feasibility study and the safety assessment. Furthermore, the programs for the encapsulation facility and the repository must be co-ordinated. For Oskarshamn it will be of utmost importance that the repository is well under way to be realised before the encapsulation facility can be built.

  1. The Oskarshamn model for public involvement in the siting of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahagen, H.; CarIsson, Torsten; Hallberg, K.; Andersson, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    The Oskarshamn model has so far worked extremely well as a tool to achieve openness and public participation. The municipality involvement has been successful in several aspects, e.g.: It has been possible to influence the program, to a large extent, to meet certain municipality conditions and to ensure the local perspective. The local competence has increased to a considerable degree. The activities generated by the six working groups with a total of 40 members have generated a large number of contacts with various organisations, schools, mass media, individuals in the general public and interest groups. For the future, clarification of the disposal method and site selection criteria as well as the site selection process as such is crucial. The municipality has also emphasised the importance of SKB having shown the integration between site selection criteria, the feasibility study and the safety assessment. Furthermore, the programs for the encapsulation facility and the repository must be co-ordinated. For Oskarshamn it will be of utmost importance that the repository is well under way to be realised before the encapsulation facility can be built

  2. Active Involvement of Software Developers in Usability Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Stage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The essence of usability evaluations is to produce feedback that supports the downstream utility so the interaction design can be improved and problems can be fixed. In practice, software development organizations experience several obstacles for conducting usability engineering. One suggested...... approach is to train and involve developers in all phases of usability activities from evaluations, to problem reporting, and making redesign proposals. Only limited work has previously investigated the impact of actively involving developers in usability engineering. In this paper, we present two small......, and problem fixing. At the organizational level, we found that the attitude towards and understanding of the role of usability engineering improved....

  3. Characterization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Involved in Arabinogalactan Protein Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva

    and tissues, their functions and synthesis are still poorly understood. The aim of the research presented in the thesis was to characterize carbohydrate active enzymes involved in AGP biosynthesis and modification to gain insights into the biosynthesis of the glycoproteins in plants. Candidate...... glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases were selected based on co-expression profiles from a transcriptomics analysis. Reverse genetics approach on a novel glucuronosyltransferase involved in AGP biosynthesis has revealed that the enzyme activity is required for normal cell elongation in etiolated seedlings....... The enzymatic activity of a hydrolase from GH family 17 was investigated, without successful determination of the activity. Members of hydrolase family 43 appeared to be localized in the Golgi-apparatus, which is also the compartment for glycan biosynthesis. The localization of these glycoside hydrolases...

  4. Adolescent Involvement in Extracurricular Activities: Influences on Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Donna; Dyk, Patricia Hyjer; Jones, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Study examined adolescents' participation in sports, school, and community extracurricular activities to assess the influence of different involvement roles and adult support on leadership skills. The study found that males and females who perceived their adult support more positively had more positive perceptions of their leadership skills.…

  5. Evaluation of legal aspects of activities involving radiations: proposal for a new legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Jose C.

    1997-01-01

    The present brazilian legislation status concerning activities in which occurs or may occur any exposure to ionizing radiations, involves several incoherencies and privileges, as a consequence of legal rights generated from labor principles which have no social or scientific base. In this study, several legal labor topics are analysed and a new doctrine context is proposed, based mainly on a equal treatment for all insalubrious and dangerous activities done by workers of both private and public sectors (author). 8 refs

  6. Trend of Medical Tourism Publications: An Attempt to Explore the Involved Academic Disciplines and Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Ladan; Park, Sam-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Medical tourism suffers from the lack of a consensus regarding the involved categories. This study aimed to address this gap from the academic disciplines and publications perspective. Totally 1954 citations were identified through a formula of keyword search of SCOPUS. In order to classify the various subject areas, we followed the international standard classification of education (ISCED) developed by UNESCO. Moreover, the trends of publications were identified based on their popularity between 2000 and 2017. The category with the most interests on publication about medical tourism was 'health and welfare', followed by 'social science'. Even though various disciplines were involved in the medical tourism, it seems that a downward trend has been experienced since 2015. The identified key trends of medical tourism publications will benefit researchers exploring the categories of medical tourism or health travel. The results contribute to advance the state of knowledge from the academic perspective.

  7. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  8. ICEBREAKER: A STRATEGY TO ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT FOR YOUNG ADOLESCENT LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Indrayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivating students to participate in classroom discussions is a big matter to overcome. There are some students who seem to assume that as long as the assigned work is completed on time, test scores are good, and attendance is satisfactory, they shouldn‘t be forced to participate. Educational research has shown that students who are actively involved in the learning activity will learn more than students who are passive recipients of knowledge. Young adolescents who are 10 to 15 years old experience stages of life and more growth than any other time in their life. They have intelectual capacity and learn best through interaction and activity rather than just listening. Obviously, increased attention and motivation are the essential ingredients for learning, and are more important than intelligence. In other words, to increasing student involvement, attention and motivation, teachers can use a very beginning action that held the first time before core teaching activity with a hope that engaging the senses and emotions will increase students‘ attention span. Accordingly, as start-up activities, icebreakers can be a useful way of creating a sense of relaxed and informal atmosphere which motivate and activate an interaction. Icebreakers allow for a student to become emotionally connected with classroom situation and increases motivation to engage with the following discussion. Therefore, this paper presents icebreaker as a strategy to active involevement for young adolescent learners.

  9. Supporting public involvement in interview and other panels: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Clowes, Mark; Muir, Delia; Baird, Wendy; Broadway-Parkinson, Andrea; Bennett, Carole

    2017-10-01

    Members of the public are increasingly being invited to become members of a variety of different panels and boards. This study aimed to systematically search the literature to identify studies relating to support or training provided to members of the public who are asked to be members of an interview panel. A systematic search for published and unpublished studies was carried out from June to September 2015. The search methods included electronic database searching, reference list screening, citation searching and scrutinizing online sources. We included studies of any design including published and unpublished documents which outlined preparation or guidance relating to public participants who were members of interview panels or representatives on other types of panels or committees. Results were synthesised via narrative methods. Thirty-six documents were included in the review. Scrutiny of this literature highlighted ten areas which require consideration when including members of the public on interview panels: financial resources; clarity of role; role in the interview process; role in evaluation; training; orientation/induction; information needs; terminology; support; and other public representative needs such as timing, accessibility and support with information technology. The results of the review emphasize a range of elements that need to be fully considered when planning the involvement of public participants on interview panels. It highlights potential issues relating to the degree of involvement of public representatives in evaluating/grading decisions and the need for preparation and on-going support. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A process for integrating public involvement into technical/social programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, S.; Williams, C.

    1994-01-01

    Good technical/social decisions--those that are technically sound and publicly acceptable--result from a planning process that considers consulting the public a basic part of the technical program, as basic as hiring a technical consultant to advise about new ideas in computer modeling. This paper describes a specific process for making public involvement an integral part of decision-making about high-level radioactive waste management, so that important technical, social, environmental, economic, and cultural information and values can be incorporated in a meaningful way in planning and carrying out a high-level waste management program or project. The process for integration must consider: (a) the decision or task for which public interaction is needed; (b) the people who should or will want to participate in the decision or task; (c) the goals or purposes of the communication or interaction--the agency's and the public's; (d) the kinds of information the public needs and that the agency needs in order to understand the relevant technical and social issues; and (e) the types of communication or involvement that best serve to meet the agency's and the public's goals

  11. Access to the decision-making process: opportunities for public involvement in the facility decommissioning process of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses recent initiatives taken by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC) to effectively involve the public in decommissioning decisions. Initiatives discussed include the Commission's rulemaking to establish the radiological criteria for decommissioning, as well as public involvement methods that have been used on a site-by-site basis. As un example of public involvement, the NRC is currently in the process of developing generic rules on the radiological criteria for the decontamination and decommissioning of NRC-licensed sites. Not only was this proposed rule developed through an extensive and novel approach for public involvement, but it also establishes the basic provisions that will govern public involvement in future NRC decisions on the decommissioning of individual sites. The aim is to provide the public with timely information about all phases of the NRC staff to express concerns and make recommendations. Th NRC recognizes the value and the necessity of effective public involvement in its regulatory activities and has initiated a number of changes to its regulatory program to accomplish this. From the NRC's perspective, it is much easier and less costly to incorporate these mechanisms for public involvement into the regulatory program early in the process, rather than try to add them after considerable public controversy on an action has already been generated. The historical antecedents for initiatives mentioned, as well as 'lessons learned' from prior experience are also discussed. (author)

  12. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  13. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed

  14. Active patient involvement in the education of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Bainbridge, Lesley; Godolphin, William; Katz, Arlene; Kline, Cathy; Lown, Beth; Madularu, Ioana; Solomon, Patricia; Thistlethwaite, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Patients as educators (teaching intimate physical examination) first appeared in the 1960s. Since then, rationales for the active involvement of patients as educators have been well articulated. There is great potential to promote the learning of patient-centred practice, interprofessional collaboration, community involvement, shared decision making and how to support self-care. We reviewed and summarised the literature on active patient involvement in health professional education. A synthesis of the literature reveals increasing diversity in the ways in which patients are involved in education, but also the movement's weaknesses. Most initiatives are 'one-off' events and are reported as basic descriptions. There is little rigorous research or theory of practice or investigation of behavioural outcomes. The literature is scattered and uses terms (such as 'patient'!) that are contentious and confusing. We propose future directions for research and development, including a taxonomy to facilitate dialogue, an outline of a research strategy and reference to a comprehensive bibliography covering all health and human services.

  15. Pregnant Teenager Involvement in Sexual Activity and the Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Catunda, Júlia Kerr; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Coates, Veronica; Omar, Hatim A.

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP) General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at firs...

  16. Patient and public involvement in scope development for a palliative care health technology assessment in europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brereton, L.; Goyder, E.; Ingleton, C.; Gardiner, C.; Chilcott, J.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Oortwijn, W.; Mozygemba, K.; Lysdahl, K.B.; Sacchini, D.; Lepper, W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) helps to ensure that study findings are useful to end users but is under-developed in Health Technology Assessment (HTA). "INTEGRATE-HTA, (a co-funded European Union project -grant agreement 30614) is developing new methods to assess complex health

  17. Perceptions of legally mandated public involvement processes in the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Andrew Predmore; Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    Results from an agency-wide survey of U.S. Forest Service personnel indicate that respondents in our sample engage in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) public involvement processes primarily to accomplish two goals. The most commonly supported goal was to inform and disclose as mandated by the act. The other goal reflected interests in managing agency...

  18. Homophobic Expression in K-12 Public Schools: Legal and Policy Considerations Involving Speech that Denigrates Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines an education policy matter that involves homophobic speech in public schools. Using legal research methods, two federal circuit court opinions that have examined the tension surrounding anti-LGBTQ student expression are analyzed. This legal analysis provides non-lawyers some insight into the current realities of student…

  19. Active-involvement principle in dental health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1985-01-01

    A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...... an experimental and a control group, each of 68 unskilled workers, aged 18-64. Active participation was obtained by various means: Teaching was carried out in pre-existing peer groups, the participants' own goals and needs were included, the traditional dentist-patient barriers were excluded, the traditional...

  20. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study {sup S}ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector{sup ,} contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the {sup n}uclear EBs{sup u}ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study S ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector , contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the n uclear EBs u ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs

  2. Revolution or evolution: the challenges of conceptualizing patient and public involvement in a consumerist world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritter, Jonathan Q.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background  Changing the relationship between citizens and the state is at the heart of current policy reforms. Across England and the developed world, from Oslo to Ontario, Newcastle to Newquay, giving the public a more direct say in shaping the organization and delivery of healthcare services is central to the current health reform agenda. Realigning public services around those they serve, based on evidence from service user’s experiences, and designed with and by the people rather than simply on their behalf, is challenging the dominance of managerialism, marketization and bureaucratic expertise. Despite this attention there is limited conceptual and theoretical work to underpin policy and practice. Objective  This article proposes a conceptual framework for patient and public involvement (PPI) and goes on to explore the different justifications for involvement and the implications of a rights‐based rather than a regulatory approach. These issues are highlighted through exploring the particular evolution of English health policy in relation to PPI on the one hand and patient choice on the other before turning to similar patterns apparent in the United States and more broadly. Conclusions  A framework for conceptualizing PPI is presented that differentiates between the different types and aims of involvement and their potential impact. Approaches to involvement are different in those countries that adopt a rights‐based rather than a regulatory approach. I conclude with a discussion of the tension and interaction apparent in the globalization of both involvement and patient choice in both policy and practice. PMID:19754691

  3. Priorities for methodological research on patient and public involvement in clinical trials: A modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget; Bagley, Heather; Gamble, Carrol; Denegri, Simon; Muir, Delia; Simon, Natalie A; Thomas, Stephen; Elliot, Jim T; Bulbeck, Helen; Crocker, Joanna C; Planner, Claire; Vale, Claire; Clarke, Mike; Sprosen, Tim; Woolfall, Kerry

    2017-12-01

    Despite increasing international interest, there is a lack of evidence about the most efficient, effective and acceptable ways to implement patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials. To identify the priorities of UK PPI stakeholders for methodological research to help resolve uncertainties about PPI in clinical trials. A modified Delphi process including a two round online survey and a stakeholder consensus meeting. In total, 237 people registered of whom 219 (92%) completed the first round. One hundred and eighty-seven of 219 (85%) completed the second; 25 stakeholders attended the consensus meeting. Round 1 of the survey comprised 36 topics; 42 topics were considered in round 2 and at the consensus meeting. Approximately 96% of meeting participants rated the top three topics as equally important. These were as follows: developing strong and productive working relationships between researchers and PPI contributors; exploring PPI practices in selecting trial outcomes of importance to patients; and a systematic review of PPI activity to improve the accessibility and usefulness of trial information (eg participant information sheets) for participants. The prioritized methodological research topics indicate important areas of uncertainty about PPI in trials. Addressing these uncertainties will be critical to enhancing PPI. Our findings should be used in the planning and funding of PPI in clinical trials to help focus research efforts and minimize waste. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Public involvement on closure of Asse II radioactive waste repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate

    2013-01-01

    From 1967 to 1978, about 125,800 barrels of low- and intermediate level waste were disposed of - nominally for research purposes - in the former 'Asse' salt mine which had before been used for the production of potash for many years. Since 1988 an inflow of brine is being observed which will cause dangers of flooding and of a collapse due to salt weakening and dissolution if it should increase. Since several years the closure of the Asse repository is planned with the objective to prevent the flooding and collapse of the mine and the release of radioactive substances to the biosphere. The first concept that was presented by the former operator, however, seemed completely unacceptable to regional representatives from politics and NGOs. Their activities against these plans made the project a top issue on the political agenda from the federal to the local level. The paper traces the main reasons which lead to the severe safety problems in the past as well as relevant changes in the governance system today. A focus is put on the process for public involvement in which the Citizens' Advisory Group 'A2B' forms the core measure. Its structure and framework, experience and results, expectations from inside and outside perspectives are presented. Furthermore the question is tackled how far this process can serve as an example for a participatory approach in a siting process for a geological repository for high active waste which can be expected to be highly contested in the affected regions. (authors)

  5. Public involvement on closure of Asse II radioactive waste repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [Oko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    From 1967 to 1978, about 125,800 barrels of low- and intermediate level waste were disposed of - nominally for research purposes - in the former 'Asse' salt mine which had before been used for the production of potash for many years. Since 1988 an inflow of brine is being observed which will cause dangers of flooding and of a collapse due to salt weakening and dissolution if it should increase. Since several years the closure of the Asse repository is planned with the objective to prevent the flooding and collapse of the mine and the release of radioactive substances to the biosphere. The first concept that was presented by the former operator, however, seemed completely unacceptable to regional representatives from politics and NGOs. Their activities against these plans made the project a top issue on the political agenda from the federal to the local level. The paper traces the main reasons which lead to the severe safety problems in the past as well as relevant changes in the governance system today. A focus is put on the process for public involvement in which the Citizens' Advisory Group 'A2B' forms the core measure. Its structure and framework, experience and results, expectations from inside and outside perspectives are presented. Furthermore the question is tackled how far this process can serve as an example for a participatory approach in a siting process for a geological repository for high active waste which can be expected to be highly contested in the affected regions. (authors)

  6. Evaluating public involvement in the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Department of Energy contracted with the Keystone Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program's public-involvement efforts. The Center chose six evaluators with diverse training and experience related to low-level waste management and public-participation programs. Keystone's evaluation was based on (a) observations by the evaluators who attended the National Program-sponsored strategy review meetings and fairs; (b) interviews with low-level waste generators, local government officials, state legislators, public-interest groups, and members of the general public; and (c) observations of the final National Program strategy task force meeting. The evaluators concluded that, overall, the public-participation processes yielded some very positive results - for policy development and for DOE and the EG and G staff. They judged the strategy document to be complete, concise, and helpful to public dialogue on low-level waste issues. They also made specific recommendations for improvements to the public-participation program

  7. An Untapped Resource: Patient and Public Involvement in Implementation Comment on "Knowledge Mobilization in Healthcare Organizations: A View From the Resource-Based View of the Firm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher; Rycroft-Malone, Jo

    2015-08-07

    This commentary considers the potential role of patient and public involvement in implementation. Developing an analytical thread from the resource-based view of the Firm, we argue that this involvement may create unique resources that have the capacity to enhance the impact of implementation activity for healthcare organisations. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  8. 'You're there because you are unprofessional': patient and public involvement as liminal knowledge spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kath; Britten, Nicky

    2018-03-01

    Patient and public involvement in health research and care has been repeatedly theorised using the metaphor of spaces, knowledge spaces and participatory citizenship spaces. Drawing on data from a three year qualitative study of people involved in health research with organisations across England, this article explores where these spaces fit in a wider social, political and historical landscape. It outlines a theme recurring frequently in the study data: a unified public/patient/service-user perspective in opposition to a professional/clinical/academic view. This is discussed in relation to Habermas's division between the lifeworld and system. Patient and public involvement is mapped as spaces between these spheres, therefore between the social norms pertaining to them. In this way, involvement spaces are seen as liminal, in-between or threshold spaces; this concept provides us with new insights on both the opportunities and the conflicts that are integral in the ambiguous, complex interactions which take place in these spaces. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  9. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine [WIBERA/PWIBERA/PriceWaterhouseCoopers Deutsche Rev., Hannover (Germany); Nies, Alexander [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    . In order to receive recommendations for an appropriate answer to this question regarding the German situation, the Federal Minister for the Environment has appointed 15 experts to build the 'Committee on a Selection Procedure for Disposal Sites', called the 'Committee' in this paper. The Committee's mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The procedure shall be built upon well founded criteria and derived in a sound and unprejudiced way. The Committee works independent of any ministerial or political instructions and comprises members of widely different views on nuclear energy in general and radioactive waste management in particular. Funding is available so that the Committee can initiate research projects and be supported by external expertise. It is scheduled that the Committee's final recommendations will be available by 2002. Experience in various countries has made increasingly clear during the recent years, that a scientifically sound and technically satisfying disposal concept is not sufficient in order to gain public acceptance for the selection of a disposal site. In this respect, the Committee considers public participation from the very beginning and in all phases of the selection procedure as an indispensable prerequisite. Only by transparency of the decision process, active public involvement and integration of their proposals chances increase to build up credibility of the responsible decision makers and confidence in their later decisions during the site selection procedure. The paper presents the present status of deliberations regarding public participation before site selection is actually started. It is stressed explicitly that the Committee's development process is not finalised and therefore all thoughts presented in this paper are of a preliminary nature and may be discarded in a later stage of development. In particular, the

  10. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine; Nies, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    . In order to receive recommendations for an appropriate answer to this question regarding the German situation, the Federal Minister for the Environment has appointed 15 experts to build the 'Committee on a Selection Procedure for Disposal Sites', called the 'Committee' in this paper. The Committee's mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The procedure shall be built upon well founded criteria and derived in a sound and unprejudiced way. The Committee works independent of any ministerial or political instructions and comprises members of widely different views on nuclear energy in general and radioactive waste management in particular. Funding is available so that the Committee can initiate research projects and be supported by external expertise. It is scheduled that the Committee's final recommendations will be available by 2002. Experience in various countries has made increasingly clear during the recent years, that a scientifically sound and technically satisfying disposal concept is not sufficient in order to gain public acceptance for the selection of a disposal site. In this respect, the Committee considers public participation from the very beginning and in all phases of the selection procedure as an indispensable prerequisite. Only by transparency of the decision process, active public involvement and integration of their proposals chances increase to build up credibility of the responsible decision makers and confidence in their later decisions during the site selection procedure. The paper presents the present status of deliberations regarding public participation before site selection is actually started. It is stressed explicitly that the Committee's development process is not finalised and therefore all thoughts presented in this paper are of a preliminary nature and may be discarded in a later stage of development. In particular, the statements in this paper must not be

  11. Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, A J; Ball, A S [Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Genetics and Microbiology

    1990-01-01

    This research programme has been directed towards the analysis of actinomycete enzyme systems involved in the degradation of plant biomass (lignocellulose.) The programme was innovative in that a novel source of enzymes was systematically screened and wheat straw saccharifying activity was the test criterion. Over 200 actinomycete strains representing a broad taxonomic range were screened. A range of specific enzyme activities were involved and included cellulase, xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, acetylesterase, {beta}-xylosidase and {beta}-glucosidase. Since hemicellulose (arabinoxylan) was the primary source of sugar, xylanases were characterized. The xylan-degrading systems of actinomycetes were complex and nonuniform, with up to six separate endoxylanases identified in active strains. Except for microbispora bispora, actinomycetes were found to be a poor source of cellulase activity. Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. While modification reactions were common, cleavage of inter-monomer bonds, and utilization of complex polyphenolic compounds were restricted to two strains: Thermomonospora mesophila and Streptomyces badius. Crude enzyme preparations from actinomycetes can be used to generate sugar, particularly pentoses, directly from cereal straw. The potential for improvements in yield rests with the formulation to cooperative enzyme combinations from different strains. The stability properties of enzymes from thermophilic strains and the general neutral to alkali pH optima offer advantages in certain process situations. Actinomycetes are a particularly rich source of xylanases for commercial application and can rapidly solubilise a lignocarbohydrate fraction of straw which may have both product and pretreatment potential. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, I. M.A. [Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Smith, H. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  13. Obesity-induced vascular inflammation involves elevated arginase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Bhatta, Anil; Xu, Zhimin; Chen, Jijun; Toque, Haroldo A; Chen, Yongjun; Xu, Yimin; Bagi, Zsolt; Lucas, Rudolf; Huo, Yuqing; Caldwell, Ruth B; Caldwell, R William

    2017-11-01

    Obesity-induced vascular dysfunction involves pathological remodeling of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and increased inflammation. Our previous studies showed that arginase 1 (A1) in endothelial cells (ECs) is critically involved in obesity-induced vascular dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that EC-A1 activity also drives obesity-related VAT remodeling and inflammation. Our studies utilized wild-type and EC-A1 knockout (KO) mice made obese by high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. HFHS diet induced increases in body weight, fasting blood glucose, and VAT expansion. This was accompanied by increased arginase activity and A1 expression in vascular ECs and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and protein in both VAT and ECs. HFHS also markedly increased circulating inflammatory monocytes and VAT infiltration by inflammatory macrophages, while reducing reparative macrophages. Additionally, adipocyte size and fibrosis increased and capillary density decreased in VAT. These effects of HFHS, except for weight gain and hyperglycemia, were prevented or reduced in mice lacking EC-A1 or treated with the arginase inhibitor 2-( S )-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH). In mouse aortic ECs, exposure to high glucose (25 mM) and Na palmitate (200 μM) reduced nitric oxide production and increased A1, TNF-α, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and MCP-1 mRNA, and monocyte adhesion. Knockout of EC-A1 or ABH prevented these effects. HFHS diet-induced VAT inflammation is mediated by EC-A1 expression/activity. Limiting arginase activity is a possible therapeutic means of controlling obesity-induced vascular and VAT inflammation.

  14. Public and Patient Involvement and the Right to Health: Reflections from England

    OpenAIRE

    Stuttaford, Maria Clasina; Boulle, Therese; Haricharan, Hanne Jensen; Sofayiya, Zingisa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on public and patient involvement (PPI), the right to health and how human rights principles provide values for implementing mechanisms of participation and accountability. Globally, new models of formalized participation, imposed top-down by State institutions, have emerged in recent health system reforms. There is an on-going challenge to ensure that the prescribed mechanisms, or procedural rights, for implementing the substantive right to heath influence social ac...

  15. Public information activities of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Hand-Friedrich

    1998-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 and increasingly since the Chernobyl accident 1986, the Division of Public Information (DPI) of the IAEA has become a contact point for journalists on all questions related to the nuclear energy and nuclear applications. The IAEA receives a continuously growing number of hits on its Internet Homepage. This is followed by an increasing number of E-mail letters from all over the world. The three main fields of general information activities of the IAEA's DPI are: 1 - the verification system of IAEA in the framework of international treaties concerning non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; 2 - the IAEA's work for safe operation of nuclear installations and its many services to improve the safe application of radiation and isotopes as well as safe operation of nuclear power plants. Questions on illicit trafficking and dangers of wrongly applied radiation sources play an important factor in our public information work in the field of nuclear safety; 3 - the IAEA's activities in the transfer of technology and the application of radiation and isotopes in agriculture, health, industry, hydrology and research. In addition to the new ways of providing information on the IAEA there is still the long established means of contact through periodicals like 'IAEA Bulletin' and 'IAEA Newsbriefs' or general information films like, for instance, 'The International Atom', 'The Nuclear Age', 'How a nuclear power plant works', 'Nuclear Energy and the Environment', 'The Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 'The International Chernobyl Project', 'Mission Iraq' and others. Besides, there are aspects on longer lasting perspectives which should be considered: - physics teaching at schools; - information on nuclear fission, nuclear power, radiation and isotopes in a science museum in the capital; an information center at nuclear research facilities in the country. Nuclear has many advantages but it is difficult these days to convince normal

  16. Representativeness, legitimacy and power in public involvement in health-service management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham P

    2008-12-01

    Public participation in health-service management is an increasingly prominent policy internationally. Frequently, though, academic studies have found it marginalized by health professionals who, keen to retain control over decision-making, undermine the legitimacy of involved members of the public, in particular by questioning their representativeness. This paper examines this negotiation of representative legitimacy between staff and involved users by drawing on a qualitative study of service-user involvement in pilot cancer-genetics services recently introduced in England, using interviews, participant observation and documentary analysis. In contrast to the findings of much of the literature, health professionals identified some degree of representative legitimacy in the contributions made by users. However, the ways in which staff and users constructed representativeness diverged significantly. Where staff valued the identities of users as biomedical and lay subjects, users themselves described the legitimacy of their contribution in more expansive terms of knowledge and citizenship. My analysis seeks to show how disputes over representativeness relate not just to a struggle for power according to contrasting group interests, but also to a substantive divergence in understanding of the nature of representativeness in the context of state-orchestrated efforts to increase public participation. This divergence might suggest problems with the enactment of such aspirations in practice; alternatively, however, contestation of representative legitimacy might be understood as reflecting ambiguities in policy-level objectives for participation, which secure implementation by accommodating the divergent constructions of those charged with putting initiatives into practice.

  17. Stakeholder involvement and public outreach at two Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Outreach efforts at two U.S. Department of Energy sites (i.e., the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington and Pantex Plant in the Texas panhandle) have involved a broad spectrum of communications media, including technical presentations and articles, information brochures and fact sheets, video productions; interactive exhibits; presentations at civic and other public meetings; and proactive interactions with the news media, regulators and concerned citizens. In addition, representatives of local communities operate offsite environmental monitoring stations and Native Americans are involved in studying cultural resources, fisheries, and other issues at Hanford, and a program to obtain environmental samples from neighbors property is underway at Pantex. All major environmental programs (e.g., the reconstruction of past radiological doses to offsite human populations at Hanford) are conducted with open public participation, the Pantex Plant has opened an Information office in Amarillo, Texas, and both sites now have Citizen's Advisory Boards. This presentation describes Hanford and Pantex public outreach and involvement efforts, our successes and failures, and the lessons learned

  18. Public/stakeholder involvement at two Department of Energy sites: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to communicate the results of environmental studies and involve the public in environmental decisions have increased nationwide. Outreach efforts at two US Department of Energy sites (i.e., the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State and the Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle) have used a broad spectrum of communications media, including technical articles (open literature and symposium publications, annual and topical reports); information brochures and fact sheets; video productions; interactive exhibits, presentations at scientific, technical, civic, and other public meetings; and proactive interactions with the news media and with local, state, federal, and other agencies. In addition, representatives of local communities now operate offsite environmental monitoring stations and Native Americans are involved in studying cultural resources, fisheries, and other issues at Hanford and a program to obtain environmental samples from neighbor's property is underway at the Pantex Plant. All major environmental programs, such as the multi-year effort to reconstruct past radiological doses to offsite human populations at Hanford, are now conducted with open public participation

  19. Public/stakeholder involvement at two Department of Energy sites: Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Efforts to communicate the results of environmental studies and involve the public in environmental decisions have increased nationwide. Outreach efforts at two US Department of Energy sites (i.e., the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State and the Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle) have used a broad spectrum of communications media, including technical articles (open literature and symposium publications, annual and topical reports); information brochures and fact sheets; video productions; interactive exhibits, presentations at scientific, technical, civic, and other public meetings; and proactive interactions with the news media and with local, state, federal, and other agencies. In addition, representatives of local communities now operate offsite environmental monitoring stations and Native Americans are involved in studying cultural resources, fisheries, and other issues at Hanford and a program to obtain environmental samples from neighbor`s property is underway at the Pantex Plant. All major environmental programs, such as the multi-year effort to reconstruct past radiological doses to offsite human populations at Hanford, are now conducted with open public participation.

  20. A devolved model for public involvement in the field of mental health research: case study learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Davies, Rosie

    2016-12-01

    Patient and public involvement in all aspects of research is espoused and there is a continued interest in understanding its wider impact. Existing investigations have identified both beneficial outcomes and remaining issues. This paper presents the impact of public involvement in one case study led by a mental health charity conducted as part of a larger research project. The case study used a devolved model of working, contracting with service user-led organizations to maximize the benefits of local knowledge on the implementation of personalized budgets, support recruitment and local user-led organizations. To understand the processes and impact of public involvement in a devolved model of working with user-led organizations. Multiple data collection methods were employed throughout 2012. These included interviews with the researchers (n = 10) and research partners (n = 5), observation of two case study meetings and the review of key case study documentation. Analysis was conducted in NVivo10 using a coding framework developed following a literature review. Five key themes emerged from the data; Devolved model, Nature of involvement, Enabling factors, Implementation challenges and Impact. While there were some challenges of implementing the devolved model it is clear that our findings add to the growing understanding of the positive benefits research partners can bring to complex research. A devolved model can support the involvement of user-led organizations in research if there is a clear understanding of the underpinning philosophy and support mechanisms are in place. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Involving the public in decision-making at federal facilities: The Department of Energy experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesalman, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy is involved in cleanup of a wide variety of sites used in the development and production of nuclear weapons. Substantial and increasing efforts have been made to involve the public in the planning and implementation of the cleanup projects. Early in the program, public participation was mainly an information transfer effort. More recently, innovative techniques have been used to increase public understanding of the tradeoffs required in making cleanup decisions (e.g., more stringent cleanup standards lead to higher costs). Sites now realize that relationships are key and are working to develop them. Advisory boards have been established at several sites. The methods of forming the boards have varied from site to site, as have the size of the group and the issues addressed. The effectiveness of the boards in their goal of improving public participation at the sites will be evaluated in the next fiscal year. DOE has sought public input on an increasing number of issues, such as future use of its facilities, environmental justice concerns, and budget development. Assumptions about future use of sites are crucial to setting realistic cleanup standards and controlling costs. Decisions made in the early phases of the budget process are now based in part on stakeholder input regarding priorities; for example, stakeholder concerns about and support for emphasizing plutonium cleanup at Rocky Flats have led to changes in priorities between the materials stabilization and environmental restoration programs. Environmental justice has become an increasing issue; sites must ensure that public participation programs effectively reach minority and low-income populations

  2. The use of public participation and economic appraisal for public involvement in large-scale hydropower projects: Case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirumachi, Naho; Torriti, Jacopo

    2012-01-01

    Gaining public acceptance is one of the main issues with large-scale low-carbon projects such as hydropower development. It has been recommended by the World Commission on Dams that to gain public acceptance, public involvement is necessary in the decision-making process (). As financially-significant actors in the planning and implementation of large-scale hydropower projects in developing country contexts, the paper examines the ways in which public involvement may be influenced by international financial institutions. Using the case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project in Laos, the paper analyses how public involvement facilitated by the Asian Development Bank had a bearing on procedural and distributional justice. The paper analyses the extent of public participation and the assessment of full social and environmental costs of the project in the Cost-Benefit Analysis conducted during the project appraisal stage. It is argued that while efforts were made to involve the public, there were several factors that influenced procedural and distributional justice: the late contribution of the Asian Development Bank in the project appraisal stage; and the issue of non-market values and discount rate to calculate the full social and environmental costs. - Highlights: ► Public acceptance in large-scale hydropower projects is examined. ► Both procedural and distributional justice are important for public acceptance. ► International Financial Institutions can influence the level of public involvement. ► Public involvement benefits consideration of non-market values and discount rates.

  3. From public participation to stakeholder involvement: The rocky road to more inclusiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.

    1995-07-01

    Surviving always at the edge of extinction, public participation in environmental decision making has an uncertain and problematic history. From its emergence from the urban planning and delivery system efforts of the 1960s to many siting and non-siting uses today, it remains a battleground, with few successes and many failures. While some compelling structural, organizational and cultural explanations for this state of affairs exist, the author offers a further one--a too-limited definition and vision of public participation. One then can argue for a more inclusive process such as stakeholder involvement (SI) to enable a more viable approach to decision making. One can argue that the narrow conceptualization offered in the term public participation (PP) is partly responsible for the meager results of decades of efforts by earnest practitioners. Because of the limited, unique, and self-selected publics that respond to the major PP mechanisms such as public hearings, PP has become largely the province of organized activist groups and is largely accepted as such by most parties, including PP professionals. The author reviews the roles of Congress, federal agencies/proponents, local governments, activist groups and PP professionals in creating the current limited PP processes. She discusses trends and prospects for moving to broader based, more inclusive SI approaches. The emerging SI approach presents major methodological and organizational challenges, but offers the promise of outcomes more likely to be legitimated and potentially more lasting.

  4. Evaluating public involvement in the national low-level radioactive-waste-management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An extensive public involvement approach has been developed to obtain the views and assistance of state and local governments, citizen groups, industry, professional societies and other organizations in the preparation and review of a national strategy document on low-level radioactive wastes. Six evaluators who have a wide diversity of backgrounds were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. This final report presents findings discussed under the headings: Introduction to the Recent History of Low-level Waste Policy Development (LLWMP) and the Role of Public Participation; Public Participation Mechanisms Employed in Preparing the National Strategy Document; the Keystone's Evaluation Process; and Findings. The overall evaluation of the process was very positive. It was clear that the LLWMP staff was seriously committed to building a credible public participation process. The evaluation team was provided rough cost figures for the various components of the LLWMP effort and concluded that, in its opinion, the public participation process provided benefits to the federal government that exceeded its costs. Moreover, the costs of the individual components were not out of line with each one's usefulness and contribution to the overall effort

  5. Tea, talk and technology: patient and public involvement to improve connected health 'wearables' research in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Swarbrick, Caroline; Sanders, Caroline; Parker, Angela; Machin, Matt; Tully, Mary P; Ainsworth, John

    2017-01-01

    There are a growing number of mobile phones, watches and electronic devices which can be worn on the body to track aspects of health and well-being, such as daily steps, sleep and exercise. Dementia researchers think that these devices could potentially be used as part of future research projects, for example to help spot changes in daily activity that may signal the early symptoms of dementia. We asked a range of older people, including people living with dementia and their carers, to participate in interactive discussions about how future participants might find using these devices as part of research projects. We also invited volunteers to borrow a range of devices to test at home, giving them further insights. Discussions revealed that people were generally supportive of this type of research, provided they gave informed consent and that devices were discreet, comfortable and easy to use. They also valued technical support and regular feedback on study progress to encourage ongoing participation. These findings were used to develop a pool of devices for researchers, with computer software and written guidance to help plan, design and support studies. Our work shows that when given the right opportunities, people who are affected by dementia can provide valuable insights that can enhance the design, delivery and quality of future research. Background Increasingly, researchers are recognising the potential for connected health devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, to generate high resolution data about patterns of daily activity and health outcomes. One aim of the Dementias Platform UK (DPUK) project is to provide researchers with a secure means to collect, collate and link data generated by such devices, thereby accelerating this type of research in the field of dementia. We aimed to involve members of the public in discussions about the acceptability and feasibility of different devices and research designs to inform the development of a device pool

  6. The association between access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-12-05

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  7. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Djurhuus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928. Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  8. Antidepressant activity of curcumin: involvement of serotonin and dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas K; Bhutani, Mohit Kumar; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2008-12-01

    Curcumin is a major active principle of Curcuma longa, one of the widely used preparations in the Indian system of medicine. It is known for its diverse biological actions. The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of monoaminergic system(s) in the antidepressant activity of curcumin and the effect of piperine, a bioavailability enhancer, on the bioavailability and biological effects of curcumin. Behavioral (forced swim test), biochemical (monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme inhibitory activity), and neurochemical (neurotransmitter levels estimation) tests were carried out. Curcumin (10-80 mg/kg, i.p.) dose dependently inhibited the immobility period, increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) as well as dopamine levels (at higher doses), and inhibited the monoamine oxidase enzymes (both MAO-A and MAO-B, higher doses) in mice. Curcumin (20 mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced the anti-immobility effect of subthreshold doses of various antidepressant drugs like fluoxetine, venlafaxine, or bupropion. However, no significant change in the anti-immobility effect of imipramine and desipramine was observed. Furthermore, combination of subthreshold dose of curcumin and various antidepressant drugs resulted in synergistic increase in serotonin (5-HT) levels as compared to their effect per se. There was no change in the norepinephrine levels. The coadministration of piperine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a bioavailability enhancing agent, with curcumin (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in potentiation of pharmacological, biochemical, and neurochemical activities. The study provides evidences for mechanism-based antidepressant actions of curcumin. The coadministration of curcumin along with piperine may prove to be a useful and potent natural antidepressant approach in the management of depression.

  9. [Involving patients, the insured and the general public in healthcare decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2016-01-01

    No doubt, the public should be involved in healthcare decision making, especially when decision makers from politics and self-government agencies are faced with the difficult task of setting priorities. There is a general consensus on the need for a stronger patient centeredness, even in HTA processes, and internationally different ways of public participation are discussed and tested in decision making processes. This paper describes how the public can be involved in different decision situations, and it shows how preference measurement methods are currently being used in an international context to support decision making. It distinguishes between different levels of decision making on health technologies: approval, assessment, pricing, and finally utilization. The range of participation efforts extends from qualitative surveys of patients' needs (Citizen Councils of NICE in the UK) to science-based documentation of quantitative patient preferences, such as in the current pilot projects of the FDA in the US and the EMA at the European level. Possible approaches for the elicitation and documentation of preference structures and trade-offs in relation to alternate health technologies are decision aids, such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), that provide the necessary information for weighting and prioritizing decision criteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Public involvement and risk communiction for the Rocky Flats health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoda, S.M.; Lockhart, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, the State of Colorado and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into an Agreement in Principle that provides funding for state studies and monitoring of the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant. The Colorado Department of Health initiated a two-phase study to identify releases of radioactive and other contaminants from the year 1952, when Rocky Flats opened, through 1989, and to estimate the potential offsite exposures and health effects. Because one of the main goals for the study is to answer citizen questions about past operations and impacts from the Rocky Flats Plant, the Department of Health designed an open study process featuring a multi-faceted program for public involvement and two-way communication. To provide independent scientific oversight and increase public accountability, Governor Roy Romer appointed a 12-member Health Advisory Panel that includes local and national technical experts and community members. This paper describes the study process and the public involvement and risk communication program designed to address citizen concerns, foster understanding and build credibility

  11. Factors Influencing the Private Involvement in Urban Rail Public-Private Partnership Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Ke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Private investors have been encouraged to participate in the development and operation of urban rail projects in China through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs, given the fact that subnational governments are suffering from urgent development demands and severe fiscal pressure. However, there is no formal assessment to determine the private involvement in a PPP project. This problem is particularly critical in the sector of urban rail, in which the huge investment cannot rely on the private sector alone. This study hence aimed to uncover and identify the influencing factors. Multiple research methods, including content analysis, case study and focus group discussion were adopted to achieve the research purpose. Seven types of influencing factors were identified, including project financial model, government fiscal commitment, risk allocation, public accountability, efficiency considerations, policy and regulations, and organisational marketing strategies. The findings add to the current knowledge base by uncovering the drivers behind private involvement in a PPP project. They are also beneficial for industry practitioners as a basis/checklist to determine the private involvement.

  12. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate...... more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation...... and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS...

  13. Learning to work together - lessons from a reflective analysis of a research project on public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A; Mathie, E; Munday, D; Cowe, M; Goodman, C; Keenan, J; Kendall, S; Poland, F; Staniszewska, S; Wilson, P

    2017-01-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is very important, and funders and the NHS all expect this to happen. What this means in practice, and how to make it really successful, is therefore an important research question. This article analyses the experience of a research team using PPI, and makes recommendations on strengthening PPI in research. There were different PPI roles in our study - some people were part of the research team: some were on the advisory group; and there were patient groups who gave specific feedback on how to make research work better for their needs. We used minutes, other written documents, and structured individual and group reflections to learn from our own experiences over time. The main findings were:- for researchers and those in a PPI role to work in partnership, project structures must allow flexibility and responsiveness to different people's ideas and needs; a named link person can ensure support; PPI representatives need to feel fully included in the research; make clear what is expected for all roles; and ensure enough time and funding to allow meaningful involvement. Some roles brought more demands but also more rewards than others - highlighting that it is important that people giving up their time to help with research experience gains from doing so. Those contributing to PPI on a regular basis may want to learn new skills, rather than always doing the same things. Researchers and the public need to find ways to develop roles in PPI over time. We also found that, even for a team with expertise in PPI, there was a need both for understanding of different ways to contribute, and an evolving 'normalisation' of new ways of working together over time, which both enriched the process and the outputs. Background Patient and public involvement (PPI) is now an expectation of research funders, in the UK, but there is relatively little published literature on what this means in practice - nor is there much evaluative research

  14. Involvement of scientists in the NASA Office of Space Science education and public outreach program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1990's NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS) has embarked on an astronomy and space science education and public outreach (E/PO) program. Its goals are to share the excitement of space science discoveries with the public, and to enhance the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the precollege level. A key feature of the OSS program is the direct involvement of space scientists. The majority of the funding for E/PO is allocated to flight missions, which spend 1%-2% of their total budget on E/PO, and to individual research grants. This paper presents an overview of the program's goals, objectives, philosophy, and infrastructure

  15. Should Ecosystem Management Involve Active Control of Species Abundances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Lessard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We review four case studies in which there is a risk of extinction or severe reduction in highly valued species if we ignore either, or both, of two ecosystem control options. "Symptomatic control" implies direct control of extinction risk through direct harvesting or culling of competitors and predators. "Systemic control" implies treating the causes of the problem that led to an unnaturally high abundance in the first place. We demonstrate, with a discussion of historically observed population trends, how surprising trophic interactions can emerge as a result of alterations to a system. Simulation models were developed for two of the case studies as aids to adaptive policy design, to expose possible abundance changes caused by trophic interactions and to highlight key uncertainties about possible responses to ecosystem management policies involving active intervention to control abundances. With reasonable parameter values, these models predict a wide range of possible responses given available data, but do indicate a good chance that active control would reverse declines and reverse extinction risks. We find that controlling seal (Phoca vitulina populations in the Georgia Strait increases juvenile survival rates of commercial salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. species, but that commensurate increases in hake populations from decreased seal predation could be a compensatory source of predation on juvenile salmon. We also show that wolf (Canis lupus control and moose (Alces alces harvest bring about a recovery in caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou populations, where simple habitat protection policies fail to recover caribou before wolf predation causes severe declines. The results help address a common problem in disturbed ecosystems, where controlling extinction risks can mean choosing between active control of species abundance or establishing policies of protection, and allowing threatened species to recover naturally.

  16. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients seeking care abroad

  17. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients

  18. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Adams, Krystyna; Snyder, Jeremy; Kingsbury, Paul

    2011-05-31

    The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients seeking care abroad. Therefore, a call for a comprehensive public

  19. The effects of message framing, involvement, and nicotine dependence on anti-smoking public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wan S; Villegas, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) typically emphasize the negative consequences of failing to quit smoking (negative frame), as opposed to emphasizing the benefits of quitting (positive frame). However, stressing the benefits of quitting sometimes produces better communication outcomes. Previous research on message framing has tried to identify factors affecting the impact of positive framing and negative framing. Data were collected on 188 undergraduates attending a southeastern university in the United States who were assigned randomly to view either positive or negative messages. Our study found that involvement and nicotine dependence moderated the impact of framed smoking-cessation messages on attitude toward the ad.

  20. Involving the public in mental health and learning disability research: Can we, should we, do we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C; Holt, J

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK health policy is clear that researchers should involve the public throughout the research process. The public, including patients, carers and/or local citizens can bring a different and valuable perspective to the research process and improve the quality of research undertaken. Conducting health research is demanding with tight deadlines and scarce resources. This can make involving the public in research very challenging. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first time the attitudes of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services towards PPI have been investigated. The principles of service user involvement in mental health and learning disability services may support PPI in research as a tool of collaboration and empowerment. This article extends our understanding of the cultural and attitudinal barriers to implementing PPI guidelines in mental health and learning disability services. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Researchers in mental health and learning disability services need to champion, share and publish effective involvement work. Structural barriers to PPI work should be addressed locally and successful strategies shared nationally and internationally. Where PPI guidelines are being developed, attention needs to be paid to cultural factors in the research community to win "hearts and minds" and support the effective integration of PPI across the whole research process. Introduction Patient and public involvement (PPI) is integral to UK health research guidance; however, implementation is inconsistent. There is little research into the attitudes of NHS health researchers towards PPI. Aim This study explored the attitude of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services in the UK towards PPI in health research. Method Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight researchers. A

  1. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  2. Public Tourism Infrastructure: Challenges in the Development and Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the tourism sector is a major contributor to the nation’s development and is spearheaded by the government’s efforts in investing heavily towards providing sufficient and well-functioning public tourism infrastructure. This infrastructure should be ideally developed with a clear and systematic maintenance plan in hand. The challenge herein is not merely providing the necessary infrastructure to sustain tourism activities but rather a pro-active approach towards establishing and subsequently maintaining this infrastructure at its optimal level. The aim of this paper therefore is to identify critical aspects that need to be in place to further enhance the Malaysian tourism industry. The paper discusses the issues and challenges that need to be addressed as a precursor towards an effectively developed and maintained tourism infrastructure system. Development issues that have been identified revolve around the dimensions of quality, quantity and ability of the public agencies involved, particularly issues of inadequate infrastructure, quality of infrastructure and the capability of the agencies in undertaking efficient maintenance activities. These issues were found to lead towards challenges of working with resource constraints, lack of an effective maintenance culture and system as well as the need for clear and effective policies and strategies.

  3. Means and tools to identify future public concerns as a basis for developing information and public involvement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the debate about nuclear power and nuclear waste. What are these studies exactly and what issues do they raise? What information do they provide to decision-makers? Can they help in formulating policy about communication and decision-making in the nuclear sphere? Today, the public is considered as a privileged partner with whom constructive dialog is possible. It is no longer simply a question of providing information, but of rethinking decision-making processes: is an active participation by the public in such processes desirable, and is it possible? This change in approach is of concern to social science researchers: do the bases underlying the studies carried out throughout the world need to be reviewed? Radical social change modifies the context in which decisions are taken and information and communication developed. A comprehensive and historical analysis of such change identifies elements which have to be taken into account in forward planning. The new methods the latter employ with regard to decision-making and development are the reflection of the questioning of science and expertise and the calls for greater environment protection and for a more democratic process on the part of the public. But having noted that the context is changing, how may the future be envisaged? A whole range of instruments is available to complete this comprehensive analysis: surveys of attitudes and opinions, monographs on actor interplay and press analysis. The analyses which are undertaken from studies to work in the field make it possible to identify a number of principles of action which, in turn, allow in theory to envisage possible strategies. But clearly, the application of studies to concrete situations raise problems: are statements made by the public to be taken literally? Must account be taken of claims? How are the values expressed by the public to be incorporated in the decisions taken? In fact, a project's future always depends on

  4. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  5. Involvement of the Public Health Authority in emergency planning and preparedness for nuclear facilities in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztanyik, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is required by the Hungarian Atomic Energy Act and its enacting clause of 1980 that facilities established for the application of atomic energy be designed, constructed and operated in such a manner that abnormal operational occurrences can be avoided and unplanned exposures to radiation and radioactive substances can be prevented. The primary responsibility for planning and implementing emergency actions rests with the management of the operating organization. Thus one of the prerequisites of licensing the first nuclear power plant in Hungary was the preparation and submission for approval of an emergency plan by the operating organization. In addition to this, the council of the county where the power plant is located has also been obliged to prepare a complementary emergency plan, in co-operation with other regional and national authorities, for the prevention of consequences from an emergency that may extend beyond the site boundary of the plant. In preparing the complementary plan, the emergency plan of the facility had to be taken into account. Unlike most national authorities involved in nuclear matters, the Public Health Authority is involved in the preparation of plans for every kind of emergency in a nuclear facility, including even those whose consequences can probably be confined to the plant site. The paper discusses in detail the role and responsibility of the Public Health Authority in emergency planning and preparedness for nuclear facilities. (author)

  6. Communication and Public Involvement An obligation, not an option - An opportunity, not a burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek M.

    2006-01-01

    and structured way that should result in a proposal, plan, programme or project that not only addresses the concerns of all those involved but should be of benefit to the both the potential developer and the public. (author)

  7. GIS - Based data presentation and interactive communication system for public involvement in EIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Guta, V.; Pirvu, V.

    2001-01-01

    The data presentation and interactive communication system has as main task to integrate technical and administrative information, as well as to ensure an efficient public participation. The system can achieve desired inter-operability between specialists, government and public in decision-making and environmental impact assessment (EIA). It incorporates different modules relative to specific types of parameters and authorities involved. The GIS-based system provides mapping, database, automatic information collection and advanced presentation techniques. It includes a graphically oriented executive support, which has the ability to present information by geographical representation of the zones on the map. The public opinion is taking into account by consideration of alternatives and providing access to the monitoring of environmental effects. The system offers an effective way to avoid negative reactions by interactive communication based on real-time information exchange. The system can be integrated into national or international management systems, being a useful tool for an efficient communication, handling and exchanging a vast amount of information. (authors)

  8. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in road traffic accidents attended at public urgent and emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Souto, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima, Cheila Marina de; Montenegro, Marli de Mesquita Silva

    2016-12-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level. Motorcyclist-related attendances (n = 9,673) reported a prevalence of men (gender ratio = 3.2), young people aged 20-39 years (65.7%), black / brown (73.6%), paid work (76.4%). Helmet use was reported by 79.1% of the victims, 13.3% had consumed alcohol in the six hours prior to the accident, 41.4% of the events were related to the victim's work. Accidents were more frequent on weekends, in the morning and late afternoon. These characteristics can support the development of public accident prevention policies and health promotion.

  9. Corporate Governance Provisions, Family Involvement, and Firm Performance in Publicly Traded Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Memili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the moderation effects of corporate governance provisions on the link between family involvement (i.e., family ownership and family management in publicly-traded firms and firm performance by drawing upon agency theory, with a focus on principal-principal agency issues, and the extant family governance literature. We develop and test the hypotheses on 386 of the S&P 500 firms longitudinally. Findings support the hypotheses suggesting the moderation effects of the use of provisions (a protecting controlling owners in terms of their sustainability of controlling status, and (b protecting management legally on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family ownership and firm performance. We also found support for the moderation effects of provisions (c protecting controlling owners in terms of their voting rights, (d protecting noncontrolling owners, and (e protecting management monetarily on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family management and firm performance. By this, our study provides empirical support for the principal-principal agency perspective on the corporate governance in publicly-traded family firms. As such, it suggests new avenues of research for both the corporate governance literature, as well as for the theory of the family firm. Our study also offers insights to policy directed toward monitoring the actions of large shareholders such as family and enhancing the overall shareholder value in publicly-traded family firms.

  10. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eYeatts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an experience trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they cover key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.

  11. Creative communication in public relations activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Jakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several approaches to new waves of public relations. Emphasis is given to the creative impulse since many public relations professionals are less familiar with it than other forms of communication. Five criteria are suggested for structuring creative communications: 1. learning how to be a good storyteller; 2. visual communication is the content that could increasingly build strong relationships with audiences; 3. the PR practitioner’s challenge is to evaluate what people are discussing and identify the recurring issues in their marketplace; 4. recognizing that local is new global; and 5. predicate that PR is constantly changing. People who work in public relations possess the skill of offering arguments that will convince the people themselves of something. However, these skills can be offered in traditional or creative forms of expression. If we define public relations as the management of an organization’s communication with its public, then we are referring to the traditional dimension of public relations, the basis and ultimate goal of which are to cultivate relationships with the participants of the process in order to obtain support and to build trust and reputation.

  12. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  13. Participatory democracy, representative democracy, and the nature of diffuse and concentrated interests: A case study of public involvement on a national gorest district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Overdevest

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate whether public involvement on a national forest district fairly represents the public's values, this article proposes four hypothesis tests. First, it is hypothesized that public-involvement programs operute according to a participatory democracy logic, in which broad cross sections of the public participate in public involvement opportunities. A...

  14. Experience of Public Involvement in Canada Presented to the Forum for Stakeholder Confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, Jo-Ann; Patton, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Pat Patton of NWMO, Canada, summarised the experiences of the organisation's three-year study aimed at identifying a broadly supported approach to managing Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The starting point of the study was the recognition that citizen perception of safety and acceptability are strongly interrelated, therefore understanding and addressing the social dimension of safety would be critical for finding a socially acceptable RWM approach. An iterative and collaborative dialogue was conducted between specialists and citizens to both identify how safety is to be assessed and to carry out the assessment. First, objectives, values and ethical principles were defined, which formed the basis for the criteria of selecting a preferred RWM approach. The dialogue revealed that adaptability of the management approach to new information and technological advancement is a key requirement. Continuous learning, RD and D, and citizen involvement over the course of implementation were also identified as important components of the management approach. Ms Patton presented an illustrative model for public involvement during the implementation process. According to the model, implementation would be a multi-stage process with a continuous interaction between scientific and technical specialists, potentially affected communities and the implementer. Finally, Ms Patton outlined some key challenges for future dialogues between non-specialists and experts, including the development of tools for involving citizens in increasingly more knowledge-intensive areas and communicating research results which address issues highlighted by citizens

  15. Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosar, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    Controversies recently have arisen over certain executive branch agencies' expenditures of appropriated funds on public relations activities, some of which have been characterized as propagandistic...

  16. Pregnant Teenager Involvement in Sexual Activity and the Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at first intercourse was 14.2 years and the average period between first intercourse and pregnancy was 1.4 years. Most pregnancies (75% were neither planned nor wanted, however, most teen mothers (64.3% did not use any contraceptive method. Of the pregnant teenagers, 68.1% came from unstructured families where in 71% of the teen pregnancy cases, there was a role model (mother, sister, or cousin who already experienced teen pregnancy. The average number of school years attended by the analyzed pregnant teenagers was 8.1 years, however, there was a high dropout rate of 40.1%. The age at first intercourse was low and concurs with the high incidence of unstructured families. The average number of school years attended was high, which would theoretically reflect a greater knowledge with regard to human reproduction, pointing to the multicausality of teen pregnancy and the role played by the family. Conclusions: We confirmed that teen pregnancy presents multicausal etiology; sexual initiation of pregnant teenagers was quite early with high dropout rates, which indicated that prevention methodology should be based on early detection of risk factors for elaboration of appropriate prevention proposals.

  17. Paternal Involvement in Child- Rearing Activities: The Perspective of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recognition of the need to widen the scope of fatherhood scholarship, this article centered on examining paternal involvement but in a socio- cultural context and developmental stage that has headed little attention in previous research. An attempt was made to investigate the nature of paternal involvement (ways, desires ...

  18. Active audiencies and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, Pere; Guallar, Javier; Peralta, Miquel; Ruiz-Caballero, Carlos; Suau, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC), appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information...

  19. Active audiences and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, Pere; Guallar, Javier; Peralta, Miquel; Ruiz, Carles; Suau, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC), appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information...

  20. Behind the Scenes of Public Construction Clients – Collecting Data on Commissioning Activities and Organisational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Marleen; Eisma, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of public commissioning activity is fairly limited, with national and European research primarily focusing on large scale projects, European procurement procedures and new construction. However, most construction activities involve small scale projects and assignments performed by smaller scale semi-public organisations such as hospitals, schools or housing associations. Similarities and differences between new construction and asset management have not received ample attent...

  1. A framework for public involvement at the design stage of NHS health and social care research: time to develop ethically conscious standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya-Wood, Raksha; Barron, Duncan S; Elliott, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Researchers who conduct studies in health and social care are encouraged to involve the public as early as possible in the process of designing their studies. Before their studies are allowed to start researchers must seek approval from a Research Ethics Committee, which will assess whether the study is going to be safe and ethical for patients or healthy volunteers to take part in. The process of ethical review does not consider how researchers work with patients and the public early on to design their studies. Furthermore, there is no requirement for researchers to seek ethical approval for public involvement. However, in our work advising researchers about public involvement we have found that the ways in which researchers involve the public in the design of their studies are sometimes unintentionally unethical, and this is the focus of our paper. We have observed ten areas where ethical issues may arise because of the actions researchers may or may not take and which might consequently have a negative impact. Therefore, we have used these observations to develop a "framework" to help researchers and the public work together at the early design stage in ways that are ethical. Our intention for the framework is to help researchers be mindful of these ten areas and how easily ethical issues can arise. The framework suggests some ways to overcome the potential issues in each of the ten areas. The ten areas are: 1) Allocating sufficient time for public involvement; 2) Avoiding tokenism; 3) Registering research design stage public involvement work with NHS Research & Development Trust Office at earliest opportunity; 4) Communicating clearly from the outset; 5) Entitling public contributors to stop their involvement for any unstated reasons; 6) Operating fairness of opportunity; 7) Differentiating qualitative research methods and public involvement activities; 8) Working sensitively; 9) Being conscious of confidentiality and 10) Valuing, acknowledging and rewarding

  2. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Fernald Envoy Program: How face-to-face public involvement is working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoopes, J.; Jordan, J.

    1995-01-01

    In March 1994, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), initiated the Fernald Envoy Program as a tool for strengthening public involvement in the restoration of the Fernald site, a former US Department of Energy uranium processing facility which ceased operation in 1989 and became an environmental restoration site. Based on the concept that opinion leaders play a key role in the flow of information, the Envoy Program was developed to link Fernald with opinion leaders in community groups. In February and March 1995, the University of Cincinnati Center for Environmental Communication Studies, under contract with the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation, conducted an evaluation to determine how the Envoy Program was functioning in relation to the original Envoy Plan. A quasi-experimental design was applied using telephone surveys of opinion leaders in groups with envoy representation and in groups without representation. Findings validated the effectiveness of the program and also identified areas for program improvement

  4. The Fernald Envoy Program: How face-to-face public involvement is working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopes, J. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Hundertmark, C.A. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jordan, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Center for Environmental Communication Studies

    1995-12-31

    In March 1994, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), initiated the Fernald Envoy Program as a tool for strengthening public involvement in the restoration of the Fernald site, a former US Department of Energy uranium processing facility which ceased operation in 1989 and became an environmental restoration site. Based on the concept that opinion leaders play a key role in the flow of information, the Envoy Program was developed to link Fernald with opinion leaders in community groups. In February and March 1995, the University of Cincinnati Center for Environmental Communication Studies, under contract with the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation, conducted an evaluation to determine how the Envoy Program was functioning in relation to the original Envoy Plan. A quasi-experimental design was applied using telephone surveys of opinion leaders in groups with envoy representation and in groups without representation. Findings validated the effectiveness of the program and also identified areas for program improvement.

  5. Target for improvement: a cluster randomised trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation (intervention development and study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgers Jako

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public priorities for improvement often differ from those of clinicians and managers. Public involvement has been proposed as a way to bridge the gap between professional and public clinical care priorities but has not been studied in the context of quality-indicator choice. Our objective is to assess the feasibility and impact of public involvement on quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities. Methods We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing quality-indicator prioritisation with and without public involvement. In preparation for the trial, we developed a 'menu' of quality indicators, based on a systematic review of existing validated indicator sets. Participants (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will be recruited from six participating sites. In intervention sites, public representatives will be involved through direct participation (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will deliberate together to agree on quality-indicator choice and use and consultation (individual public recommendations for improvement will be collected and presented to decision makers. In control sites, only clinicians and managers will take part in the prioritisation process. Data on quality-indicator choice and intended use will be collected. Our primary outcome will compare quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities between intervention and control groups. A process evaluation based on direct observation, videorecording, and participants' assessment will be conducted to help explain the study's results. The marginal cost of public involvement will also be assessed. Discussion We identified 801 quality indicators that met our inclusion criteria. An expert panel agreed on a final set of 37 items containing validated quality indicators relevant for chronic disease prevention and management in primary care. We pilot tested our public-involvement intervention with 27

  6. Evaluating patient and public involvement in health research: from theoretical model to practical workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andy; Welsman, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing literature on evaluating aspects of patient and public involvement (PPI). We have suggested that at the core of successful PPI is the dynamic interaction of different forms of knowledge, notably lay and professional. We have developed a four-dimensional theoretical framework for understanding these interactions. We explore the practical utility of the theoretical framework as a tool for mapping and evaluating the experience of PPI in health services research. We conducted three workshops with different PPI groups in which participants were invited to map their PPI experiences on wall charts representing the four dimensions of our framework. The language used to describe the four dimensions was modified to make it more accessible to lay audiences. Participants were given sticky notes to indicate their own positions on the different dimensions and to write explanatory comments if they wished. Participants' responses were then discussed and analysed as a group. The three groups were distinctive in their mapped responses suggesting different experiences in relation to having a strong or weak voice in their organization, having few or many ways of getting involved, addressing organizational or public concerns and believing that the organization was willing to change or not. The framework has practical utility for mapping and evaluating PPI interactions and is sensitive to differences in PPI experiences within and between different organizations. The workshops enabled participants to reflect collaboratively on their experiences with a view to improving PPI experiences and planning for the future. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Predicting re-involvement for children adopted out of a public child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Some of the approximately 400,000 children currently placed out-of-home in a public child welfare system will not reunify with their family of origin. They may instead be adopted into a new family. Adoption placements can be characterized by poor adjustment for children; some such placements even result in disruption or dissolution. We conducted a stratified Cox regression of 4,016 children from the Colorado public child welfare system. All of the children had a finalized adoption during the years 2002 through 2006. The two outcomes analyzed were new child protection and youth-in-conflict referrals and assessments for these previously adopted children. New child welfare referrals and assessments may be early indicators of poor adjustment for adopted children within the adoptive family. Study results indicate that older children and Hispanic children had higher rates of referral and assessment. Children with a pre-adoption history including longer time out-of-home or a larger number of out-of-home placements also experienced higher referral and assessment rates. Additional factors which predicted subsequent system re-involvement included presence of paid adoption assistance, adoption by a non-relative foster parent and younger adoptive parent age. Several study results were moderated by the presence or absence of an ethnic match between the child and the adoptive parents. We provide an overview of the statistical model used for analysis and we discuss implications of the study results for child welfare practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Involving Research Stakeholders in Developing Policy on Sharing Public Health Research Data in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy

    2015-01-01

    Increased global sharing of public health research data has potential to advance scientific progress but may present challenges to the interests of research stakeholders, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. Policies for data sharing should be responsive to public views, but there is little evidence of the systematic study of these from low-income countries. This qualitative study explored views on fair data-sharing processes among 60 stakeholders in Kenya with varying research experience, using a deliberative approach. Stakeholders’ attitudes were informed by perceptions of benefit and concerns for research data sharing, including risks of stigmatization, loss of privacy, and undermining scientific careers and validity, reported in detail elsewhere. In this article, we discuss institutional trust-building processes seen as central to perceptions of fairness in sharing research data in this setting, including forms of community involvement, individual prior awareness and agreement to data sharing, independence and accountability of governance mechanisms, and operating under a national framework. PMID:26297748

  9. Some aspects of public relation activities at Russian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, Sergei

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Since 1992 Rosenergoatom has managed most of the Russian NPPs. Here in this report we present its main public relations activities. 1. The leading role of the management of Rosenergoatom (Direction of Public Relations) is in relations with the public. 2. The main public relations activities are: - contact with the selected and administrative authorities of different levels, - interaction with mass media, - information of employees, - information of, and interaction with, the people of the areas close to the NPPs and especially of the nearby towns, - organising and carrying out opinion polls, - celebration campaigns at NPPs. 3. The use of NPPs' information centers and groups for PR activities: - construction and equipping of NPPs' public information centers; organising excursions, lectures, debates at NPPs; - publishing of news papers at NPPs and at NPPs' towns. 4. Public information in the regions close to the NPPs construction sites (Far East, Kostroma, Rostov, Veronezh regions). 5. Conclusions on the activities and plans for the future. (author)

  10. Productivity improvement opportunities at Navy public works activities

    OpenAIRE

    Dieffenbach, Richard Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study identifies six principal opportunities for productivity improvement at Navy Public Works in-house maintenance activities: improving work assignment, increasing shop supervisor effectiveness, reducing long lunches and early quits (through understanding of work impediments as demotivational contributors), improving service order management, improving job quality and miscellaneous opportunities. Activity "productivity opportu...

  11. Developing a conceptual model for the application of patient and public involvement in the healthcare system in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmal, Mohammad; Sari, Ali Akbari; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ahmadi, Batoul

    2016-06-01

    Patient and public involvement is engaging patients, providers, community representatives, and the public in healthcare planning and decision-making. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for the application of patient and public involvement in decision making in the Iranian healthcare system. A mixed qualitative-quantitative approach was used to develop a conceptual model. Thirty three key informants were purposely recruited in the qualitative stage, and 420 people (patients and their companions) were included in a protocol study that was implemented in five steps: 1) Identifying antecedents, consequences, and variables associated with the patient and the publics' involvement in healthcare decision making through a comprehensive literature review; 2) Determining the main variables in the context of Iran's health system using conceptual framework analysis; 3) Prioritizing and weighting variables by Shannon entropy; 4) designing and validating a tool for patient and public involvement in healthcare decision making; and 5) Providing a conceptual model of patient and the public involvement in planning and developing healthcare using structural equation modeling. We used various software programs, including SPSS (17), Max QDA (10), EXCEL, and LISREL. Content analysis, Shannon entropy, and descriptive and analytic statistics were used to analyze the data. In this study, seven antecedents variable, five dimensions of involvement, and six consequences were identified. These variables were used to design a valid tool. A logical model was derived that explained the logical relationships between antecedent and consequent variables and the dimensions of patient and public involvement as well. Given the specific context of the political, social, and innovative environments in Iran, it was necessary to design a model that would be compatible with these features. It can improve the quality of care and promote the patient and the public satisfaction with healthcare and

  12. Situation concerning public information about and involvement in the decision-making processes in the nuclear sector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T.; Paterson, J.; Dawson, M.; Borg Barthet, J.; Prades, A.; Lopez, M.; Sala, R.

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport (EC DGTREN) launched a study on 'the situation concerning public information about and involvement in decision-making processes in the nuclear sector' in January 2005. The main goal of this project was to inform the EC DGTREN and interested parties of recent developments in the Member States and to provide opportunities for decision-makers and stakeholders at local, national and EU level to exchange views. This study is based on the analysis of opinion polls, regulation and case studies where public information and involvement are a key dimension in the decision-making process and where innovative approaches have been observed. The research material and proposals were presented and discussed at a workshop with 50 delegates, representing the various stakeholders concerned by nuclear activities in Europe. As testified by recent opinion polls and feedback from case studies, there is a strong public demand for more participation in decision-making processes relating to the environment, and nuclear issues specifically. There is an increasing expectation that the phase of decision-framing which determines the scope and objectives of a regulation or of a decision on an industrial facility, involves not only experts and politics, but also NGOs, independent experts, local actors, etc. This expectation is now supported by significant legislation at EU and national levels, the foundation stone of which is the 'Aarhus Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' (1998). One can find different but convergent rationales behind these developments. On the one hand, there is a consideration that nuclear technologies have a potential impact on the public and accordingly require that their development involves affected parties. On the other hand, the problems raised by nuclear activities have an impact at several levels (local

  13. Situation concerning public information about and involvement in the decision-making processes in the nuclear sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France); Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire - CEPN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Paterson, J.; Dawson, M.; Borg Barthet, J. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom); Prades, A.; Lopez, M.; Sala, R. [CIEMAT, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport (EC DGTREN) launched a study on 'the situation concerning public information about and involvement in decision-making processes in the nuclear sector' in January 2005. The main goal of this project was to inform the EC DGTREN and interested parties of recent developments in the Member States and to provide opportunities for decision-makers and stakeholders at local, national and EU level to exchange views. This study is based on the analysis of opinion polls, regulation and case studies where public information and involvement are a key dimension in the decision-making process and where innovative approaches have been observed. The research material and proposals were presented and discussed at a workshop with 50 delegates, representing the various stakeholders concerned by nuclear activities in Europe. As testified by recent opinion polls and feedback from case studies, there is a strong public demand for more participation in decision-making processes relating to the environment, and nuclear issues specifically. There is an increasing expectation that the phase of decision-framing which determines the scope and objectives of a regulation or of a decision on an industrial facility, involves not only experts and politics, but also NGOs, independent experts, local actors, etc. This expectation is now supported by significant legislation at EU and national levels, the foundation stone of which is the 'Aarhus Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' (1998). One can find different but convergent rationales behind these developments. On the one hand, there is a consideration that nuclear technologies have a potential impact on the public and accordingly require that their development involves affected parties. On the other hand, the problems raised by nuclear activities have an impact at several

  14. GLOBE at Night: Raising Public Awareness and Involvement through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2010-12-01

    With half of the world’s population now living in cities, many urban dwellers have never experienced the wonderment of pristinely dark skies and maybe never will. Light pollution is obscuring people’s long-standing natural heritage to view stars. The GLOBE at Night program (www.globeatnight.org) is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations online to a world map. In the last 5 years, GLOBE at Night has been the most productive public light pollution monitoring campaign, collecting over 52,000 observations in a two-week period annually. This year, during the moonless two weeks in March, the campaign set a record high of over 17,800 measurements from people in 86 countries. Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public’s participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and “Dark Skies Rangers” activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. The GLOBE at Night data from different years can be compared to look for trends over time or with population density maps. The data can also be used to search for dark sky oases or to monitor lighting ordinance compliance. Most

  15. Developing Science Communication in Africa: Undergraduate and Graduate Students should be Trained and Actively Involved in Outreach Activity Development and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Thomas K; Yawson, Nat Ato; Quansah, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in scientific research output from Africa, public understanding of science in many parts of the continent remains low. Science communication there is faced with challenges such as (i) lack of interest among some scientists, (ii) low availability of training programs for scientists, (iii) low literacy rates among the public, and (iv) multiplicity of languages. To address these challenges, new ways of training and motivating scientists to dialogue with non-scientists are essential. Developing communication skills early in researchers' scientific career would be a good way to enhance their public engagement abilities. Therefore, a potentially effective means to develop science communication in Africa would be to actively involve trainee scientists (i.e., undergraduate and graduate students) in outreach activity development and delivery. These students are often enthusiastic about science, eager to develop their teaching and communication skills, and can be good mentors to younger students. Involving them in all aspects of outreach activity is, therefore, likely to be a productive implementation strategy. However, science communication training specifically for students and the involvement of these students in outreach activity design and delivery are lacking in Africa. Here, we argue that improving the training and involvement of budding scientists in science communication activities would be a good way to bridge the wide gap between scientists and the African public.

  16. Defining the activities of publicness for Korea's public community hospitals using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyun Joo; You, Myoungsoon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Eun, Sang Jun; Jeong, Hyoseon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Yong

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to identify which activities of a public community hospital (PHC) should be included in their definition of publicness and tries to achieve a consensus among experts using the Delphi method. We conduct 2 rounds of the Delphi process with 17 panel members using a developed draft of tentative activities for publicness including 5 main categories covering 27 items. The questions remain the same in both rounds and the applicability of each of the 27 items to publicness is measured on a 9-point scale. If the participants believe government funding is needed, we ask how much they think the government should support each item on a 0% to 100% scale. After conducting 2 rounds of the Delphi process, 22 out of the 27 items reached a consensus as activities defining the publicness of the PHCs. Among the 5 major categories, in category C, activities preventing market failure, all 10 items were considered activities of publicness. Nine of these were evaluated as items that should be compensated at 100% of total financial loss by the Korean government. Throughout results, we were able to define the activities of the PCH that encompassed its publicness and confirm that there are "good deficits" in the context of the PCHs. Thus, some PCH deficits are unavoidable and not wasted as these monies support a necessary role and function in providing public health. The Korean government should therefore consider taking actions such as exempting such "good deficits" or providing additional financial aid to reimburse the PHCs for "good deficits."

  17. Extracurricular Activity Involvement and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Structured extracurricular activity participation has been linked to self-esteem and other indicators of positive youth development. This article describes the theoretical basis for this relationship, centering on extracurricular activities as a location for identity development. A summary of the empirical evidence points to the importance of…

  18. Active and retired public employees' health insurance: potential data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2014-12-01

    Employer-provided health insurance for public sector workers is a significant public policy issue. Underfunding and the growing costs of benefits may hinder the fiscal solvency of state and local governments. Findings from the private sector may not be applicable because many public sector workers are covered by union contracts or salary schedules and often benefit modifications require changes in legislation. Research has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining sufficiently large and representative data on public sector employees. This article highlights data sources researchers might utilize to investigate topics concerning health insurance for active and retired public sector employees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Climateprediction.com: Public Involvement, Multi-Million Member Ensembles and Systematic Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainforth, D. A.; Allen, M.; Kettleborough, J.; Collins, M.; Heaps, A.; Stott, P.; Wehner, M.

    2001-12-01

    The climateprediction.com project is preparing to carry out the first systematic uncertainty analysis of climate forecasts using large ensembles of GCM climate simulations. This will be done by involving schools, businesses and members of the public, and utilizing the novel technology of distributed computing. Each participant will be asked to run one member of the ensemble on their PC. The model used will initially be the UK Met Office's Unified Model (UM). It will be run under Windows and software will be provided to enable those involved to view their model output as it develops. The project will use this method to carry out large perturbed physics GCM ensembles and thereby analyse the uncertainty in the forecasts from such models. Each participant/ensemble member will therefore have a version of the UM in which certain aspects of the model physics have been perturbed from their default values. Of course the non-linear nature of the system means that it will be necessary to look not just at perturbations to individual parameters in specific schemes, such as the cloud parameterization, but also to the many combinations of perturbations. This rapidly leads to the need for very large, perhaps multi-million member ensembles, which could only be undertaken using the distributed computing methodology. The status of the project will be presented and the Windows client will be demonstrated. In addition, initial results will be presented from beta test runs using a demo release for Linux PCs and Alpha workstations. Although small by comparison to the whole project, these pilot results constitute a 20-50 member perturbed physics climate ensemble with results indicating how climate sensitivity can be substantially affected by individual parameter values in the cloud scheme.

  20. Get Involved in Education and Public Outreach! The Science Mission Directorate Science E/PO Forums Are Here to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Hsu, B. C.; Peticolas, L. M.; Smith, D.; Meinke, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums help to engage, extend, support, and coordinate the efforts of the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in Earth and space science education activities. This work is undertaken to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall national NASA science education and outreach effort made up of individual efforts run by these education professionals. This includes facilitating scientist engagement in education and outreach. The Forums have been developing toolkits and pathways to support planetary, Earth, astrophysics, and heliophysics scientists who are - or who are interested in becoming - involved in E/PO. These tools include: 1) Pathways to learn about SMD and E/PO community announcements and opportunities, share news about E/PO programs, let the E/PO community know you are interested in becoming involved, and discover education programs needing scientist input and/or support. These pathways include weekly e-news, the SMD E/PO online community workspace, monthly community calls, conferences and meetings of opportunity. 2) Portals to help you find out what education resources already exist, obtain resources to share with students of all levels - from K-12 to graduate students, - and disseminate your materials. These include E/PO samplers and toolkits (sampling of resources selected for scientists who work with students, teachers, and the public), the one-stop shop of reviewed resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio NASAWavelength.org, and the online clearinghouse of Earth and space science higher education materials EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace). 3) Connections to education specialists who can help you design and implement meaningful E/PO programs - small to large. Education specialists can help you understand what research says about how people learn and effective practices for achieving your goals, place your

  1. [Physician Involvement in the Activities of the European Medicines Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivana

    2017-11-29

    For more than two decades of activity, the European Medicines Agency has been operating as part of a network with the national medicines agencies in Europe, bringing together - in its various scienti c committees and working groups - European experts on a wide range of topics related to quality assurance, safety and ef cacy of medicines. The work carried out within the European Medicines Agency activities and the conclusions reached at European level affect millions of citizens. The European Medicines Agency considers that it is of great importance to maintain, in a sustainable and consistent manner, the active participation of general practitioners, as well as other medical specialists, in the process of medicines' evaluation and supervision. This article summarizes how the participation of doctors and health professionals in general is promoted in the European Medicines Agency activities.

  2. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland). Research and Environmental Surveillance; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland). System Analysis Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process.

  3. Public and patient involvement in quantitative health research: A statistical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Ailish

    2018-06-19

    The majority of studies included in recent reviews of impact for public and patient involvement (PPI) in health research had a qualitative design. PPI in solely quantitative designs is underexplored, particularly its impact on statistical analysis. Statisticians in practice have a long history of working in both consultative (indirect) and collaborative (direct) roles in health research, yet their perspective on PPI in quantitative health research has never been explicitly examined. To explore the potential and challenges of PPI from a statistical perspective at distinct stages of quantitative research, that is sampling, measurement and statistical analysis, distinguishing between indirect and direct PPI. Statistical analysis is underpinned by having a representative sample, and a collaborative or direct approach to PPI may help achieve that by supporting access to and increasing participation of under-represented groups in the population. Acknowledging and valuing the role of lay knowledge of the context in statistical analysis and in deciding what variables to measure may support collective learning and advance scientific understanding, as evidenced by the use of participatory modelling in other disciplines. A recurring issue for quantitative researchers, which reflects quantitative sampling methods, is the selection and required number of PPI contributors, and this requires further methodological development. Direct approaches to PPI in quantitative health research may potentially increase its impact, but the facilitation and partnership skills required may require further training for all stakeholders, including statisticians. © 2018 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process

  5. Enzymes activities involving bacterial cytochromes incorporated in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojou, E.; Giudici-Orticoni, M.Th.; Bianco, P.

    2005-01-01

    With the development of bio electrochemistry, researches appeared on the enzymes immobilization at the surface of electrodes for the realization of bioreactors and bio sensors. One of the main challenges is the development of host matrix able to immobilize the protein material preserving its integrity. In this framework the authors developed graphite electrodes modified by clay films. These electrodes are examined for two enzyme reactions involving proteins of sulfate-reduction bacteria. Then in the framework of the hydrogen biological production and bioreactors for the environmental pollution de-pollution, the electrochemical behavior of the cytochrome c3 in two different clays deposed at the electrode is examined

  6. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.

  7. INVOLVEMENT OF LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Barbu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to show the perception of the main stakeholder on the rural tourism field, local government, on the development of this economic activities. We believe that a revision of an important part of approaches that have appeared in the literature in terms of the concept of rural tourism, in terms of methods of analysis of tourism activities and, not least, requiring the use modern techniques for foresight indicators by which to make assessments on these activities.The local public administration is responsible for policy formulation, research and planning, development of basic infrastructure, the development of certain landmarks, establishing and managing service delivery standards, establishing management measures and recovery planning and environmental protection, setting standards for training and improving employment, setting standards for maintaining public health and safety.In this paper we try to show as well the main factors of the emergence and development of rural tourism in order to establish priorities in the joint action of local people, entrepreneurs, tourists and local and national administrations. In many countries, the tourism industry fall within government priority. Tourism has been identified as one of the primary industries with potential to support local communities in developing economic diversity. In this research, it was also used descriptive analysis of the variables and comparative analysis using Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U test.Kruskal-Wallis H test. The Kruskall-Wallis test aims at comparing several independent samples when, as is the case of our research, the dependent variable is ordinal. The test is based on rank and hierarchy of data analysis. Scores are ranked from lowest to highest, ignoring the groups they belong to, and then calculate the sum of ranks for each of the groups. The question refers to how much respondents considered that are due to the development of rural tourism

  8. Getting England to be more physically active: are the Public Health Responsibility Deal's physical activity pledges the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, C; Petticrew, M; Scott, C; Durand, M A; Eastmure, E; James, L; Mehrotra, A; Mays, N

    2015-09-18

    The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between government, industry, and other organisations to improve public health by addressing alcohol, food, health at work, and physical activity. This paper analyses the RD physical activity (PA) pledges in terms of the evidence of their potential effectiveness, and the likelihood that they have motivated actions among organisations that would not otherwise have taken place. We systematically reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions proposed in four PA pledges of the RD, namely, those on physical activity in the community; physical activity guidelines; active travel; and physical activity in the workplace. We then analysed publically available data on RD signatory organisations' plans and progress towards achieving the physical activity pledges, and assessed the extent to which activities among organisations could be attributed to the RD. Where combined with environmental approaches, interventions such as mass media campaigns to communicate the benefits of physical activity, active travel in children and adults, and workplace-related interventions could in principle be effective, if fully implemented. However, most activities proposed by each PA pledge involved providing information or enabling choice, which has limited effectiveness. Moreover, it was difficult to establish the extent of implementation of pledges within organisations, given that progress reports were mostly unavailable, and, where provided, it was difficult to ascertain their relevance to the RD pledges. Finally, 15 % of interventions listed in organisations' delivery plans were judged to be the result of participation in the RD, meaning that most actions taken by organisations were likely already under way, regardless of the RD. Irrespective of the nature of a public health policy to encourage physical activity, targets need to be evidence-based, well

  9. WRKY transcription factors involved in activation of SA biosynthesis genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Verk, Marcel C; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    2011-01-01

    Increased defense against a variety of pathogens in plants is achieved through activation of a mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The broad-spectrum resistance brought about by SAR is mediated through salicylic acid (SA). An important step in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is the

  10. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  11. Public Perception of Media Coverage of the Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to investigate the awareness level, attention and attitude of the public towards media coverage of the activities of the Independent Corrupt Practices and other related offences Commission (ICPC). It also considered the appraisal of how the public select, organize and interpret stimuli about the commission.

  12. A conceptual framework for negotiating public involvement in municipal waste management decision-making in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim; Longhurst, Philip; Jude, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-08-01

    The technical expertise that politicians relied on in the past to produce cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions no longer provides sufficient justification to approve waste facilities. Local authorities need to find more effective ways to involve stakeholders and communities in decision-making since public acceptance of municipal waste facilities is integral to delivering effective waste strategies. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored attitudes towards greater levels of public involvement in UK waste management decision-making. The study addressed questions of perception, interests, the decision context, the means of engagement and the necessary resources and capacity for adopting a participatory decision process. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the research produced an empirical framework for negotiating the mode and level of public involvement in waste management decision-making. The framework captures and builds on theories of public involvement and the experiences of practitioners, and offers guidance for integrating analysis and deliberation with public groups in different waste management decision contexts. Principles in the framework operate on the premise that the decision about 'more' and 'better' forms of public involvement can be negotiated, based on the nature of the waste problem and wider social context of decision-making. The collection of opinions from the wide range of stakeholders involved in the study has produced new insights for the design of public engagement processes that are context-dependent and 'fit-for-purpose'; these suggest a need for greater inclusivity in the case of contentious technologies and high levels of uncertainty regarding decision outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Legal and technical analysis of the activities involving radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Activities related to radiation applications have been worldwide target of studies concerning biology, medicine, sociology, psychology and law, since prediction of the possible risks and harms associated with the use of radiation, depends on probabilities not easy to quantify, mainly in the most common low-dose situations. In Brazil, legislation generated in the last forty years did not match evolution of the scientific domains related above. This way, more recent rules not rarely conflict with older regulations, without revoking them. (author)

  14. Playful Interactions Stimulating Physical Activity in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    In this position paper we describe our vision on designing playful interactions to persuade people to be physically active in public spaces. Social embeddedness and playful interaction are the core elements of this vision. We illustrate how our design vision is incorporated into innovative concepts...... to motivate each other to be physically active by creating challenges for each other. Designing playful solutions for public spaces asks for low-threshold solutions that support easy stepping in and stepping out solutions....

  15. WRKY Transcription Factors Involved in Activation of SA Biosynthesis Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bol John F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased defense against a variety of pathogens in plants is achieved through activation of a mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The broad-spectrum resistance brought about by SAR is mediated through salicylic acid (SA. An important step in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate through the action of isochorismate synthase, encoded by the ICS1 gene. Also AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE 3 (PBS3 plays an important role in SA metabolism, as pbs3 mutants accumulate drastically reduced levels of SA-glucoside, a putative storage form of SA. Bioinformatics analysis previously performed by us identified WRKY28 and WRKY46 as possible regulators of ICS1 and PBS3. Results Expression studies with ICS1 promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts cotransfected with 35S::WRKY28 showed that over expression of WRKY28 resulted in a strong increase in GUS expression. Moreover, qRT-PCR analyses indicated that the endogenous ICS1 and PBS3 genes were highly expressed in protoplasts overexpressing WRKY28 or WRKY46, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indentified potential WRKY28 binding sites in the ICS1 promoter, positioned -445 and -460 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Mutation of these sites in protoplast transactivation assays showed that these binding sites are functionally important for activation of the ICS1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with haemagglutinin-epitope-tagged WRKY28 showed that the region of the ICS1 promoter containing the binding sites at -445 and -460 was highly enriched in the immunoprecipitated DNA. Conclusions The results obtained here confirm results from our multiple microarray co-expression analyses indicating that WRKY28 and WRKY46 are transcriptional activators of ICS1 and PBS3, respectively, and support this in silico screening as a powerful tool for identifying new components of stress

  16. Antibacterial activity of Thai herbal extracts on acne involved microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyomkam, P; Kaewbumrung, S; Kaewnpparat, S; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2010-04-01

    Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 18 Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Stapylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Thirteen plant extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, while 14 plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Based on the broth dilution method, the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Wild. (Zingiberaceae) rhizome showed the strongest antibacterial effect against P. acnes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 156.0 and 312.0 microg/mL, respectively. On the basis of bioassay-guided purification, the ethyl acetate extract was isolated to afford the antibacterial active compound, which was identified as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1'-ACA). 1'-ACA had a strong inhibitory effect on P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 62.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, 1'-ACA was used as an indicative marker for standardization of A. galanga extract using high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that A. galanga extract could be an interesting agent for further studies on an alternative treatment of acne.

  17. Peculiarities of activities of public administration subjects in the public finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Миколаївна Клімова

    2017-12-01

    administration operates. Public administration (in the sense of activity has certain forms, functions and methods. A number of peculiarities of public administration in the sphere of public finances are formulated using the viewpoints of T.M. Kravtsova, A.V. Solonar, I. Richter and G.F. Shupperta, S.S. Vitvitsky: 1 it is a certain coordinated and organized system of organs; 2 the entity acts as a state represented by bodies of state executive power and executive bodies of local self-government; 3 the constituent elements of the system are also state institutions, organizations, institutions; 4 public administration is based on authority, performs administrative and managerial functions; 5 the activity of public administration extends to the whole society, as well as to separate territories of the state - the regions, as well as certain spheres (branches of public life, one of which is the sphere of public finances functioning; 6 in the structure of the public administration activity in the field of public finances should be allocated "two components: a organizational, including public service; b control "; 7 the purpose of public administration in the field of public finances is a combination of interests of the state, interests of regions, individual collective formations and interests, human and civil rights and freedoms; 8 the forms and methods of public administration in the field of public finances are determined primarily by the nature of the security functions of public administration, and secondary importance in this case have the following management functions as: law enforcement; human rights; regulating; norm-setting; jurisdictional; 9 the main forms of public administration include: a law-making (regulations, statutes, administrative requirements; b administrative acts; c public-law contracts; d simple administrative actions; e private law administrative activity; 10 to ensure the necessary level of legality in the field of public finance management, a complex of

  18. Parental Involvement and Public Schools: Disappearing Mothers in Labor and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the material and rhetorical connection between "parental involvement" and motherhood has the effect of making two important features of parental involvement disappear. Both of these features need to be taken into account to think through the positive and negative effects of parental involvement in public…

  19. Activity of capryloyl collagenic acid against bacteria involved in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourniat, J; Bourlioux, P

    1989-12-01

    Synopsis Capryloyl collagenic acid (Lipacide C8Co) has similar bacteriostatic activity in vitro to that of benzoyl peroxide towards the bacteria found in acne lesions (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) (MIC between 1 and 4 mg ml(-1) for C8Co, and between 0.5 and 5 mg ml(-1) for benzoyl peroxide). The presence of Emulgine M8 did not affect the bacteriostatic activity of C8Co. A 4% w/v solution of C8Co (incorporating Emulgine M8) fulfilled the criteria for an antiseptic preparation as laid down by the French Pharmacopoeia (10th Edition), and had a spectrum 5 bactericidal activity according to the French Standard AFNOR NF T 72-151. The excellent cutaneous tolerance of capryloyl collagenic acid would indicate that an aqueous solution might be of value for topical treatment of the bacterial component of acne. Résumé Activité antibactérienne de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique vis à vis des bactéries impliquées dans l'etiologie de l'acné L'acide capryloyl-collagénique (Lipacide C8Co) et le peroxyde de benzoyle présentent une activité bactériostatique in-vitroéquivalente vis à vis des espèces bactériennes retrouvées au niveau des lésions acnéiques (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis et Propionibacterium acnes) (CMI comprise entre 1 et 4 mg ml(-1) pour le lipoaminoacide, et 0,5 et 5 mg ml(-1) pour le peroxyde de benzoyle). La mise en solution aqueuse de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique en présence d'Emulgine M8 ne modifie pas son activité bactériostatique. Une telle solution, à 4% m/V d'acide capryloyl-collagénique et 5% m/V d'Emulgine M8, satisfait à l'essai d'activité des préparations antiseptiques décrit à la Pharmacopée Française (Xème Ed.) (concentration minimale antiseptique: 10% v/V, pour un temps de contact de 5 min à 32 degrees C entre les germes tests et la solution diluée en eau distillée), et posséde une activité bactéricide antiseptique spectre 5 conforme à la norme AFNOR NF T

  20. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  1. Association between Organizational Capacity and Involvement in Chronic Disease Prevention Programming among Canadian Public Health Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement…

  2. Understanding and involvement: The key to public acceptance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development project of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) that is authorized under Public Law 96-164 ''to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense programs of the United States.'' The transportation and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes require an extensive public and media information program. This program must be able to respond to numerous information requests and concerns from state governments, citizens on the transportation routes, political leaders, public interest groups, emergency responders, and national and local media. The WIPP has developed a proactive program which aggressively provides information to these audiences through written and visual products, exhibits, presentations, and tours. As a result, thousands of interested parties have had their questions and concerns addressed, resulting in public understanding and support of the project's mission and its commitment to the safety of the public and the environment

  3. HIPPARCOS satellite: Aeritalia involvement and system test activities and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strim, B.; Cugno, W.; Morsillo, G.

    In 1989 the European Space Agency is scheduled to launch HIPPARCOS on a 2.5-year mission that will revolutionize the state of astronomy. This is the first satellite to be dedicated to astrometry, a branch of astronomy that deals with the position of celestial objects and their motion in space. With an accuracy impossible to achieve from Earth, HIPPARCOS will make position, trigonometric parallax and proper motion measurements of some 100.000 pre-selected stars. The data will be used to calculate each star's distance and motion, providing astronomers with an unprecedented map of the heavens. In the end, the HIPPARCOS mission is expected to reveal surprisingly new insight into theories of stellar evolution, as well as into the nature of our galaxy and the universe. The program has been awarded to the MESH industrial consortium for definition, development and production. The French firm MATRA (prime contractor) and the AERITALIA SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP (major co-contractor) share program responsibility. AERITALIA is in charge of the spacecraft or "service module". This is the structural platform for the telescope payload and provides all subsystem services including thermal control, data handling, telecommunications, electrical power distribution, power generation, attitude and orbit control, and apogee kick motor. AERITALIA is responsible for the procurement of all spacecraft subsystems for which it directs the activities of a multinational team of subcontractors. In addition, it is in charge of the satellite's final assembly, integration and testing, as well as for the procurement of all ground support equipment for satellite testing. HIPPARCOS stands for HIgh Precision PARallax COllecting Satellite. Its name is also intended to honor the Greek astronomer Hipparchus (190-120 BC) who compiled the first star catalog and who first used trigonometric parallax to calculate the distance to the moon. (Parallax is the apparent shift in a celestial body's position in the sky

  4. Environmental guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is issuing this document, entitled Guidance on Public Participation for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Activities, to summarize policy and provide guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities at DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, facilities, and laboratories. While the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has environmental restoration responsibility for the majority of DOE sites and facilities, other DOE Project Offices have similar responsibilities at their sites and facilities. This guidance is applicable to all environment restoration activities conducted by or for DOE under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) (corrective actions only); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This guidance also is applicable to CERCLA remedial action programs under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 and the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, where DOE is the designated lead. The primary objectives of this guidance document are as follows: acclimate DOE staff to a changing culture that emphasizes the importance of public participation activities; provide direction on implementing these public participation activities; and, provide consistent guidance for all DOE Field Offices and facilities. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on conducting effective public participation activities for environmental restoration activities under CERCLA; RCRA corrective actions under sections 3004(u), 3004(v), and 3008(h); and NEPA public participation activities.

  5. The extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in primary care research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Steven; McLachlan, Sarah; Jowett, Sue; Kinghorn, Philip; Gill, Paramjit; Higginbottom, Adele; Rhodes, Carol; Stevenson, Fiona; Jinks, Clare

    2018-01-01

    In the UK, more patients go to primary care than other parts of the health service. Therefore it is important for research into primary care to include the insights and views of people who receive these services. To explore the extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in primary care research, we examined documents of 200 projects and surveyed 191 researchers.We found that about half of studies included PPI to develop research ideas and during the study itself. Common activities included designing study materials, advising on methods, and managing the research. Some studies did not undertake the PPI activities initially planned and funded for. PPI varied by study design, health condition and study population. We found pockets of good practice: having a PPI budget, supporting PPI contributors, and PPI informing recruitment issues. However, good practice was lacking in other areas. Few projects offered PPI contributors training, used PPI to develop information for participants about study progress and included PPI to advise on publishing findings.Researchers reported beneficial impacts of PPI. Most impact was reported when the approach to PPI included more indicators of good practice. The main cost of PPI for researchers was their time. Many reported difficulties providing information about PPI.In partnership with PPI contributors, we have used these findings to develop:a new Cost and Consequences Framework for PPI highlighting financial and non-financial costs, benefits and harms of PPIFifteen co-produced recommendations to improve the practice and delivery of PPI. Background: To improve the lives of patients in primary care requires the involvement of service users in primary care research. We aimed to explore the extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in primary care research. Methods: We extracted information about PPI from grant applications, reports and an electronic survey of researchers of studies funded

  6. Risoe Publication Activities in 1997; Risoes publikationsvirksomhed i 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, Hanne; Bennov, Solvejg

    1998-08-01

    Risoe`s publication and lecture activities in the last decades are presented through data of total number of publications, distribution of types of publications, number of citations to the international scientific journal articles, and institutions with which Risoe has published the largest number of articles. The data are derived from Risoe`s in-house Publications Database and from the Risoe Institutional Citation Report database produced by the Institute for Scientific Information. The largest part of the report contains a list of references to the scientific and technical journal articles, books, reports, lectures, and to publications for a broader readership authored by researchers at Risoe National Laboratory during the year 1997. The references are organised according to the programme areas of Risoe. (au)

  7. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE TOWARDS PARTICIPATION OF DISABLED PEOPLE IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Roha, Abdul Rasid Aida; Fatt, Ong Tah

    2017-01-01

     AbstractDesire to be accepted by other people is one of the basic human needs. Social isolation or rejection is very stressful to person with disabilities. Social acceptance by normal people towards physical activity participation for the disabled plays a vital role in motivating them to be more physically active. A review of literature indicated that there are several factors that influence public acceptance towards participation of people with disabilities in physical activity. The pr...

  8. THE PUBLIC OFFICER - THE ACTIVE SUBJECT OF A CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ELENA BUZATU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to analyze the active subject of the crime committed by an individual - the public officer, for example - during his daily duty program or with reference to the attributions he has versus the public office he holds, in the light of the regulations provided not only by the Penal Code in force but also by the future New Penal Code, as, among the important amendments it provides, the definition of the public officer is also mentioned. In the case of such a trespassing, the active subject shall hold the quality of a public officer the way this quality is regulated by the Penal Code, even if the definition is much ampler as compared to the one given by the Statute of the Public Officers. According to Art 147, paragraph 1 Penal Code, a public officer is any individual who permanently or temporarily exercises - irrespective of his/her rank or of the way this office was appointed, a paid or unpaid task of no matter what nature or importance - in the service of a department Art 145 refers to. The regulation proposed in perfect agreement with the solutions offered by other international legislations and conventions in the domain, the definition of a public officer refers to the individual who - permanently or temporarily appointed, paid or unpaid - shall exercise attributions specific to the legislative, executive or judiciary powers, a function of public dignity or a function of any other type - alone or in a group - within a self-governing management of another economic agent or of a legal person with a whole or a greater capital, or belonging to a legally declared person capital or to a legal person considered to be of public utility - attributions connected with the object of the latter’s activity.

  9. From Outreach to Engaged Placemaking: Understanding Public Land-Grant University Involvement with Tourism Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herts, Rolando D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research project aimed to identify benefits and drawbacks of public land-grant university involvement with tourism planning and development, an emergent form of university-community engagement. Using qualitative methodology, the study's findings led to the codification of levels of university tourism planning and development…

  10. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  11. Seismic Activity: Public Alert and Warning: Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, D.

    2007-12-01

    As science and technology evolve in ways that increase our ability to inform the public of potentially destructive seismic activity, there are significant legal issues for consideration. Even though countries and even states within the United States have differing legal tenets that could either change or at least re-shape the outcome of specific legal questions that this session will be pondering, there are fundamental legal principals that will permeate. It is often said that the law lags behind society and in particular its technological developments. No doubt in the area of warning the public of impending destructive forces of nature or society, the law will need to do some catching up. The law is probably adequately developed for at least some preliminary discussion of the key issues. No matter the legal scheme, if there is a failure or perceived failure in the system to warn people of a pending emergencies, albeit an earthquake, tsunami, or other predictable event, those who are harmed or believe they are harmed will seek relief under the law. Every day there are situations wherein the failure to warn or to adequately warn is key, such as with faulty or defective consumer products, escaped prisoners, and police high-speed vehicle chases. With alert and warning systems for disaster, however, we have a unique set of facts. Generally, the systems and their failures occur during emergencies or at least during situations under apparently exigent circumstances when the disaster's predictability is widely recognized as less than 100 percent. The law, in particular United States tort law, has been particularly lenient when people and organizations are operating during compressed timeframes and their actions are generally considered necessary to address circumstances relative to public safety. The legal system has been forgiving when the actor that failed or appeared to fail was government. The courts have liberally applied the principal of sovereign immunity to

  12. An Experimental Test of the Roles of Audience Involvement and Message Frame in Shaping Public Reactions to Celebrity Illness Disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall

    2018-04-13

    Much research has investigated what happens when celebrities disclose an illness (via media) to the public. While audience involvement (i.e., identification and parasocial relationships) is often the proposed mechanism linking illness disclosures with audience behavior change, survey designs have prevented researchers from understanding if audience involvement prior to the illness disclosure actually predicts post-disclosure emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. Rooted in previous work on audience involvement as well as the Extended Parallel Process Model, the present study uses a national online experiment (N = 1,068) to test how pre-disclosure audience involvement may initiate post-disclosure effects for the message context of skin cancer. The data demonstrate that pre-disclosure audience involvement as well as the celebrity's framing of the disclosure can shape emotional responses (i.e., fear and hope), and that cognitive perceptions of the illness itself also influence behavioral intentions.

  13. Involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in elaborating and implementing public policies: Study case-Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Ruxandra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Involvement and development of the private sector in boosting the economy nationwide is a main objective of the current program of the government, which means that a good cooperation between small and medium companies, private companies and multinationals and public environment including both public institutions and policies implemented and developed by them, becomes more than necessary. The paper summarizes the findings of a quantitative research based on a self-applied questionnaire which was aimed at Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises and also of a qualitative research that gives an overview of the process of elaborating and implementing a public policy. The involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises in the process of designing and implementing a public policy can become indispensable but it is well know that there is, in fact, a lack of initiative at this level, from both parties. One of the main research questions of this paper is to find out how much do representatives of small and medium-sized enterprises get involved in the process of elaborating a public policy and how much do these actions and measures impact the organizational policies of the companies themselves. A good cooperation between the business environment and the public institutions and a strong correlation of their joint efforts, should become a common practice between both parties, being crucial that this form of cooperation to be initiated from the very beginning. The contribution of this paper is a practical one, given the fact that the paper itself entails the direct responses of small and medium-sized enterprises on the current and future public policies that directly targets them, providing as well an analysis on the effects of public policies on small and medium-sized enterprises. Thus being said, the paper can also be a guide for both small and medium-sized enterprises in providing examples and measures of involvement and favorable public policies

  14. African American Youths with Internalizing Difficulties: Relation to Social Support and Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…

  15. Time, science and consensus: the different times involving scientific research, political decision and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.

  16. Maternal involvement in children's leisure activities in rural China: Relations with adjustment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin

    2018-02-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined maternal involvement in children's leisure activities and its relations with children's adjustment in rural China. Participants included 184 children (93 boys and 91 girls) initially in third grade (mean age = 9.31 years). Children were asked to report the frequencies of mothers' involvement in leisure activities. Information on children's social, school, and psychological adjustment were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results showed that children's perceptions of maternal involvement in leisure activities positively predicted later social and school adjustment, particularly in boys. Furthermore, child initial adjustment status moderated the relations between maternal leisure activity involvement and child outcomes. The results suggest that maternal involvement in children's leisure activities, which has traditionally been neglected in the society, is a significant factor in contributing to child development in today's rural China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. NASA's SMD Cross-Forum Resources for Supporting Scientist Engagement in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Sharma, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Schwerin, T. G.; Shipp, S. S.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    Sharing the excitement of ongoing scientific discoveries is an important aspect of scientific activity for researchers. Directly engaging scientists in education and public outreach (E/PO) activities has the benefit of directly connecting the public to those who engage in scientific activities. A shortage of training in education methods, public speaking, and working with various public audiences increases barriers to engaging scientists in these types in E/PO activities. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public forums (astrophysics, earth science, heliophysics, and planetary science) support scientists currently involved in E/PO and who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO through a variety of avenues. Over the past three years, the forums have developed a variety of resources to help engage scientists in education and public outreach. We will showcase the following resources developed through the SMD E/PO cross-forum efforts: Professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), ongoing professional development at scientific conferences to increase scientist engagement in E/PO activities, toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), toolkits to inform scientists of science education resources developed within each scientific thematic community, EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/), thematic resources for teaching about SMD science topics, and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  18. Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T

    2004-09-01

    (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout.

  19. The chemical stockpile intergovernmental consultation program: Lessons for HLW public involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the appropriateness of the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program's (CSDP) Intergovernmental Consultation and Coordination Boards (ICCBs) as models for incorporating public concerns in the future siting of HLW repositories by DOE. ICCB structure, function, and implementation are examined, along with other issues relevant to the HLW context. 27 refs

  20. Income Generation Activities among Academic Staffs at Malaysian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abd Rahman; Soon, Ng Kim; Ting, Ngeoh Pei

    2015-01-01

    Income generation activities have been acquainted among public higher education institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia. Various factors that brought to insufficient of funding caused Higher Education Institutions(HEIs) to seek for additional income as to support the operation expenses. Financial sustainability issues made up the significant impact…

  1. Co-producing public involvement training with members of the public and research organisations in the East Midlands: creating, delivering and evaluating the lay assessor training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, Adele; Brown, George; Higton, Fred; Vanhegan, Stevie; Wragg, Andrew; Wray, Paula; Walker, Dawn-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Members of the public share their views with researchers to improve health and social care research. Lay assessing is one way of doing this. This is where people, drawing upon personal and general life experience, comment on material, such as grant applications and patient information, to highlight strengths and weaknesses and to suggest improvements. This paper reports on setting up a training programme for lay assessors. Meetings were held between interested public and staff from research organisations. People discussed what lay assessing is, why they want to do it, skills and support needed and if training was wanted. They were invited to form a group to develop the training together. Training was delivered in the East Midlands. People who attended gave their thoughts about it by completing questionnaires and joining a feedback event. The group developed the structure of the training programme together and it oversaw the development of the training content by individual members. People who attended training reported feeling more confident about lay assessing. This was particularly so for those who had not done lay assessing before. They indicated how valuable it was to talk with others at the training. Our findings support the National Institute for Health Research recommendations for improving learning and development for public involvement in research. This project has created a solid base for local research organisations to work together in public involvement training. Lay assessor training is now part of a wider programme of shared resources called the Sharebank. Background Involving members of the public in research can improve its quality and incorporate the needs and views of patients. One method for doing this is lay assessing, where members of the public are consulted to improve research materials. This paper documents the establishment of a pilot training programme for lay assessors. It describes a way of working that embodies a regional, cross

  2. Forced migrants involved in setting the agenda and designing research to reduce impacts of complex emergencies: combining Swarm with patient and public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Julii Suzanne; Al Assaf, Enana; Omasete, Judith; Leach, Steve; Hammer, Charlotte C; Hunter, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research. To further focus the research, two representatives of forced migrant communities were invited to join the project team as patient and public (PPI) representatives. They attended regular project meetings, insightfully contributed to and advised on practical aspects of potential research areas. The representatives identified cultural obstacles and community needs and helped choose the final research study design, which was to interview forced migrants about their strategies to build emotional resilience and prevent mental illness. The representatives also helped design recruitment documents, and undertake recruitment and interviewer training. Many events with wide-ranging negative health impacts are notable for complexity: lack of predictability, non-linear feedback mechanisms and unexpected consequences. A multi-disciplinary research team was tasked with reducing the public health impacts from complex events, but without a pre-specified topic area or research design. This report describes using patient and public involvement within an adaptable but structured development process to set research objectives and aspects of implementation. An agile adaptive development approach, sometimes described as swarm , was used to identify possible research areas. Swarm is meant to quickly identify strengths and weaknesses of any candidate project, to accelerate early failure before resources are invested. When aspects of the European migration crisis

  3. Evaluating public participation in environmental decision-making: EPA's superfund community involvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Bruce. Engelbert

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses an 8-year, ongoing project that evaluates the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund community involvement program. The project originated as a response to the Government Performance and Results Act, which requires federal agencies to articulate program goals, and evaluate and report their progress in meeting those goals. The evaluation...

  4. To PPP or not to PPP? (Public-)Private Partnerships involving green gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Maurits; Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Harmsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    To realize a proper ‘energy transition’ government has to collaborate with private sector organizations. In the energy sector these latter organizations are often already involved in private-private partnerships for collaboration towards energy transition. The question seems justified if, upon

  5. An Industry Perspective on Canadian Patients' Involvement in Medical Tourism: Implications for Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A.; Adams, Krystyna; Kingsbury, Paul; Snyder, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian med...

  6. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs

  7. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs.

  8. Public participation in the environmental impact assessment: one alternative of involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokkanen, P.

    2002-01-01

    Posiva's EIA for the disposal of nuclear waste covered four candidate municipalities, Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaekoski, where the possibilities of final disposal of spent fuel were being investigated. The implementation of the EIA was a comprehensive process in many ways, when considering the history of EIA in Finland. There was an 'EIA era' for almost three years in all candidate municipalities. The EIA process was seen in the everyday life of the municipalities. The EIA process has been dubbed of 'the EIA of the century' in Finland. The central political aim of the EIA - to increase participation - moreover brings the question of nuclear waste into a new arena. The Environmental Impact Assessment Act underlines public participation. There are many ways of public participation available at the local level. Some are 'direct and some 'representative' in nature. For example, in the case of the final disposal of nuclear waste, local inhabitants have had a number of opportunities to take part in and to influence the ongoing process. In the EIA process of the final disposal there were three ways to participate: Public hearings (and other meetings) before and after the EIA programme and report; written opinions to the competent authority (KTM) after the EIA programme and report; and direct contacts to the EIA contact persons of the candidate municipalities. (authors)

  9. Sociocultural factors in public acceptance: comparative risk studies involving France, the USA and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M.; Mays, C.

    1995-12-31

    Examples are given of two types of comparative study that explore the sociocultural factors that shape public attitudes. In the first, public perceptions of nuclear power were assessed by answers to a questionnaire on a broad range of factors by 1500 people in France and the USA. A degree of homogeniety was observed in the responses from France and the USA. Strikingly, both populations agreed in their evaluation of the health risk represented by nuclear power plant. Thus the apparently greater acceptance of nuclear power in France does not seem to be associated with a lesser perception of risk. However, presented with the statement ``We can trust the experts and engineers who build, operate and regulate nuclear power`` 66% of the French agreed compared to only 43% of the Americans. These results reflect two different types of relationship between society and authority. In the second study the approach to gaining public trust and acceptance in the siting of nuclear waste research facilities was compared between the UK and France. Striking differences were found. In this case, too, an explanation can be put forward in terms of the sociocultural variables which influence institutional decision making, particularly in the role and form given to authority. (UK).

  10. Influencing governance of a public-private partnership in plant genomics: The societal interface group as a new instrument for public involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, L.; Gremmen, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies

  11. Taking patient and public involvement online: qualitative evaluation of an online forum for palliative care and rehabilitation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Lisa Jane; Pask, Sophie; Benalia, Hamid; Bailey, Sylvia; Sumerfield, Marion; Witt, Jana; de Wolf-Linder, Susanne; Etkind, Simon Noah; Murtagh, Fliss E M; Koffman, Jonathan; Evans, Catherine J

    2018-01-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly recognised as important in research. Most PPI takes place face-to-face, but this can be difficult for people who are unwell or have caring responsibilities. As these challenges are particularly common in palliative care and rehabilitation research, we developed an online forum for PPI: www.csipublicinvolvement.co.uk. In this study, we explored how well the online forum worked, if it is a suitable method for PPI, and how PPI members and researchers reacted to using it. We used an existing theory about online interventions to help choose the 'right' questions to ask participants. We invited PPI members and researchers who had used the online forum to participate in focus groups, and identified the most important themes discussed. Within this study, PPI members have helped with the interview questions, analysis, and write up. Overall, four PPI members and five researchers participated in the focus groups. Participants felt the online forum worked well and had multiple benefits. From the discussions, we identified four key questions to consider when developing online methods for PPI: how does the forum work, how does it engage people, how does it empower people, and what is the impact? Participants suggested the forum could be improved by being more PPI and less researcher focused. We conclude that when developing online methods of PPI, a functioning forum is not enough: it also needs to be engaging and empowering to have an impact. Future work can use these four domains when developing their own online PPI methods. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is increasingly recognised as important. Most PPI activities take place face-to-face, yet this can be difficult for people with ill health or caring responsibilities, and may exclude people from hard-to-reach populations (e.g. living in vulnerable social circumstances and/or remote geographical locations). These challenges are particularly pertinent in

  12. Development and testing of a medline search filter for identifying patient and public involvement in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Morwenna; Bethel, Alison; Boddy, Kate

    2017-06-01

    Research involving the public as partners often proves difficult to locate due to the variations in terms used to describe public involvement, and inability of medical databases to index this concept effectively. To design a search filter to identify literature where patient and public involvement (PPI) was used in health research. A reference standard of 172 PPI papers was formed. The references were divided into a development set and a test set. Search terms were identified from common words, phrases and synonyms in the development set. These terms were combined as a search strategy for medline via OvidSP, which was then tested for sensitivity against the test set. The resultant search filter was then assessed for sensitivity, specificity and precision using a previously published systematic review. The search filter was found to be highly sensitive 98.5% in initial testing. When tested against results generated by a 'real-life' systematic review, the filter had a specificity of 81%. However, sensitivity dropped to 58%. Adjustments to the population group of terms increased the sensitivity to 73%. The PPI filter designed for medline via OvidSP could aid information specialists and researchers trying to find literature specific to PPI. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  13. Public involvement in the Hanford Double-Shell Tank waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, M.B.; Hunter, V.L.

    1992-06-01

    Hanford's Double-Shell Tank (DST) waste disposal program was redefined following serious challenges to the viability of the previous strategy due to increased regulatory requirements and operating expectations. Redefinition of the DST waste disposal program involved a far-reaching set of decisions and actions. A formal stakeholder involvement process was used to bring the concerns of outside groups into the definition and evaluation of altemative tank waste disposal strategies, broadening the participation and ownership of the revised pregrain. Hanford's Double-Shell Tank (DST) waste disposal strategy, calls for using B-Plant to separate the low-level and high-level portions of the DST waste. This separations step would provide feed to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), viewed by many as the cornerstone to Site cleanup. The State of Washington strongly opposed using the 47-year-old B-Plant because it was not built to comply with current environmental regulations. Because of this and other challenges to Hanford's tank waste disposal strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) initiated efforts to redefine the strategy. To support this effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHCP) sought input from outside stakeholder groups (stakeholders are those interest groups that are affected by the outcome of the decision and have a strong desire to ensure that their concerns are addressed) through a formal stakeholder involvement and multi-attribute utility (MAU) analysis process. This paper describes that process and its results

  14. Involving citizens in priority setting for public health research: Implementation in infection research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Timothy M; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Charani, Esmita; Husson, Fran; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Ahmad, Raheelah

    2018-02-01

    Public sources fund the majority of UK infection research, but citizens currently have no formal role in resource allocation. To explore the feasibility and willingness of citizens to engage in strategic decision making, we developed and tested a practical tool to capture public priorities for research. A scenario including six infection themes for funding was developed to assess citizen priorities for research funding. This was tested over two days at a university public festival. Votes were cast anonymously along with rationale for selection. The scenario was then implemented during a three-hour focus group exploring views on engagement in strategic decisions and in-depth evaluation of the tool. 188/491(38%) prioritized funding research into drug-resistant infections followed by emerging infections(18%). Results were similar between both days. Focus groups contained a total of 20 citizens with an equal gender split, range of ethnicities and ages ranging from 18 to >70 years. The tool was perceived as clear with participants able to make informed comparisons. Rationale for funding choices provided by voters and focus group participants are grouped into three major themes: (i) Information processing; (ii) Knowledge of the problem; (iii) Responsibility; and a unique theme within the focus groups (iv) The potential role of citizens in decision making. Divergent perceptions of relevance and confidence of "non-experts" as decision makers were expressed. Voting scenarios can be used to collect, en-masse, citizens' choices and rationale for research priorities. Ensuring adequate levels of citizen information and confidence is important to allow deployment in other formats. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An Attribute Involved Public Key Cryptosystem Based on P-Sylow Subgroups and Randomization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha GUNNALA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asymmetric Key Cryptosystem (AKC or Public Key Encryption (PKE is a mechanism used to encrypt the messages by using public key and decrypt the enciphered messages by using private key. Of late, the Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE is an expansion of asymmetric key encryption scheme that allows users to encrypt and decrypt the plaintext messages using the key based on the user’s credentials, called attributes, like social security number, PAN (Permanent Account Number, email ids or Aadhar number etc. Most of the existing ABE schemes rely on the multiple attributes from which the access control policies are derived. These policies define the users’ private keys, required for the decryption process and access to the confidential information. In this paper, we proposed a new attribute based asymmetric cryptosystem that uses the features of both the schemes: PKE and ABE. Here, we used a value of an attribute, personal to the user, for the encryption and the decryption process. This scheme assures that the receiver will only be able to access the secret data if recipient is shared with the valid attribute value. The asymmetric nature is this scheme is based on the concept of p-sylow sub-group assumption. In addition, the randomization factor is used in the encipherment process to strengthen the cipher further. The development of this cryptosystem is an embodiment where the merits of randomized asymmetric encryption technique and the attribute based encryption are integrated to achieve the authentication on top of confidentiality to secure the information transmission over the public networks.

  16. Predictors of activity involvement in dementia care homes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Dieneke; de Lange, Jacomine; Willemse, Bernadette; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2017-08-04

    Despite the finding that involvement in activities is one of the most important needs of residents with dementia living in care homes, care facilities struggle to fulfill this need. Over the years, various factors are suggested which may contribute to or disable activity provision in dementia care homes. These include limited financial resources, task oriented staff and disease-related characteristics of residents. This study aims to further clarify which of these factors predict higher activity involvement. Data were derived from the second measurement (2011) of the Living Arrangements for people with Dementia study. One thousand two hundred eighteen people residing in 139 dementia care homes were involved. Forty predictors of higher involvement were studied. Multilevel backward regression analyses were performed. The most important predictors of higher involvement were: absence of agitation, less ADL dependency, and a higher cognitive status of the residents, higher staff educational level, lower experienced job demands by care staff and a smaller number of residents living in the dementia care wards of a facility. More social supervisor support as perceived by staff was found to predict less activity involvement. To increase the activity involvement of care home residents with dementia it seems vital to: 1) reduce staff's experienced job demands; 2) elevate their overall educational level; 3) train staff to provide suitable activities, taking account of the behavior and preserved capabilities of residents; and 4) foster transition towards small-scale care. In order to achieve these aims, care organizations might need to evaluate the use of their financial means.

  17. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.; Weedon, C.J.; McGoff, A.; Bower, M.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1998 BNFL applied to the Agency for authorisations to dispose of gaseous, liquid, combustible and solid radioactive wastes in respect of each of Magnox Electric's power stations. The Agency is currently considering BNFL's applications. This is the first time that authorisations for radioactive waste disposal have been considered for all these stations together as a package. It has been a major task for BNFL to assemble all the relevant information and for the Agency to drive the process forward through public consultation to the decision-making stage. As part of its role of protecting and improving the environment, the Agency is committed to progressive reductions in radioactive discharges where practicable, seeking to achieve this through the limits and conditions of any authorisation it issues. It aims to review nuclear site authorisations on a four-yearly cycle and has used BNFL's applications as the basis for its review of the Magnox power station sites. The Agency carefully scrutinised the applications and obtained additional detailed information and clarification from BNFL in response to six rounds of questions. The applications and responses from the company to Agency questions were made publicly available. They include information on: the benefits and detriments of continued operation/decommissioning (as appropriate); the sources and amounts of radioactive waste associated with continued operation/decommissioning; the current levels of discharge of radioactive waste to the environment; and the application of best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges. The Agency is considering all the application information and must decide, separately for each power station, whether an authorisation should be issued to BNFL. It has consulted publicly to assist its decision making, the objective being to enable people and organisations to draw to the Agency's attention any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its decisions on the

  18. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom); Weedon, C.J. [Environment Agency, Penrith (United Kingdom); McGoff, A.; Bower, M. [Environment Agency, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    In January 1998 BNFL applied to the Agency for authorisations to dispose of gaseous, liquid, combustible and solid radioactive wastes in respect of each of Magnox Electric's power stations. The Agency is currently considering BNFL's applications. This is the first time that authorisations for radioactive waste disposal have been considered for all these stations together as a package. It has been a major task for BNFL to assemble all the relevant information and for the Agency to drive the process forward through public consultation to the decision-making stage. As part of its role of protecting and improving the environment, the Agency is committed to progressive reductions in radioactive discharges where practicable, seeking to achieve this through the limits and conditions of any authorisation it issues. It aims to review nuclear site authorisations on a four-yearly cycle and has used BNFL's applications as the basis for its review of the Magnox power station sites. The Agency carefully scrutinised the applications and obtained additional detailed information and clarification from BNFL in response to six rounds of questions. The applications and responses from the company to Agency questions were made publicly available. They include information on: the benefits and detriments of continued operation/decommissioning (as appropriate); the sources and amounts of radioactive waste associated with continued operation/decommissioning; the current levels of discharge of radioactive waste to the environment; and the application of best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges. The Agency is considering all the application information and must decide, separately for each power station, whether an authorisation should be issued to BNFL. It has consulted publicly to assist its decision making, the objective being to enable people and organisations to draw to the Agency's attention any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its

  19. Involvement and structure: a qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Maria; Westerlund, Hugo; Backhans, Mona; Melinder, Karin

    2011-05-16

    Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated

  20. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backhans Mona

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes, Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes, Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees, and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace, which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991, which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were

  1. The Public Sphere in Emerging Infectious Disease Communication: Recipient or Active and Vocal Partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shir-Raz, Yaffa; Walter, Nathan; Mordini, Emilio; Dimitriou, Dimitris; James, James J; Green, Manfred S

    2015-08-01

    Recent years have seen advances in theories and models of risk and crisis communication, with a focus on emerging epidemic infection. Nevertheless, information flow remains unilateral in many countries and does not take into account the public's polyvocality and the fact that its opinions and knowledge often "compete" with those of health authorities. This article addresses the challenges organizations face in communicating with the public sphere. Our theoretical approach is conceptualized through a framework that focuses on the public sphere and that builds upon existing guidelines and studies in the context of health and pandemics. We examine how health organizations cope with the public's transformation from recipients to an active and vocal entity, ie, how and to what extent health organizations address the public's anxiety and concerns arising in the social media during outbreaks. Although international organizations have aspired to relate to the public as a partner, this article identifies notable gaps. Organizations must involve the public throughout the crisis and conduct dialogues free of prejudices, paternalism, and preconceptions. Thereby, they can impart precise and updated information reflecting uncertainty and considering cultural differences to build trust and facilitate cooperation with the public sphere.

  2. Acceptability and Perceived Benefits and Risks of Public and Patient Involvement in Health Care Policy: A Delphi Survey in Belgian Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina; Christiaens, Wendy; Kohn, Laurence; Léonard, Christian; Daue, François; Denis, Alain

    2015-06-01

    In systems with public health insurance, coverage decisions should reflect social values. Deliberation among stakeholders could achieve this goal, but rarely involves patients and citizens directly. This study aimed at evaluating the acceptability, and the perceived benefits and risks, of public and patient involvement (PPI) in coverage decision making to Belgian stakeholders. A two-round Delphi survey was conducted among all stakeholder groups. The survey was constructed on the basis of interviews with 10 key stakeholders and a review of the literature on participation models. Consensus was defined as 65% or more of the respondents agreeing with a statement and less than 15% disagreeing. Eighty stakeholders participated in both rounds. They were defined as the Delphi panel. Belgian stakeholders are open toward PPI in coverage decision processes. Benefits are expected to exceed risks. The preferred model for involvement is to consult citizens or patients, within the existing decision-making structures and at specific milestones in the process. Consulting citizens and patients is a higher level of involvement than merely informing them and a lower level than letting them participate actively. Consultation involves asking nonbinding advice on (parts of) the decision problem. According to the Delphi panel, the benefits of PPI could be increasing awareness among members of the general public and patients about the challenges and costs of health care, and enriched decision processes with expertise by experience from patients. Potential risks include subjectivity, insufficient resources to participate and weigh on the process, difficulties in finding effective ways to express a collective opinion, the risk of manipulation, and lobbying or power games of other stakeholders. PPI in coverage decision-making processes is acceptable to Belgian stakeholders, be it in different ways for different types of decisions. Benefits are expected to outweigh risks. Copyright © 2015

  3. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  4. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  5. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1 the experience of psychological benefits, 2 the creation of social support, and 3 the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  6. Influencing governance of a public-private partnership in plant genomics: The societal interface group as a new instrument for public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Lucien; Gremmen, Bart

    2013-08-01

    The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies and discusses early signals from society by bringing together people from different societal backgrounds with members of CBSG management. This interactive learning process facilitates the inclusion of public concerns and needs in scientific developments in the field of plant genomics, and simultaneously enables genomics scientists to search for more societal aims, meanings, and starting points for their research agenda. Analysis of the SIG sessions revealed that the input of public expertise is not threatening or irrational, but provides the opportunity to harness the creative potential of future users highly relevant for the development of societal practices in which plant genomics plays a role.

  7. Public health interventions involving travelers with tuberculosis--U.S. ports of entry, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Every day, approximately 950,000 international travelers arrive in the United States. The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is authorized to prevent the introduction, transmission, and spread of communicable diseases by travelers into and within the United States. The Secretary, through the CDC director, delegates this authority to CDC's Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ). Of the communicable diseases for which federal quarantine and isolation are authorized by executive orders of the president, infectious tuberculosis (TB) is encountered most commonly by DGMQ's network of quarantine stations at major U.S. ports of entry. Although legal immigrants and refugees undergo U.S. State Department-mandated TB screening overseas, CDC receives approximately 125 reports each year of arriving travelers with active TB, including foreign visitors, foreign students, and temporary workers (CDC, unpublished data, 2012). This report describes two cases that illustrate the TB control and prevention activities of quarantine stations. Such activities, including issuing federal isolation orders, restricting travel, arranging safe transport for patients across state lines, and conducting airline contact investigations, support CDC's mission to limit the spread of infectious disease from travelers.

  8. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The exploration activities associated with NASA?s goals to return to the Moon, travel to Mars, or explore Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will involve the need for human-supported space and surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). The technology development and human element associated with these exploration missions provide fantastic content to promote science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). As NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden remarked on December 9, 2009, "We....need to provide the educational and experiential stepping-stones to inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and leaders in STEM fields." The EVA Systems Project actively supports this initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for these missions. This paper summarizes these education and public efforts.

  9. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Jerry; Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Bange, Teresah; Warren, Charlotte; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-10-18

    Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher

  10. Predictors of activity involvement in dementia care homes: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Smit; Dr. J. de Lange; B. Willemse; A.M. Pot

    2017-01-01

    Despite the finding that involvement in activities is one of the most important needs of residents with dementia living in care homes, care facilities struggle to fulfill this need. Over the years, various factors are suggested which may contribute to or disable activity provision in dementia care

  11. Predictors of activity involvement in dementia care homes : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Dieneke; De Lange, Jacomine; Willemse, Bernadette; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the finding that involvement in activities is one of the most important needs of residents with dementia living in care homes, care facilities struggle to fulfill this need. Over the years, various factors are suggested which may contribute to or disable activity provision in

  12. Frequency of reporting on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research studies published in a general medical journal: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy; Schroter, Sara; Snow, Rosamund; Hicks, Melissa; Harmston, Rebecca; Staniszewska, Sophie; Parker, Sam; Richards, Tessa

    2018-03-23

    While documented plans for patient and public involvement (PPI) in research are required in many grant applications, little is known about how frequently PPI occurs in practice. Low levels of reported PPI may mask actual activity due to limited PPI reporting requirements. This research analysed the frequency and types of reported PPI in the presence and absence of a journal requirement to include this information. A before and after comparison of PPI reported in research papers published in The BMJ before and 1 year after the introduction of a journal policy requiring authors to report if and how they involved patients and the public within their papers. Between 1 June 2013 and 31 May 2014, The BMJ published 189 research papers and 1 (0.5%) reported PPI activity. From 1 June 2015 to 31 May 2016, following the introduction of the policy, The BMJ published 152 research papers of which 16 (11%) reported PPI activity. Patients contributed to grant applications in addition to designing studies through to coauthorship and participation in study dissemination. Patient contributors were often not fully acknowledged; 6 of 17 (35%) papers acknowledged their contributions and 2 (12%) included them as coauthors. Infrequent reporting of PPI activity does not appear to be purely due to a failure of documentation. Reporting of PPI activity increased after the introduction of The BMJ 's policy, but activity both before and after was low and reporting was inconsistent in quality. Journals, funders and research institutions should collaborate to move us from the current situation where PPI is an optional extra to one where PPI is fully embedded in practice throughout the research process. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Celebrating the work of Gavin Mooney: inclusiveness and involvement in global and public health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Diane

    2014-05-01

    This paper considers Gavin Mooney's contributions to the research literature on inclusiveness in global and public health issues. Much of his contribution in this area stems from engaging with Indigenous people, which cemented his conviction that it is important to recognise the heterogeneity of groups in society, especially in relation to cultural differences. He believed that in order to develop appropriate equitable and efficient health and related policies, the preferences of citizens should be elicited. While this could feed into very specific policy decisions, such as how to allocate available resources within a particular community, more generally, community preferences should determine the core values that underpin a health system. He proposed that these values be documented in a 'constitution' and serve as the basis on which policy-makers and health managers make decisions. Preference elicitation has value in itself, as procedural justice allows for self-determination and contributes to empowerment. Further, engagement by citizens in deliberative processes can overcome polarisation. Health systems themselves, if developed as social institutions, can influence the nature of society and contribute to greater unity. Mooney raised similar concerns about policies arising from mono-cultural global perspectives and argued that, whether at the national or global level, values for health systems should be based on community preferences. He particularly highlighted the unequal distribution of benefits of neoliberal globalisation as the cause of growing health and wealth inequalities globally. There is resonance between Mooney's views on these issues and some of the contributions to the post-2015 development agenda debates. While it is unlikely that we have reached a point where the stranglehold of neo-liberal governments on key global institutions will be broken, the current debates nevertheless present an important window of opportunity to struggle for shifts in

  14. Findings of an evaluation of public involvement programs associated with the development of a Land and Resource Management Plan for the Ouachita National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holthoff, M.G. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Howell, R.E. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Federal regulations require the United States Forest Service (USFS) to integrate public input and values into decisions concerning land and resource management planning. The USFS has typically relied on traditional methods of involving the public, whereby public access and input to policy development are unilaterally controlled by the agency. Because of the highly political nature of land and resource management planning, such technocratic forms of public involvement and decision-making appear to be proving ineffective. This paper describes and evaluates two public involvement programs associated with the Ouachita National Forest`s (ONF) lengthy forest planning process. The research consisted of personal interviews with key program leaders and knowledgeable citizen participants, collection of secondary data, and a survey of citizen participants. Because of controversial planning decisions made during an initial planning process, the ONF was forced to re-enter the planning process in order to address unresolved planning issues and to conduct a more effective public involvement program. The supplemental planning process also resulted in a considerable degree of public contention. The survey revealed that although citizen participants were somewhat more satisfied with the supplemental public involvement program relative to the initial program, neither program was viewed as satisfactory. The findings of the study suggest that in order to be more effective, USFS public involvement programs should be more responsive to public concerns and conducted in adherence to principles of collaborative planning.

  15. A proposal to address the governance of carbon capture and storage technologies in Spain: Trust, communication and public involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.; Gamero, N.

    2007-07-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a process consisting of the separation of CO{sub 2} from industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) considers it an option in the portfolio of mitigation actions for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. But the widespread application of CCs would depend on different issues such as technical feasibility, regulatory aspects, environmental issues and public acceptability, CCS, in spite of being a very important and necessary technology for the mitigation of climate change, involves some risks that should be managed. When dealing with technologies that involve some kind of environmental or health risk, risk governance is a key part of the development and deployment process. (Author) 63 refs.

  16. The Public Health Service guidelines. Governing research involving human subjects: An analysis of the policy-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.

  17. Evaluating the Factors that Activate the Development of Public-Private Partnership in Foreign Economic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyroh Olha V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with research on public-private partnership in foreign economic activity as process of interaction of the State and business-structures – entities of economic activity of Ukraine along with foreign entities of economic activity, this process includes attraction of investments, acceleration of economic development, etc. The factors determining public-private partnership in the foreign economic sphere (system of the State government bodies, system of economic relations in the State, financial resources of various States, experience in the implementation of public-private partnership projects, trust between partners are researched and generalized. Influence of each of the factors was defined by means of conjunctive analysis, determining that the system of economic relations in the State is most influenced by the formation of conditions, rules and implementation of principles of functioning of public-private partnership in the foreign economic sphere.

  18. Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products.

  19. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  20. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30–53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure activities, with low participation in physical and mentally stimulating leisure activities. Residence and time spent with primary caregiver were assoc...

  1. Transition from site selection to site confirmation phase: New challenge to Posiva's communication and public involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, Timo

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, Posiva Oy is responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the 1990's investigations have been carried out on four intended sites for final disposal. Posiva implemented Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on the investigation sites in 1997-1999. The results of the EIA procedure were published in the EIA report which was attached to the application filed to the Government in May 1999 for a policy decision on the construction of the final disposal facility in Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. In December 2000, the Finnish Government made a favourable policy decision ( D ecision in Principle ) on the construction of final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. According to the decision, the facility is in line with the overall good of the society. According to the Government's decision the prerequisites of the policy decision had been met. The municipality of Eurajoki supported the construction of the facility in Olkiluoto and STUK, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, also approved of the advancement of the project. The positive policy decision of the Government will still need to be ratified by the Parliament. The parliamentary proceedings of the policy decision will probably start in February 2001. The policy decision will make it possible for Posiva to concentrate the future site confirmation studies in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, and construct an underground research facility there. The excavation of the research facility in the bedrock is planned to start in a few years' time. The construction of the final disposal facility is scheduled to start after the year 2010. The transition from the site selection to the site confirmation phase in Eurajoki means a new challenge not only to Posiva's research work but also to Posiva's communication. In addition to meeting the safety criteria, Posiva's activities shall in the future also meet all the criteria specified by the surrounding society

  2. Examining the Link Between Public Transit Use and Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748 completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596 reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related.

  3. Measuring the success of public participation efforts associated with the U.S. Department of energy's environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, M.; Carnes, S.A.; Peelle, E.B.; Wolfe, A.K.; Munro, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    For the last several years, US DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has actively pursued a policy of involving local stakeholders in the planning and implementation of environmental management activities at contaminated sites throughout the DOE complex. An ongoing ORNL study is focusing on how to measure the success of the public participation efforts. Five DOE facilities were selected for intensive site visits; 4 or 5 additional sites were covered by telephone interviews. Key stakeholder groups were interviewed. Based on the data collection and preliminary analysis, 17 definitions of success were developed for public participation programs. Objective and subjective indicators of the success of the public participation efforts are discussed

  4. Physical Activity Based Professional Development for Teachers: The Importance of Whole School Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Jude; Ferkins, Lesley; Handcock, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to investigate teachers' perceptions of a physical activity-related professional development intervention. Design: Interview-based qualitative approach founded on the interpretive paradigm. Setting: Purposive selection of one high-rated independent, and one low-rated public primary school from Auckland, New Zealand.…

  5. Marketing Informal Education Institutions in Israel: The Centrality of Customers' Active Involvement in Service Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2004-01-01

    The current paper outlines a unique marketing perspective that prevails in some informal education institutions in Israel parallel with "traditional modes of marketing", such as promotion, public relations and the like. Based on a case study research in five community centres, a service development based on active participation of the…

  6. Thoughts on the development of active regional public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro Dos; Sóter, Ana Paula Menezes; Furtado, Lumena Almeida Castro; Pereira, Silvana Souza da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Decentralization and regionalization are strategic themes for reforms in the health system. This paper analyzes the complex process of health regionalization being developed in Brazil. This paper identifies that the normative framework from the Brazilian National Health System, SUS has made advances with respect to its institutionalization and overcoming the initial centrality involved in municipalization. This has strengthened the development of regionalization and the intergovernmental agreement on health but the evidence points to the need to promote a revision. Based on document analysis, literature review and the views given by the authors involved in management in SUS as well as generating radically different views, the challenges for the construction of a regionalization that is active, is debated. We also discuss: its relations with planning and the dimensioning of service networks, the production of active care networks and shared management spaces, the inter-federative agreements and regional regulations, the capacity to coordinate regional systems and financing and the impact of the political dimension and electoral cycles. Regionalization (and SUS itself) is an open book, therefore ways and possibilities on how to maintain an active form of regionalization can be recommended.

  7. Black youth's personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue: does the public service announcement still work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Truman R; Morant, Kesha M; Stroman, Carolyn A

    2009-03-01

    Recent public service announcements (PSAs) directed toward Black youth utilize various formats and appeals to stimulate a motivated cognitive process that engenders personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by Petty and Cacioppo argues that engagement with messages that consist of substantive content causes the audience member to critically analyze the message, which can produce awareness and attitude change. An efficient way to add emphasis to the message and seize the attention of the target audience is to insert the message into an entertainment context. Our study attempted to analyze the impact of the peripheral cue, character appeal, on audience members' attitude change in response to analyzing high- and low-involvement message content. A2 x 4 factorial design was used, with message involvement (high/low) and character appeal (White/Black and celebrity/noncelebrity) as independent variables. The findings showed that celebrity status is the salient factor, with source perception inducing attitude change as a main effect or in an interaction effect with high- and low message content.

  8. Participatory public health systems research: value of community involvement in a study series in mental health emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Marum, Felicity; Semon, Natalie; Mosley, Adrian; Gwon, Howard; Perry, Charlene; Moore, Suzanne Straub; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have arisen over recent years about the absence of empirically derived evidence on which to base policy and practice in the public health system, in general, and to meet the challenge of public health emergency preparedness, in particular. Related issues include the challenge of disaster-caused, behavioral health surge, and the frequent exclusion of populations from studies that the research is meant to aid. To characterize the contributions of nonacademic collaborators to a series of projects validating a set of interventions to enhance capacity and competency of public mental health preparedness planning and response. Urban, suburban, and rural communities of the state of Maryland and rural communities of the state of Iowa. Study partners and participants (both of this project and the studies examined) were representatives of academic health centers (AHCs), local health departments (LHDs), and faith-based organizations (FBOs) and their communities. A multiple-project, case study analysis was conducted, that is, four research projects implemented by the authors from 2005 through 2011 to determine the types and impact of contributions made by nonacademic collaborators to those projects. The analysis involved reviewing research records, conceptualizing contributions (and providing examples) for government, faith, and (nonacademic) institutional collaborators. Ten areas were identified where partners made valuable contributions to the study series; these "value-areas" were as follows: 1) leadership and management of the projects; 2) formulation and refinement of research topics, aims, etc; 3) recruitment and retention of participants; 4) design and enhancement of interventions; 5) delivery of interventions; 6) collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; 7) dissemination of findings; 8) ensuring sustainability of faith/government preparedness planning relationships; 9) optimizing scalability and portability of the model; and 10) facilitating

  9. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    other hand, in the survey to determine what the greatest difficulties of the current mining activities, 54% of mining companies chose environmental regulations, 26% of mining companies chose conflicts between mine area residents and mining companies. Environmental regulations are may defined as the greatest difficulty of current mining activities. But most of environmental regulation's problems are caused by frictions with residents, because all of South Korean mines are very close to villages. So, the biggest difficulty of mining activities can be defined conflicts between residents and mining companies. Moreover, general people in South Korea including some mining engineers recognize the mining industry as a declined and pollution industry. Without clear understanding of mining activities, any mine developments and policies related to mining activities cannot be made by rational discussions. And, if their recognition is not formed in a rational way, it will be turned to extreme fear or blind hatred. Therefore, to understand mining activities correctly, the effective public relations strategy is necessary such as corporate advertisements or public advertisements.

  10. Use of mass-media and active involvement in a national dental health campaign in Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a Dental Health Mass-Media Campaign directed at 5-7-yr-old children and their mothers. It aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness of dental health by making use of three different components: inserts in women's magazines; television commercial; material...... that future national health education campaigns combine the mass-media approach to increase health awareness with active involvement activities to stimulate behavioural changes....

  11. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Hijazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  12. Development and oversight of ethical health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the role of ethics and ethics review processes in the development of health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and associated documents provide the framework for the ethical conduct and independent review of research (including quality assurance and evaluation) involving humans in Australia. Identifying the level of risk to which participants may be exposed by participation in quality assurance and evaluation activities is essential for health promotion workers undertaking such activities. Organisations can establish processes other than review by a Human Research Ethics Committee for negligible and low risk research activities. Health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities often involve negligible and low risk to participants. Seven triggers that indicate the need for ethics review of quality assurance and evaluation activities and a procedural checklist for developing ethical quality assurance and evaluation activities are provided. Health promotion workers should be familiar with the NHMRC's National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. When ethical considerations underpin the planning and conduct of all quality assurance and evaluation from the very beginning, the activity is the better for it, independent 'ethics approval' can mostly be secured without much trouble and workers' frustration levels are reduced. So what? Health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities must be ethically justified. Health promotion workers should be familiar with the NHMRC's National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and should use it when developing health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities.

  13. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  14. Involving Your Child or Teen with ASD in Integrated Community Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Participating in outside activities and community-based endeavors can be tricky for people with special needs, like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Families meet more than a few obstacles attempting to integrate their children or teens who have special needs like ASD. Most typical children are highly involved in sports, clubs and camps. If a…

  15. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  16. Involvement in Activities and Wandering in Nursing Home Residents With Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volicer, L.; van der Steen, J.T.; Frijters, D.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Analysis of a relationship between wandering and involvement in meaningful activities in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional analysis of the Minimum Data Set information. SETTING:: The analyses were conducted on 8 nursing homes in the Netherlands.

  17. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley, T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30-53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure…

  18. Emotional Creativity and Real-Life Involvement in Different Types of Creative Leisure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Radek; Zahradnik, Martin; Kuška, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The role of emotional creativity in practicing creative leisure activities and in the preference of college majors remains unknown. This study aims to explore how emotional creativity measured by the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI; Averill, 1999) is interrelated with the real-life involvement in different types of specific creative leisure…

  19. Adolescents' Sociopolitical Values in the Context of Organized Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Metzger, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Sociopolitical values are hypothesized to form during adolescence, but the developmental and contextual origins of these values have been largely unexplored. A sample of 846 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 15.96, SD = 1.22, range = 13-20 years) reported on their organized activity involvement (volunteering, sports, church, community clubs,…

  20. Structure and activity of lacustrine sediment bacteria involved in nutrient and iron cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Martins, Gilberto Jorge; Terada, Akihiko; Ribeiro, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the bacterial community structure in sediments is essential to better design restoration strategies for eutrophied lakes. In this regard, the aim of this study was to quantify the abundance and activity of bacteria involved in nutrient and iron cycling in sediments from four Azorean...

  1. Extracurricular Activity and Parental Involvement Predict Positive Outcomes in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; Case, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore if parental involvement and extracurricular activity participation could predict well-being and academic competence in elementary school children. Seventy-two children (mean age = 10.9 years, SD = 0.85) and their parents participated. Results revealed that parental pressure and support, when paired with…

  2. Active serine involved in the stabilization of the active site loop in the Humicola lanuginosa lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Svendsen, A.; Langberg, H.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the binding properties of and dynamics in Humicola lanuginosa lipase (HII) and the inactive mutant S146A (active Ser146 substituted with Ala) using fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, respectively. Hll and S146A show significantly different binding......, whereas only small changes are observed for I-Ill suggesting that the active site Lid in the latter opens more easily and hence more lipase molecules are bound to the liposomes. These observations are in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and subsequent essential dynamics analyses. The results...... to substantial conformational alterations in the H. lanuginosa Lipase and different binding affinities....

  3. Moving from rational to normative ideologies of control over public involvement: A case of continued managerial dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Charlotte; Currie, Graeme; Staniszewska, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Public Involvement (PI) is a strategic priority in global healthcare settings, yet can be seen as peripheral during decision making processes. Whilst extant research acknowledges variations in how policy is translated into practice, the majority attribute it to the limiting influence of professional hierarchies on the perceived 'legitimacy' of PI. Drawing on examples of three commissioning organisations within the English NHS, we outline how the variance in policy implementation for PI can be attributed to influence from the managers rather than professionals. In doing so we explore how rational ideologies of managerial control negatively impact PI. However, we also illustrate how PI alluded to in policy can be more successfully realised when organisational managers enact normative ideologies of control. Notwithstanding this assertion, we argue managerial domination exists even in the case of normative ideologies of control, to the detriment of more radical PI in service development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activating Public Space: How to Promote Physical Activity in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle. The quality and equipment of urban public space plays an important role in promoting physical activity among people (residents, tourists). In order for recreation and sports activities to be undertaken willingly, in a safe and comprehensive manner, certain spatial conditions and requirements must be met. The distinctive feature of contemporary large cities is the disappearance of local, neighbourly relations, and the consequent loneliness, alienation, and atomization of the residents. Thus, the design of public spaces should be an expression of the values of social inclusion and integration. A properly designed urban space would encourage people to leave their homes and integrate, also by undertaking different forms of physical activities. This, in turn, can lead to raising the quality of the space, especially in the context of its “familiarization” and “domestication”. The aim of the research was to identify the architectural and urban features of the public spaces of contemporary cities that can contribute to the promotion of physical activity. The paper presents the research results and the case studies of such spatial solutions and examples of good practices, which invite residents to undertake different forms of physical activities in public spaces. The issue of the integrating, inclusionary, and social function of physical recreation and sport is discussed as well, and so are the possibilities of translating these values into physical characteristics of an urban space. The main conclusions are that taking into account the diverse needs of different social groups, participation in the design and construction process, aesthetic and interesting design, vicinity of the residence, open access for all age groups and the disabled would be the most important spatial determinants of a properly designed, physically activating public space. Strategies of planning the sports and recreation

  5. Security of material: Preventing criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    The report emphasizes the need for national regulatory authorities to include in the regulatory systems, measures to control and protect nuclear materials from being used in illegal activities, as well as aspects of relevance for detecting and responding to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The report will give an overview of the international treaties and agreements that underpin the establishment of a regulatory structure necessary for States to meet their non-proliferation policy and undertakings. Ongoing work to strengthen the protection of nuclear material and to detect and respond to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive material will be included. The focus of the paper is on the need for standards and national regulation in the nuclear security area. (author)

  6. Extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in antimicrobial drug development research: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Bird, Emma; Gibson, Andy; Grier, Sally; Chin, Teh Li; Stoddart, Margaret; MacGowan, Alasdair

    2018-02-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly recognized as bringing a range of benefits to clinical and health services research. Recent systematic reviews have identified and synthesized many benefits (eg higher recruitment rates) and some costs (eg extra time need). Much of the literature focuses on PPI in long-term conditions rather than more acute health care in which the majority of microbiological research is undertaken. The aim was to identify the extent, quality and impact of PPI in antimicrobial drug development research. Objectives were to identify any relevant reporting of PPI in antimicrobial research; appraise the quality of reporting on PPI using recognized PPI reporting and critical appraisal tools; and extract and synthesize data on the impact of PPI. A systematic review was undertaken with a search strategy based on four word groups (PPI, patients, antimicrobial drug development and outcomes). Eight online databases were searched. English language publication, publication between 1996 and 2016 and studies describing PPI in antimicrobial drug development research. No studies were found through online searching that met the search strategy and inclusion criteria. One relevant protocol paper with a brief mention of PPI was identified through expert recommendation. Commentary papers recommending PPI were identified through website searching and expert opinion. Despite strong policy guidance encouraging PPI at the international and national levels, and anecdotal accounts of PPI taking place, evidence for the extent, quality and impact of PPI in antimicrobial drug development research has not yet appeared in the peer-reviewed literature. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Corporate political activity of the dairy industry in France: an analysis of publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Mialon, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we used a structured approach based on publicly available information to identify the corporate political activity (CPA) strategies of three major actors in the dairy industry in France. We collected publicly available information from the industry, government and other sources over a 6-month period, from March to August 2015. Data collection and analysis were informed by an existing framework for classifying the CPA of the food industry. Setting/Subjects Our study included three major actors in the dairy industry in France: Danone, Lactalis and the Centre National Interprofessionnel de l'Economie Laitière (CNIEL), a trade association. During the period of data collection, the dairy industry employed CPA practices on numerous occasions by using three strategies: the 'information and messaging', the 'constituency building' and the 'policy substitution' strategies. The most common practice was the shaping of evidence in ways that suited the industry. The industry also sought involvement in the community, establishing relationships with public health professionals, academics and the government. Our study shows that the dairy industry used several CPA practices, even during periods when there was no specific policy debate on the role of dairy products in dietary guidelines. The information provided here could inform public health advocates and policy makers and help them ensure that commercial interests of industry do not impede public health policies and programmes.

  8. Thalamic involvement in the regulation of alpha EEG activity in psychiatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, S.P.; Pakula, J.; Young, I.J.; Crayton, J.W.; Konopka, L.M.; Rybak, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The thalamus is considered to be an important sub-cortical system involved in modulation of cortical activities. A relationship between thalamic activity and surface EEG was recently reported. In this study we evaluated a group of patients with psychiatric disorders who presented with asymmetric perfusion of the thalamus based on brain SPECT HMPAO studies. We predicted that asymmetrical activity of the thalamus would have asymmetrically distributed surface qEEG activity patterns. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three male psychiatric patients (age 54±14) with a primary diagnosis of depression and co-morbid substance abuse (83%) were studied with qEEG and HMPAO brain SPECT. The HMPAO ligand was administered while the EEG activity was being recorded. The SPECT analysis was conducted by means of ROI and SPM. ROI regions were determined based on the Talairach atlas coordinate system. ROI locations were verified by the automated utility, Talairach Demon. QEEG data was analyzed by a standardized protocol involving the NxLink database. Correlations between SPECT findings and qEEG absolute power were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups based on thalamic perfusion patterns. Group 1 (Gr 1) had decreased perfusion to the right thalamus whereas Group 2 (Gr 2) had decreased perfusion to the left thalamus. SPM comparison of the patient groups to normal control subjects indicated significant findings. Comparison of Gr 1 to controls showed increased activity in the left temporal lobe and vermis. Decreased activity was observed in the left and right medial frontal lobes (right Brodmann 9;left Brodmann 6) as well as the left (Brodmann 30) and right (Brodmann 24) cingulate. Gr 2 comparison showed increased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann 10) and left inferior parietal lobe. Decreased activity was found in the left inferior frontal lobe (Brodmann 47). A positive correlation between alpha power and thalamic perfusion was identified in Gr

  9. Melatonin synthesis in the human ciliary body triggered by TRPV4 activation: Involvement of AANAT phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Perez de Lara, María J; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin is a substance synthesized in the pineal gland as well as in other organs. This substance is involved in many ocular functions, giving its synthesis in numerous eye structures. Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin through two enzymes, the first limiting step into the synthesis of melatonin being aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). In this current study, AANAT phosphorylation after the activation of TRPV4 was studied using human non-pigmented epithelial ciliary body cells. Firstly, it was necessary to determine the adequate time and dose of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A to reach the maximal phosphorylation of AANAT. An increase of 72% was observed after 5 min incubation with 10 nM GSK (**p melatonin synthesis. The involvement of a TRPV4 channel in melatonin synthesis was verified by antagonist and siRNA studies as a previous step to studying intracellular signalling. Studies performed on the second messengers involved in GSK induced AANAT phosphorylation were carried out by inhibiting several pathways. In conclusion, the activation of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II was confirmed, as shown by the cascade seen in AANAT phosphorylation (***p melatonin levels. In conclusion, the activation of a TRPV4 present in human ciliary body epithelial cells produced an increase in AANAT phosphorylation and a further melatonin increase by a mechanism in which Ca-calmodulin and the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumer input into health care: Time for a new active and comprehensive model of consumer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alix E; Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Proietto, Anthony M; Roos, Ian

    2018-03-07

    To ensure the provision of patient-centred health care, it is essential that consumers are actively involved in the process of determining and implementing health-care quality improvements. However, common strategies used to involve consumers in quality improvements, such as consumer membership on committees and collection of patient feedback via surveys, are ineffective and have a number of limitations, including: limited representativeness; tokenism; a lack of reliable and valid patient feedback data; infrequent assessment of patient feedback; delays in acquiring feedback; and how collected feedback is used to drive health-care improvements. We propose a new active model of consumer engagement that aims to overcome these limitations. This model involves the following: (i) the development of a new measure of consumer perceptions; (ii) low cost and frequent electronic data collection of patient views of quality improvements; (iii) efficient feedback to the health-care decision makers; and (iv) active involvement of consumers that fosters power to influence health system changes. © 2018 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. What does the activation of a classification and decontamination station involve?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 1 October 1999, the Council of Ministers adopted a resolution urging the Nuclear Safety Council to inform the public on the health protection measures to take and the procedure to follow in a radiological emergency. The content of this articles describes the activation and work of stations for the classification and decontamination of persons, a procedure provided for in the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Plans. (Author)

  12. THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF STUDENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SPEAKING ACTIVITY AT SMP PROGRESIF BUMI SHALAWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Nurul Haikal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to know what factors that influence the students’ involvement in speaking activity in order to practice their speaking skill and what strategies that the teacher used to encourage those external factors. This research uses descriptive qualitative method. There are two instruments used for this research, namely, class observation and interview. Based on the results of class observation and interview, the researcher concludes that teacher factor gives the greatest impact on students’ involvement and the appropriate strategies can support those external factors.

  13. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  14. Evaluation of the Physical Activity and Public Health Course for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Brown, David R.; Pearce, Emily; Camplain, Ricky; Jernigan, Jan; Epping, Jacqueline; Shepard, Dennis M.; Dorn, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: From 1996 to 2013, a 6-day Physical Activity and Public Health Course for Practitioners has been offered yearly in the United States. An evaluation was conducted to assess the impact of the course on building public health capacity for physical activity and on shaping the physical activity and public health careers of fellows since taking…

  15. Questioning tool-kit on population involvement in the context of local requests in environmental health. Five public institutes of research and expertise faced to governance trends in terms of activities and situations presenting risks for humans and for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dor, Frederic; Schneider, Thierry; Boucher, Alix; Chiron, Mireille; Coutureau, Fabrice; Hazebrouck, Benoit; Laurier, Dominique; Oudiz, Andre; Petitfrere, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In their daily practice, the five institutes are faced to the uncertainties relative to the quantification of the health-related risks and to the difficulty of communicating with the population. The working group elaborated a questioning tool-kit covering the three steps of a public health assessment: analysis of the situation, progress of the study and feedback and interpretation of the results. This tool concerns more particularly the investigations at a local level identified as potentially harmful. The legitimacy of the institutes intervening, the answer to the expectations of the population, a transparent attitude on what can possibly be done or not, the development of a partnership with the population, the formulation and the follow-up of the recommendations are many important points identified by the working-group. They were consolidated during the auditions with local authorities and associations. Throughout the processes initiated with the population, the investment in terms of time represents an important part of the success or the failure of the management of the situation. (authors)

  16. Data publication activities in the Natural Environment Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, A.; Callaghan, S.; Lowry, R.; Moncoiffé, G.; Donnegan, S.; Pepler, S.; Cunningham, N.; Kirsch, P.; Ault, L.; Bell, P.; Bowie, R.; Harrison, K.; Smith-Haddon, B.; Wetherby, A.; Wright, D.; Thorley, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is implementing its Science Information Strategy in order to provide a world class service to deliver integrated data for earth system science. One project within this strategy is Data Citation and Publication, which aims to put the promotion and recognition stages of the data lifecycle into place alongside the traditional data management activities of NERC's Environmental Data Centres (EDCs). The NERC EDCs have made a distinction between the serving of data and its publication. Data serving is defined in this case as the day-to-day data management tasks of: • acquiring data and metadata from the originating scientists; • metadata and format harmonisation prior to database ingestion; • ensuring the metadata is adequate and accurate and that the data are available in appropriate file formats; • and making the data available for interested parties. Whereas publication: • requires the assignment of a digital object identifier to a dataset which guarantees that an EDC has assessed the quality of the metadata and the file format and will maintain an unchanged version of the data for the foreseeable future • requires the peer-review of the scientific quality of the data by a scientist with knowledge of the scientific domain in which the data were collected, using a framework for peer-review of datasets such as that developed by the CLADDIER project. • requires collaboration with journal publishers who have access to a well established peer-review system The first of these requirements can be managed in-house by the EDCs, while the remainder require collaboration with the wider scientific and publishing communities. It is anticipated that a scientist may achieve a lower level of academic credit for a dataset which is assigned a DOI but does not follow through to the scientific peer-review stage, similar to publication in a report or other non-peer reviewed publication normally described as grey literature, or

  17. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernades de Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p170 Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activityactive, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present.

  18. Active Involvement of End Users When Developing Web-Based Mental Health Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek de Beurs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough many web-based mental health interventions are being released, the actual uptake by end users is limited. The marginal level of engagement of end users when developing these interventions is recognized as an important cause for uptake problems. In this paper, we offer our perceptive on how to improve user engagement. By doing so, we aim to stimulate a discourse on user involvement within the field of online mental health interventions.MethodsWe shortly describe three different methods (the expert-driven method, intervention mapping, and scrum that were currently used to develop web-based health interventions. We will focus to what extent the end user was involved in the developmental phase, and what the additional challenges were. In the final paragraph, lessons learned are summarized, and recommendations provided.ResultsEvery method seems to have its trade-off: if end users are highly involved, availability of end users and means become problematic. If end users are less actively involved, the product may be less appropriate for the end user. Other challenges to consider are the funding of the more active role of technological companies, and the time it takes to process the results of shorter development cycles.ConclusionThinking about user-centered design and carefully planning, the involvement of end users should become standard in the field of web-based (mental health. When deciding on the level of user involvement, one should balance the need for input from users with the availability of resources such as time and funding.

  19. Effective public involvement in the HoST-D Programme for dementia home care support: From proposal and design to methods of data collection (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa; Roe, Brenda; Hodgson, Anthony; Britt, David; Clarkson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Public involvement is an important element in health and social care research. However, it is little evaluated in research. This paper discusses the utility and impact of public involvement of carers and people with dementia in a five-year programme on effective home support in dementia, from proposal and design to methods of data collection, and provides a useful guide for future research on how to effectively involve the public. The Home SupporT in Dementia (HoST-D) Programme comprises two elements of public involvement, a small reference group and a virtual lay advisory group. Involving carers and people with dementia is based on the six key values of involvement - respect, support, transparency, responsiveness, fairness of opportunity, and accountability. Carers and people with dementia gave opinions on study information, methods of data collection, an economic model, case vignettes, and a memory aid booklet, which were all taken into account. Public involvement has provided benefits to the programme whilst being considerate of the time constraints and geographical locations of members.

  20. The influence of peer affiliation and student activities on adolescent drug involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J E

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the importance of students' academic performance level and extracurricular activities as predictors of drug involvement relative to peer influence. Social development theory provided the theoretical rational for the study. Data were obtained from 2,229 randomly selected students in the eighth, tenth, and twelfth grades from seventeen school districts in northeastern Ohio. At all three grade levels, involvement in extracurricular activities and academic level were significantly correlated with students' gateway and hard drug use. Consistent with prior research, the strongest correlate of gateway and hard drug use across all grade levels was affiliation with drug-using friends. Having a job after school was marginally related to self-reported gateway drug use at grade level ten. Multiple regression analysis revealed that extracurricular involvement and academic performance level make small, but unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' gateway drug use beyond affiliation with drug-using peers at all three grade levels. The findings of this study suggest that students' academic performance and extracurricular involvements are significantly related to adolescent gateway and hard drug use, but have less predictive significance relative to peer relationships.

  1. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  2. Acoustic input and efferent activity regulate the expression of molecules involved in cochlear micromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Veronica; Arévalo, Juan C.; Juiz, José M.; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Electromotile activity in auditory outer hair cells (OHCs) is essential for sound amplification. It relies on the highly specialized membrane motor protein prestin, and its interactions with the cytoskeleton. It is believed that the expression of prestin and related molecules involved in OHC electromotility may be dynamically regulated by signals from the acoustic environment. However little is known about the nature of such signals and how they affect the expression of molecules involved in electromotility in OHCs. We show evidence that prestin oligomerization is regulated, both at short and relatively long term, by acoustic input and descending efferent activity originating in the cortex, likely acting in concert. Unilateral removal of the middle ear ossicular chain reduces levels of trimeric prestin, particularly in the cochlea from the side of the lesion, whereas monomeric and dimeric forms are maintained or even increased in particular in the contralateral side, as shown in Western blots. Unilateral removal of the auditory cortex (AC), which likely causes an imbalance in descending efferent activity on the cochlea, also reduces levels of trimeric and tetrameric forms of prestin in the side ipsilateral to the lesion, whereas in the contralateral side prestin remains unaffected, or even increased in the case of trimeric and tetrameric forms. As far as efferent inputs are concerned, unilateral ablation of the AC up-regulates the expression of α10 nicotinic Ach receptor (nAChR) transcripts in the cochlea, as shown by RT-Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This suggests that homeostatic synaptic scaling mechanisms may be involved in dynamically regulating OHC electromotility by medial olivocochlear efferents. Limited, unbalanced efferent activity after unilateral AC removal, also affects prestin and β-actin mRNA levels. These findings support that the concerted action of acoustic and efferent inputs to the cochlea is needed to regulate the expression of major

  3. RPA-Binding Protein ETAA1 Is an ATR Activator Involved in DNA Replication Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Cho; Zhou, Qing; Chen, Junjie; Yuan, Jingsong

    2016-12-19

    ETAA1 (Ewing tumor-associated antigen 1), also known as ETAA16, was identified as a tumor-specific antigen in the Ewing family of tumors. However, the biological function of this protein remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of ETAA1 as a DNA replication stress response protein. ETAA1 specifically interacts with RPA (Replication protein A) via two conserved RPA-binding domains and is therefore recruited to stalled replication forks. Interestingly, further analysis of ETAA1 function revealed that ETAA1 participates in the activation of ATR signaling pathway via a conserved ATR-activating domain (AAD) located near its N terminus. Importantly, we demonstrate that both RPA binding and ATR activation are required for ETAA1 function at stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability. Therefore, our data suggest that ETAA1 is a new ATR activator involved in replication checkpoint control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MR imaging in adults with Gaucher disease type I: evulation of marrow involvement and disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Shaprio, R.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Abdelwahab, I.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Grabowski, G. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States))

    1993-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of bone marrow involvement in patients with Gaucher disease type I. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained of the lower extremities of 29 adult patients. Patients were classified into one of three groups based on marrow signal patterns on T1- and T2-weighted images as well as change in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images. An increase in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images was the criterion for an 'active process' within the bone marrow. Classification of the 29 patients produced the following results: Group A: Normal, 4 patients; group B: Marrow infiltration, 16 patients; group C: Marrow infiltration plus active marrow process, 9 patients. Correlation with clinical findings revealed that all nine patients with evidence of an active marrow process on MRI (group C) had acute bone pain. Conversely, only one of the remaining 20 patients (groups A and B) had bone pain. There was no correlation between disease activity and findings on conventional radiographs. We conclude the MRI provides an excellent noninvasive assessment of the extent and activity of marrow involvement in type I Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  5. MR imaging in adults with Gaucher disease type I: evulation of marrow involvement and disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, G.; Shaprio, R.S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Grabowski, G.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of bone marrow involvement in patients with Gaucher disease type I. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained of the lower extremities of 29 adult patients. Patients were classified into one of three groups based on marrow signal patterns on T1- and T2-weighted images as well as change in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images. An increase in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images was the criterion for an 'active process' within the bone marrow. Classification of the 29 patients produced the following results: Group A: Normal, 4 patients; group B: Marrow infiltration, 16 patients; group C: Marrow infiltration plus active marrow process, 9 patients. Correlation with clinical findings revealed that all nine patients with evidence of an active marrow process on MRI (group C) had acute bone pain. Conversely, only one of the remaining 20 patients (groups A and B) had bone pain. There was no correlation between disease activity and findings on conventional radiographs. We conclude the MRI provides an excellent noninvasive assessment of the extent and activity of marrow involvement in type I Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  6. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18–23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  7. Passion and Preparation in the Basic Course: The Influence of Students' Ego-Involvement with Speech Topics and Preparation Time on Public-Speaking Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Joseph P.; Titsworth, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Authors of basic public-speaking course textbooks frequently encourage students to select speech topics in which they have vested interest, care deeply about, and hold strong opinions and beliefs. This study explores students' level of ego-involvement with informative and persuasive speech topics, examines possible ego-involvement predictors of…

  8. Making patient and public involvement in cancer and palliative research a reality: academic support is vital for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen; Boote, Jonathan; Ardron, David; Gath, Jacqui; Green, Tracy; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2015-06-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) has become an established theme within the UK health research policy and is recognised as an essential force in the drive to improve the quality of services and research. These developments have been particularly rapid in the cancer field. This paper outlines a model of PPI in research (known as the North Trent Cancer Research Network Consumer Research Panel, NTCRN CRP; comprising 38 cancer and palliative care patients/carers) and the key benefits and challenges to effective PPI in cancer research. The PPI model has become a sustainable, inclusive and effective way of implementing PPI within the cancer context. Challenges include (1) a lack of time and funding available to support the PPI model; (2) tensions between different stakeholder groups when developing and conducting health research; (3) panel members finding it difficult to effectively integrate into research meetings when their role and contribution is not made clear at the outset or when unfamiliar language and jargon are used and not explained; (4) some professionals remain unclear about the role and practical implications of PPI in research. However, notwithstanding its financial and organisational challenges, the way that the NTCRN CRP is supported has provided a solid base for it to flourish. PPI provides considerable opportunities for patients and the public to work collaboratively with professionals to influence the cancer research agenda, with the contribution of PPI to the research process being integral to the entire process from the outset, rather than appended to it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. SPECT assessment of brain activation induced by caffeine: no effect on areas involved in dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Namer, Izzie J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is not considered addictive, and in animals it does not trigger metabolic increases or dopamine release in brain areas involved in reinforcement and reward. Our objective was to measure caffeine effects on cerebral perfusion in humans using single photon emission computed tomography with a specific focus on areas of reinforcement and reward. Two groups of nonsmoking subjects were studied, one with a low (8 subjects) and one with a high (6 subjects) daily coffee consumption. The subjects ingested 3 mg/kg caffeine or placebo in a raspberry-tasting drink, and scans were performed 45 min after ingestion. A control group of 12 healthy volunteers receiving no drink was also studied. Caffeine consumption led to a generalized, statistically nonsignificant perfusion decrease of 6% to 8%, comparable in low and high consumers. Compared with controls, low consumers displayed neuronal activation bilaterally in inferior frontal gyrus-anterior insular cortex and uncus, left internal parietal cortex, right lingual gyrus, and cerebellum. In high consumers, brain activation occurred bilaterally only in hypothalamus. Thus, on a background of widespread low-amplitude perfusion decrease, caffeine activates a few regions mainly involved in the control of vigilance, anxiety, and cardiovascular regulation, but does not affect areas involved in reinforcing and reward.

  10. Relationship between hospital pharmacists' job satisfaction and involvement in clinical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D S; Lawson, K A

    1996-02-01

    Job satisfaction among hospital pharmacists employed by a national hospital pharmacy management company was measured by using a mail questionnaire. A previously validated survey that measured pharmacists' job satisfaction was adapted for use in this study. Additional questions determined the pharmacist's clinical pharmacy training and participation in clinical pharmacy services. Questionnaires were mailed to all full-time hospital pharmacists employed by the pharmacy management company. Of the 606 mailed, deliverable questionnaires, 354 usable responses were returned, for a response rate of 58.4%. The respondent hospital pharmacists' level of job satisfaction showed a positive association with clinical pharmacy involvement. Of the nine items in the questionnaire that measured the pharmacists' involvement in clinical pharmacy services, seven items showed a positive relationship between involvement in that clinical activity and job satisfaction. Mean job satisfaction increased as the percentage of time spent performing clinical pharmacy activities increased. Job satisfaction decreased as time spent performing distributive functions increased. The percentage of time hospital pharmacists were engaged in clinical activities was significantly associated with job satisfaction.

  11. HTLV-1 Tax-mediated TAK1 activation involves TAB2 adapter protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingsheng; Minoda, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Iha, Hidekatsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Takaesu, Giichi

    2008-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is an oncoprotein that plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes. It has recently been reported that Tax activates a MAPKKK family, TAK1. However, the molecular mechanism of Tax-mediated TAK1 activation is not well understood. In this report, we investigated the role of TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2) in Tax-mediated TAK1 activation. We found that TAB2 physically interacts with Tax and augments Tax-induced NF-κB activity. Tax and TAB2 cooperatively activate TAK1 when they are coexpressed. Furthermore, TAK1 activation by Tax requires TAB2 binding as well as ubiquitination of Tax. We also found that the overexpression of TRAF2, 5, or 6 strongly induces Tax ubiquitination. These results suggest that TAB2 may be critically involved in Tax-mediated activation of TAK1 and that NF-κB-activating TRAF family proteins are potential cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases toward Tax

  12. Public involvement: the critical path in siting controversial facilities. Proceedings of the Nuclear Energy Low-Level Waste Mangement Program conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to: exchange information among those responsible for, or interested in, the development of new low-level waste disposal facilities; acquaint participants with past experiences of states and organizations in enfranchising the public in the siting of controversial facilities; and discuss various mechanisms and techniques for effectively involving the public in decision-making processes. The conference addressed four major topics: lessons from past experiences; mechanisms and techniques for public involvement, conflict resolution, and working constructively with the media. A series of presentations on each topic was followed by questions and discussion among presenters and conference participants. Several key points emerged as the conference proceeded

  13. 'But is it a question worth asking?' A reflective case study describing how public involvement can lead to researchers' ideas being abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Dalgleish, Mary; Freeman, Janet; Jones, Zena; Miles, Marianne; Rodgers, Helen

    2014-06-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing research ideas into grant applications. Some positive accounts of this process have been published, but little is known about when their reactions are negative and when researchers' ideas are abandoned. To present a case study account of when an academic-led idea for funding was not supported by stroke survivors and carers who were asked to contribute to its development, together with a reflection on the implications of the case from all the stakeholders involved. A reflective case study of a research idea, developed by an academic researcher, on which stakeholders were consulted. University researchers, clinicians, public involvement managers, and stroke survivors and carers from the NIHR's Stroke Research Network. Although the idea met with the approval of health professionals, who were keen to develop it into a funding bid, the stroke survivors and carers did not think the idea worth pursuing. This lack of patient and carer support led to the idea being abandoned. Reflecting on this, those involved in the consultation believed that the savings accrued from abandoning the idea, in terms of ensuring that public money is not wasted, should be seen as an important benefit of public involvement in the research process. Little is known about the role of the public in the abandonment of research ideas. We recommend that further research is undertaken into this important contribution that patients and the public can make to health research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Involvement of Endogenous Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, G; Zussy, C; Tran Van Ba, C; Chevallier, N; Tang, Y-P; Maurice, T; Givalois, L

    2015-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be highly involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation during adulthood, playing an important role in homeostasis maintenance. The present study aimed to determine the involvement of BDNF in HPA axis activity under basal and stress conditions via partial inhibition of this endogenous neurotrophin. Experiments were conducted in rats and mice with two complementary approaches: (i) BDNF knockdown with stereotaxic delivery of BDNF-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the lateral ventricle of adult male rats and (ii) genetically induced knockdown (KD) of BDNF expression specifically in the central nervous system during the first ontogenesis in mice (KD mice). Delivery of siRNA in the rat brain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus (-31%) and hypothalamus (-35%) but not in the amygdala, frontal cortex and pituitary. In addition, siRNA induced no change of the basal HPA axis activity. BDNF siRNA rats exhibited decreased BDNF levels and concomitant altered adrenocortoctrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to restraint stress, suggesting the involvement of BDNF in the HPA axis adaptive response to stress. In KD mice, BDNF levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus were decreased by 20% in heterozygous and by 60% in homozygous animals compared to wild-type littermates. Although, in heterozygous KD mice, no significant change was observed in the basal levels of plasma ACTH and corticosterone, both hormones were significantly increased in homozygous KD mice, demonstrating that robust cerebral BDNF inhibition (60%) is necessary to affect basal HPA axis activity. All of these results in both rats and mice demonstrate the involvement and importance of a robust endogenous pool of BDNF in basal HPA axis regulation and the pivotal function of de novo BDNF synthesis in the establishment of an adapted response to stress. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  15. Public Values and Stakeholder Involvement - A new framework for Performance Assessment? The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Chataignier, Stephane [Electricite de France (France); Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)] [and others

    2002-11-01

    RISCOM-II is a project within the fifth framework programme of the European Commission. It is based on a widely recognised need for more transparent decision processes in nuclear waste management. The objective of the RISCOM-II project is to share the knowledge of the context of radioactive waste management in various European countries and to see to what extent it is possible to apply more widely the RISCOM Model in order to improve the acceptability of radioactive waste management. Thus, the project aims to promote the development of processes involving transparency, as well as means involving greater participation of the public. Key topics studied in the RISCOM-II Project are issues in risk assessment to better understand how factual elements relate to value-laden issues and how stakeholder concerns can be addressed, as well as organizational issues affecting transparency in Europe. A range of public participation processes are analysed, some will be selected for testing and hearings are evaluated with respect to transparency. There are five participating countries: Sweden, the United Kingdom, Finland, the Czech Republic, and France, which are represented by various organizations: safety or radiation protection authorities, operators involved in nuclear wastes and the production of nuclear power, research institutes or organizations, and consultants. Work Package No 1(WP-1), Public values and performance assessment, emphasises the importance of value-laden issues involved in nuclear waste management. The expert dominance in the field has so far tended to avoid values or deal with them in seemingly factual frameworks. The objectives of (WP-1) are thus: 1. to identify value-laden issues raised by performance assessment, trying to understand how factual and technical elements relate to value-laden issues 2. to find value judgements of stakeholders, and explore if and how they could be addressed in performance assessment 3. to initiate open debate about risk and

  16. Public Values and Stakeholder Involvement - A new framework for Performance Assessment? The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Chataignier, Stephane; Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2002-11-01

    RISCOM-II is a project within the fifth framework programme of the European Commission. It is based on a widely recognised need for more transparent decision processes in nuclear waste management. The objective of the RISCOM-II project is to share the knowledge of the context of radioactive waste management in various European countries and to see to what extent it is possible to apply more widely the RISCOM Model in order to improve the acceptability of radioactive waste management. Thus, the project aims to promote the development of processes involving transparency, as well as means involving greater participation of the public. Key topics studied in the RISCOM-II Project are issues in risk assessment to better understand how factual elements relate to value-laden issues and how stakeholder concerns can be addressed, as well as organizational issues affecting transparency in Europe. A range of public participation processes are analysed, some will be selected for testing and hearings are evaluated with respect to transparency. There are five participating countries: Sweden, the United Kingdom, Finland, the Czech Republic, and France, which are represented by various organizations: safety or radiation protection authorities, operators involved in nuclear wastes and the production of nuclear power, research institutes or organizations, and consultants. Work Package No 1(WP-1), Public values and performance assessment, emphasises the importance of value-laden issues involved in nuclear waste management. The expert dominance in the field has so far tended to avoid values or deal with them in seemingly factual frameworks. The objectives of (WP-1) are thus: 1. to identify value-laden issues raised by performance assessment, trying to understand how factual and technical elements relate to value-laden issues 2. to find value judgements of stakeholders, and explore if and how they could be addressed in performance assessment 3. to initiate open debate about risk and

  17. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Mohd. Sani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test and thermal (hot plate test models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P<0.05 antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO donor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS, methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway, or their combination also caused significant (P<0.05 change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

  18. 49 CFR 37.61 - Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public transportation programs and activities in... TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.61 Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities. (a) A public entity shall operate a designated...

  19. Activated alveolar macrophage and lymphocyte alveolitis in extrathoracic sarcoidosis without radiological mediastinopulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.C.; Prin, L.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Cellular characteristics of BAL were investigated in 18 patients with proved extrathoracic sarcoidosis (that is, sarcoidosis that affected the skin, eyes, parotid glands, stomach, nose, kidneys, or meninges) without clinical or radiological mediastinopulmonary involvement. Computed tomography of the thorax was performed on five patients: four patients were normal, and one had enlarged lymph nodes (these enlargements were not detectable on the patient's chest roentgenogram). The results of pulmonary function tests were normal in all patients. The total BAL cell count did not differ significantly between controls and patients. Abnormal percentages of alveolar lymphocytes (from 18 to 87%) were noted in 15 out of 18 patients. SACE levels were normal in 15 patients. No pulmonary gallium uptake was detected. The chemiluminescence of AM's, whether spontaneous or PMA induced, was increased in five out of seven patients. The percentages of T3+ lymphocytes in sarcoidosis patients did not significantly differ from those in controls. The T4+:T8+ ratio was normal in four patients and slightly increased in one. Follow-up of patients showed that alveolar lymphocytosis is as lasting as extrathoracic involvement. Our data demonstrate increased percentages of lymphocytes and activated AM's in the BAL of patients with extrathoracic sarcoidosis. This may be due to the initial involvement of the respiratory tract in extrathoracic sarcoidosis or to the diffusion of activated macrophages and lymphocytes from an extrathoracic site into the lung

  20. Understanding the direct involvement of parents in policy development and school activities in a primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobin Bernie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that parental engagement with children’s learning and education is of vital importance. But, there is a tendency to confuse engagement with learning with engagement with the school. While all types of parents’ involvement can have a positive effect, it is actually what parents do with their child at home that has the greatest impact. However, unless parental involvement in learning is embedded in whole-school processes it is unlikely to as effective as possible. This paper documents an action research study that explores the inclusion of parents and home values in the construction of the teaching and learning environment. This was a small step towards positive parent-teacher collaboration, which allowed an exchange of knowledge, values and cultural background experiences. In acknowledging the ways in which the parents already engaged with their children’s learning, it began to enhance self-efficacy in their ability to directly affect this learning. This work has also provoked reflexive engagement of my influence and understanding of involving parents of children with additional and diverse learning needs. But, it also details the transformative journey that influenced my thinking about how we as a school could begin to develop whole-school processes to directly involve parents in policy development and school activities.

  1. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Rydbirk, Rasmus; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Pakkenberg, Bente; Aznar, Susana

    2017-05-30

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT 2A Rs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact of 5-HT 2A R blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results support a role of 5-HT 2A R activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT 2A R blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Barriers to involvement in physical activities of persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat

    2016-03-01

    Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-02-01

    Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health's perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216-609 for pediatric cases and between US$196-866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka.

  4. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  5. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in neurotoxic prion peptide-induced microglial activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Fushan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal disease-associated prion protein, PrPSc. In prion-infected brains, activated microglia are often present in the vicinity of PrPSc aggregates, and microglial activation is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Although interleukin (IL-1β release by prion-induced microglia has been widely reported, the mechanism by which primed microglia become activated and secrete IL-1β in prion diseases has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NALP3 inflammasome in IL-1β release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-primed microglia after exposure to a synthetic neurotoxic prion fragment (PrP106-126. Methods The inflammasome components NALP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC were knocked down by gene silencing. IL-1β production was assessed using ELISA. The mRNA expression of NALP3, ASC, and pro-inflammatory factors was measured by quantitative PCR. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein level of NALP3, ASC, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB. Results We found that that PrP106-126-induced IL-1β release depends on NALP3 inflammasome activation, that inflammasome activation is required for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic factors by PrP106-126-activated microglia, that inhibition of NF-κB activation abrogated PrP106-126-induced NALP3 upregulation, and that potassium efflux and production of reactive oxygen species were implicated in PrP106-126-induced NALP3 inflammasome activation in microglia. Conclusions We conclude that the NALP3 inflammasome is involved in neurotoxic prion peptide-induced microglial activation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that strong evidence for the involvement of NALP3 inflammasome in prion-associated inflammation has been found.

  6. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patters, M.R.; Landsberg, R.L.; Johansson, L.-A.; Trummel, C.L.; Robertson, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated 45 Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. (author)

  7. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patters, M R; Landsberg, R L; Johansson, L A; Trummel, C L; Robertson, P R [Department of Periodontology, University of Connecticut, School of Dental Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated /sup 45/Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis.

  8. 77 FR 71430 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Public Transportation Baseline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Public Transportation Baseline Assessment for Security Enhancement... voluntary site visits with security and operating officials of public transportation systems. This program...

  9. Public and Private Activity in Commercial TV Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market...

  10. Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lévesque Lucie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of the environment and PA and walking patterns in Aboriginal adults in order to inform the planning and implementation of community-relevant PA interventions. Methods Two hundred and sixty three residents (133 women, mean age = 35.6 years, SD = 12.3 and 130 men, mean age = 37.2 years, SD = 13.1 from Moose Factory, Ontario were asked about environmental factors related to walking and PA involvement. Survey items were drawn from standardized, validated questionnaires. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, percentages were calculated. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to determine associations between walking and overall PA with perceived environmental variables. Results Hierarchical multiple regression to predict walking revealed significant associations between walking and perceived safety and aesthetics. Owning home exercise equipment predicted strenuous PA. Different aspects of the physical environment appear to influence different types of physical activities. The significant amount of variance in behaviour accounted for by perceived environmental variables (5.3% walking included safety, aesthetics, convenience, owning home exercise equipment and comfortable shoes for walking. Conclusion Results suggest that a supportive physical environment is important for PA involvement and that walking and activities of different intensity appear to be mediated by different perceived environmental variables. Implications for PA

  11. Vav3 oncogene activates estrogen receptor and its overexpression may be involved in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kiwon; Liu, Yin; Mo, Jun Qin; Zhang, Jinsong; Dong, Zhongyun; Lu, Shan

    2008-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, activates androgen receptor, and stimulates growth in prostate cancer cells. The current study is to determine a potential role of Vav3 oncogene in human breast cancer and impact on estrogen receptor a (ERα)-mediated signaling axis. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 43 breast cancer specimens and western blot analysis was used for human breast cancer cell lines to determine the expression level of Vav3 protein. The impact of Vav3 on breast cancer cell growth was determined by siRNA knockdown of Vav3 expression. The role of Vav3 in ERα activation was examined in luciferase reporter assays. Deletion mutation analysis of Vav3 protein was performed to localize the functional domain involved in ERα activation. Finally, the interaction of Vav3 and ERα was assessed by GST pull-down analysis. We found that Vav3 was overexpressed in 81% of human breast cancer specimens, particularly in poorly differentiated lesions. Vav3 activated ERα partially via PI3K-Akt signaling and stimulated growth of breast cancer cells. Vav3 also potentiated EGF activity for cell growth and ERα activation in breast cancer cells. More interestingly, we found that Vav3 complexed with ERα. Consistent with its function for AR, the DH domain of Vav3 was essential for ERα activation. Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Vav3 complexes with ERα and enhances ERα activity. These findings suggest that Vav3 overexpression may aberrantly enhance ERα-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and/or progression

  12. Involvement of microglia activation in the lead induced long-term potentiation impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chao Liu

    Full Text Available Exposure of Lead (Pb, a known neurotoxicant, can impair spatial learning and memory probably via impairing the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP as well as hippocampal neuronal injury. Activation of hippocampal microglia also impairs spatial learning and memory. Thus, we raised the hypothesis that activation of microglia is involved in the Pb exposure induced hippocampal LTP impairment and neuronal injury. To test this hypothesis and clarify its underlying mechanisms, we investigated the Pb-exposure on the microglia activation, cytokine release, hippocampal LTP level as well as neuronal injury in in vivo or in vitro model. The changes of these parameters were also observed after pretreatment with minocycline, a microglia activation inhibitor. Long-term low dose Pb exposure (100 ppm for 8 weeks caused significant reduction of LTP in acute slice preparations, meanwhile, such treatment also significantly increased hippocampal microglia activation as well as neuronal injury. In vitro Pb-exposure also induced significantly increase of microglia activation, up-regulate the release of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in microglia culture alone as well as neuronal injury in the co-culture with hippocampal neurons. Inhibiting the microglia activation with minocycline significantly reversed the above-mentioned Pb-exposure induced changes. Our results showed that Pb can cause microglia activation, which can up-regulate the level of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, these proinflammatory factors may cause hippocampal neuronal injury as well as LTP deficits.

  13. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Context Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. Objective The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. Design In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Results Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Conclusions Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework. PMID

  14. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework.

  15. Involvement of autonomic nervous activity changes in gastroesophageal reflux in neonates during sleep and wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamal-Dine Djeddi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that disturbed activity of the autonomic nervous system is one of the factors involved in gastroesophageal reflux (GER in adults. We sought to establish whether transient ANS dysfunction (as assessed by heart rate variability is associated with the occurrence of GER events in neonates during sleep and wakefulness. METHODS: Nineteen neonates with suspected GER underwent simultaneous, synchronized 12-hour polysomnography and esophageal multichannel impedance-pH monitoring. We compared changes in HRV parameters during three types of periods (control and prior to and during reflux with respect to the vigilance state. RESULTS: The vigilance state influenced the distribution of GER events (P<0.001, with 53.4% observed during wakefulness, 37.6% observed during active sleep and only 9% observed during quiet sleep. A significant increase in the sympathovagal ratio (+32%, P=0.013 was observed in the period immediately prior to reflux (due to a 15% reduction in parasympathetic activity (P=0.017, relative to the control period. This phenomenon was observed during both wakefulness and active sleep. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that GER events were preceded by a vigilance-state-independent decrease in parasympathetic tone. This suggests that a pre-reflux change in ANS activity is one of the factors contributing to the mechanism of reflux in neonates.

  16. Possible involvement of 12-lipoxygenase activation in glucose-deprivation/reload-treated neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Kazuki; Kakuda, Taichi; Higashi, Youichirou; Fujimoto, Sadaki

    2007-12-18

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) activation was involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, extensive poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and neuronal death induced by glucose-deprivation, followed by glucose-reload (GD/R). The decrease of neuronal viability and accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) induced by GD/R were prevented 3-aminobenzamide, a representative PARP inhibitor, demonstrating this treatment protocol caused the same oxidative stress with the previously reported one. The PARP activation, ROS generation and decrease of neuron viability induced by GD/R treatment were almost completely abolished by an extracellular zinc chelator, CaEDTA. p47(phox), a cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase was translocated the membrane fraction by GD/R, indicating its activation, but it did not generate detectable ROS. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin and AEBSF further decreased the decreased neuron viability induced by GD/R. On the other hand, AA861, a 12-LOX inhibitor, prevented ROS generation and decrease of neuron viability caused by GD/R. Interestingly, an antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine rescued the neurons from GD/R-induced oxidative stress, implying effectiveness of antioxidant administration. These findings suggested that activation of 12-LOX, but not NADPH oxidase, following to zinc release might play an important role in ROS generation and decrease of viability in GD/R-treated neurons.

  17. Partnerships and Opportunity: A Canadian Success Story Community engagement on uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan. Informing and Involving Stakeholders in the Context of the Finnish Decision-making Process. Stakeholder involvement and public debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Sharonne; Vanhatalo, Hanna; Thome-Jassaud, Pierre-Franck

    2017-01-01

    Session 5 featured case studies of stakeholder involvement in decisions related to new nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. The chair highlighted that more than 30 countries either have nuclear power facilities or are considering developing them, and 15 countries are currently building new reactors. The topic of new nuclear facilities is quite broad, and the session covered three case studies that were quite different. Ms Katz of Natural Resources Canada Limited outlined stakeholder engagement commitments by a number of actors in Canada, including the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. She provided an overview on Cameco's behalf of their experience in engaging the local stakeholders of uranium mining activities. Ms Vanhatalo reviewed Fennovoima's activities related to the site selection and move towards construction of a new nuclear reactor. Mr Thome-Jassaud presented the experience of electricite de France on two proposed reactor projects with France's formalised public debate process. A central theme of the presentations was the importance of establishing and maintaining a good reputation, especially in the local community. Ms Katz relayed a story of Cameco inviting community leaders, near an Australian property that Cameco had acquired to visit a mining community in Saskatchewan. Instead of tightly controlling the interaction, Cameco left the Australian guests to stay with local families for several days to ask questions and hear directly from members of the Canadian community without any interference. This required confidence on the part of the company that it had built a strong and positive relationship with the Canadian host community. Ms Vanhatalo described how the success in siting nuclear power plant Hanhikivi 1 near Pyhaejoki was attributable not only to Fennovoima's commitment to engage the community, but also to the reputation that the company Teollisuuden Voima Oy had built with its Olkiluoto nuclear power plant and the positive association with

  18. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  19. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1 the experience of psychological well-being, (2 the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3 the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants.

  20. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Bocci, Velio; Acquaviva, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Gardi, Concetta; Virgili, Fabio; Ciccoli, Lucia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 μg/mL O 3 per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ► Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ► This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ► 4HNE and H 2 O 2 are the main molecules involved in this process. ► Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ► Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment

  1. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University Hospital, AOUS, Siena (Italy); Bocci, Velio [Department of Physiology, University of Siena (Italy); Acquaviva, Alessandra [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Belmonte, Giuseppe [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Gardi, Concetta [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Virgili, Fabio [INRAN, Rome (Italy); Ciccoli, Lucia [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Valacchi, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.valacchi@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara (Italy); Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 μg/mL O{sub 3} per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ► Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ► This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ► 4HNE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are the main molecules involved in this process. ► Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ► Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment.

  2. A review of two recent occurrences at the Advanced Test Reactor involving subcontractor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Jensen, N.C.; Vail, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents the results of a brief, unofficial investigation into two incidents at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility, reported on October 25 and 31, 1997. The first event was an unanticipated breach of confinement. The second involved reactor operation with an inoperable seismic scram subsystem, violating the reactor's Technical Specifications. These two incidents have been found to be unrelated. A third event that occurred on December 16, 1996, is also discussed because of its similarities to the first event listed above. Both of these incidents were unanticipated breaches of confinement, and both involved the work of construction subcontractor personnel. The cause for the subcontractor related occurrences is a work control process that fails to effectively interface with LMITCO management. ATR Construction Project managers work sufficient close with construction subcontractor personnel to understand planned day-to-day activities. They also have sufficient training and understanding of reactor operations to ensure adherence to applicable administrative requirements. However, they may not be sufficiently involved in the work authorization and control process to bridge an apparent communications gap between subcontractor employees and Facility Operations/functional support personnel for work inside the reactor facility. The cause for the inoperable seismic scram switch (resulting from a disconnected lead) is still under investigation. It does not appear to be subcontractor related

  3. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children’s Sport Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Danioni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1 analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values and 2 examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy, it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.

  4. A multistate examination of partnership activity among local public health systems using the National Public Health Performance Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Priscilla A; Curtis, Amy B; Hall-Downey, Laura; Moonesinghe, Ramal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether partnership-related measures in the second version of the National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS) are useful in evaluating level of activity as well as identifying latent constructs that exist among local public health systems (LPHSs). In a sample of 110 LPHSs, descriptive analysis was conducted to determine frequency and percentage of 18 partnership-related NPHPS measures. Principal components factor analysis was conducted to identify unobserved characteristics that promote effective partnerships among LPHSs. Results revealed that 13 of the 18 measures were most frequently reported at the minimal-moderate level (conducted 1%-49% of the time). Coordination of personal health and social services to optimize access (74.6%) was the most frequently reported measure at minimal-moderate levels. Optimal levels (conducted >75% of the time) were reported most frequently in 2 activities: participation in emergency preparedness coalitions and local health departments ensuring service provision by working with state health departments (67% and 61% of respondents, respectively) and the least optimally reported activity was review partnership effectiveness (4% of respondents). Factor analysis revealed categories of partnership-related measures in 4 domains: resources and activities contributing to relationship building, evaluating community leadership activities, research, and state and local linkages to support public health activities. System-oriented public health assessments may have questions that serve as proxy measures to examine levels of interorganizational partnerships. Several measures from the NPHPS were useful in establishing a national baseline of minimal and optimal activity levels as well as identifying factors to enhance the delivery of the 10 essential public health services among organizations and individuals in public health systems.

  5. Cortical gamma activity during auditory tone omission provides evidence for the involvement of oscillatory activity in top-down processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay, I G; Alegre, M; Valencia, M; Artieda, J

    2006-11-01

    Perception is an active process in which our brains use top-down influences to modulate afferent information. To determine whether this modulation might be based on oscillatory activity, we asked seven subjects to detect a silence that appeared randomly in a rhythmic auditory sequence, counting the number of omissions ("count" task), or responding to each omission with a right index finger extension ("move" task). Despite the absence of physical stimuli, these tasks induced a 'non-phase-locked' gamma oscillation in temporal-parietal areas, providing evidence of intrinsically generated oscillatory activity during top-down processing. This oscillation is probably related to the local neural activation that takes place during the process of stimulus detection, involving the functional comparison between the tones and the absence of stimuli as well as the auditory echoic memory processes. The amplitude of the gamma oscillations was reduced with the repetition of the tasks. Moreover, it correlated positively with the number of correctly detected omissions and negatively with the reaction time. These findings indicate that these oscillations, like others described, may be modulated by attentional processes. In summary, our findings support the active and adaptive concept of brain function that has emerged over recent years, suggesting that the match of sensory information with memory contents generates gamma oscillations.

  6. An update on renal involvement in hemophagocytic syndrome (macrophage activation syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, Haydarali; Mostafidi, Elmira; Mehramuz, Bahareh; Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Mohajel-Shoja, Mohammadali

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is mainly characterized by massive infiltration of bone marrow by activated macrophages and often presents with pancytopenia. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is also present with thrombocytopenia and renal involvement. Both conditions could coexist with each other and complicate the condition. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science with keywords relevant to; Hemophagocytic syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, interferon-gamma and thrombotic microangiopathy, have been searched. Viral infection, rheumatologic disease and malignancies are the main underlying causes for secondary HPS. calcineurin inhibitors and viral infections are also the main underlying causes of TMA in transplant recipients. In this review, we discussed a 39-year-old male who presented with pancytopenia and renal allograft dysfunction. With the diagnosis of HPS induced TMA his renal condition and pancytopenia improved after receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and plasmapheresis therapy. HPS is an increasingly recognized disorder in the realm of different medical specialties. Renal involvement complicates the clinical picture of the disease, and this condition even is more complex in renal transplant recipients. We should consider the possibility of HPS in any renal transplant recipient with pancytopenia and allograft dysfunction. The combination of HPS with TMA future increases the complexity of the situation.

  7. Developmental changes in brain activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Older children are more successful at producing unfamiliar, non-native speech sounds than younger children during the initial stages of learning. To reveal the neuronal underpinning of the age-related increase in the accuracy of non-native speech production, we examined the developmental changes in activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy right-handed children (aged 6-18 years) were scanned while performing an overt repetition task and a perceptual task involving aurally presented non-native and native syllables. Productions of non-native speech sounds were recorded and evaluated by native speakers. The mouth regions in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas were activated more significantly during the repetition task relative to the perceptual task. The hemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFG pOp) specific to non-native speech sound production (defined by prior hypothesis) increased with age. Additionally, the accuracy of non-native speech sound production increased with age. These results provide the first evidence of developmental changes in the neural processes underlying the production of novel speech sounds. Our data further suggest that the recruitment of the left IFG pOp during the production of novel speech sounds was possibly enhanced due to the maturation of the neuronal circuits needed for speech motor planning. This, in turn, would lead to improvement in the ability to immediately imitate non-native speech. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A teleost CD46 is involved in the regulation of complement activation and pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-Fei; Sui, Zhi-Hai; Sun, Li

    2017-11-03

    In mammals, CD46 is involved in the inactivation of complement by factor I (FI). In teleost, study on the function of CD46 is very limited. In this study, we examined the immunological property of a CD46 molecule (CsCD46) from tongue sole, a teleost species with important economic value. We found that recombinant CsCD46 (rCsCD46) interacted with FI and inhibited complement activation in an FI-dependent manner. rCsCD46 also interacted with bacterial pathogens via a different mechanism to that responsible for the FI interaction, involving different rCsCD46 sites. Cellular study showed that CsCD46 was expressed on peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and protected the cells against the killing effect of complement. When the CsCD46 on PBL was blocked by antibody before incubation of the cells with bacterial pathogens, cellular infection was significantly reduced. Consistently, when tongue sole were infected with bacterial pathogens in the presence of rCsCD46, tissue dissemination and survival of the pathogens were significantly inhibited. These results provide the first evidence to indicate that CD46 in teleosts negatively regulates complement activation via FI and protects host cells from complement-induced damage, and that CD46 is required for optimal bacterial infection probably by serving as a receptor for the bacteria.

  9. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1998; Faktaheftet. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Kjetil (ed.)

    1998-04-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  10. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1997; Faktaheftet. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Kjetil (ed.)

    1997-02-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  11. Integrating public information activities on a technical project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Sh. K.; Vecchiola, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    Through gradual evolution and successful performance, the WIPP Communications group has gained respect and recognition as a dual service organization that offers numerous benefits to a technical project. Westinghouse assembled a team that has successfully coordinated and encouraged an exchange of information not only with the public information realm but also as a project service and function. WIPP has combined educational services, external and employee communication and public information into one unit called ''Communications''

  12. Purinergic receptors are involved in tooth-pulp evoked nocifensive behavior and brainstem neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sessle Barry J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether P2X receptors are involved in responses to noxious pulp stimulation, the P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor agonist α,β-methyleneATP (α,β-meATP was applied to the molar tooth pulp and nocifensive behavior and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc, trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris (Vi, upper cervical spinal cord (C1/C2 and paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5 neurons were analyzed in rats. Results Genioglossus (GG muscle activity was evoked by pulpal application of 100 mM α,β-meATP and was significantly larger than GG activity following vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline PBS application (p 1, P2X3 and, P2X2/3 antagonist. A large number of pERK-LI cells were expressed in the Vc, Vi/Vc, C1/C2 and Pa5 at 5 min following pulpal application of 100 mM α,β-meATP compared to PBS application to the pulp (p Conclusions The present findings suggest that activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors in the tooth pulp is sufficient to elicit nociceptive behavioral responses and trigeminal brainstem neuronal activity.

  13. Protease activation involved in resistance of human cells to x-ray cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-Chang; Takahashi, Shuji; Karata, Kiyonobu; Kita, Kazuko; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    Little is known of proteases that play roles in the early steps of X-ray irradiation response. In the present study, we first searched for proteases whose activity is induced in human RSa-R cells after X-ray irradiation. The activity was identified as fibrinolytic, using 125 I-labeled fibrin as a substrate. Protease samples were prepared by lysation of cells with a buffer containing MEGA-8. RSa-R cells showed an increased level of protease activity 10 min after X-ray (up to 3 Gy) irradiation. We next examined whether this protease inducibility is causally related with the X-ray susceptibility of cells. Leupeptin, a serine-cysteine protease inhibitor, inhibited the protease activity in samples obtained from X-ray-irradiated RSa-R cells. Treatment of RSa-R cells with the inhibitor before and after X-ray irradiation resulted in an increased susceptibility of the cells to X-ray cell killing. However, the treatment of cells with other inhibitors tested did not modulate the X-ray susceptibility. These results suggest that leupeptin-sensitive proteases are involved in the resistance of human cells to X-ray cell killing. (author)

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the toxic activity of boric acid against Saprolegnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimaa E Ali

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the incidence of Saprolegnia infections over the past decades, especially after the banning of malachite green. Very often these infections are associated with high economic losses in salmonid farms and hatcheries. The use of boric acid to control the disease has been investigated recently both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, however its possible mode of action against fish pathogenic Saprolegnia is not known. In this study, we have explored the transformation in Saprolegnia spores/hyphae after exposure to boric acid (1 g/L over a period 4-24 h post treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, early changes in Saprolegnia spores were detected. Mitochondrial degeneration was the most obvious sign observed following 4 h treatment in about 20% of randomly selected spores. We also investigated the effect of the treatment on nuclear division, mitochondrial activity and function using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Fluorescence microscopy was also used to test the effect of treatment on mitochondrial membrane potential and formation of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the viability and proliferation of treated spores that correlated to mitochondrial enzymatic activity were tested using an MTS assay. All obtained data pointed towards changes in the mitochondrial structure, membrane potential and enzymatic activity following treatment. We have found that boric acid has no effect on the integrity of membranes of Saprolegnia spores at concentrations tested. It is therefore likely that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the toxic activity of boric acid against Saprolegnia spp.

  15. Activity involvement and quality of life of people at different stages of dementia in long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Dieneke; de Lange, Jacomine; Willemse, Bernadette; Twisk, Jos; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in activities is assumed to positively influence the quality of life of people with dementia, yet activity provision in long-term care remains limited. This study aims to provide more insight into the value of activity involvement for domains of the quality of life of long-term dementia care residents, taking resident characteristics and cognitive status into account. Data were derived from 144 long-term care facilities participating in the second measurement (2010/2011) of the living arrangements for dementia study. Amongst 1144 residents, the relationship between time involved in activities (activity pursuit patterns; RAI-MDS) and quality of life (Qualidem) was studied using multilevel linear regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for residents' age, gender, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ADL dependency and cognition. To check for effect modification of cognition, interactions terms of the variables activity involvement and cognitive status were added to the analyses. Despite resident's cognitive status, their activity involvement was significantly related to better scores on care relationship, positive affect, restless tense behaviour, social relations, and having something to do. A negative relationship existed between the activity involvement and positive self-image. The explained variance in the quality of life between residents caused by the activity involvement was small. Activity involvement seems to be a small yet important contributor to higher well-being in long-term care resident at all stages of dementia. Adjusting activities to individual preferences and capabilities might enlarge this relationship. Further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis, using measurement instruments less sensitive to recall bias and differentiating between the active and passive activity involvement.

  16. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  17. Voltage-gated potassium channels regulate calcium-dependent pathways involved in human T lymphocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C S; Boltz, R C; Blake, J T; Nguyen, M; Talento, A; Fischer, P A; Springer, M S; Sigal, N H; Slaughter, R S; Garcia, M L

    1993-03-01

    The role that potassium channels play in human T lymphocyte activation has been investigated by using specific potassium channel probes. Charybdotoxin (ChTX), a blocker of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels (PK,Ca) and voltage-gated potassium channels (PK,V) that are present in human T cells, inhibits the activation of these cells. ChTX blocks T cell activation induced by signals (e.g., anti-CD2, anti-CD3, ionomycin) that elicit a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by preventing the elevation of [Ca2+]i in a dose-dependent manner. However, ChTX has no effect on the activation pathways (e.g., anti-CD28, interleukin 2 [IL-2]) that are independent of a rise in [Ca2+]i. In the former case, both proliferative response and lymphokine production (IL-2 and interferon gamma) are inhibited by ChTX. The inhibitory effect of ChTX can be demonstrated when added simultaneously, or up to 4 h after the addition of the stimulants. Since ChTX inhibits both PK,Ca and PK,V, we investigated which channel is responsible for these immunosuppressive effects with the use of two other peptides, noxiustoxin (NxTX) and margatoxin (MgTX), which are specific for PK,V. These studies demonstrate that, similar to ChTX, both NxTX and MgTX inhibit lymphokine production and the rise in [Ca2+]i. Taken together, these data provide evidence that blockade of PK,V affects the Ca(2+)-dependent pathways involved in T lymphocyte proliferation and lymphokine production by diminishing the rise in [Ca2+]i that occurs upon T cell activation.

  18. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  19. The mix of laws involved in the activity of the companies in the aerospace field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Virgil BALUTA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The life of companies, including the aerospace companies, depends on the business cycle. The paper presents the trends of law in ascending and descending period of the business cycle. A point of the paper is the separation of military and civil law in aerospace, public and private law, national and corporate security systems. Also the laws to be apply in relation with public authorities, private organizations, citizens are approched. In the paper are included some keys for interpretation such as the hierarchy of social values. In modern times, the humans life, rights and property must be the main protected values. The paper shows the methods to be accepted for the analyse/analysis of law in aerospace field: logical analysis, hystorical method, comparative method, social research, experimental method. In the aerospace field each of them has some particularities. The classification of laws depending of economic impact in the aerospace field is an other section. There are presented implications on cost, income, receipts, payments, duration of the activities, other restrictions.

  20. Determination of dehydrogenase activities involved in D-glucose oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Sainz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid bacteria (AAB are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane bound dehydrogenases (membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH, D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains. Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites (GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the A. malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h, which coincided with glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of G. oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition.Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter were

  1. Experience, Adoption, and Technology: Exploring the Phenomenological Experiences of Faculty Involved in Online Teaching at One School of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Terry; Davis, Trina; Larke, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and Dewey's Theory of Experience, this phenomenological study explored the experiences of faculty who engaged in online teaching at one school of public health. Findings revealed that the experiences of public health faculty, who engaged in online teaching, are similar and…

  2. Beyond NIMBYs and NOOMBYs: what can wind farm controversies teach us about public involvement in hospital closures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ellen; Aitken, Mhairi

    2015-12-01

    Many policymakers, researchers and commentators argue that hospital closures are necessary as health systems adapt to new technological and financial contexts, and as population health needs in developed countries shift. However closures are often unpopular with local communities. Previous research has characterised public opposition as an obstacle to change. Public opposition to the siting of wind farms, often described as NIMBYism (Not In My Back Yard), is a useful comparator issue to the perceived NOOMBYism (Not Out Of My Back Yard) of hospital closure protestors. The analysis of public attitudes to wind farms has moved from a fairly crude characterisation of the 'attitude-behaviour gap' between publics who support the idea of wind energy, but oppose local wind farms, to empirical, often qualitative, studies of public perspectives. These have emphasised the complexity of public attitudes, and revealed some of the 'rational' concerns which lie beneath protests. Research has also explored processes of community engagement within the wind farm decision-making process, and the crucial role of trust between communities, authorities, and developers. Drawing on what has been learnt from studies of opposition to wind farms, we suggest a range of questions and approaches to explore public perspectives on hospital closure more thoroughly. Understanding the range of public responses to service change is an important first step in resolving the practical dilemma of effecting health system transformation in a democratic fashion.

  3. Considerations of health benefit-cost analysis for activities involving ionizing radiation exposure and alternatives. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report deals with development of methodology for the health benefit-cost analysis of activities that result in radiation exposure to humans. It attempts to frame the problems and to communicate the necessary elements of the complex technical process required for this method of analysis. The main thrust of the report is to develop a methodology for analyzing the benefits and costs of these activities. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for nuclear power production and medical uses of radiation, but no definitive analysis is attempted. The report concludes that benefit-cost analysis can be effectively applied to these applications and that it provides a basis for more informed governmental decision-making and for public participation in evaluating the issues of radiation exposure. It notes, however, that for cases where national policy is involved, decisions must inevitably be made on the basis of value judgements to which such analyses can make only limited contributions. An important conclusion is that a significant reduction in radiation exposure to the population is apparently achievable by development of methods for eliminating unproductive medical X-ray exposure

  4. Social responsibility of public accountant in carrying out his work in mining activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rocío Acevedo-Pérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting professional in recent times, as a major player, has been questioned in the performance of his work and even frequently involved with corporate financial scandals, putting into question the social responsibility of his profession. However, here, the analysis of the accounting profession is directed specifically to watch the behavior of the accountant in a particular sector such as mining, mainly in relation to the advise in the exploitation of coal. This paper presents the results of the investigation on public accountants who provide advisory services to entrepreneurs in the mining sector. It inquires also on issues related to the level and quality of the advice that they provide in different topics such as economic, administrative , tax, labor , social and environmental issues in relation to the development of the activity.  Similarly the accountant has an ethical commitment to both organizations and the different groups that are linked directly or indirectly to maintain balance in organizations through the provision of information to related parties on their rights that correspond to them in the development of the activity, and as an administrator and manager of information in decision-making contributes to the generation of the common welfare.  Finally, the social responsibility of the public accountant goes beyond the commitment to the State and the organizations in which they work, because there is a commitment to other stakeholders including the environment and society.

  5. Involvement in sports clubs and informal sport activities of primary and secondary school children in Liechtenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kühnis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1’262 children in primary (5th grade and secondary (7th and 9th grades school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender. The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 % appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade. After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 % shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.

  6. Humor Appreciation Involves Parametric and Synchronized Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2017-12-01

    Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions. The subjects' brain activity was measured while watching and enjoying a movie. In experiment 1, a parametric analysis showed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and hippocampus/amygdala had a positive relationship with the subjective rating of funniness. In experiment 2, intersubject correlation was analyzed to investigate synchronized activity across all participants. Signal synchronization that paralleled increased funniness ratings was observed in the MPFC and hippocampus. Thus, it appears that both parametric and synchronized activity in the MPFC and hippocampus are important during humor appreciation. The present study has revealed the brain regions that are predominantly involved in humor sensation under natural condition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Activation of PPARγ is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, S.; Waechtershaeuser, A.; Loitsch, S.; Knethen, A. von; Bruene, B.; Stein, J.

    2005-01-01

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPARγ in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPARγ in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPARγ ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPARγ ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPARγ mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPARγ is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation

  8. Responsibilities of the active participation of geoscientists in public funded projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is based in 24 European countries and represents over 50,000 geoscientists in Europe, working in organisations dealing with many of the critical societal challenges that came with fast population growing: soils fertility; fresh water; energy; and raw materials supply. This calls for the concerted contribution of networks of geoscientists to frame and answer the global challenges we are facing. In Europe, the Research and Innovation funding program Horizon 2020 provided a unique opportunity for EFG to play an active role in this context, and this justifies the direct involvement of EFG in several funded projects, ranging from international cooperation on raw materials supply to groundwater research or combined heat, power and metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies. But an active participation of a not for profit organization of geoscientists in such public funded projects brings responsibilities and reputational risks. The authors will describe how EFG is taking these responsibilities and facing the correspondent risks, through the involvement of certified professionals. The authors will highlight why EFG is keen in promoting the EurGeol professional title, ensuring title holders are skilled and competent to deliver high quality services within the practice of geology, framed by a Code of Ethics and a commitment towards continuing professional development.

  9. Occupational Styrene Exposure Induces Stress-Responsive Genes Involved in Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strafella, Elisabetta; Bracci, Massimo; Staffolani, Sara; Manzella, Nicola; Giantomasi, Daniele; Valentino, Matteo; Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of a panel of genes involved in toxicology in response to styrene exposure at levels below the occupational standard setting. Methods Workers in a fiber glass boat industry were evaluated for a panel of stress- and toxicity-related genes and associated with biochemical parameters related to hepatic injury. Urinary styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) of subjects and environmental sampling data collected for air at workplace were used to estimate styrene exposure. Results Expression array analysis revealed massive upregulation of genes encoding stress-responsive proteins (HSPA1L, EGR1, IL-6, IL-1β, TNSF10 and TNFα) in the styrene-exposed group; the levels of cytokines released were further confirmed in serum. The exposed workers were then stratified by styrene exposure levels. EGR1 gene upregulation paralleled the expression and transcriptional protein levels of IL-6, TNSF10 and TNFα in styrene exposed workers, even at low level. The activation of the EGR1 pathway observed at low-styrene exposure was associated with a slight increase of hepatic markers found in highly exposed subjects, even though they were within normal range. The ALT and AST levels were not affected by alcohol consumption, and positively correlated with urinary styrene metabolites as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα are the primary mediators of processes involved in the hepatic injury response and regeneration. Here, we show that styrene induced stress responsive genes involved in cytoprotection and cytotoxicity at low-exposure, that proceed to a mild subclinical hepatic toxicity at high-styrene exposure. PMID:24086524

  10. Access to public spaces and physical activity for Mexican adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietza Bojorquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345; with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants’ homes. We measured physical activity with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short. We employed multinomial logistic models to evaluate the association between access to public spaces and physical activity, and tested for interactions between access to public spaces and public spaces quality and sociodemographic characteristics. We observed no interaction between access to public spaces and public spaces quality in their effect on physical activity. There was an association between the presence of public spaces in the 400m buffer, and higher odds of being in the low physical activity level (as opposed to being in the moderate level (coefficient: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.13; 0.87. Participants who used public transport were less likely to be in the low physical activity level (coefficient: -0.57; 95%CI: -0.97; -0.17. We suggest that, in this population, the access to public spaces might be less relevant for physical activity than other elements of the urban environment and sociodemographic characteristics.

  11. Lipotoxicity Mediated Cell Dysfunction and Death Involves Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization and Cathepsin L Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguel, Frankis G.; Liu, Jo-Wen; Pacheco, Fabio J.; De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A.; De Leon, Marino

    2010-01-01

    Lipotoxicity, which is triggered when cells are exposed to elevated levels of free fatty acids, involves cell dysfunction and apoptosis and is emerging as an underlying factor contributing to various pathological conditions including disorders of the central nervous system and diabetes. We have shown that palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipotoxicity (PA-LTx) in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 (NGFDPC12) cells is linked to an augmented state of cellular oxidative stress (ASCOS) and apoptosis, and that these events are inhibited by docosahexanoic acid (DHA). The mechanisms of PA-LTx in nerve cells are not well understood, but our previous findings indicate that it involves ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), and caspase activation. The present study used nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells (NGFDPC12 cells) and found that lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is an early event during PA-induced lipotoxicity that precedes MMP and apoptosis. Cathepsin L, but not cathepsin B, is an important contributor in this process since its pharmacological inhibition significantly attenuated LMP, MMP, and apoptosis. In addition, co-treatment of NGFDPC12 cells undergoing lipotoxicity with DHA significantly reduced LMP, suggesting that DHA acts by antagonizing upstream signals leading to lysosomal dysfunction. These results suggest that LMP is a key early mediator of lipotoxicity, and underscore the value of interventions targeting upstream signals leading to LMP for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with lipotoxicity. PMID:20043885

  12. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Antitumor Activity of Cannabinoids on Gliomas: Role for Oxidative Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massi, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, Chemotherapy and Toxicology, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milan (Italy); Valenti, Marta; Solinas, Marta; Parolaro, Daniela [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Section of Pharmacology, Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Via A. da Giussano 10, 20152 Busto Arsizio, Varese (Italy)

    2010-05-26

    Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, have been shown to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on a wide spectrum of tumor cells and tissues. Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed great potency in reducing the growth of glioma tumors, one of the most aggressive CNS tumors, either in vitro or in animal experimental models curbing the growth of xenografts generated by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection of glioma cells in immune-deficient mice. Cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of non-transformed cells. This review will summarize the anti-cancer properties that cannabinoids exert on gliomas and discuss their potential action mechanisms that appear complex, involving modulation of multiple key cell signaling pathways and induction of oxidative stress in glioma cells.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Antitumor Activity of Cannabinoids on Gliomas: Role for Oxidative Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massi, Paola; Valenti, Marta; Solinas, Marta; Parolaro, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, have been shown to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on a wide spectrum of tumor cells and tissues. Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed great potency in reducing the growth of glioma tumors, one of the most aggressive CNS tumors, either in vitro or in animal experimental models curbing the growth of xenografts generated by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection of glioma cells in immune-deficient mice. Cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of non-transformed cells. This review will summarize the anti-cancer properties that cannabinoids exert on gliomas and discuss their potential action mechanisms that appear complex, involving modulation of multiple key cell signaling pathways and induction of oxidative stress in glioma cells

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Antitumor Activity of Cannabinoids on Gliomas: Role for Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Massi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, have been shown to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on a wide spectrum of tumor cells and tissues. Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed great potency in reducing the growth of glioma tumors, one of the most aggressive CNS tumors, either in vitro or in animal experimental models curbing the growth of xenografts generated by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection of glioma cells in immune-deficient mice. Cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of non-transformed cells. This review will summarize the anti-cancer properties that cannabinoids exert on gliomas and discuss their potential action mechanisms that appear complex, involving modulation of multiple key cell signaling pathways and induction of oxidative stress in glioma cells.

  15. Dosimetric optimization of worksite involving the installation of VATS containing highly active effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.; Busani, J.; Madigand, Y.; Pailloux, J.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of safety improvements at the CEA, CEA-FAR, concerned to formalize the ALARA initiative, has carried out for information and training purpose and to create awareness a dosimetric assessment of the worksite where new storage vats for highly active effluents are to be installed. The approach used for this worksite is global. Techniques used were all complementary, ensuring constant elaboration, experiment follow-up and feedback of a worksite at a relatively low dosimetric cost (an estimated 36 men.mSv brought down to 30 men.mSv through implementation of the ALARA principle). This type of global conception of radioprotection involving all the employees (head of project, project managers, companies, radioprotection employees...) which today proves its worth on a modest worksite must now be extended to worksites of a broader scope (several hundreds of men.mSv) where fulfillment of the dosimetric objectives is a major stake. (author)

  16. Assessment of physical activity in medical and public health students

    OpenAIRE

    Rejali, Mehri; Mostajeran, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reduced level of physical activity, as an important problem of urbanization and industrial development, has a considerable impact on the population morbidity and mortality. The rate of inactivity has been reported to be 60?85% in adults worldwide. Considering the importance of physical activity among youth, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity among university students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study physical activity was assessed in 39...

  17. Promoter polymorphisms in genes involved in porcine myogenesis influence their transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, Silvia; Tilesi, Francesca; Bicorgna, Silvia; Iacoponi, Francesca; Willems, Daniela; Gargani, Maria; D'Andrea, MariaSilvia; Pilla, Fabio; Valentini, Alessio

    2014-11-07

    Success of meat production and selection for improvement of meat quality is among the primary aims in animal production. Meat quality traits are economically important in swine; however, the underlying genetic nature is very complex. Therefore, an improved pork production strongly depends on identifying and studying how genetic variations contribute to modulate gene expression. Promoters are key regions in gene modulation as they harbour several binding motifs to transcription regulatory factors. Therefore, polymorphisms in these regions are likely to deeply affect RNA levels and consequently protein synthesis. In this study, we report the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter regions of candidate genes involved in development, cellular differentiation and muscle growth in Sus scrofa. We identified SNPs in the promoter regions of genes belonging to the Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRF) gene family (the Myogenic Differentiation gene, MYOD1) and to Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDF) gene family (Myostatin gene, MSTN, GDF8), in Casertana and Large White breeds. The purpose of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in the promoters could affect the transcriptional activity of these genes. With this aim, we evaluated in vitro the functional activity of the luciferase reporter gene luc2 activity, driven by two constructs carrying different promoter haplotypes. We tested the effects of the G302A (U12574) transition on the promoter efficiency in MYOD1 gene. We ascertained a difference in transcription efficiency for the two variants. A stronger activity of the A-carrying construct is more evident in C2C12. The luciferase expression driven by the MYOD1-A allelic variant displayed a 3.8-fold increased transcriptional activity. We investigated the activity of two haplotype variants (AY527152) in the promoter of GDF8 gene. The haploptype-1 (A435-A447-A879) up-regulated the expression of the reporter gene by a two-fold increase, and

  18. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  19. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  20. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, Marí a J.; Alqué zar, Berta; Aló s, Enriqueta; Medina, Ví ctor; Carmona, Lourdes; Bruno, Mark; Al-Babili, Salim; Zacarí as, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  1. The perceived impact of public involvement in palliative care in a provincial palliative care network in the Netherlands : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henk van Rijswijk; Esther Stoffers; Anna Beurskens; M. Beckers; F.A. Haarsma; Albine Moser

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Public involvement in palliative care is challenging and difficult, because people in need of palliative care are often not capable of speaking up for themselves. Patient representatives advocate for their common interests. The aim of our study was to examine in depth the

  2. Fearless Public Speaking: Oral Presentation Activities for the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.

    2007-01-01

    Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…

  3. Academic Inbreeding and Publication Activities of Russian Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipova, Olga; Lovakov, Andrey

    2018-01-01

    The literature on the consequences of academic inbreeding shows ambiguous results: some papers show that inbreeding positively influences research productivity measured by the quantity and quality of publications, while others demonstrate the opposite effect. There are contradictory results both in the studies of different countries and within…

  4. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity.

  5. Asthmatic airway smooth muscle CXCL10 production: mitogen-activated protein kinase JNK involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Yazan A.; Alkhouri, Hatem; Chen, Emily; Lalor, Daniel J.; Poniris, Maree; Henness, Sheridan; Brightling, Christopher E.; Burgess, Janette K.; Armour, Carol L.; Ammit, Alaina J.

    2012-01-01

    CXCL10 (IP10) is involved in mast cell migration to airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles in asthma. We aimed to investigate the role of cytokine-induced MAPK activation in CXCL10 production by ASM cells from people with and without asthma. Confluent growth-arrested ASM cells were treated with inhibitors of the MAPKs ERK, p38, and JNK and transcription factor NF-κB, or vehicle, and stimulated with IL-1β, TNF-α, or IFN-γ, alone or combined (cytomix). CXCL10 mRNA and protein, JNK, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and Iκ-Bα protein degradation were assessed using real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunoblotting, respectively. Cytomix, IL-1β, and TNF-α induced CXCL10 mRNA expression more rapidly in asthmatic than nonasthmatic ASM cells. IL-1β and/or TNF-α combined with IFN-γ synergistically increased asthmatic ASM cell CXCL10 release. Inhibitor effects were similar in asthmatic and nonasthmatic cells, but cytomix-induced release was least affected, with only JNK and NF-κB inhibitors halving it. Notably, JNK phosphorylation was markedly less in asthmatic compared with nonasthmatic cells. However, in both, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced JNK phosphorylation and CXCL10 mRNA levels but did not affect CXCL10 mRNA stability or Iκ-Bα degradation. Together, the JNK and NF-κB inhibitors completely inhibited their CXCL10 release. We concluded that, in asthmatic compared with nonasthmatic ASM cells, JNK activation was reduced and CXCL10 gene expression was more rapid following cytomix stimulation. However, in both, JNK activation did not regulate early events leading to NF-κB activation. Thus JNK and NF-κB provide independent therapeutic targets for limiting CXCL10 production and mast cell migration to the ASM in asthma. PMID:22387292

  6. Decreased activity of neutrophils in the presence of diferuloylmethane (curcumin) involves protein kinase C inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancinová, Viera; Perecko, Tomás; Nosál, Radomír; Kostálová, Daniela; Bauerová, Katarína; Drábiková, Katarína

    2009-06-10

    Diferuloylmethane (curcumin) has been shown to act beneficially in arthritis, particularly through downregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and collagenase as well as through the modulated activities of T lymphocytes and macrophages. In this study its impact on activated neutrophils was investigated both in vitro and in experimental arthritis. Formation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils was recorded on the basis of luminol- or isoluminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Phosphorylation of neutrophil protein kinases C alpha and beta II was assessed by Western blotting, using phosphospecific antibodies. Adjuvant arthritis was induced in Lewis rats by heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum. Diferuloylmethane or methotrexate was administered over a period of 28 days after arthritis induction. Under in vitro conditions, diferuloylmethane (1-100 microM) reduced dose-dependently oxidant formation both at extra- and intracellular level and it effectively reduced protein kinase C activation. Adjuvant arthritis was accompanied by an increased number of neutrophils in blood and by a more pronounced spontaneous as well as PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) stimulated chemiluminescence. Whereas the arthritis-related alterations in neutrophil count and in spontaneous chemiluminescence were not modified by diferuloylmethane, the increased reactivity of neutrophils to PMA was less evident in diferuloylmethane-treated animals. The effects of diferuloylmethane were comparable with those of methotrexate. Diferuloylmethane was found to be a potent inhibitor of neutrophil functions both in vitro and in experimental arthritis. As neutrophils are considered to be cells with the greatest capacity to inflict damage within diseased joints, the observed effects could represent a further mechanism involved in the antirheumatic activity of diferuloylmethane.

  7. 76 FR 27315 - EPA Science Advisory Board Staff Invitation to a Session on Public Involvement in EPA Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... and SAB Three inter-related public access Web sites ( http://www.epa.gov/advisorycouncilcaa , http...) ``Recent Happenings'' and ``Recent Additions'' sections and related ``really simple syndication'' (RSS...

  8. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  9. Involving Members of the Public in Health Economics Research: Insights from Selecting Health States for Valuation to Estimate Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY) Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Elizabeth; Boddy, Kate; Tatnell, Lynn; Hawton, Annie

    2018-04-01

    Over recent years, public involvement in health research has expanded considerably. However, public involvement in designing and conducting health economics research is seldom reported. Here we describe the development, delivery and assessment of an approach for involving people in a clearly defined piece of health economics research: selecting health states for valuation in estimating quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). This involvement formed part of a study to develop a condition-specific preference-based measure of health-related quality of life, the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-8D), and the work reported here relates to the identification of plausible, or realistic, health states for valuation. An Expert Panel of three people with multiple sclerosis (MS) was recruited from a local involvement network, and two health economists designed an interactive task that enabled the Panel to identify health states that were implausible, or unlikely to be experienced. Following some initial confusion over terminology, which was resolved by discussion with the Panel, the task worked well and can be adapted to select health states for valuation in the development of any preference-based measure. As part of the involvement process, five themes were identified by the Panel members and the researchers which summarised our experiences of public involvement in this health economics research example: proportionality, task design, prior involvement, protectiveness and partnerships. These are described in the paper, along with their practical implications for involving members of the public in health economics research. Our experience demonstrates how members of the public and health economists can work together to improve the validity of health economics research. Plain Language Summary It has become commonplace to involve members of the public in health service research. However, published reports of involving people in designing health economics research are rare. We

  10. Involvement of Histidine Residue His382 in pH Regulation of MCT4 Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Sasaki

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4 is a pH-dependent bi-directional lactate transporter. Transport of lactate via MCT4 is increased by extracellular acidification. We investigated the critical histidine residue involved in pH regulation of MCT4 function. Transport of lactate via MCT4 was measured by using a Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. MCT4-mediated lactate transport was inhibited by Zn2+ in a pH physiological condition but not in an acidic condition. The histidine modifier DEPC (diethyl pyrocarbonate reduced MCT4 activity but did not completely inactivate MCT4. After treatment with DEPC, pH regulation of MCT4 function was completely knocked out. Inhibitory effects of DEPC were reversed by hydroxylamine and suppressed in the presence of excess lactate and Zn2+. Therefore, we performed an experiment in which the extracellular histidine residue was replaced with alanine. Consequently, the pH regulation of MCT4-H382A function was also knocked out. Our findings demonstrate that the histidine residue His382 in the extracellular loop of the transporter is essential for pH regulation of MCT4-mediated substrate transport activity.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion and cytotoxicity are independent events, both of which involve protein tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D J; Frank, D W; Finck-Barbançon, V; Wu, C; Fleiszig, S M

    1998-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates exhibit invasive or cytotoxic phenotypes. Cytotoxic strains acquire some of the characteristics of invasive strains when a regulatory gene, exsA, that controls the expression of several extracellular proteins, is inactivated. exsA mutants are not cytotoxic and can be detected within epithelial cells by gentamicin survival assays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epithelial cell invasion precedes and/or is essential for cytotoxicity. This was tested by measuring invasion (gentamicin survival) and cytotoxicity (trypan blue staining) of PA103 mutants deficient in specific exsA-regulated proteins and by testing the effect of drugs that inhibit invasion for their effect on cytotoxicity. A transposon mutant in the exsA-regulated extracellular factor exoU was neither cytotoxic nor invasive. Furthermore, several of the drugs that inhibited invasion did not prevent cytotoxicity. These results show that invasion and cytotoxicity are mutually exclusive events, inversely regulated by an exsA-encoded invasion inhibitor(s). Both involve host cell protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity, but they differ in that invasion requires Src family tyrosine kinases and calcium-calmodulin activity. PTK inhibitor drugs such as genistein may have therapeutic potential through their ability to block both invasive and cytotoxicity pathways via an action on the host cell.

  12. Do family environment factors play a role in adolescents' involvement in organized activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Petr; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-08-01

    The study assessed the association of family environment factors with adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTA). We used data on 10,472 Czech adolescents aged 11-15 years (49.2% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The associations of family support, the presence of parental screen-time rules and joint family activities with participation in at least one OLTA were assessed using logistic regression. High family support and the presence of parental screen-time rules were associated with higher odds of OLTA participation. Moreover, adolescents playing sports, indoor games and going for walks with their families at least weekly were more likely to participate in OLTA. Conversely, those spending time in joint family TV/video watching on most days were less likely to do so. A supportive family environment and direct parental involvement in their adolescent children's leisure are associated with OLTA participation in early to middle adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nisin and lysostaphin activity against preformed biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus involved in bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceotto-Vigoder, H; Marques, S L S; Santos, I N S; Alves, M D B; Barrias, E S; Potter, A; Alviano, D S; Bastos, M C F

    2016-07-01

    The biofilm produced by Staphylococcus aureus isolates involved in clinical or subclinical bovine mastitis and the activity of nisin and lysostaphin against the preformed biofilm produced by these strains were investigated. Eighteen strains were tested and all produced biofilm. Eight strains with distinct biofilm composition were selected for the antimicrobial activity assays. The minimal inhibitory concentration of each bacteriocin was determined against the planktonic cells and ranged from 15·6 to 500 μg ml(-1) for nisin, and from 3·9 to 50 μg ml(-1) , for lysostaphin. Lysostaphin treatment (0·4 μg ml(-1) ) for 4 h caused a strong Staph. aureus 4181 biofilm detachment and death of the majority of the sessile cells, while nisin treatment (100 μg ml(-1) ) for the same time caused only a great reduction in cell viability. Additionally, combination of both bacteriocins for 4 h resulted in significant death of the sessile cells but no biofilm detachment. The treatment with lysostaphin alone or in combination with nisin was effective in killing most biofilm sessile cells. The action of lysostaphin, either alone or in combination with nisin, against established staphylococcal biofilm may represent an alternative to bovine mastitis control. However, the duration of the treatment should be considered for its application so that the best effectiveness can be achieved. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on public attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Satoh, Nobunori

    2009-11-01

    To assess the attitudes of the Japanese general public towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a national survey for 1,103 Japanese adults from the general public, not a patient population. The response rate was 36.8%. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (81.0%) and a DNA bank (70.4%). Considering fictitious clinical situations such as taking medications and experiencing ADRs, the willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing ADRs (61.7%) was higher than when taking medications (45.3%). Older generations were significantly associated with a decreased willingness to donate (OR = 0.45, CI 0.28-0.72 in 50s. OR = 0.49, CI: 0.31-0.77 in 60s). Positive attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research, a DNA bank, blood/bone marrow/organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness. However, the respondents had the following concerns regarding a DNA bank: the confidentiality of their personal information, the manner by which research results were utilized and simply the use of their own DNA for research. In order to attain public understanding to overcome these concerns, a process of public awareness should be put into place to emphasize the beneficial aspects of identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and to address these concerns raised in our study. Further study is needed to assess the willingness of actual patients taking medications in real situations, since the respondents in our study were from the general public, not a patient population, and their willingness was assessed on the condition of assuming that they were patients taking medications.

  15. Public communication activities of JAPC on the issue of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Junko

    2000-01-01

    Hiroshima occasionally but inevitably reminds the Japanese nation of the A-bomb casualties in terms of radiation hazards with mass-destruction. Even peaceful use of nuclear energy is easily perceived as a synonym of menacing nuke'. Firstly, nuclear PA is to get rid of concerns among the general public by credibility to be established by bi-directional communications and common sense as well as technical integrity. JAPC is in direct contacts with the people by such means as guiding tours to nuclear plants, sitting together for exchange of opinions, or having every employee to be a PA person with his or her neighbors. It is our lesson that PA success definitely depends on the authentic person-to-person bond of trust and credibility with right communications. The general public tends to get excessively concerned, once they are put in process of their perception of nuclear information, all of sudden from daily indifference, via mass-media or education in various forms. Such concerns override nuclear benefits and precipitate especially against invisible phenomena, technical complexity, black boxes, probability of risks. For example, radiologists or law-makers do not mind 10 digit numbers of radiation expressed in Becquerel (rather than Curie). Mass media simply report 5-6 digit higher spikes than normal level even if it is well below permissible level. But the general public is overwhelmed by such gigantic spike ratio. Right communications for nuclear PA shall be made on common sense of the society. (author)

  16. Using Long-Distance Scientist Involvement to Enhance NASA Volunteer Network Educational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since 1999, the NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassadors (SSA) and Solar System Educators (SSEP) programs have used specially-trained volunteers to expand education and public outreach beyond the immediate NASA center regions. Integrating nationwide volunteers in these highly effective programs has helped optimize agency funding set aside for education. Since these volunteers were trained by NASA scientists and engineers, they acted as "stand-ins" for the mission team members in communities across the country. Through the efforts of these enthusiastic volunteers, students gained an increased awareness of NASA's space exploration missions through Solar System Ambassador classroom visits, and teachers across the country became familiarized with NASA's STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) educational materials through Solar System Educator workshops; however the scientist was still distant. In 2003, NASA started the Digital Learning Network (DLN) to bring scientists into the classroom via videoconferencing. The first equipment was expensive and only schools that could afford the expenditure were able to benefit; however, recent advancements in software allow classrooms to connect to the DLN via personal computers and an internet connection. Through collaboration with the DLN at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Goddard Spaceflight Center, Solar System Ambassadors and Solar System Educators in remote parts of the country are able to bring scientists into their classroom visits or workshops as guest speakers. The goals of this collaboration are to provide special elements to the volunteers' event, allow scientists opportunities for education involvement with minimal effort, acquaint teachers with DLN services and enrich student's classroom learning experience.;

  17. Possible involvement of ROS generation in vorinostat pretreatment induced enhancement of the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masadeh MM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Majed M Masadeh,1 Karem H Alzoubi,2 Sayer I Al-azzam,2 Ahlam M Al-buhairan3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The mechanism underlying ciprofloxacin action involves interference with transcription and replication of bacterial DNA and, thus, the induction of double-strand breaks in DNA. It also involves elevated oxidative stress, which might contribute to bacterial cell death. Vorinostat was shown to induce oxidative DNA damage. The current work investigated a possible interactive effect of vorinostat on ciprofloxacin-induced cytotoxicity against a number of reference bacteria. Standard bacterial strains were Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (ATCC 43300, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, with or without pretreatment of bacterial cells by vorinostat, was examined using the disc diffusion procedure and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and zones of inhibition of bacterial growth. All tested bacterial strains showed sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. When pretreated with vorinostat, significantly larger zones of inhibition and smaller MIC values were observed in all bacterial strains compared to those treated with ciprofloxacin alone. In correlation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by the antibacterial action of ciprofloxacin was enhanced by treatment of bacterial cells with vorinostat. Results showed the possible agonistic properties of vorinostat when used together with ciprofloxacin. This could be related to the

  18. Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Claire

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public involvement in research on sensitive subjects, such as death and dying, can help to ensure that questions are framed to reflect the interests of their peers, develop a shared understanding of issues raised, and moderate the often unequal power relationship between researcher and participant. This paper describes the contribution and impact of older members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg to a study on living and dying in care homes. Methods A longitudinal study, with a mixed method approach, its aims were to capture key experiences, events and change over one year, of older people resident in participating care homes in the East of England. Residents were interviewed up to three times and their case notes were reviewed four times over the year. Interviews were semi structured, and recorded. Four members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg contributed to preliminary discussions about the research and three were involved with many of the subsequent stages of the research process including the facilitation of discussion groups with residents. Results There were three areas where the involvement of the Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg positively influenced the study process. These were recruitment, governance and safeguarding, and in collaboration with the residents in the care homes, the discussion and interpretation of emergent findings. PIRg members were of similar age to the residents and their involvement provided different and often more reflective insights of the significance of the findings for the participants. There were examples where decision making about the range of PIRg participation was not always negotiable, and this raised issues about power relationships within the team. Nevertheless, PIRg members expressed personal benefit and satisfaction through participating in the research and a commitment to continue to support research with this older age group. Conclusions

  19. Collaborative modelling for active involvement of stakeholders in urban flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to enhance the role of local stakeholders in dealing with urban floods. The concept is based on the DIANE-CM project (Decentralised Integrated Analysis and Enhancement of Awareness through Collaborative Modelling and Management of Flood Risk of the 2nd ERANET CRUE funding initiative. The main objective of the project was to develop and test an advanced methodology for enhancing the resilience of local communities to flooding. Through collaborative modelling, a social learning process was initiated that enhances the social capacity of the stakeholders due to the interaction process. The other aim of the project was to better understand how data from hazard and vulnerability analyses and improved maps, as well as from the near real-time flood prediction, can be used to initiate a public dialogue (i.e. collaborative mapping and planning activities in order to carry out more informed and shared decision-making processes and to enhance flood risk awareness. The concept of collaborative modelling was applied in two case studies: (1 the Cranbrook catchment in the UK, with focus on pluvial flooding; and (2 the Alster catchment in Germany, with focus on fluvial flooding. As a result of the interactive and social learning process, supported by sociotechnical instruments, an understanding of flood risk was developed amongst the stakeholders and alternatives for flood risk management for the respective case study area were jointly developed and ranked as a basis for further planning and management.

  20. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND GOVERNMENT’S INVOLVEMENT IN THE MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ŢÂU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanding economic relations and creating an international business environment, international business and the internationalization of the commercial transactions across national borders have become a prerequisite for companies, regardless of the activity they carry. Thus, internationalization is seen as a set of strategic methods, techniques and tools necessary to the companies to function abroad. As the effects of – fiscal and monetary – policies on the global demand and supply are unpredictable in time and space, it appears the requirement to substantiate, develop and put into practice a stabilizing strategy. Besides the indexes showing the evolution of the demand and supply, the market can offer economic agents other analysis and decision parameters as well, such as: economic and financial instruments for influencing the behaviour of the business environment.Obviously, the results depend also on how the authorities (legislative and executive, central and local work for a friendly business environment. There are two mechanisms that can be used for this purpose: fiscal policy (measures to enhance or reduce taxes, dues and public spending initiated by the Government and approved by Parliament; monetary policy (setting the interest rate and the money supply, respectively of the money stock for a specified period of time emitted and monitored (supervised by the National Bank.

  1. A mass spectrometric method to determine activities of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Kaori; Samejima, Keijiro; Takao, Koichi; Kohda, Kohfuku; Hiramatsu, Kyoko; Kawakita, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compounds in polyamine catabolic pathway were determined by a column-free ESI-TOF MS. ► N 1 - and N 8 -acetylspermidine were determined by a column-free ESI-MS/MS. ► The method was applied to determine activities of APAO, SMO, and SSAT in the pathway. ► The assay method contained stable isotope-labeled natural substrates. ► It is applicable to biological samples containing natural substrate and product. - Abstract: An analytical method for the determination of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) and five acetylpolyamines [N 1 -acetylspermidine (N 1 AcSpd), N 8 -acetylspermidine (N 8 AcSpd), N 1 -acetylspermine, N 1 ,N 8 -diacetylspermidine, and N 1 ,N 12 -diacetylspermine] involved in the polyamine catabolic pathway has been developed using a hybrid tandem mass spectrometer. Heptafluorobutyryl (HFB) derivatives of these compounds and respective internal standards labeled with stable isotopes were analyzed simultaneously by TOF MS, based on peak areas appearing at appropriate m/z values. The isomers, N 1 AcSpd and N 8 AcSpd were determined from their fragment ions, the acetylamidopropyl and acetylamidobutyl groups, respectively, using MS/MS with 13 C 2 -N 1 AcSpd and 13 C 2 -N 8 AcSpd which have the 13 C 2 -acetyl group as an internal standard. The TOF MS method was successfully applied to measure the activity of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolic pathways, namely N 1 -acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), spermine oxidase (SMO), and spermidine/spermine N 1 -acetyltransferase (SSAT). The following natural substrates and products labeled with stable isotopes considering the application to biological samples were identified; for APAO, [4,9,12- 15 N 3 ]-N 1 -acetylspermine and [1,4,8- 15 N 3 ]spermidine ( 15 N 3 -Spd), respectively; for SMO, [1,4,8,12- 15 N 4 ]spermine and 15 N 3 -Spd, respectively; and for SSAT, 15 N 3 -Spd and [1,4,8- 15 N 3 ]-N 1 -acetylspermidine, respectively.

  2. Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 064

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Timothy; Saifer, Steffen; Forehand, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report, "Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region." Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) spells out parent involvement requirements for schools in need of improvement, the majority of the Northwest Region school improvement plans…

  3. Involvement of the Transcriptional Coactivator ThMBF1 in the Biocontrol Activity of Trichoderma harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belén Rubio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus well adapted to different ecological niches. Owing to its ability to antagonize a wide range of plant pathogens, it is used as a biological control agent in agriculture. Selected strains of T. harzianum are also able to increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the regulatory elements of the T. harzianum transcriptional machinery and their role in the biocontrol by this species. We had previously reported the involvement of the transcription factor THCTF1 in the T. harzianum production of the secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-pyrone, an important volatile compound related to interspecies cross-talk. Here, we performed a subtractive hybridization to explore the genes regulated by THCTF1, allowing us to identify a multiprotein bridging factor 1 (mbf1 homolog. The gene from T. harzianum T34 was isolated and characterized, and the generated Thmbf1 overexpressing transformants were used to investigate the role of this gene in the biocontrol abilities of the fungus against two plant pathogens. The transformants showed a reduced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (FO and Botrytis cinerea (BC in confrontation assays on discontinuous medium, indicating that the Thmbf1 gene could affect T. harzianum production of volatile organic compounds (VOC with antifungal activity. Moreover, cellophane and dialysis membrane assays indicated that Thmbf1 overexpression affected the production of low molecular weight secreted compounds with antifungal activity against FO. Intriguingly, no correlation in the expression profiles, either in rich or minimal medium, was observed between Thmbf1 and the master regulator gene cross-pathway control (cpc1. Greenhouse assays allowed us to evaluate the biocontrol potential of T. harzianum strains against BC and FO on susceptible tomato plants. The wild type strain T34 significantly reduced the

  4. Involvement of the Transcriptional Coactivator ThMBF1 in the Biocontrol Activity of Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M Belén; Pardal, Alonso J; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus well adapted to different ecological niches. Owing to its ability to antagonize a wide range of plant pathogens, it is used as a biological control agent in agriculture. Selected strains of T. harzianum are also able to increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the regulatory elements of the T. harzianum transcriptional machinery and their role in the biocontrol by this species. We had previously reported the involvement of the transcription factor THCTF1 in the T. harzianum production of the secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-pyrone, an important volatile compound related to interspecies cross-talk. Here, we performed a subtractive hybridization to explore the genes regulated by THCTF1, allowing us to identify a multiprotein bridging factor 1 ( mbf1 ) homolog. The gene from T. harzianum T34 was isolated and characterized, and the generated Thmbf1 overexpressing transformants were used to investigate the role of this gene in the biocontrol abilities of the fungus against two plant pathogens. The transformants showed a reduced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (FO) and Botrytis cinerea (BC) in confrontation assays on discontinuous medium, indicating that the Thmbf1 gene could affect T. harzianum production of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with antifungal activity. Moreover, cellophane and dialysis membrane assays indicated that Thmbf1 overexpression affected the production of low molecular weight secreted compounds with antifungal activity against FO. Intriguingly, no correlation in the expression profiles, either in rich or minimal medium, was observed between Thmbf1 and the master regulator gene cross-pathway control ( cpc1 ). Greenhouse assays allowed us to evaluate the biocontrol potential of T. harzianum strains against BC and FO on susceptible tomato plants. The wild type strain T34 significantly reduced the necrotic leaf

  5. Emphasizing Research (Further) in Undergraduate Technical Communication Curricula: Involving Undergraduate Students with an Academic Journal's Publication and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julie Dyke; Newmark, Julianne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents follow-up information to a previous publication regarding ways to increase emphasis on research skills in undergraduate Technical Communication curricula. We detail the ways our undergraduate program highlights research by requiring majors to complete senior thesis projects that culminate in submission to an online…

  6. Supervisor/Peer Involvement in Evaluation Transfer of Training Process and Results Reliability: A Research in an Italian Public Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Guido; Depolo, Marco; Rippa, Pierluigi; Schiattone, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a study performed in conjunction with a branch of the Italian Public Italian Administration, the ISSP (Istituto Superiore di Studi Penitenziari--the Higher Institute of Penitentiary Studies). The study aimed to develop a Transfer of Training (ToT) evaluation methodology that would be both scientifically…

  7. Active design in affordable housing: A public health nudge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigates the impact of active design (AD strategies on physical activity (PA among adults living in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED certified affordable housing developments in the South Bronx, New York. One building incorporates LEED Innovation in Design (ID Credit: Design for Health through Increased Physical Activity. Tenants in an affordable housing building (AH incorporating active design strategies completed PA self-assessments at their lease signing and one year later in 2015. Trained research assistants obtained body measurements. Residents of neighboring non-AD affordable housing (MCV served as a comparison. Thirty four adults were recruited from AH and 29 from MCV, retention was 56% (n = 19 and 52% (n = 15 respectively at one year. The two groups' body mass index (BMI and high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were not statistically significantly different when analyzed as continuous variables, although BMI category had a greater decline at AH than at MCV (p = 0.054. There was a 31.5% increase in AH participants meeting MPA requirements and a statistically significant improvement in females (p = 0.031; while there was no change in the MCV participants overall or when stratified by gender. AH participants were significantly more likely to have reported increased stair use and less likely to have reported no change or decreased stair use than participants from MCV participants (p = 0.033. Housing has a role in individual health outcomes and behavior change, broad adoption of active design strategies in affordable housing is warranted to improve physical activity measures. Keywords: Active design, Physical activity, Built environment, Affordable housing

  8. Administrator Interest is Perceived to Encourage Faculty and Librarian Involvement in Open Access Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon C. Tewell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Reinsfelder, T.L., & Anderson, J.A. (2013. Observations and perceptions of academic administrator influence on open access initiatives. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(6: 481-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2013.08.014 Abstract Objective – To better understand the roles and influence of senior-level academic administrators, such as provosts, on open access (OA activities at the institutional level, including whether librarians perform these activities regardless of administrative interest. Design – Web-based survey questionnaire combined with multiple regression analysis. Settings – The research was conducted online using surveys emailed to potential participants at not-for-profit public and private academic institutions in the United States with a FTE of greater than 1000. Subjects – Academic library directors at selected colleges and universities. Methods – Using directory information from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES and filtering institutions according to not-for-profit status, size, and special focus, a survey sample of 1135 colleges and universities was obtained. Library websites were used to acquire contact information for library directors. In summer 2012 the 43-item survey questionnaire was distributed to respondents online using Qualtrics. The four primary variables were each comprised of multiple questionnaire items and validated using factor analysis, and the data was explored using multiple regression. Main Results – The survey received 298 respondents for a 26% response rate, though the number of incomplete responses is not stated. Among four stakeholder groups (faculty, publishers, librarians, and senior academic administrators, library directors perceived librarians as having the greatest influence in regards to the adoption of open access (mean = .7056, followed by faculty (.3792, administrators (.1881, and publishers as having a negative impact (–.3684. A positive

  9. Chang Sei Kim's Activities on Public Health in Colonial Korea

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    Park Yunjae

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After graduating from Severance Medical College in 1916, Chang Sei Kim went to Shanghai to work as a missionary in a adventist hospital. The establishment of the Korean Provisional Government led him to participate in the independence movement. Educating nurses to assist the forthcoming war for independence, he seemed to realize the fact that the health of Koreans would be a key factor for achieving independence. He left for the U.S. to conduct comprehensive research on medicine. Chang Sei Kim was the first Korean to receive a Ph. D. degree of Public Health, graduating from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1925. He then gained an opportunity to work for Korea as a professor at Severance Medical College. His objective was the 'Reconstruction of the Korean People In Terms of Physical Constitution.' He pointed out that Koreans' weak state of health was a major reason for Korea's colonization. To gain independence, he emphasized that the Korean people should receive education on public health in order to improve the primitive conditions of sanitation. There is little doubt that Chang Sei Kim's ideas developed Heungsadan's views on medicine in terms of its stress on cultivation of ability, especially considering the fact that he was a member of the organization. As a member of the colonized who could not participate in the developing official policy, Chang Sei Kim was not able to implement his ideas fully, because an individual or a private organization could not carry out policy on public health as large a scale as the government did. Never giving up his hopes for Korean independence, he rejected requests to assume official posts in the Government-General. That was why he was particularly interested in the Self-Governing Movement in 1920s Korea. If the movement had attained its goal, he might have worked for the enhancement of sanitary environment as a director of Sanitary Department. His application for funding to establish

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