WorldWideScience

Sample records for public interest

  1. Serving the Public Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    system is likely to produce good governance. That is, if benevolent candidates are common, if the president has little discretionary power, and if the public sector is effective. We analyze the role of institutions like investigative media and re-election and show that they can improve or further hamper......We present a model of political selection in which voters elect a president from a set of candidates. We assume that some of the candidates are benevolent and that all voters prefer a benevolent president, i.e. a president who serves the public interest. Yet, political selection may fail in our...

  2. Conservative Public Interest Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Terence J.

    2007-01-01

    The idea that lawsuits can move a public as well as a legal agenda is not new. In recent years, conservatives have brought high profile lawsuits designed both to vindicate the rights of an individual plaintiff and to educate the public about an important issue. For example, lawsuits filed nearly 10 years ago against the University of Michigan's…

  3. Serving the Public Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    system is likely to produce good governance. That is, if benevolent candidates are common, if the president has little discretionary power, and if the public sector is effective. We analyze the role of institutions like investigative media and re-election and show that they can improve or further hamper...

  4. Public Schools and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2003-01-01

    Essay addresses three questions: What purposes should schools serve and who should determine those purposes? Who should set performance goals for schools? Does school choice comport schooling mission to serve the public interest? Argues for need to be more disciplined and explicit in determining the public interest that schools serve and how that…

  5. Committed to the Public Interest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    While politicians are often seen as being motivated by narrow self-interest, this article offers an alternative view. The relationship between two pro-social dimensions – Commitment to the Public Interest (CPI) and User Orientation (UO) – and behavioural outcomes among local councillors is analyzed...

  6. 10 CFR 503.25 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public interest. 503.25 Section 503.25 Energy DEPARTMENT... Public interest. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(c) of the Act provides for a temporary public interest... exemption would be in accord with the purposes of the Act and would be in the public interest; and (3)...

  7. 32 CFR 701.34 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public interest. 701.34 Section 701.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.34 Public interest. The interest...

  8. Public interests and corporate obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2016-01-01

    , and corporations) should try to promote the good, seen from an impartial perspective, meaning that everybody’s interest should be taken into account (Kagan 1989). I conclude that stakeholder theorists are unable to meet the challenge presented by consequentialism by traditional means, i.e. by referring to social...

  9. Public Interest Law: Five Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Sanford

    This report provides an account of public-interest law firm activities supported by the Ford Foundation. Public interest law is a phrase that describes efforts aimed at providing legal representation for underrepresented interests in the legal process. The report is arranged into four major sections. The first section, on the evolution of the…

  10. Higher Education and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    This paper explores the question of whether society needs a more engaged university. "Engaged," in this context, means committed to serve the public interest, to promote the general welfare. The argument is constructed around three main points: (1) the 20th century university has traditionally sought to serve the public interest; (2) in recent…

  11. Cultural Interest Goods as Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Vargas-Ayala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the debate regarding the nature of goods of cultural interest as public goods, discussion until now overlooked by the legal doctrine in Administrative Law. Through the exam of judicial decisions, it seeks to question their inalienable character, and their aptitude to be acquired by the State, case in which they shift their nature into public goods.

  12. Study on Public Interest in City Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付樯; 周立军

    2014-01-01

    Public interest is the key point of city planning, which has a significant effect on the level of city planning. This paper discussed the public interest in city planning, which is advantageous to improve the level of city planning.%公共利益是城市规划的关键点,对城市规划水平有重要作用。本文探讨了城市规划中的公共利益,有利于城市规划水平的提高。

  13. "Public Purpose or Public Interest" and Third Party Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Virgill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the difference between public purpose and public interest in section 25(2 of the 1996 Constitution is considered. It is generally accepted that public purpose is a narrower category than public interest and that the distinction between public purpose and public interest does not make any practical difference. However, in this contribution it is suggested that the difference between public purpose and public interest makes no practical difference only in cases where expropriated property is used by the state for the realisation of a particular purpose. The difference between public purpose and public interest becomes more important when a particular expropriation also involves a third party transfer, since it indicates the level of scrutiny that the courts should apply in determining the lawfulness of the expropriation. When property is expropriated and transferred to a third party for the realisation of a public purpose, such as building and managing electricity plants, the lawfulness of the expropriation is not easily questioned. As such, the application of a rationality test to determine the legitimacy of the expropriation is generally easy to accept. However, this lenient approach cannot be as easily accepted where an expropriation and third party transfer takes place in the public interest. Examples of third party transfers in the public interest include land reform, slum clearance and economic development. In the examples of land reform and slum clearance the expropriation and third party transfer is usually authorised in legislation or, as is the case with land reform in South Africa, the 1996 Constitution. Because (as in the land reform example the expropriation and third party transfer is authorised by the Constitution and regulated by legislation, the application of a rationality test to determine the legitimacy is acceptable. However, the application of a rationality test where property is expropriated and transferred

  14. Channel One: When Private Interests and the Public Interest Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhuis, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    If the notion of public and private spheres seems somehow quaint or old-fashioned, the distinction between public and private corporations will be that much more obscure. Yet Channel One broadcasts in a public school classroom are indisputably the result of a contract between a private corporation (Alloy Media + Marketing) and a public corporation…

  15. Research Ethics, Governance, Oversight And Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Suleiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A better educated public has started to challengethe way decisions are made in medical research activities.Although Institutional and National Guidelines onResearch are in place, there are fears that InstitutionalReview Boards (IRBs and funding agencies are only fairlyactive in scientific and ethical reviews of research proposalsbut not on oversight of projects after their initiation. Theseissues are integral to good research governance andresearchers and custodians of research ethics must ensurethat public interest is not compromised. Medical progress is based on research including humanexperimentation carried out according to guidingprinciples as enunciated in the Declaration of Helsinki(2000, but the quality of compliance with theDeclaration is an important issue. Better choice and appropriate training of members of IRBsto improve the quality of decision making and governanceprocesses are urgently needed. Competency in evaluationof proposals requires not only the appropriate scientificknowledge but also access to relevant preclinical andother data. Unfortunately, the completeness and quality ofsuch data may not be adequate. Public interest demands that injury to trial subjects inclinical trials is minimized if not avoided completely.Unfortunately this is not always possible with trialswhere novel biological modes of action are tested.A more robust evaluation mechanism for projectapproval may minimize but not completely avoid injuryto subjects; thus insurance cover to provide care andcompensation to subjects must be compulsory.The decision to approve or reject a project must bebased on the balance of potential risks and benefits,taking into consideration justifiable distributive risks totarget communities and populations. Economicconsiderations should never be the primary focus,especially when there are real concerns that themigration of early phase clinical trials including vaccinetrials to developing countries is based on the perceivedless

  16. 7 CFR 97.700 - Public interest in wide usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public interest in wide usage. 97.700 Section 97.700... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Public Use Declaration § 97.700 Public interest in wide usage. (a) If the... to be taken in the public interest. (b) Upon the expiration of the period for the presentation...

  17. 46 CFR 16.109 - Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). 16.109 Section 16.109... General § 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes...

  18. 48 CFR 1406.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 1406.302... Public interest. The CO shall prepare the D&F and complete the justification to support use of public interest authority for other than full and open competition and submit it through the HCA to the...

  19. 49 CFR 382.117 - Public interest exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.117 Public interest exclusion. No employer shall use the services of a service agent who is subject to public interest exclusion in accordance with 49 CFR part 40... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest exclusion. 382.117 Section...

  20. 48 CFR 6.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 6.302-7... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-7 Public interest. (a) Authority. (1... for when the agency head determines that it is not in the public interest in the...

  1. [Conflict of interests and scientific publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R

    2012-01-01

    The potential relationships of interest between authors, reviewers, editors and financial management of the journals can lead to a conflict of interest in their performances. It analyzes the potential conflicts of interest in the papers, with extreme examples, assessing the need for careful statement of the relations, especially economic. Potential conflicts of interest should be transparent and the knowledge and values should be an objective of the magazines. The declaration of relationships should be required in the communication of research, but their existence should not prejudge misconduct. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  3. Professional Self-Regulation and the Public Interest in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey L. Adams

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of professional groups has often been justified as being in the public interest. In recent decades, policymakers in Anglo-American countries have questioned whether self-regulating professions have truly served the public interest, or whether they have merely acted in their own interests. This paper draws on legislative records and policy reports to explore meanings attached to professional self-regulation and the public interest in Canada by state actors over the past 150 years. The findings point to a shift in the definition of the public interest away from service quality and professional interests, towards efficiency, human rights, consumer choice, and in some contexts business interests. Changing views of the public interest contribute to regulatory change.

  4. Liberal Education and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, James O.

    This collection of essays makes the case for a liberal education while providing a guide to higher education administrators facing contemporary challenges such as the threat to affirmative action or debates over tenure. The chapters are: (1) "Mounting the Public Stage"; (2) "Defending Higher Education"; (3) "Preserving Liberal Education"; (4)…

  5. Public meetings: Thank you for your interest

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Several hundreds of you took part in our recent information meetings1. We very much appreciate these times when we get together and, by listening to your questions and comments, can have a better idea of your concerns. You were particularly interested in the changes to the rules of the health insurance. Indeed, as a complement to the information given by Philippe Charpentier at the meeting organized by HR on Friday 23rd September, we showed you how a well-functioning concertation process has enabled our mutual health insurance system to evolve by modernizing it and making it fairer, while keeping the same excellent benefits. Do not hesitate to contact your departmental delegates if you have further questions concerning the health insurance, they will do all they can to inform you. As far as our merit-based advancement scheme, MARS, is concerned, we are far from convinced that this is the best system, one that truly corresponds to the needs of CERN, an organization of scientific and technical excellence, w...

  6. 22 CFR 171.23 - Declassification in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declassification in the public interest. 171.23 Section 171.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND... public interest in disclosure of the information, and in these cases the information should...

  7. 48 CFR 206.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 206.302-7 Section 206.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM....302-7 Public interest. (c) Limitations. For the defense agencies, the written determination to...

  8. In the Public Interest: Contemplating Seymour, Sin, and a Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author will focus on Seymour's article titled, "And What is the Public Interest?" (Sarason, 1986). To the author, the core of the article is as follows: "And what is the public interest? At its phenomenological root it is a picture of a triad: the individual, the society, and the bases on which they give meaning to each other.…

  9. 48 CFR 606.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 606.302-7 Section 606.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.302-7 Public interest....

  10. 48 CFR 3006.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 3006.302... Full and Open Competition 3006.302-7 Public interest. (c)(1)(ii) Requests shall be prepared in writing by the contracting officer, using the format found in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704, and submitted...

  11. 48 CFR 2806.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Public interest. 2806.302-7 Section 2806.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Competition and Acquisition Planning COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 2806.302-7 Public interest....

  12. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... written testimony and comments on the public interest factors (see determination of public interest at 43... final decision on the proposed exchange and whether it is in the public interest. The BLM will discuss... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange...

  13. Telecommunications and the Public Interest; Needs and Prospects in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Committee on Telecommunications.

    A summary of 18 months' investigation into the potential uses of telecommunications in the public interest is presented. Areas investigated include public TV and radio, cable TV, television translaters, instructional fixed television service, satellite communications and interconnections. Public hearings were held in eight cities and more than 100…

  14. Planning and the Public Interest. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA A. NAGY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From an ethical perspective, the biggest difficulty for planners is to take the best approach in responding to the decision makers and in acting in the public interest because it always becomes subject of pressures arising with the governmental change, on the one hand, and the societal change on the other hand. Even though many debates arise regarding its existence, for planners, as well as for the planning profession, the public interest has always been legitimizing principles as a norm of practice (Alexander, 2002. The paper critically analyses the planning activity in relation to the public interest and highlights the importance of reciprocity between the two. In order to analyse this issue, the article starts with the presentation of different perspectives regarding the public interest, touching upon its conceptual meaning which is followed by a historical review of its origins and transformation. The third section presents its contextual meaning, its representatives, and the change of its content starting from the 19th century until nowadays and discusses the planners’ ability to represent it. The final part comprises the conclusions that indicate that the planning activity should serve the public interest and, by that, it would serve also the interest of planning as a profession. It emphasises two important issues of the present days: the definition of the public interest and the rational decision making within the planning process.

  15. Nanotechnology and Public Interest Dialogue: Some International Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M.; Hodge, Graeme A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines nanotechnology within the context of the public interest. It notes that though nanotechnology research and development investment totalled US$9.6 billion in 2005, the public presently understands neither the implications nor how it might be best governed. The article maps a range of nanotechnology dialogue activities under…

  16. 48 CFR 306.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 306.302-7 Section 306.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 306.302-7 Public...

  17. 48 CFR 806.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 806.302-7 Section 806.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 806.302-7 Public...

  18. Public interest norms in European investment policy : A shattered hope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Lisbon Treaty, the EU acquired exclusive competence over foreign direct investment (FDI). Hence, the EU began to form the EU Investment Policy, which, among other issues, attempts to regulate on Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). This article addresses the role of public interest

  19. Public interest norms in European investment policy : A shattered hope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Lisbon Treaty, the EU acquired exclusive competence over foreign direct investment (FDI). Hence, the EU began to form the EU Investment Policy, which, among other issues, attempts to regulate on Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). This article addresses the role of public interest norm

  20. Interest Groups and Political Economy of Public Education Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between the lobbying power of different interest groups and public education spending in a panel data estimationduring the period 1996-2009 for 132 countries. The resource rents, manufacture exports, and agriculture value added are used as proxy variables for the lobbying power of the natural resource owners, manufacturers, and landowners, respectively, in order to substantiate the definition of the lobbying power of the interest groups more with economic fundamentals. As lobbying power is mediated through political institutions, different governance indicators are used individually and in interaction terms with the proxy variables in the estimations. It is found that when the country is more politically stable and the more the rule of law applies, the negative (positive effect of the lobbying power of natural resource owners (manufacturers on public education spending intensifies. The negative effect of landowners’ lobbying power diminishes as institutional quality as measured by governance indicators improves.

  1. Interest Groups and Political Economy of Public Education Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between the lobbying power of different interest groups and public education spending in a panel data estimation during the period 1996-2009 for 132 countries. The resource rents, manufacture exports, and agriculture value added are used as proxy variables for the lobbying power of the natural resource owners, manufacturers, and landowners, respectively, in order to substantiate the definition of the lobbying power of the interest groups more with economic fundamentals. As lobbying power is mediated through political institutions, different governance indicators are used individually and in interaction terms with the proxy variables in the estimations. It is found that when the country is more politically stable and the more the rule of law applies, the negative (positive effect of the lobbying power of natural resource owners (manufacturers on public education spending intensifies. The negative effect of landowners’ lobbying power diminishes as institutional quality as measured by governance indicators improves.

  2. 20 CFR 402.185 - Waiver or reduction of fees in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 402.185 Waiver or reduction of fees in the public interest. (a... interest because it is likely to contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or...) Public interest. The disclosure passes the first test only if it furthers the specific public interest...

  3. Institutions and Regulation for Economic Growth ? : public interests versus public incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Realizing institutions and regulations that foster economic growth is an essential asset for contemporary economies. This book investigates practices and options for steering individual and firm behaviour that prevents unacceptable externalities and boosts public interests. These multi-dimensional

  4. Public Interest in Microclimate Data in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Reyes Mason

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New technologies can sense urban environmental conditions at finer scales than previously possible. This has paved the way for monitoring microclimates between and within neighborhoods. Equally vital, though much less studied, is stakeholder engagement in understanding and using such data. This study examines interests and preferences for accessing neighborhood-scale microclimate data among residents of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Data are from randomly sampled phone surveys (N = 200 and purposively sampled focus group participants (N = 25. Survey participants expressed high interest in neighborhood air quality, temperature, and rainfall. Focus groups revealed four themes for designing smartphone applications or websites for neighborhood-scale data: easy access to integrated data, clear and intuitive design, information for everyday living and healthy behavior, and tools for civic engagement. Results support the value of creating meaningful, usable science interfaces with which the public can readily engage.

  5. On cloning: advocating history of biology in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maienschein, J

    2001-01-01

    Cloning - the process of creating a cell, tissue line or even a complete organism from a single cell - or the strands that led to the cloning of a mammal, Dolly, are not new. Yet the media coverage of Dolly's inception raised a range of reactions from fear or moral repulsion, to cautious optimism. The implications for controlling human reproduction were clearly in the forefront, though many issues about animals emerged as well. On topics of public interest such as cloning, historians of biology have the opportunity to make a unique contribution. Such debates are often aired as if they have no precedents, either in biology or in the ethical, moral, and social concerns arising in the public arena. The technology leading to Dolly draws on strands of research going back to the 1890s, and the cycle of the public response has been repeated often in the past century. What can we learn from examining these events historically, and how can we - or should we even try - to inform public opinion? I think we should try and will outline briefly some of the ways that can work.

  6. Public Interest and Public Governance%公共利益与公共治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成福; 李丹婷

    2012-01-01

    公共治理是实现公共利益的核心途径。公共利益在公共治理中具有的重大功能可以从政治、经济、法律、社会和文化四个方面得以体现。公共利益所反映的是,在多元社会的治理过程中,政府与利益相关者在利益和利益分配问题上所达成的共识。在公共治理的过程中,如何体现和实现公共利益,以下几个方面是重要的:公共治理是否尊重了人的尊严和保护了公民的权利;公共治理是否体现了大多数人的利益和弱势群体利益优先;公共治理是否超越了特殊利益集团、部门、地方和短期的利益;公共治理是否尊重了科学与理性;公共治理的过程是否开放和尊重了民意、遵循了正当程序和社会公认的伦理和道德标准。%Public governance is the crucial way to realize public interest. The importance of public in terest for public governance mainly represents in the fields of polity, economy, society and law. It is believed that the public interest is a consensus between the government and stakeholders on the interest and the interest distribution in a pluralistic society. In the process of public governance, the following aspects are significant to achieve public interest: public governance whether or not respects human dig nity and protects civil rights; public governance whether or not reflects the majority's interest and takes the disadvantaged groups' interest as a superior valueorientation; public governance whether or not goes beyond the special interest group, sectorial, local and the shortterm interest public govern ance whether or not respects rationality; the process of public governance whether or not opens to the public and responds people's needs, adheres to the democratic and legal process, and the ethical as well as moral standard deemed by the society.

  7. Public service motivation ad fonts : Personality traits as antecedents to serve the public interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Esteve, M.; Boyne, G.

    2017-01-01

    Public Service Motivation (PSM) is a topic that has generated considerable interest among Public Administration scholars. Research on PSM has mainly focused on either defining what PSM is and how this construct can be measured or on testing how PSM affects individual and organizational variables. Ho

  8. Ex ante and ex post control of the public interest in public-private partnership agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the provisions of public-private partnership agreement (hereinafter: the 'PPP' in the context of control of the public interest in the process of preparing and implementing PPP projects. PPP agreements are a mechanism for defining rights and obligations of public and private partners in the process of realization of a particular PPP project. In spite of being defined as partnership, public and private interests largely remain competitive. However, in case it is not possible to achieve both interests at the same time, the public interest is deemed to have priority. The proper implementation of the supremacy of public interests over the private ones calls for an appropriate contractual definition of conditions and manner for such implementation. The methodology for exercising control of the public interest in PPP projects through agreements on public-private partnership has two aspects. The first aspect is to provide verifiable parameters of legal, economic and technological conditions, as well as the procedure for selecting the best bid for the realization of public-private partnership (ex ante methodological aspect; these conditions are the basis for future PPP agreement. Ex ante methodology has to provide instruments for control of the public interest through pre-established mechanisms aimed at verifying whether the private partner has fulfilled the agreement. If such verification is not possible or if it is considered unreasonable (either financially or otherwise, it may raise an issue whether the public-private partnership is an adequate modality for implementation of the project aimed at promoting the public interest; it further implies that the public partner should resort to other options (employing 'internal' resources or taking a loan for financing the projects of public interests. The second aspect is that the PPP agreements are to provide for the proper implementation of the elements that ensure some flexibility in

  9. Capturing Public Interest in Astronomy through Art and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Sabraw, J.; Salgado, J. F.; Statler, T.; Summers, F.

    2008-11-01

    This is a summary of our 90-minute International Year of Astronomy (IYA) symposium workshop about engaging greater public interest in astronomy during the International Year of Astronomy 2009 through art and music. The session focused on: (i) plans for visually interesting and challenging astronomy presentations to connect with an audience at venues such as museums, concert halls, etc that might be apprehensive about science but open to creative experiences; (ii) the nuts-and-bolts of turning creative ideas into exhibits or visualizations; (iii) balancing scientific accuracy with artistic license; and (iv) how scientists, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) professionals, artists, musicians et al. can bridge the ``two cultures''---starting and sustaining multi-disciplinary collaborations, articulating expectations, and building synergy. The presenters shared with the EPO community some of the astronomy-art projects and resources that we have been developing for the IYA through a variety of collaborations. Our portfolios include state-of-the-art astronomy visualizations and tools, music videos and podcasts that highlight stunning images from NASA's Great Observatories; a video suite of astronomical images that can accompany live performances of Holst's The Planets and Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition; and SCALE, a multicomponent traveling art installation including the largest pastel drawing of the Milky Way.

  10. Understanding the diversity of public interests in wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Tara L; Manfredo, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    North American state wildlife agencies are increasingly faced with the challenge of effectively representing a diverse public. With increasing social conflict over wildlife issues, the future of wildlife conservation hinges on preparedness of the profession to respond to this challenge. In the interest of finding ways to improve response, 19 agencies in the western U.S. joined forces to initiate an investigation that would provide a better understanding of the diversity of wildlife-related interests in the region. Specific objectives, accomplished through use of a mail survey administered in 2004, were to categorize people on the basis of their value orientations toward wildlife and explore how different groups were distributed across states and to examine differences on sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward wildlife-related topics among groups. The focus was on two orientations: domination (view of wildlife that prioritizes human well-being over wildlife and treats wildlife in utilitarian terms); and mutualism (view of wildlife as capable of relationships of trust with humans and defined by a desire for companionship with wildlife). Four types of people were identified on the basis of these orientations. Types differed in their geographic distribution and wildlife-related attitudes and behaviors, revealing how value orientations can form the foundation for conflict on wildlife issues. Our characterizations of stakeholder groups offer a framework that can be applied over time and across geographic scales to improve conservation planning efforts and inform broader thinking about the social aspects of wildlife conservation.

  11. 78 FR 69440 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY...'') recommended by the ALJ. This notice is soliciting public interest comments from the public only. Parties are to file public interest submissions pursuant to 19 CFR 210.50(a)(4). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  12. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved. PMID:20615242

  13. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omobowale, Emmanuel B; Kuziw, Michael; Naylor, Melinda Treurnicht; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-07-08

    Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  14. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs, often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  15. Accreditation and the Public Interest: Can Accreditors Continue to Play a Central Role in Public Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Terry W.

    2012-01-01

    Institutional accreditation has served higher education and the public interest well for more than a century, but now its purposes are changing quickly and dramatically. Accreditation began as a voluntary, nongovernmental peer review process internally managed by colleges and universities to determine if schools met threshold tests of academic…

  16. GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, Hans D.K.

    2003-02-27

    In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are

  17. 76 FR 383 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... 2777; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR... any public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of...

  18. 75 FR 53710 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Marine Autopilots with GPS or IMU, DN 2752; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  19. 78 FR 7811 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Canada. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five (5) pages in length, inclusive of attachments, on any public interest...

  20. 77 FR 77091 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing Same, DN 2925; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five (5) pages...

  1. 76 FR 3924 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn R. Abbott... complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to...

  2. 76 FR 11813 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Devices, DN 2789; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of an...

  3. 75 FR 48724 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof; DN 2747; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by..., China. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  4. 78 FR 79708 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Thereof, DN 2995; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  5. 77 FR 59978 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8(b.... Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments,...

  6. 78 FR 79479 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Integrated Circuits, DN 2994; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... 19 U.S.C. 1337(j). Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  7. 77 FR 59003 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing the Same, DN 2915 the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by..., inclusive of attachments, on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or section 210.8(b)...

  8. 76 FR 62842 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2847; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of an...

  9. 19 CFR 210.67 - Remedy, the public interest, and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedy, the public interest, and bonding. 210.67... PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.67 Remedy, the public interest... appropriate form of temporary relief, whether the public interest factors enumerated in the statute...

  10. 75 FR 42783 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... and Components Thereof''; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised... any public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of...

  11. 78 FR 60896 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing Same, DN 2984; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... cease and desist orders. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  12. 75 FR 62140 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Software, and Components Thereof, DN 2757; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest..., IL. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  13. 76 FR 18246 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R. Holbein, Acting..., proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments,...

  14. 75 FR 57500 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2755 ; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by..., proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments,...

  15. 78 FR 64010 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Thereof, DN 2987; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... any public interest issues raised by the complaint or section 210.8(b) filing. Comments should...

  16. 10 CFR 780.24 - Criteria for declaring a patent affected with the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Patents Affected With the Public Interest Under Section 153a of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 § 780.24 Criteria for declaring a patent affected with the public interest. A patent shall be declared to be affected with the public interest pursuant to section 153a of the Act upon the Board's final decision...

  17. 77 FR 4030 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the... Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of limited public interest waiver. SUMMARY... application of section 1605 would be inconsistent with the public interest. On April 25, 2011, the...

  18. 76 FR 45294 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing the Same, DN 2833; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  19. 76 FR 18247 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U...; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR... complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to...

  20. 76 FR 797 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Associated Systems, DN 2778; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by.... The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are...

  1. 76 FR 28456 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2804; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  2. 76 FR 32987 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... and Products Containing Same, DN 2811; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  3. 78 FR 76655 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five (5) pages...

  4. 76 FR 36936 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... 2821; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  5. 78 FR 5495 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2933; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by.... Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments,...

  6. 75 FR 66790 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn R... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  7. 77 FR 7602 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Haptics, DN 2875; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... Holdings, Inc. of IL. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are...

  8. 76 FR 62092 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Thereof, and Related Software, DN 2846; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to...

  9. 75 FR 53981 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn R... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  10. 76 FR 29264 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R. Holbein... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  11. 77 FR 29689 - Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S... and Devices Containing Same, DN 2877; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... Corporation of Taiwan. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are...

  12. 76 FR 51395 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R. Holbein... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  13. 76 FR 50756 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R... complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to...

  14. 76 FR 34100 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U..., other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages in length, on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address...

  15. 77 FR 10556 - Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S... Devices Containing Same, DN 2877; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five (5) pages...

  16. 75 FR 54910 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... and Products Containing Same DN 2754; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest..., NY. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  17. 76 FR 19126 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing Same, and Related Methods, DN 2798; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest..., other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed...

  18. Interest Arbitration in Public Employment: An Arbitrator Views the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Tim

    1978-01-01

    Examines the inherent differences between the roles of grievance arbitrator, fact-finder, and interest arbitrator and discusses the skills and insights the interest arbitrator needs to fulfill his role. Available from: Commerce Clearing House, Inc., 4025 West Peterson Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60646. (JG)

  19. Public service broadcasting (PSB regulation in Indonesia: Between market and public interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reform of public service broadcasting (PSB faces many obstacles in countries with political transition such as Indonesia. After 1998-political change, the arrival of ideas to establish PSB in Indonesia in two decades lacks of appropriate policies. As in other transitional states in Eastern Europe, there is the lack of regulatory design as well as its implementation. This paper examines process of formulating PSB law in 2002, particularly pays attention to industry capture over the making process as a critical tool to observe a long-controvercial of broadcasting law revision process in Indonesia (2012-2016. By use public interest and capture theories in regulation, this paper answers why the outcome of PSB regulation is weak by observing how the law was made. This study provides new analysis on PSB media law that still rare in Indonesia. As independent and non-profit body, Indonesian PSB represented by RRI (Radio of the Republic Indonesia and TVRI (Television of the Republic Indonesia is protected by Broadcasting Act.32/2002. It was enacted in favor of two actors: authoritarian officials with interest to use PSB as their mouthpiece in one side and the industry groups with interest to apply free market policy on the other.

  20. Reflections Regarding the Concept of Local Interest within Public Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Georgeta ALEXANDRU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we aim at performing an analysis of the concept of local interest, having as prerequisites the doctrinal debates regarding the general interest. The examination of this concept occurs in relation with the new trends, as concerns the exercise of competences at local level, respectively with the elements that define the interest of the community and its means of application within the life of the local community. Our research aims to establish theoretically the notion of local interest, an approach that we carry out within a difficult environment, whereas the notion of interest is fluctuating, being constantly modified under the pressure of the evolutions of social and economic needs. The results and the essential contribution of the material consist in the establishment of a framework that would offer to local authorities the practical possibilities for identifying the landmarks that surround this concept and that has to be harmonised with the values of modernity in order to respond better to the needs that are expressed.

  1. 76 FR 25706 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R. Holbein, Acting... Diego, CA. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the...

  2. 76 FR 36935 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2819; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... County, CA. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the...

  3. Providing Appropriate Evaluative Support for Valuing in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julnes, George; Bustelo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation is increasingly accepted as a tool for understanding and assessing the value of public programs and policies. Less understood, however, is how and why evaluation helps to inform judgments of value. This "American Journal of Evaluation" ("AJE") section on Professional Values and Ethics focuses on how values are to…

  4. Development and Initial Validation of Public Domain Basic Interest Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsin-Ya; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    Goldberg (Goldberg, L. R. (1999). "A broad-bandwidth, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models." In: I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), "Personality psychology in Europe" (Vol. 7, pp. 7-28). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press) has argued that the…

  5. 75 FR 65652 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn R. Abbott..., telephone (202) 205-2000. The public version of the complaint can be accessed on the Commission's...

  6. 76 FR 35238 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Products Containing Same, DN 2816; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues...-2000. The public version of the complaint can be accessed on the Commission's electronic docket...

  7. Autonomy, best interests and the public interest: treatment, non-treatment and the values of medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Richard

    2014-01-01

    When constructing its responses to cases concerning the treatment and non-treatment of patients, both competent and incompetent, English medical law primarily uses two analytic tools: the autonomy and the welfare (or best interests) of the patient. I argue, however, that the construction going on behind the facade involves the use of more-and more precise-tools. In such cases, the law effectively asks three questions. The first, autonomy, question asks: is the proposed course desired by the patient? The second, best interests, question asks: if the patient is not autonomous, then (what) is the proposed course in the patient's best interests? And the third, public interest, question asks: whether or not the patient is autonomous, is the proposed course in the public interest? In its responses to each question, law then offers three different answers, which reveal a plurality of ethical commitments. Thus, the wishes of the (autonomous) patient might reflect her current, her best, or her ideal desires. The best interests of the (non-autonomous) patient, meanwhile, are variously articulated in terms of (again) her desires, or the promotion or preservation of a particular mental state, or the attainment of certain objective goods. Finally, and most often obscured from view, there are public interest concerns-with the interests of the patient, some other (or others), or even the community at large. In identifying these different questions and answers, I hope to provide an explanatory typology. Whether law's plurality of answers-and values-is appropriate, however, remains open to question.

  8. 77 FR 14856 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Draft Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C199 Establishing the Minimum... Administration (DOT). ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)...

  9. Why utilisation of medicines is a public health interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Folino-Gallo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of medicines exerts important effects on public health and health systems in different ways, including their pharmacological properties, their economic impact on health systems and their impact on the environment. Medicines cause intended therapeutic effects. Medicines are able to treat diseases, slow their progression or prevent their appearance as well as relieve symptoms. This is the reason why physicians prescribe, patients use and governments pay for medicines. Some therapeutic classes of drugs represent important progress in medicine and have dramatically improved the therapeutic approach to several diseases.As an example antiulcer agents have changed a severe disease (with fatal complications, requiring gastric surgical resection, into a disease requiring only the consumption of few pills each day for a short period of time, with a substantial improvement in prognosis and quality of life for patients. Avoiding the surgical intervention of gastric resection, and all of its complications, has resulted in substantial gains for individual patients and public health as well as a substantial reduction in the costs of hospitalisation. For other therapeutic classes the benefits are more limited, while the advantages of their use in everyday practice are less evident.

  10. Gary B. Melton: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2014 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Gary B. Melton. Melton was selected for his "influential scholarship on critical topics in psychology in the public interest, especially child and family law and policy, forensic mental health services, child advocacy, rural psychology, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect." Melton's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  11. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Beverly Greene

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beverly Greene, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, has a long history of distinguished contributions in the public interest through her research, scholarship, teaching, practice, and consultation. Her work raises the visibility of many populations that have been overlooked and…

  12. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Bonnie R. Strickland.

  13. 75 FR 76753 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... and Packaging Thereof, DN 2772; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues... States after importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof. The complaint... comments, not to exceed five pages in length, on any public interest issues raised by the...

  14. 24 CFR 103.320 - Provisions sought for the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the public interest. The following are types of provisions may be sought for the vindication of the public interest: (a) Elimination of discriminatory housing practices. (b) Prevention of future... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisions sought for the...

  15. Bernice Lott: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…

  16. Conflict of interest in public health: should there be a law to prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Holla, Radha; Suri, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    "Conflict of interest", now being commonly cited, is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. Conflict of interest situations can be institutional or personal, and can stem from financial or other interests including post-employment opportunities or during public -private partnerships. Conflicts of interest in the creation of public policy, especially health or nutrition related policies such as the vaccine policy, tobacco control, and research related to health, can have negative impact on the lives of millions of people. While the UN Convention Against Corruption, to which India is a signatory, identifies conflict of interest as often being a precursor to corruption, there is no serious action being taken in this direction by the Indian government, in spite of the fact there are instances of serious nature coming to light that affect our peoples lives. If conflict of interest situations are allowed to continue especially in health policy it could be detrimental to millions of people; therefore, it would be in public interest that India enacts a law to prevent conflict of interest in the making of public policies, comprehensive enough to include financial and institutional conflicts of interest.

  17. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Anneliese A. Singh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Anneliese A. Singh. Dr. Singh's scholarship "has promoted major advancements in LBGT studies and intersectionality of multiple identities." Singh's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Candice L. Odgers: Awards for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Candice L. Odgers. Odgers's work addressing the developmental course of externalizing and conduct disorders and substance use yielded key insights into genetic and environmental variations in risk, leading to policy recommendations regarding how best to target interventions." Odgers's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  19. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  20. Using social media to discover public values, interests, and perceptions about cattle grazing on park lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sheila J

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, Flickr(TM) that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  1. Using Social Media to Discover Public Values, Interests, and Perceptions about Cattle Grazing on Park Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sheila J.

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, FlickrTM that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  2. 49 CFR 40.361 - What is the purpose of a public interest exclusion (PIE)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.361 What is the... punishment. (d) Nothing in this subpart precludes a DOT agency or the Inspector General from taking...

  3. Supremacy of the public interest: A reading based on the complex thought of Edgar Morin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renata Nascimento Gomes; Rafael Lazzarotto Simioni

    2014-01-01

    .... For that purpose, we use the arguments of Edgar Morin's "complex thought" theory developed in his work "Science with a conscience", which suggests a use of the concept of public interest not as an...

  4. The sideshow or the circus? The role for public interest organisations at inquests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prictor, Megan

    2012-12-01

    Recent changes in coronial law in Australian jurisdictions have enabled inquests to adopt an expanded scope and have facilitated the participation of family members and other interested parties. Public interest bodies have increasingly sought to have input to coronial policy and practice. This article examines the involvement by public interest organisations in Australian inquests over recent years. These organisations adopt various roles in inquests, including the representation and support of family members of the deceased, and the pursuit of policy and legislative changes. A further role is that of participation in specific inquests as an "interested party", in order to provide relevant expertise, shape the scope of the inquiry, and illuminate systemic issues which may have contributed to a death. This article considers the legal framework for the involvement of public interest organisations, and critically reflects upon the main purposes and effects of such intervention.

  5. The Effects of Audience Interest, Responsiveness, and Evaluation on Public Speaking Anxiety and Related Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Thivierge, Kimly A.; MacDonald, J. Renee

    1997-01-01

    Examines potential sources of public-speaking anxiety among undergraduate students stemming from the audience. Identifies three sources of anxiety: degree of formal evaluation, level of audience interest in the topic, and audience's responsiveness to the speaker. Measures willingness to speak and expected speech quality. Finds interest,…

  6. Public Goods and Public Interests: Scholarly Communication and Government Documents in Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Sarah; Sare, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates requiring that publicly funded research be made openly accessible recast scholarly information as public information and provide an impetus to join the efforts of scholarly communication and government information programs in United States research libraries. Most major research libraries are long-standing participants in the…

  7. Government databases and public health research: facilitating access in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed.

  8. OPPORTUNITY LOST: THE SUPREME COURT MISSES A HISTORIC CHANCE TO CONSIDER QUESTION OF PUBLIC INTEREST STANDING FOR ANIMAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sankoff

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Supreme Court of Canada recently denied leave to appeal in Reece v. Edmonton (City, a 2-1 decision of the Alberta Court of Appeal, which focused on the right of private parties to seek judicial intervention on behalf of animals. In this article, the author examines the implications of this "lost opportunity" to develop an important area of law relating to public interest standing, explores the important questions that were at stake in the appeal, and suggests why the Supreme Court should have decided otherwise. La Cour suprême du Canada a récemment rejeté la demande d’autorisation d’appel de l’affaire Reece v. Edmonton (Ville, – une décision (2 contre 1 de la Cour d’appel de l’Alberta – qui portait sur le droit de simples individus de demander une intervention judiciaire au nom des animaux. Dans le présent article, l’auteur examine les conséquences de cette [TRADUCTION] « occasion ratée » de développer un important domaine du droit relatif à l’intérêt public, et de traiter les questions sérieuses qui étaient soulevées dans l’appel; il tente d’expliquer pourquoi la Cour suprême aurait dû rendre une décision différente.

  9. Lack of proportionality. Seven specifications of public interest that override post-approval commercial interests on limited access to clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strech Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the protection of commercial interests, licensing bodies such as the EMA and health technology assessment institutions such as NICE restrict full access to unpublished evidence. Their respective policies on data transparency, however, lack a systematic account of (1 what kinds of commercial interests remain relevant after market approval has been granted, (2 what the specific types of public interest are that may override these commercial interests post approval, and, most importantly, (3 what criteria guide the trade-off between public interest and legitimate measures for the protection of commercial interest. Comparing potential commercial interests with seven specifications of relevant public interest reveals the lack of proportionality inherent in the current practices of EMA and NICE.

  10. Knowledge and interest in Public Health: opinions of undergraduate students in Physical Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Erickson Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the opinions of undergraduate students in Physical Therapy on acquired knowledge and interest in the study of Public Health. Methods: This is a crosssectional and qualitative study conducted in a private higher education institution, inMaceió-AL, Brazil, from June to December 2010. It comprised students from 5th and 10th period, which were allocated by convenience sampling, resulting in a final sample of 40 students with 20 students from each period. Later, each student was individually interviewedin a private, lit, air conditioned place, without time limit, being collected through a digital voice recorder the answers to the following questions: “How do you judge your knowledgeabout Public Health?” and “What is your interest in the study of Public Health?”. Collective subject discourse was used to analysis of qualitative variables. Results: Students considered their knowledge of Public Health as “limited”. Regarding their interest, the students in 5th period declared “little interest”, while the academics of the 10th period reported themselves as “very interested”. Conclusions: From the point of view of undergraduate students in Physical Therapy, their knowledge about Public Health is limited. Interest in the study of Public Health is greater among the academics closer to graduation.

  11. The tobacco industry, researchers, and ethical access to UK Biobank: using the public interest and public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Benjamin James; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-10-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry-funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking.

  12. Education & Public Policy in Bogotá: Guarding the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Juan David

    2009-01-01

    High school education appears to be a key variable for the economic prosperity of Bogotá. However, the lack of consideration of quality as a necessary standard for education in the city threatens its potential to positively affect social welfare. One of the main problems emerges from an imprecise conception of education as a public good, which is…

  13. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Mark L. Hatzenbuehler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Mark L. Hatzenbuehler. The Award recognizes Dr. Hatzenbuehler's advancements in understanding stigma, particularly "the stigma experience of being gay or bisexual at the psychological level in terms of rumination, secret keeping, and the like; at the social level in terms of stigma-imbued social interactions; and at the structural level in terms of policies such as the presence or absence of anti-bullying interventions in schools or gay marriage prohibitions at the level of states." Hatzenbuehler's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. 76 FR 67207 - Certain Wiper Blades; Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ..., DN 2852; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint... any public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of an... opportunities for comment on the public interest after the issuance of any final initial determination in...

  15. Application of American Civil Action to Public Interest Action in Environmental Protection of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Suping; Li Yanshun

    2006-01-01

    Economic development has made a negative impact on the environment. However, our proceedings on public interest action are almost blank, causing many of the cases related to the environmental protection to be rejected by the court for the reason that the prosecutors fail to provide enough evidence. Therefore, we can take the U.S. system of civil action for reference to improve our public interest action while employing proxy litigation. The measures can be included as follows: relax the plaintiff qualifications; establish the necessary lead procedures; invert the responsibility of providing evidence.

  16. The Role of Regulating the Accounting Profession and the Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Necsulescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The high quality services provided by the accounting profession are a function of theprofessional standards, of the personal value and competences, the regulation systems, all having tobe coherent and back each other. All the activities that form the accounting profession are of equalimportance, as seen through the eyes of the public interest. The scope of this paper is to underline therole of CECCAR in sustaining and promoting international practices at a high level, in regulating theactivities and the conduct of its members, in developing and consolidating the accounting professionin order to serve the public interest.

  17. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  18. 76 FR 55108 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    .... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Devices for Mobile Data Communication, DN 2843; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain devices for mobile...

  19. 77 FR 3794 - Certain Mobile Devices and Related Software; Request for Statements on the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Mobile Devices and Related Software; Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  20. Public and private interests in regulation : essays in the law and economics of regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    2003-01-01

    The six chapters in this thesis all focus on regulation. Public and private interest theories of regulation are used as a viewpoint and as an instrument to analyse and evaluate particular regulations and policy developments. Furthermore, in the literature there is a debate about the explanatory powe

  1. 76 FR 1458 - Notice of Availability: Notice of Public Interest (NOPI) for Fiscal Year 2010 Transformation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief of the... Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program. The purpose of this Notice of Public Interest (NOPI) is to...

  2. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is awarded to Florence L. Denmark. She is recognized for her efforts to help legitimize the psychology of women by teaching the first doctoral psychology course in the field and through her scholarly texts and articles. She continues to have an impact on the…

  3. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  4. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  5. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Keith Humphreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keith Humphreys, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, is cited for creatively combining a scientist's commitment to rigor, a clinician's emphasis on high-quality mental health care, and a policy analyst's understanding of how to address and resolve social problems. His work as a…

  6. Marguerita Lightfoot: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Marguerita Lightfoot for her leadership, innovation, and commitment to applying psychological principles to develop behavioral health interventions for…

  7. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  8. Accountability and Assessment: Is Public Interest in K-12 Education Being Served? CRESST Report 728

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.

    2007-01-01

    The reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) makes this a good time to consider whether and how current accountability serves the public interest and whether and how it can better do so. This report explores these issues in the context of the current literature on the effects of accountability in K-12 education. It considers the meaning…

  9. 75 FR 38068 - Public Meeting With Interested Stakeholders for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 403, 501 and 503 Public Meeting With Interested Stakeholders for National... than Wednesday, July 7, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting will be open to all stakeholders... targeted to protect the environment. For this meeting, EPA plans to seek comment from...

  10. Disclosing conflicts of interest in German publications concerning health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Friedrich W

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of the pharmaceutical industry and other stakeholders on medical science has been increasingly criticised. When dealing with conflicts of interest in scientific publications it is important to ensure the best possible transparency. The objective of this work is to examine the disclosure practice of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest in German language publications concerning health services research for the first time. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in the PubMed data base using the MeSH term "health services research". The review was conducted on July 10, 2006, setting the limits "dates: published in the last 2 years" and "languages: German" (only articles with abstracts. 124 articles in 31 magazines were found. In the magazines the instructions for authors were examined as to whether a statement on conflicts of interest is expected – and if, in which form. Regarding the articles in the journals which require a statement, we examined whether the statement is explicitly published. The results are descriptively represented. Results 13 magazines (42% do not require any statement on conflicts of interest, whereas 18 journals (58% expect a statement. Two of these 18 magazines refer explicitly to the uniform requirements of the International Committee of the Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; the remaining 16 magazines give differently accentuated instructions on how to disclose conflicts of interest, whereby the focus is primarily on financial issues. A statement on conflicts of interest is explicitly published in 11 of the 71 articles (15% which are found in the magazines that require a statement with the submission of a manuscript. Related to the total number of included articles, this means that the reader explicitly receives information on potential conflicts of interest in 9% of the cases (11 of 124 articles. Statements of others that are involved in the publication process

  11. The post-2015 landscape: vested interests, corporate social responsibility and public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the tensions between UN calls for private sector engagement in the post-2015 landscape and public health opposition to those 'harm industries' that are 'corporate vectors of disease' for the mounting global non-communicable disease burden. The UN's support for public-private partnership has provided industries with 'vested interests' in the propagation of unhealthy behaviours with new opportunities for the strategic alignment of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) endeavours with the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. This has galvanised public health advocates to place pressure on the World Health Organisation to formalise their ambiguous stance towards private sector involvement in public policy formation and the resultant 'conflicts of interest'. This paper critically examines the 'gathering storm' between this 'anti-corporate movement' and the alcohol industry in the increasingly politicised domain of CSR. Drawing on the example of SABMiller's Tavern Intervention Program, the paper argues that CSR represents a profound threat to the sanctity and moral authority of the public health worldview. Questions therefore need to be asked about whether the public health-led path of industry non-association will necessarily result in health improvements or just a further retrenchment of the ideological faultlines explored in the paper.

  12. The Tobacco Industry, Researchers, and Ethical Access to UK Biobank: Using the Public Interest and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry–funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking. PMID:25122018

  13. Public goods and private interests: Understanding non-residential demand for green power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Fowlie, Meredith; Holt, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of the first large-scale mail survey of non-residential green power customers in the United States. The survey explored the motivations, attitudes, and experiences of 464 business, non-profit, and public-sector customers that have voluntarily opted to purchase - and frequently pay a premium for - renewable electricity. Results of this study should be of value to marketers interested in targeting these customer segments, to policy makers interested in fostering and understanding non-residential demand for green power, and to academics pondering the motivations for firms to engage in such voluntary environmental initiatives.

  14. Public interest litigation in the Netherlands : A multidimensional take on the promotion of environmental interests by private parties through the courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Berthy; Enneking, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the administrative law system is traditionally seen as best suited for dealing with public interest-related lawsuits. Especially in the field of environmental law, NGOs seeking to promote broader environmental interests regularly initiate judicial procedures before administrative

  15. Medical journals' conflicts of interest in the publication of book reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald M; Neale, Anne Victoria; Monsur, Joseph C

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess medical journals' conflicts of interest in the publication of book reviews. We examined book reviews published in 1999, 2000, and 2001 (N = 1,876) in five leading medical journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. The main outcome measure was journal publication of reviews of books that had been published by the journal's own publisher, that had been edited or authored by a lead editor of the journal, or that posed another conflict of interest. We also surveyed the editors-in-chief of the five journals about their policies on these conflicts of interests. During the study period, four of the five journals published 30 book reviews presenting a conflict of interest: nineteen by the BMJ, five by the Annals, four by JAMA, and two by the Lancet. These reviews represent 5.8%, 2.7%, 0.7%, and 0.7%, respectively, of all book reviews published by the journals. These four journals, respectively, published reviews of 11.9%, 25.0%, 0.9%, and 1.0% of all medical books published by the journals' publishers. Only one of the 30 book reviews included a disclosure statement addressing the conflict of interest. None of the journals had a written policy pertaining to the conflicts of interest assessed in this study, although four reported having unwritten policies. We recommend that scientific journals and associations representing journal editors develop policies on conflicts of interest pertaining to book reviews.

  16. Interests, Norms, and Support for the Provision of Global Public Goods: The Case of Climate Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtel, Michael; Genovese, Federica; Kenneth F. Scheve

    2016-01-01

    Mitigating climate change requires countries to provide a global public good. This means that the domestic cleavages underlying mass attitudes toward international climate policy are a central determinant of its provision. We argue that the industry-specific costs of emission abatement and internalized social norms help explain support for climate policy. To evaluate our predictions we develop novel measures of industry-specific interests by cross-referencing individuals’ sectors of employmen...

  17. "Angel's Love" Chinese Goddess Nuwa Culture Large-scale Activities for Public Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Initiated by Chinese Red Cross Foundation and sponsored by American General Business Association, Chinese Nuwa (a goddess-creator of the Chinese nation) Culture Large-scale Activities for Public Interests undertaken by Beijing Absolute Challenge International Advertising Co., Ltd. has recently commenced in an all-round way. A grand ceremony will be held at Nuwa Plaza in Shexian County, Hebei Province on Septemper 24, 2007.

  18. Corporate philanthropy and conflicts of interest in public health: ExxonMobil, Equatorial Guinea, and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naman K

    2013-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea, the most prosperous country in Africa, still bears a large malaria burden. With massive wealth from oil reserves, and nearly half its population living in island ecotypes favourable for malaria control, only poor governance can explain continued parasite burden. By financially backing the country's dictator and other officials through illicit payments, the oil company ExxonMobil contributed to the state's failure. Now ExxonMobil, having helped perpetuate malaria in Equatorial Guinea, gives money to non-governmental organizations, charitable foundations, and universities to advocate for and undertake malaria work. How, and on what terms, can public health engage with such an actor? We discuss challenges in the identification and management of conflicts of interest in public health activities. We reviewed the business and foundation activities of ExxonMobil and surveyed organizations that received ExxonMobil money about their conflict of interest policies. Reforms in ExxonMobil's business practices, as well as its charitable structure, and reforms in the way public health groups screen and manage conflicts of interest are needed to ensure that any relationship ultimately improves the health of citizens.

  19. Evaluating postgraduate public health and biomedical training program outcomes: : lost opportunities and renewed interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Nelson, David E; Marcus, Stephen; Kudura, Aisha; Nghiem, Elaine

    2013-03-01

    To identify recent studies in the scientific literature that evaluated structured postgraduate public health and biomedical training programs and reported career outcomes among individual trainees, a comprehensive search of several databases was conducted to identify published studies in English between January 1995 and January 2012. Studies of interest included those that evaluated career outcomes for trainees completing full-time public health or biomedical training programs of at least 12 months duration, with structured training offered on-site. Of the over 600 articles identified, only 13 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies evaluated US federal agency programs and six were of university-based programs. Seven programs were solely or predominantly of physicians, with only one consisting mainly of PhDs. Most studies used a cohort or cross-sectional design. The studies were mainly descriptive, with only four containing statistical data. Type of employment was the most common outcome measure (n = 12) and number of scientific publications (n = 6) was second. The lack of outcomes evaluation data from postgraduate public health and biomedical training programs in the published literature is a lost opportunity for understanding the career paths of trainees and the potential impact of training programs. Suggestions for increasing interest in conducting and reporting evaluation studies of these structured postgraduate training programs are provided.

  20. Deciding in the best interest of clients with dementia: the experience of public guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Holly A; Black, Betty S; Rabins, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    We conducted an in-depth interview study of public guardians in three local jurisdictions in the state of Maryland to explore the decision-making process utilized by court-appointed public guardians making medical and EOL care decisions on behalf of their clients with dementia. Overall, public guardians appeared to make their decisions in the context of relevant ethical principles and relevant case law and state statute, and the basis upon which they made informed decisions was dependent on their training and experience. The stated goal of public guardians is to make decisions that they believe are in the best interest of their clients. In the case of a healthcare decision, their goal is to maximize quality of life; and in the case of an EOL care decision, their goal is to minimize pain and suffering. In general, public guardians gathered information in order to identify previous preferences of their now-incapacitated clients, so that they could develop a preference profile to assist both an initial decision on whether an individual ought to have a court-appointed public guardian, and with healthcare and EOL decisions once an appointment was made. When guardians were unable to develop a preference profile for a particular client, they relied on past decisions in similar situations. Healthcare and EOL decisions were most often triggered by a recommendation by the client's healthcare provider. Once a decision-point was identified, the public guardian considered the risks and benefits of the proposed intervention in light of the client's current condition. At times the guardians reviewed informational resources such as textbooks and the Internet. In addition, most guardians sought advice from a medical consultant who is available to all public guardians in Maryland. Some guardians sought the advice of this medical consultant only when faced with more complex decisions. Guardians challenged physicians' recommendations when they believed the physicians were recommending

  1. Impact of Vice President Cheney on public interest in left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ambarish; Abdullah, Kazeen; Drazner, Mark H

    2014-05-01

    Although celebrity illnesses attract a significant amount of media attention in the United States, there are few studies that have looked at how celebrity health conditions impact the awareness of the illness in the general population. Recently, Vice President Cheney underwent left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and subsequently a cardiac transplant. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was evidence of increased interest in these 2 procedures as assessed by social media. We determined the relative frequency of Google searches for LVAD and heart transplantation from 2004 to 2013 using Google trends. We also counted the number of YouTube videos and Twitter messages posted monthly concerning LVADs over a 7-year time frame. There was a significant spike in the Google search interest for LVAD and heart transplantation in the month when Vice President Cheney underwent the respective procedure. Similarly, there was a large increase in YouTube videos and Twitter messages concerning LVADs shortly after he was implanted. In total, these data support the concept that a public figure's illness can significantly influence the public's interest in that condition and its associated therapies.

  2. 公益诉讼当事人问题探究%Research onPublic Interest Litigants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒亮

    2014-01-01

    In public interest litigation ,the two problems of public interest litigants being qualified or not and the pro-tection of public interest litigants ’ rights are important to promote the rationalization and legalization of public inter-est litigation.On the basis of discussing the qualification and litigation status of public interest litigants ,the article researches the influence of our imperfect public interest litigation system on public interest litigants and realizes that it is necessary to improve public interest litigation system and protect public interest litigants ’ rights.Then,our pub-lic interest litigation system can play its due role and public interest can be protected in the lawsuit level .%公益诉讼中,公益诉讼当事人的适格与否、公益诉讼当事人权益的保护这两大问题,对促进公益诉讼制度的合理化与合法化具有重要作用。文章在探讨公益诉讼当事人适格问题和其诉讼地位的基础上,研究了我国不完善的公益诉讼制度对公益诉讼当事人的影响,认识到完善公益诉讼制度保障公益诉讼当事人的权益是十分必要的,如此,我国的公益诉讼制度才能发挥其应有的作用,公共利益在诉讼层面才能得到保障。

  3. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A.; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers, and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs. PMID:24382859

  4. The Problematic of Small-Scale Land Acquisition (Less than 5 Hectares for Public Interest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Okhtalia Setiabudhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land acquisition for public interest development is stipulated in Act No. 2 of 2012 concerning Land Acquisition for Development of Public Interest. One arrangement of land acquisition in legal substances that have been formed are small-scale land acquisition (less than 5 hectares, but it is still governed by very vague and thus susceptible to the multi-interpretation and raises doubts in its implementation. This paper discusses the problematic that arise due to unclear regulations concerning small-scale land acquisition and to provide solutions to these problems. Based on the discussion the authors concluded first, the problematic of small-scale land acquisition is the arrangement of land acquisition that is so vague that there is no clarity regarding the procedures for determining of location, the phase of land acquisition, which excludes public consultation, there is no regulation regarding preventive measures against the impact for the community around location of land acquisition. Second, the solution could be found to this problem is a regulation of small-scale land acquisition should ideally be regulated more comprehensively considering that small-scale land acquisition allows the emergence of adverse effects for the community around location of land acquisition so that the stages of planning and preparation that is set for the large-scale land acquisition is similarly applied for small-scale.

  5. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A; Kitas, George D

    2013-12-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs.

  6. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  7. Public Private Partnerships and the Public Interest: A Case Study of Ottawa’s Lansdowne Park Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Stoney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public private partnerships (PPPs are increasingly advocated as beneficial for the delivery of public services, facilities, and infrastructure for municipal governments. However, such partnerships often raise serious concerns about transparency and accountability. While municipal governments across Canada have tried to increase public participation in local affairs, PPPs can impede such efforts. This article presents a case study of the Lansdowne Park PPP redevelopment in the City of Ottawa. We focus on how transparency and citizen engagement have been compromised and circumvented and link to broader issues of how to balance the privileged status of business and the demands for commercial confidentiality with the public interest, transparency, and citizen engagement in projects that use PPPs. The article concludes by arguing that some projects and some conditions can render the use of PPPs inappropriate and counterproductive in terms of both effectiveness and the basic principles of good governance. / Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont de plus en plus préconisés par les municipalités comme étant une solution avantageuse pour la prestation de services publics ainsi que la réalisation de projets d’installations et d’infrastructures publiques. Toutefois, de tels partenariats soulèvent souvent d’importantes préoccupations quant à la transparence et la reddition de compte en lien avec ce processus. Plusieurs municipalités canadiennes ont fait de grands progrès pour accroître la participation des citoyens aux affaires municipales, mais les PPP peuvent représenter un obstacle important à de tels efforts. Cet article présente une étude de cas sur le réaménagement du parc Lansdowne dans le cadre d’un PPP à la Ville d’Ottawa. L’article se concentre sur la façon dont la transparence et l’engagement des citoyens ont été compromis et contournés dans ce processus. Cette analyse est liée à des considérations sur la

  8. How the public perceives the visual effects of timber harvesting: an evaluation of interest group preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Stephen F.; Benson, Robert E.; Ashor, Joseph L.

    1986-05-01

    A total of 25 scenes representing the five visual quality objectives in the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service visual management system were presented to 18 professional and public interest groups in western Montana. The results indicate that nearly all the groups have similar rank orderings of the scenes in terms of visual preference. However, the groups differ according to the absolute values of their ratings. Most groups were unable, in a statistical sense, to differentiate the scenic quality of areas in the preservation and retention visual quality objectives. Landscape architects tended to rate scenes in a way similar to professional forest management groups.

  9. We do not recognise anything 'private': public interest and private law under the socialist legal tradition and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mańko

    2015-01-01

    In line with Lenin’s famous quote that Bolsheviks "do not recognise anything private" and that private law must be permeated with public interest, the private (civil) law of the USSR and other countries of the Soviet bloc, including Poland underwent reform aimed at furthering the public interest at

  10. 47 CFR 64.1330 - State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and public interest payphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations and public interest payphones. 64.1330 Section 64.1330 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... its rules and policies to determine whether it has provided for public interest payphones consistent... Provision of Payphone Service § 64.1330 State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and...

  11. Gold Medal Award for life achievement in psychology in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Salvatore R. Maddi. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  12. Public accept for environmental taxes: self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Saelen, Haakon

    2010-07-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There have, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes, and few attempts to isolate the effects of selfish and social preferences. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self ( self interest ) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. (Author)

  13. Research on public interests and government interests relationship problems in the process of public policy%公共政策过程中的公共利益与政府利益关系问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金梅; 付浩海

    2015-01-01

    公共政策的问题从本质上说是公共利益的问题,而公共利益内部又孕育着政府利益,本文从公共利益与政府利益的相互关系开始分析,进而分析政府利益扩张的根本原因,最后提出了克服政府自利性行为的有效途径。强调政府的根本职责是制定和实施有效的公共政策以实现公共利益,探索在公共政策过程中实现公共利益与政府利益互惠与公正的基本路径,规避不适的政府利益对公共政策效果的影响。%The problem of the public policy is essentially the problem of public interests,and public interests and government interests within breeds,began to analyze the relationship from the public interests and government inter-ests,government interests expansion and root cause analysis,finally puts forward the effective way to overcome the government self benefit behavior.It emphasizes that the fundamental responsibility of the government's public policy formulation and implementation of effective in order to achieve the public interest,to explore the basic way to a-chieve public interests and government interests reciprocity and fairness in the public policy process,influence to a-void discomfort government interests in public policy effect.

  14. Public acceptance for environmental taxes: Self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen, E-mail: steffen.kallbekken@cicero.uio.n [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, PO Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Saelen, Hakon [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, PO Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There has, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self (self-interest) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. - Research highlights: {yields} Which factors influence support for fuel taxation? {yields} We test a model of attitudes towards fuel taxes with data from a Norwegian survey. {yields} Support for fuel taxation best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences. {yields} Support for fuel taxation followed by beliefs about consequences to others. {yields} Self-interest is the factor that explains the least variation in support.

  15. Public Interest Litigation in the NetherlandsA Multidimensional Take on the Promotion of Environmental Interests by Private Parties through the Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthy van den Broek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, the administrative law system is traditionally seen as best suited for dealing with public interest-related lawsuits. Especially in the field of environmental law, NGOs seeking to promote broader environmental interests regularly initiate judicial procedures before administrative courts in order to challenge land-use plans, environmental permits and other types of public orders that may have adverse impacts on local natural habitats and/or the environment more generally. However, over the past five years a number of developments have resulted in a more restricted access to administrative courts for environmental NGOs. It has been suggested that these developments may result in an increased reliance on public interest-related procedures before civil courts. This raises the question of what position public interest-related claims, like those against Shell for oil pollution in the Niger Delta and those against the Dutch government for its alleged failure to implement adequate climate change policies, currently have within the Dutch system of civil procedure. It also raises the question whether environmental NGOs in practice do have the broad access to Dutch courts that is required by international obligations, and whether room for improvement should perhaps be sought in the civil law domain.

  16. Public Interest Litigation in the Netherlands
    A Multidimensional Take on the Promotion of Environmental Interests by Private Parties through the Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthy van den Broek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, the administrative law system is traditionally seen as best suited for dealing with public interest-related lawsuits. Especially in the field of environmental law, NGOs seeking to promote broader environmental interests regularly initiate judicial procedures before administrative courts in order to challenge land-use plans, environmental permits and other types of public orders that may have adverse impacts on local natural habitats and/or the environment more generally. However, over the past five years a number of developments have resulted in a more restricted access to administrative courts for environmental NGOs. It has been suggested that these developments may result in an increased reliance on public interest-related procedures before civil courts. This raises the question of what position public interest-related claims, like those against Shell for oil pollution in the Niger Delta and those against the Dutch government for its alleged failure to implement adequate climate change policies, currently have within the Dutch system of civil procedure. It also raises the question whether environmental NGOs in practice do have the broad access to Dutch courts that is required by international obligations, and whether room for improvement should perhaps be sought in the civil law domain.

  17. The right of servitude between public interest and undisturbed use of private property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petovar Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For obtaining the land in order to build the magistral pipeline a specific form of land expropriation is applied, namely the Right of servitude. The Right of servitude can be realized on the basis of established public interest, which can be defined according to the spatial plan of the relevant area. The Right of servitude is analyzed from the point of its influence on the respect of basic human rights of property owners to enjoy their property in safety and without disturbance. Current legal framework in Serbia that regulates procedures for acquiring land for the purpose of public interest allows for breach of private property rights. There is a mutual inconsistency between a number of decrees that regulate property rights for large infrastructural development projects. A specific, and possibly a greater problem, is the status of the local population, the land owner and other real estate. It concerns their awareness of their private and individual rights, as well as technical and other legal standards, which must be applied during the preparation, construction and working stages of an energy facility. Applying the Right of servitude as a way to acquire land for construction of the Pipeline, there is direct breach of the basic human right as stated in the first Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, namely that ‘every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions’ (Article 1, Protocol 1. The Right of servitude allows the investor to use ‘public interest’ as a way of gaining access to another’s land, and under better financial conditions than if he were to apply permanent expropriation. While the owner retains his/her ownership of the land, inconvenienced by numerous limitations of its use, usability and market value of the land becomes substantially reduced.

  18. YouTube videos of 'research in action' foster diverse public interest in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, scientific enterprises seek to diversify interest and participation in STEM fields, to both provide equitable opportunities and to push research forward. However, diversity in STEM remains low in many institutions. Internet-based video has emerged as a dominant communication medium that scientists can use to communicate the motivations, process, and products of their work to a diverse, mass audience. Here I describe my use of internet-based video about my research and career as a marine biologist as a tool to inspire broad public interest in science. With my YouTube videos, I have reached a diverse and growing global viewership, amassing >10,000 hours of watch time at the time of this writing. Viewer surveys revealed that my videos have improved individual perceptions about science and science careers, particularly among women and minority groups. I conclude that the emergence of internet-based video as a dominant, ever-expanding communication medium provides an unprecedented but largely untapped opportunity for scientists to broadly communicate their research and to inspire diverse interest in STEM careers.

  19. The Pacific Northwest's Climate Impacts Group: Climate Science in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, N.; Snover, A.

    2006-12-01

    Since its inception in 1995, the University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group (CIG) (funded under NOAA's Regional Integrated Science and Assessments (RISA) Program) has become the leader in exploring the impacts of climate variability and climate change on natural and human systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), specifically climate impacts on water, forest, fish and coastal resource systems. The CIG's research provides PNW planners, decision makers, resource managers, local media, and the general public with valuable knowledge of ways in which the region's key natural resources are vulnerable to changes in climate, and how this vulnerability can be reduced. The CIG engages in climate science in the public interest, conducting original research on the causes and consequences of climate variability and change for the PNW and developing forecasts and decision support tools to support the use of this information in federal, state, local, tribal, and private sector resource management decisions. The CIG's focus on the intersection of climate science and public policy has placed the CIG nationally at the forefront of regional climate impacts assessment and integrated analysis.

  20. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Beatrice A. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in 4 areas of psychology. The 2016 recipient of Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Beatrice A. Wright. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are: Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Simian virus 40, poliovirus vaccines, and human cancer: research progress versus media and public interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.

  2. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.

  3. The national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: A computer content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Roger. Kaye

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Computer content analysis was used to analyze more than 23,000 media stories about the refuge from 1995 through 2007. Ten main categories of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge values and interests emerged from the analysis, reflecting a diversity of values,...

  4. Lawyers, Governance, and Globalization: the Diverging Paths of “Public Interest Law” across the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Sa e Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, “public interest law” (PIL has become a frequent component in conversations about law and policy around the globe. While this worldwide manifestation of a professional and political script that thus far seemed to be typically so American suggests a remarkable process of diffusion, its mechanics and significance are yet to be examined more deeply and systematically. The available account contends that this process has been one of “convergence” and “adaptation”. Yet, there are good empirical and theoretical reasons to subject this account to further examination. Drawing from a comparative and international empirical research on the everyday lives of “public interest lawyers” in the United States and Latin America, this article stresses significant differences in the ways US and LA lawyers have structured “public interest law” – thus challenging the idea of convergence –, while also unveiling factors in the rich histories of professional and political development in the studied contexts, which initially account for such differentiation. These findings call for further research, but already speak to a variety of theories about institutional development in times of globalization, such as theories of institutional isomorphism and field constitution. En los últimos años, el “derecho de interés público” (DIP se ha convertido en un componente frecuente en las conversaciones sobre derecho y política a lo largo y ancho del globo. Mientras que esta manifestación a nivel mundial de un discurso profesional y político que hasta ahora parecía ser típicamente americano sugiere un notable proceso de difusión, sus mecanismos y significado todavía se deben examinar más profunda y sistemáticamente. La teoría disponible sostiene que este proceso ha sido de “convergencia” y “adaptación”. Sin embargo, hay buenas razones empíricas y teóricas para someter esta afirmación a un examen más profundo. A

  5. Who owns what? Private ownership and the public interest in recombinant DNA technology in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Doogab

    2011-09-01

    This essay analyzes how academic institutions, government agencies, and the nascent biotech industry contested the legal ownership of recombinant DNA technology in the name of the public interest. It reconstructs the way a small but influential group of government officials and university research administrators introduced a new framework for the commercialization of academic research in the context of a national debate over scientific research's contributions to American economic prosperity and public health. They claimed that private ownership of inventions arising from public support would provide a powerful means to liberate biomedical discoveries for public benefit. This articulation of the causal link between private ownership and the public interest, it is argued, justified a new set of expectations about the use of research results arising from government or public support, in which commercialization became a new public obligation for academic researchers. By highlighting the broader economic and legal shifts that prompted the reconfiguration of the ownership of public knowledge in late twentieth-century American capitalism, the essay examines the threads of policy-informed legal ideas that came together to affirm private ownership of biomedical knowledge as germane to the public interest in the coming of age of biotechnology and genetic medicine.

  6. On the Principles for Determining the Public Interest%论公共利益的认定原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志宏

    2012-01-01

    Public interest belongs to the legal revered matters, and the first policy of identifying public interest is to identify legally. In China, we need a law to clarify the scope and boundaries of public interest to identify law enforcement and justice. The principle of legitimacy is a reasonable standard of public interest. Public interest should be carried out within a reasonable range. The public interest can sacrifice personal interests in case of the lack of other alternative. The identification process of public interest is a process of value determination, and the public interest is relatively long--term interest and vital interest. When achieving public interest requires restriction or sacrifice, the restriction or sacrifice should be limited to a minimum in line with the principle of proportionality. If pursuing public interest damages the personal interests, they should be given full and fair compensation. Definition and identification of public interest should be processed in an open, fair and equitable procedure on basis of the rule of law to ensure that the public interest is in line with the requirements of most people.%公共利益属于法律保留事项,依法认定是公共利益认定的首要原则,我国需要通过立法进一步明确公共利益的范围和边界,以明确执法和司法。正当性原则是公共利益的合理性标准,公共利益应当在合理的范围内进行,公共利益只能在没有其他备选替代方案时才能牺牲个人利益。公共利益的认定是一个价值判断过程,公共利益是相对的长远利益和重大利益。当公共利益的实现需要其他利益作出限制或牺牲时,应当把这种限制或牺牲限制在最小范围,符合比例原则。如果追求公共利益时损害了个人利益,就应当给予充分的公平的补偿。公共利益的界定以及认定应当以公开、公平和公正的法治程序为基础,以确保公共利益符合大多数人的要求。

  7. When Opportunity Knocks Twice: Dual Living Kidney Donation, Autonomy and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phillippa; Huxtable, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Living kidney transplantation offers the best treatment in terms of life-expectancy and quality of life for those with end-stage renal disease. The long-term risks of living donor nephrectomy, although real, are very small, with evidence of good medium-term outcomes. Who should be entitled to donate, and in which circumstances, is nevertheless a live question. We explore the ethical dimensions of a request by an individual to donate both of their kidneys during life: 'dual living kidney donation'. Our ethical analysis is tethered to a hypothetical case study in which a father asks to donate a kidney to each of his twin boys. We explore the autonomy of the protagonists, alongside different dimensions of the public interest, such as the need to protect not only the recipients, but also the donor and even the wider community. Whilst acknowledging objections to 'dual-donation', not least by reference to the harms that the donor might be expected to endure, we suggest there is a prima facie case for permitting this, provided that both donor and recipients are willing and that due attention is paid to such considerations as the autonomy and welfare of all parties, as well as to the wider ramifications of acting on such a request. We argue for broader interpretations of the concepts of autonomy and welfare, recognizing the importance of relationships and the relevance of more than merely physical well-being. Equipped with such a holistic assessment, we suggest there is a prima facie case for allowing 'dual living kidney donation'.

  8. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics w

  9. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics

  10. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics w

  11. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: José Toro-Alfonso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is José Toro-Alfonso, who was posthumously given this award for his commitment to "issues of inequity, diversity, and to the alleviation of human suffering particularly among Latino/Latina and LGBTQ communities." He "pioneered HIV/AIDS-related services for youth, women, gay, and transgender populations," and Toro-Alfonso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Water Distribution in the Public Interest and the Human Right to Water: Swiss, South African and International Law Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rüegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal norms governing the distribution of water are integral to how access to water is determined. This paper analyses the idea that water should be used in the interest of the public from a legal point of view. Taking Swiss and South African law as examples it examines what the notion of 'public interest' actually means. A close look at the notion of 'water distribution in the public interest' reveals important insights: water distribution in the public interest balances a variety of different economic, ecological and social interests. In this process the human right to water is attributed the role as protective shield. Hence its effective implementation is crucial in order to safeguard water for basic human needs. After analysing how Swiss and South African water regimes are currently structured and the role of the public interest clause therein, the paper examines whether the human right to water as conceived in Swiss, South African and international law effectively ensures protection of domestic water users. The paper concludes that this is the case under some, but not all circumstances. Especially the interests of those users whose access to water is not yet sufficient do not always receive adequate legal protection by the respective legal orders. The paper concludes by stressing the necessity to evolve the concept of the human right to water to reach comprehensive protection of basic human needs. Consciousness of the social risks associated with using the human right to water as general placeholder for basic human needs despite its shortcomings will hopefully encourage efforts to establish substantive legal protection.

  13. 环境公益的司法救济%On Judicial Relief of Environmental Public Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨添翼; 徐信贵

    2012-01-01

    Protecting environmental public interest is the most important respect. At present in China, if environmental public interest is damaged, it depends on the relief from administrative organ. However, only administrative relief cannot protect environmental public interest, we also need judicial relief. There are two channels that are environmental civil public litigation and environmental administrative public litigation on judicial relief of environmental public interest, which have many same and different places on many aspects such as purpose of action, subject of action, burden of proof, result of action and so on. Comparing the same and different of them has active significant to build the system of environmental public interest litigation.%保护环境公益是环境保护最重要的方面.在目前的中国,环境公益受到损害主要依赖于行政机关的救济.然而,仅仅依赖行政救济不足以保护环境公益,我们还需要司法救济.环境公益的司法救济途径有二种,即环境民事公益诉讼和环境行政公益诉讼,二者在诉讼目的、诉讼主体、举证责任、诉讼效果等方面具有诸多的相同点和差异,比较它们的异同对于我国构建环境公益诉讼制度具有积极的指导意义.

  14. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  15. Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and…

  16. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  17. Marketing Booze to Blacks. A Report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, George A.; And Others

    Beer, wine, and liquor manufacturers aggressively seek to maximize sales of their products to blacks, despite public health and safety problems associated with those products. Rather than act to protect the public from the over-promotion of alcohol, government has set few effective constraints on the sales stratagems of alcoholic beverage…

  18. Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and…

  19. Self-Interest and Scholarly Publication: The Dilemma of Researchers, Reviewers, and Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Roberts, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Academic misconduct in research is of growing concern to funding agencies, scholars, and academic journal editors. Scholarly publication has ethical implications researchers, reviewers, and journal editors. The theoretical background of the ethics of scholarly publication is explored as well as the use of a case study of an untenured researcher…

  20. 我国公立医院公益性的SWOT分析及对策%SWOT analysis and countermeasure of public interests in the public hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 李游江

    2015-01-01

    根据我国深化医药卫生体制改革的精神,结合当前的实际情况,综合分析我国公立医院坚持公益性的优势、劣势、机遇和威胁,应用SWOT组合策略分析原理提出促进我国公立医院实践公益性质的发展策略和政策建议,为坚持并维护我国公立医院的公益性质提供参考和决策依据。%Based on the current situation of China’s health care reform, this paper gives a comprehensive analysis on keeping public interests in the public hospitals with its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) . This SWOT strategy combination analysis would provide the public hospitals with developmental strategies and policy recommendations in practicing public interests, as well as to provide policy making evidences to sustaining the public interests in the public hospitals.

  1. 78 FR 67118 - Notice of Limited, Program-Wide, Public Interest Waivers of Section 1605(a) (Buy American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... existing safety and security systems. Both program-wide, public interest waivers of the Buy American... construction project into the recipient's existing safety and security systems (Safety and Security Systems... incidental items, the country of manufacture and the availability of domestic alternatives are not...

  2. Interest Groups Vie for Public Support: The Battle Over Anti-Affirmative Action Initiatives in California and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    Although affirmative action in college admissions has not been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, the consideration of race in admissions has been banned in nine states--in six of them by public vote. This article analyzes the campaigns to ban affirmative action in California and Michigan as a battle between interest groups. The…

  3. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... (IASFPWG) to draft a revision to the current AC 20-42C, issued on March 1984, by incorporating...

  4. [The contracting process and outsourcing in health: the scenario for dispute between public and private interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Veloso; Morais, Heloísa Maria Mendonça de; Lima, Luci Praciano

    2015-06-01

    This research analyzed the public-private composition in the municipal health network and aspects of the contracting/outsourcing process for services over the period from 2001 to 2008. The research method used was a case study with documentary research and interviews. The interviewees were former secretaries of health, directors of regulation and district managers. The categories of analysis used were public funds, care networks and public control. The results showed that the contracting was restricted to philanthropic units. With respect to the other private establishments linked to the public care network, non-compliance with programmatic aspects was detected, such as the lack of regulation of bidding processes required for contracting. Management authorities did not actively pursue building up state public services, or the formation of care networks. The contracted establishments conducted their activities without effective external and internal control mechanisms, which are paramount for the proper use of public resources. The authors conclude that the contracting process does not significantly alter the standard of buying and selling of services and indeed does not enhance the empowering process of the role of the public domain.

  5. Public Interest in Medical Research Participation: Does It Matter if Patients or Community Members Have Helped Design the Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M

    2015-10-01

    We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 76 FR 60080 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Apple Inc. of CA. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the... behalf of VIA Technologies Inc., IP-First, LLC and Centaur Technology on September 22, 2011....

  7. On the Public Interest of Environmental Protection Law%论环境法中的公共利益

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋烁

    2015-01-01

    More and more social events in relation to the public interest, which influences the daily life deeply, the most obvious one is the environmental infringement. This kind of behavior has particularity, correspondingly, the"public" factors should be put in the whole process of Legislative, administrative and judicial, when handle such cases involving the public interest.%越来越多的社会事件面向公众, 关涉公共利益, 影响面甚广, 其中以环境领域的侵权事件最为直观明显. 这类行为具有特殊性, 相应地也决定了在处理这类涉及公共利益的案件时,立法、 行政、 司法的全程都应增加"公" 因素的考量.

  8. Dilemmas of balancing organizational and public interests: how environment affects strategy in Dutch main ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van der Veen, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility implies more attention to company relationships with governments and other stakeholders. The need for intensive interaction is most conspicuous when company activities come close to the provision of (former) public goods, which also have strong environmental and

  9. Stimulating Public Interest in Lunar Exploration and Enhancing Science Literacy Through Library Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S.; Nelson, B.; Stockman, S.; Weir, H.; Carter, B.; Bleacher, L.

    2008-07-01

    Libraries are vibrant learning places, seeking partners in science programming. LPI's Explore! program offers a model for public engagement in lunar exploration in libraries, as shown by materials created collaboratively with the LRO E/PO team.

  10. Philosophy in the Public Interest: An Interview with Martha C. Nussbaum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a wide-ranging interview with one of America's most prominent philosophers, whose reputation is due not only to her productivity, but to her willingness to speak to broad audiences on topics of public importance. (EV)

  11. THE MODERN THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN THE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS: FROM INTEREST GROUPS TO CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Votchenko, E.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article touches a vital topic of contemporary relations between business and government - public-private partnerships (PPP in the system of public discourse. The article discusses the various modern theoretical approaches to the study of the social aspects of interaction between business and government in modern political science. The author considers the concept and models of foreign public-private partnerships, social investments and corporate citizenship. In the end, the author makes an interesting conclusion that in the modern scientific community is formed and becomes stable a new institutional paradigm of PPP – practice of corporate citizenship. Corporate social responsibility in the narrow sense of the definition goes beyond charity and philanthropy, and today it is expressed in a broad sense - as corporate citizenship, which implies mutual responsibility of business and government to the public.

  12. Moving upstream: why rehabilitative justice in military discharge proceedings serves a public health interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamone, Evan R; McGuire, James; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Clark, Sean; Smee, Daniel; Dow, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The cultural divide between US military and civilian institutions amplifies the consequences of military discharge status on public health and criminal justice systems in a manner that is invisible to a larger society. Prompt removal of problematic wounded warriors through retributive justice is more expedient than lengthy mental health treatment. Administrative and punitive discharges usually preclude Department of Veterans Affairs eligibility, posing a heavy public health burden. Moving upstream--through military rehabilitative justice addressing military offenders' mental health needs before discharge--will reduce the downstream consequences of civilian maladjustment and intergenerational transmission of mental illness. The public health community can play an illuminating role by gathering data about community effect and by advocating for policy change at Department of Veterans Affairs and community levels.

  13. 76 FR 9766 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... ancillary solar Photovoltaic (PV) equipment, when this equipment is utilized in solar installations containing domestically manufactured PV cells or modules (panels). This extension of the amended public... as panels or modules. These two terms are synonymous and used interchangeably in this memorandum....

  14. 75 FR 52322 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... incidental and/or ancillary solar Photovoltaic (PV) equipment, when this equipment is utilized in solar installations containing domestically manufactured PV cells or modules (panels). Specifically, this public... assembled into larger groups known as panels or modules. These two terms are synonymous and...

  15. Interest Groups and Governmental Institutions: The Politics of State Funding of Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, David

    2010-01-01

    In attempting to explain state support of public higher education, this study develops a theory-driven, comprehensive conceptualization of the state political system within a larger theoretical framework that consists of state economic and demographic factors and higher education system attributes. Furthermore, although the higher education policy…

  16. 76 FR 45293 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Arco of FL; CRU Acquisitions Group LLC of WA; CRU-Data Port LLC of WA; Digital Intelligence, Inc. of WI... investigation would negatively affect the public health and welfare in the United States, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the...

  17. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... increases competition for National Forest System timber sales, results in higher prices paid for such timber... hazardous fuels. On June 1, 2012, there were 98 National Forest System timber sales under contract in... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public...

  18. Data ideologies of an interested public: A study of grassroots open government data intermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Schrock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Government officials claim open data can improve internal and external communication and collaboration. These promises hinge on “data intermediaries”: extra-institutional actors that obtain, use, and translate data for the public. However, we know little about why these individuals might regard open data as a site of civic participation. In response, we draw on Ilana Gershon to conceptualize culturally situated and socially constructed perspectives on data, or “data ideologies.” This study employs mixed methodologies to examine why members of the public hold particular data ideologies and how they vary. In late 2015 the authors engaged the public through a commission in a diverse city of approximately 500,000. Qualitative data was collected from three public focus groups with residents. Simultaneously, we obtained quantitative data from surveys. Participants’ data ideologies varied based on how they perceived data to be useful for collaboration, tasks, and translations. Bucking the “geek” stereotype, only a minority of those surveyed (20% were professional software developers or engineers. Although only a nascent movement, we argue open data intermediaries have important roles to play in a new political landscape.

  19. 75 FR 80842 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Cigarette Paper Wrappers and Products Containing Same, DN 2774; the Commission is soliciting comments on any..., telephone (202) 205-2000. The public version of the complaint can be accessed on the Commission's electronic... for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at...

  20. Unions and the Public Interest: Is Collective Bargaining for Teachers Good for Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.; Greene, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Three years after Barack Obama's election signaled a seeming resurgence for America's unions, the landscape looks very different. Republican governors in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio have limited the reach of collective bargaining for public employees. The moves, especially in Wisconsin, set off a national furor that has all but obscured the…

  1. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This brief bibliography is part of a series produced by the Current Awareness Services of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information, and informational service of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The publications provide readers with regularly codified bibliographic references to recent, topical literature in…

  2. 76 FR 45850 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology, DN 2836; the Commission is soliciting comments on any... interactive program guide and parental controls technology. The complaint names as respondents Sharp... available for public inspection at the Office of the Secretary. This action is taken under the authority of...

  3. The Public Interest in the Globally Sustainable Information Society: The Traditional Knowledge Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Society increasingly perceives information as an owned commodity. As a consequence, laws born from this conception are removing uses of information from the public domain and placing them in an enclosed domain where they are subject to an owner's exclusive control. It has been argued that this enclosure movement poses a threat to the diversity of…

  4. Publications from clinical trials: process, conflict of interest and the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Low, Wah Yun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the issues of publication of clinical trials with consideration of ethics and the incomplete evidence base. We review clinical trials and issues of communications and ethics. Several case studies of notable public health researchers will be discussed. Many of the major breakthroughs of public health practice, including the works of John Snow would not have been published under modern guidelines for scientific communication. The research-publication system of modern health care poses many challenges for editors. Journal editors need to include a balance of different types of studies where insufficient randomised controlled trials are available. Clinical trials are a reliable source of evidence for health care practitioners. Journals need to uphold the integrity of the information provided by randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and synthesise and communicate health information. At the same time, editors must assess non-RCT evidence and be vigilant for many of the other potential problems in health and medical communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 39121 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data, and Tablet Computers, DN 2824; the Commission is... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers. The complaint names as.../or a cease and desist order in this investigation would negatively affect the public health...

  6. 75 FR 62565 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ..., Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components Thereof, DN 2759; the Commission is... importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers... investigation would negatively affect the public health and welfare in the United States, competitive...

  7. Has the American Public's Interest in Information Related to Relationships Beyond "The Couple" Increased Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Amy C

    2017-01-01

    Finding romance, love, and sexual intimacy is a central part of our life experience. Although people engage in romance in a variety of ways, alternatives to "the couple" are largely overlooked in relationship research. Scholars and the media have recently argued that the rules of romance are changing, suggesting that interest in consensual departures from monogamy may become popular as people navigate their long-term coupling. This study utilizes Google Trends to assess Americans' interest in seeking out information related to consensual nonmonogamous relationships across a 10-year period (2006-2015). Using anonymous Web queries from hundreds of thousands of Google search engine users, results show that searches for words related to polyamory and open relationships (but not swinging) have significantly increased over time. Moreover, the magnitude of the correlation between consensual nonmonogamy Web queries and time was significantly higher than popular Web queries over the same time period, indicating this pattern of increased interest in polyamory and open relationships is unique. Future research avenues for incorporating consensual nonmonogamous relationships into relationship science are discussed.

  8. California Energy Commission Public Interest EnergyResearch/Energy System Integration -- Transmission-Planning Research&Development Scoping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard; Widergren, Steven

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)scoping project is to identify options for public-interest research and development (R&D) to improve transmission-planning tools, techniques, and methods. The information presented was gathered through a review of current California utility, California Independent System Operator (ISO), and related western states electricity transmission-planning activities and emerging needs. This report presents the project teams findings organized under six topic areas and identifies 17 distinct R&D activities to improve transmission-planning in California and the West. The findings in this report are intended for use, along with other materials, by PIER staff, to facilitate discussions with stakeholders that will ultimately lead to development of a portfolio of transmission-planning R&D activities for the PIER program.

  9. Danish newspapers’ coverage of conflict they are part of: self-serving or serving the public interest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a frame analysis of newspaper coverage of an issue that the newspapers themselves have interests vested in, asking to what extent news workers select framings in accordance with particular, self-serving rather than public interest. The paper examines...... Danish newspapers’ coverage of the conflict between the state-owned public service broadcaster DR and the newspapers, which are privately owned. The conflict concerns whether the state-owned actor distorts the media market and competes with private actors on an unfair basis at a time where the news...... for the study consists of the 94 news articles and opinion pieces that represent seven national Danish newspapers’ coverage entire of the issue in 2014 and 2015. The seven newspapers (B.T., Berlingske, Børsen, Information, Jyllands-Posten, Kristeligt Dagblad, and Politiken) span the national variations...

  10. Edward A. Delgado-Romero: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Edward A. Delgado-Romero, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. "Societies, professions, and individual citizens are enriched by the contributions of those who care. Edward A. Delgado-Romero has demonstrated through his scholarship, leadership in psychological associations such as the National Latina/Latino Psychological Association, and collaborations with universities and school districts in Georgia that he cares and is committed to addressing challenges in the provision of culturally sensitive psychological services to benefit the public interest. His example of servant leadership leaves a legacy to other early career professionals and graduate students alike. Es un hijo honorado." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Analysis of the prosecution's filing public interest litigation%析检察机关提起公益诉讼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关玉新; 杨红

    2009-01-01

    检察机关提起公益诉讼,是指检察机关以国家法律监督者的身份对涉及国家利益和社会利益而无人起诉的案件,向法院提起诉讼,要求法院依法判决有关违法行为无效,并追究有关当事人的法律责任的活动.我国虽尚未建立该项制度,但是域外的成功实践为我国构建检察机关提起公益诉讼制度提供了良好的借鉴,在我国建立检察机关提起公益诉讼制度存在必要性和可行性.%The prosecution's filing public interest litigation, refers to the activities that the prosecution as supervisor of the country law prosecute the case relating to national interests and the interests of the community and no one to prosecute to the courts, asking the court to sentence the offenses in accordance with the law null, and hold the legal responsibilities of the parties. Although China has not yet established the system, the foreign successful practice provides a good reference for prosecutors to bring public interest litigation system in China. It is necessary and feasible to establish the system of the prosecution' filing public interest litigation in China.

  12. Public goods and private interests: The role of voluntary green power demand in achieving environmental improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan Hayes

    This dissertation explores the role of consumer purchasing behavior in providing public, environmental goods. It does so by empirically evaluating one market---voluntary demand for renewable energy. The dissertation addresses the following five research questions: (1) What does early experience with green power marketing tell us about the prospects for this market to deliver environmental benefits? (2) What product design and marketing approaches might be used to increase voluntary demand? (3) What motivates non-residential customers to voluntarily purchase green power? (4) What role might public policy play in the creation of the green power market? (5) What preferences do individuals hold on the most appropriate forms of support for renewable energy? By helping to answer these questions, this dissertation seeks to better understand the gap between widespread positive attitudes for the environment and an often-anemic response to green product offerings. It contributes to not only the public goods and environmental marketing literatures, but also to contingent valuation methodology and to an emerging literature on the motivations of firms to contribute to environmental causes. The analysis performed is diverse, and includes: a literature review, a mail survey of green power marketers, a mail survey of non-residential green power customers, and contingent valuation and opinion surveys of U.S. residents. Detailed statistical analysis is performed on the data collected from the residential and non-residential surveys. The analysis reveals that customer participation in green power programs to date has been weak. The possibility that the traditional economic concept of "free riding" may explain this low response is raised, and the dissertation identifies a number of marketing approaches that might be used to partially combat this problem. Analysis of survey data shows that non-residential green power purchases have been motivated principally by altruistic concerns

  13. On Substantially Public Interest Relieving by the Environmental Public Interest Civil Litigation%论环境民事公益诉讼救济的实体公益

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺效

    2016-01-01

    生态损害是指人为的活动已经造成或者可能造成人类生存和发展所必须依赖的生态(或环境)发生物理、化学、生物性能的重大退化。2002年发生在我国的“塔斯曼海”油轮油污案的裁判结果已充分证明,生态损害是区别于传统环境侵权损害的一种独立存在,立法对生态损害预防和救济的不作为将会造成环境公共利益的重大损害。结合法理和欧盟有关法治实践经验分析可知,直接或潜在影响广大公众和未来世代子孙的环境公共利益之无主的或非私人所有(国家或公共机构所有)的环境要素、自然资源、生态系统的损害,才是环境民事公益诉讼所应救济的主要实体性公益。%“Ecological damage”refers to any existing and/or likely significant human-induced degrada-tion in the physical,chemical and/or ecological functions of any part of ecological or environmental systems,or on the whole consisting of those interacting parts,which are the foundations for human beingssurvival and development.The Judgment of the 2002 Tasman Sea Tanker oil pollution case has testified that the ecological damage is independent from the traditional environmental tort dam-age.Absent legislative prevention and remedy of ecological damage,the environmental public interests will be seriously infringed.The legal theories and relevant law practices in the European Union indicate that only the damage to the ownerless and/or non-private environmental elements,natural elements and ecological system,which directly or potentially affects the broad publics and future generationsenvironmental public interests,shall be the core substantive public interest remedied by environmental public interest litigation.

  14. Seeds and Sparks: Cultivating Children's Interest in Physics through Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica

    2006-11-01

    The National Academies' ``Rising above the Gathering Storm'' report names the improvement of K-12 science and mathematics education as its highest priority recommendation. This recommendation includes enlarging the pipeline of students preparing to study STEM subjects at university by increasing the number of students who take (and pass) advanced high school level science courses. To this end, the American Physical Society's Public Outreach department offers PhysicsQuest, a free program designed to engage middle school science students in a learning adventure. The core idea of the program is to provide a fun and exciting way for students to encounter physics, thereby eliminating some of the fear often associated with the subject and making them more likely to take high school physics courses. In the end, the students do learn some physics, but, more importantly, they have a fun experience with physics. This talk further describes the PhysicsQuest program, including feedback and results from the 2005 project, and also gives an overview of other K-12 programs offered by APS Public Outreach. The report can be read online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11463.html#toc. STEM = Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics

  15. Molecular detection assay of five Salmonella serotypes of public interest: Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Hadar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarel, M; Tudor, A; Loneragan, G H; Nightingale, K K

    2017-03-01

    Foodborne illnesses due to Salmonella represent an important public-health concern worldwide. In the United States, a majority of Salmonella infections are associated with a small number of serotypes. Furthermore, some serotypes that are overrepresented among human disease are also associated with multi-drug resistance phenotypes. Rapid detection of serotypes of public-health concern might help reduce the burden of salmonellosis cases and limit exposure to multi-drug resistant Salmonella. We developed a two-step real-time PCR-based rapid method for the identification and detection of five Salmonella serotypes that are either overrepresented in human disease or frequently associated with multi-drug resistance, including serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, Hadar, and Heidelberg. Two sets of four markers were developed to detect and differentiate the five serotypes. The first set of markers was developed as a screening step to detect the five serotypes; whereas, the second set was used to further distinguish serotypes Heidelberg, Newport and Hadar. The utilization of these markers on a two-step investigation strategy provides a diagnostic specificity of 97% for the detection of Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, Newport and Hadar. The diagnostic sensitivity of the detection makers is >96%. The availability of this two-step rapid method will facilitate specific detection of Salmonella serotypes that contribute to a significant proportion of human disease and carry antimicrobial resistance.

  16. [Environmental spread of Taenia proglottids: an atypical yet interesting public health problem in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Sapino, G; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

    2010-01-01

    We report herein a new case of teniasis caused by Taenia saginata (tapeworm) in a pediatric patient with done-on-purpose dispersion of proglottids happened in an elementary school inside the health district ASL CN-1. This new case highlights how teniasis in children is not as rare, as it is not so rare dispersal of proglottids in the environment, made on purpose, by the same subjects that have been parasitized. The environmental dispersion of proglottids is an important public health problem that requires a rapid and joint management of the problem aiming to identify the parasite as quickly as possible, given the different pathogenic larval stage of three species of tapeworm that can infest the man.

  17. Gram-positive bacterial resistant strains of interest in animal and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Pilegi Sfaciotte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Among multiresistant Gram-positive microorganisms, stands out methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS, an opportunistic pathogen associated with hospital acquired and community infections reported in medicine and large increase in reports of veterinary medicine. In veterinary medicine, numerous reports regarding several species of animals have been described. MRS is intrinsically resistant to all ?-lactam drugs. In veterinary medicine, numerous reports regarding several species of animals have been described, but Staphylococcus aureus with intermediate resistance and resistant to vancomycin (VISA/VRSA has not yet been reported in veterinary medicine, still need further study. Staphylococcus spp. are also related to antimicrobial resistance of macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB group, that has the same mechanism of action, although the drugs belong to different classes. In veterinary medicine, clindamycin (lincosamide class is widely used for skin infections, wounds, bone infections, pneumonia, infections of the oral cavity, and infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, besides being used for treatments of MRS infections. Enterococcus is another resistant Gram-positive microorganism, from which vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs are the most important strains. There are several reports of VREs in veterinary medicine due the use of a similar antimicrobial (avoparcin in livestock; therefore this group of microorganisms has now acquired great prominence since vancomycin is considered as the last resort for the treatment of MRS and Enterococcus associated with nosocomial infections in humans. The biggest problem these microorganisms and their resistance mechanisms cause is related to its huge impact on public health due to the increasing close contact between animals and humans. The objective of this review was to identify the main Gram-positive microorganisms associated with animals, describing their mechanisms of action that

  18. Navigating digital publics for playful production: A cross-case analysis of two interest-driven online communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia A. Korobkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the set of skills and strategies associated with managing digital publics online represent an emergent literacy practice of importance to literacy researchers and educators. Drawing on two case studies of online communities popular with contemporary youth to learn, play, and socialize, we articulate how youth participants strategically negotiate multiple audiences online with varying levels of publicity in order to achieve learning outcomes. In one case, players of a popular production-centered video game share their content in ways that garner the specific kind of audience and feedback they need for their projects. In another, members of an online fan fiction community analyze and negotiate expectations of their audience in order to craft media that garners attention and sustains readership. Both examples identify how skills centered on navigating and managing publics – that is, multiple audiences that are permeable across a wider public online – constitute a recognizable and important “new literacy” in digitally mediated learning environments. We situate our empirical studies in sociocultural theories of learning and historicize the work in contemporary digital cultures and the general move from the writer-reader relationship to writer-audience relationships to more complex relationships within digital publics. The article ends with considerations for literacy researchers, policymakers, and practitioners interested in technology-mediated practices of today’s youth.

  19. Public interest in climate change over the past decade and the effects of the ‘climategate’ media event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R. L.; Goldsmith, Gregory R.

    2014-05-01

    Despite overwhelming scientific consensus concerning anthropogenic climate change, many in the non-expert public perceive climate change as debated and contentious. There is concern that two recent high-profile media events—the hacking of the University of East Anglia emails and the Himalayan glacier melt rate presented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change—may have altered public opinion of climate change. While survey data is valuable for tracking public perception and opinion over time, including in response to climate-related media events, emerging methods that facilitate rapid assessment of spatial and temporal patterns in public interest and opinion could be exceptionally valuable for understanding and responding to these events’ effects. We use a novel, freely-available dataset of worldwide web search term volumes to assess temporal patterns of interest in climate change over the past ten years, with a particular focus on looking at indicators of climate change skepticism around the high-profile media events. We find that both around the world and in the US, the public searches for the issue as ‘global warming,’ rather than ‘climate change,’ and that search volumes have been declining since a 2007 peak. We observe high, but transient spikes of search terms indicating skepticism around the two media events, but find no evidence of effects lasting more than a few months. Our results indicate that while such media events are visible in the short-term, they have little effect on salience of skeptical climate search terms on longer time-scales.

  20. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  1. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E.; Hunter, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Objective: Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. Design: A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25 000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. Setting and Participants: A total of 10 246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Main Outcome Measures: Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Results: Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. Conclusions: PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It

  2. Should childhood MMR vaccination be compulsory? Rights, duties and the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheather, Julian

    2013-06-01

    When children and young people lack the capacity to make decisions about their care and treatment, decisions have to be made on their behalf based on an assessment of their welfare or interests. In law, parents, or others with the relevant parental responsibility, are ordinarily regarded as the appropriate decision-makers. One way of framing this is to say that parents have certain decision-making rights with respect to their children. Such rights, however, are not generally regarded as absolute, rather they can be seen as secondary to and limited by the duties that parents have with regard to their children, duties to promote their welfare. It is against these parental duties that children could, at least in theory if not in practice, claim a right to certain kinds of protection. The legal rights of parents here, as opposed to the rights of the children, can be thought of as rights that secure for parents the freedom from interference necessary to fulfill the underlying duty.

  3. Pharmaceutical marketing practices: balancing public health and law enforcement interests; moving beyond regulation-through-litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    Fraudulent or abusive sales and marketing practices by pharmaceutical companies can result in costly overutilization of products that are increasingly paid for by government healthcare programs and may result in adverse health and safety consequences to the patient-beneficiaries of those programs. Federal enforcement efforts in this area are largely modeled on those used to combat white-collar crime, with cases taking years to reach conclusion. This approach overlooks the impact on patients who receive unnecessary care or are denied access to appropriate care during the course of the investigation. Many states are beginning to regulate certain pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices, but state-by-state regulation ignores the importance of a uniform federal regulatory and enforcement approach in an area already occupied by federal law. This Article explores current federal and state efforts to limit overutilization, fraud, and abuse in the sale and marketing of prescription drugs, and illustrates the merits of an expanded role for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices. This approach borrows lessons learned from the FDA's efficient and effective regulatory and enforcement methods and maintains a careful balance between the interests of patient-beneficiaries, the government and industry.

  4. Physician-industry conflict of interest: public opinion regarding industry-sponsored research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles G; DiPaola, Christian P; Noonan, Vanessa K; Bailey, Christopher; Dvorak, Marcel F S

    2012-07-01

    The nature of physician-industry conflict of interest (COI) has become a source of considerable concern, but is often not discussed in the research setting. With reduced funding available from government and nonprofit sources, industry support has enthusiastically grown, but along with this comes the potential for COI that must be regulated. In this era of shared decision making in health care, society must have input into this regulation. The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of a North American population sample on COI regarding industry-funded research and to analyze population subgroups for trends. A survey was developed for face and content validity, underwent focus group evaluation for clarity and bias reduction, and was administered via the World Wide Web. Demographic and general survey results were summarized as a percentage for each answer, and subgroup analysis was done using logistic regression. Generalizability of the sample to the US population was also assessed. Of 541 surveys, 40 were excluded due to missing information, leaving 501 surveys for analysis. The sample population was composed of more females, was older, and was more educated than a representative cross-section of the American population. Respondents support multidisciplinary surgeon-industry COI regulation and trust doctors and their professional societies the most to head this effort. Respondents trust government officials and company representatives the least with respect to regulation of COI. Most respondents feel that industry-sponsored research can involve physicians and be both objective and beneficial to patients. Most respondents in this study felt that surgeons should be involved in industry-sponsored research and that more research, regardless of funding source, will ultimately benefit patients. The majority of respondents distrust government or industry to regulate COI. The development of evidence-based treatment recommendations requires the inclusion of patient

  5. An economic analysis of health plan conversions: are they in the public interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Nancy Dean

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, managed-care companies have been consolidating on both a regional and national scale. More recently, nonprofit health plans have been converting to for-profit status, and this conversion has frequently occurred as a step to facilitate merger or acquisition with a for-profit company. Some industry observers attribute these managed-care marketplace trends to an industry shakeout resulting from increased competition in the sector. At the same time, these perceived competitive pressures have led to questions about the long-run viability of nonprofit health plans. Furthermore, some industry and government leaders believe that some nonprofits are already conducting themselves like for-profit health plans and question the state premium tax exemption ordinarily accorded to such plans. This paper examines related health policy issues through the lens of a case study of the proposed conversion of the CareFirst Blue Cross Blue Shield company to a for-profit public-stock company and its merger with the Wellpoint Corporation. Company executives and board members argued that CareFirst lacked access to sufficient capital and faced serious threats to its viability as a financially healthy nonprofit health care company. They also argued that CareFirst and its beneficiaries would benefit from merger through enhanced economies of scale and product-line extensions. Critics of the proposed conversion and merger raised concerns about the adverse impacts on access to care, coverage availability, quality of care, safety-net providers, and the cost of health insurance. Analyses demonstrate that CareFirst wields substantial market power in its local market, that it is unlikely to realize cost savings through expanded economies of scale, and that access to capital concerns are largely driven by the perceived need for further expansion through merger and acquisition. Although it is impossible to predict future changes in quality of care for CareFirst, analyses suggest

  6. Negotiating public and professional interests: a rhetorical analysis of the debate concerning the regulation of midwifery in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoel, Philippa; James, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the uneasy process of integrating midwifery's alternative, women-centered model of childbirth care within the medically-dominated healthcare system in Canada. It analyses the impure processes of rhetorical identification and differentiation that characterized the debate about how to regulate midwifery in Ontario by examining a selection of submissions from diverse health care groups with vested interest in the debate's outcome. In divergent ways, these groups strategically appeal to the value of the "public interest" in order to advance professional concerns. The study considers the implications of this rhetorical process for re-defining midwifery's distinctive professional identity in relation to other health professions, to the state, and to the women for whom midwives care. Likewise, it suggests the relevance of rhetorical analysis for understanding the discursive formation and re-formation of health models, values, and professions in Western culture.

  7. Why people attend science festivals: Interests, motivations and self-reported benefits of public engagement with research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Buckley, Nicol

    2014-07-01

    As a form of public engagement, science festivals have rapidly expanded in size and number over recent years. However, as with other domains of informal public engagement that are not linked to policy outcomes, existing research .does not fully address science festivals' impacts and popularity. This study adduces evidence from surveys and focus groups to elucidate the perspectives of visitors at a large UK science festival. Results show that visitors value the opportunities afforded by the science festival to interact with scientific researchers and to encounter different types of science engagement aimed at adults, children and families. The most significant self-reported impact of attending a science festival is the development of increased interest in and curiosity about new areas of scientific knowledge within a socially stimulating and enjoyable setting.

  8. Key aspects of a Flemish system to safeguard public health interests in case of chemical release incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Roel; Colles, Ann; Cornelis, Christa; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Chovanova, Hana; Wildemeersch, Dirk; Mampaey, Maja; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Although well-established protocols are available for emergency services and first-responders in case of chemical release incidents, a well-developed system to monitor and safeguard public health was, until recently, lacking in Flanders. We therefore developed a decision support system (DSS) to aid public health officials in identifying the appropriate actions in case of incidents. Although the DSS includes human biomonitoring as one of its key instruments, it also goes well beyond this instrument alone. Also other, complementary, approaches that focus more on effect assessment using in vitro toxicity testing, indirect exposures through the food chain, and parallel means of data collection (e.g. through ecosurveillance or public consultation), are integrated in the Flemish approach. Even though the DSS is set up to provide a flexible and structured decision tree, the value of expert opinion is deemed essential to account for the many uncertainties associated with the early phases of technological incidents. When the DSS and the associated instruments will be fully operational, it will provide a valuable addition to the already available protocols, and will specifically safeguard public health interests.

  9. Participation of a non-disputing party in arbitration and protection of the public interest before an ICSID Tribunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the need to protect the legitimacy of decision-making process in investment arbitration through public access to the proceedings. Unlike commercial arbitration, investment arbitration entails decisions on state responsibility for measures directed towards protection of environment, lives and health of its population or human rights. Presence of the public interest in such disputes brings under strong criticism a traditional characteristic of arbitration process - its confidentiality. The problem of democratic deficit of decision-making can be resolved, inter alia, by allowing persons who are not parties to the dispute to participate in the proceedings if they consider that their interest might be affected by arbitral award. The 2006 Arbitration Rules of International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes envisage, subject to approval of the Tribunal, the right of a non-disputing party to file a written submission with the Tribunal regarding a factual or legal issue connected with the subject matter of the dispute. However, without right of those entities to attend arbitral hearings and, more importantly, without their access to documents submitted during the proceedings, this is not by far enough to give 'friends of the court' a meaningful and significant role.

  10. Managing Antimicrobial Resistance In Food Production : Conflicts Of Interest And Politics In The Development Of Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Williams-Jones

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern and is associated with the over- or inappropriate use of antimicrobials in both humans and agriculture. While there has been reco- gnition of this problem on the part of agricultural and public health authorities, there has none- theless been significant difficulty in translating policy recommendations into practical guidelines. In this paper, we examine the process of public health policy development in Quebec agriculture, with a focus on the case of pork production and the role of food animal veterinarians in policy making. We argue that a tendency to employ strictly techno-scientific risk analyses of antimicro- bial use ignores the fundamental social, economic and political realities of key stakeholders and so limits the applicability of policy recommendations developed by government advisory groups. In particular, we suggest that veterinarians’ personal and professional interests, and their ethi- cal norms of practice, are key factors to both the problem of and the solution to the current over-reliance on antimicrobials in food production.

  11. 对我国民事公益诉讼制度的探析%Probe into the Litigation System of the Civil Public Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何芗依; 王茜茜

    2016-01-01

    民事公益诉讼制度是我国《民事诉讼法》规定的诸多制度中的一项重要制度,民事公益诉讼制度落实的好与坏,直接关系到社会公共利益的保护。凡是侵害社会公共利益的行为都应该受到民事公益诉讼制度的规范,所以社会公共利益是否受到侵害是确定民事公益诉讼受案范围的主要条件。完善我国目前的民事公益诉讼制度,扩大民事公益诉讼的主体范围,赋予公民个人民事公益诉权,有助于对社会公共利益的保护。%The litigation system of civil public interests in China is one of the important systems by the Civil Procedural Law. Imple-mentation of this system is directly related to the protection of the public interests. Those who act against the public interests should be regulated by the litigation system of civil public interests. Thus, infringement of the social public interests is the main conditions to determine the range litigation. To protect social public interests, we should improve the current civil litigation of public interests, expand the scope of the public interest litigation, and give individual citizens the right to appeal for the civil public interests.

  12. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  13. Transcending the dilemma of "public interest"-on the meaning of the taking clause in the U.S. Constitution and its significance for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qianfan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution and recent trends in the development of the constitutional concept of "public use" in the case-law history of the United States starting from the source of US government's taking powers and the original meaning of the Taking Clause in the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution. Since the concepts of "public use" and "public interest" are extremely difficult to be defined, it is very hard for the US courts to develop a relevant operative criterion. In the United States, the safeguard of "public interest" in taking mainly lies legislative rather than judicial control.In a democratic society, legislative judgment is highly respected by the courts and the entire takeovers that conform to public use as determined by the Congress are usually deemed constitutional. In this sense, the Congress is a "public interest machine", which automatically generates laws and decisions on behalf of public interests through the democratic representative process. The paper eventually suggests that China should divert its attention from the theoretical definition of "public interest" to institutional construction, and should make the National and Local People's Congresses and their standing committees to play major roles in deciding taking and compensation schemes.

  14. 论我国公益诉讼制度的构建%On the Construction of Public Interest Litigation System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立刚; 李司杰

    2011-01-01

    Public interest litigation came from Roman law, grew up in the capitalist countries, and matured in the United States and UK. Public interest litigation has played an important role in protecting the public interest, curbing the abuse of executive power, preventing unfair competition, and protecting the disadvantaged groups. Since the implementation of China's socialist market economy, the Constitution gradually decentralized some of its rights to private interest. Then the private interest infringed can be relieved through the way of litigation, while there is no litigation to help relieve infringed public interest, which results in huge losses of public interest. Therefore, the establishment of China's public interest litigation system to maintain the inviolability of public interest and realize the constitutional rights of citizens has become an urgent matter.%公益诉讼肇始于古罗马法,发展于资本主义国家,成熟于英美等国。公益诉讼在保护公共利益,抑制行政权力滥用,防止不正当竞争,保护弱小群体等方面发挥了重要的作用。我国自实行社会主义市场经济以来,宪法逐步放权于私益,私益受到侵害可以通过诉讼方式予以救济,而公益受到侵害则无诉讼方式予以救济,造成公共利益的巨大损失。因此,建立我国的公益诉讼制度,维护公共利益不受侵犯,实现宪法规定的公民权利就成为急切之事。

  15. 公共利益的主观诉讼保护模式%Subjective Litigation Mode of Public Interest Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博

    2015-01-01

    In China,the“Administrative Procedure Law”does not provide the content of public interest litigation,so in administrative litigation practice,there forms a subjective litigation protection mode for public interest protection. That is,based on infringed personal interest,plaintiff files a lawsuit against the public interest and thus can protect public interest that related to private interest. The formation of this mode is associated with the lacking of objective litigation system design in our country and negative attitude to public interest litigation in the court. Due to lack of this kind of system,this mode can not achieve a fully and effectively protection of the public interest. Therefore, to establish objective litigation system in China is the only way to make effective protection of public interest.%由于在我国《行政诉讼法》中并未规定公益诉讼,行政诉讼的实践中对公共利益保护形成了一种主观诉讼的保护模式。即原告基于私益侵害提起诉讼进而达到维护与私益相关的公共利益的目的。这种模式的形成是与我国缺乏客观诉讼的制度设计以及法院对公益诉讼的消极审理态度分不开的。由于体系性的缺失这种模式无法实现对公共利益的全面、有效保护,建立我国的客观诉讼制度是实现公共利益有效保护的必由之路。

  16. 浅谈国有资产公益诉讼制度%On the public interest litigation of the state-owned assets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓玲

    2012-01-01

    经济公益诉讼近年来引起学者的普遍关注,面对国有资产流失的现状,我国应该在国有资产监管中引入公益诉讼制度,为国有资产提供诉讼保障。本文通过对提起国有资产公益诉讼的可行性分析,借鉴国外资产公益诉讼的发展经验并根据公益诉讼自身特性,提出在我国构建国有资产公益诉讼的初步设想。%Economic public interest litigation in recent years has caused scholars' attention.Facing the present situation of the loss of the state-owned assets,our country should introduce public interest litigation system in state-owned assets supervision.This article analyzes the feasibility of public interest litigation of the state-owned assets,draws lessons from the foreign public interest litigation experience,and puts forward an initial tentative plan of constructing public interest litigation in our country according to the own features of public interest litigation.

  17. 检察机关介入公益诉讼的法律思考%Legal thinking of Procuratorial organs' involvement in public interest litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绍杰

    2009-01-01

    The right of public interest litigation refers to the fight to make public interest litigation. The so-called public interest litigation refers to proceedings that state organs, social organizations and individual citizens, for the violation of national interests or social public interests, request the people's court to correct and crack down. And its purpose is a judicial relief measure taken to correct the public offense and protect public interest.%公益诉权是指进行公益诉讼的权力.所谓公益诉讼是指国家机关、社会团体和公民个人,对侵犯国家利益、社会公共利益的行为,请求人民法院进行纠正和制裁的诉讼活动,其目的是为了纠正公共性违法行为,保护公共利益而采取的一项司法救助措施.

  18. Public management and public relation analysis of conflicts of interest based on the new situation%基于新形势的公共管理与公共利益冲突关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢秀娟

    2015-01-01

    公共管理是一项以政府为执行主体,从事管理各项公共事务,提高为人民服务的质量,达到公共利益最大化的工作。公共管理是一个过程,公共利益是公共管理的执行结果。本文将三个方面来阐述:公共管理和公共利益的概念和本质、两者之间的冲突和联系,以了解在新形势下,如何更好的调节公共管理与公共利益的关系,实现人民利益最大化。%The government as the main body in the execution of public management, engaged in all public affairs management, improve the quality of service for the people, to maximize public interests. Is a process of public management, public interest is the result of execution of public management. This article to illustrate the three aspects: the concept and essence of public administration and public interests, the conflict between the two and contact, to learn in the new situation, how to better regulate the interests of the public management and public relations, to maximize the interests of the people.

  19. Public Opinion on Merit Pay: Self Interest vs. Symbolic Politics. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, William G.; Henderson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Merit pay initiatives transparently alter the teaching profession and goings-on within classrooms, and thereby promise to stoke the self-interests of the two most prominent stakeholders in public education: teachers and parents. This memo summarizes the authors' ongoing efforts to empirically evaluate the extent to which public debates about merit…

  20. The Definition of Public Interest from the Perspective of Constitution%宪法视阈下公共利益的界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹阳

    2016-01-01

    Public interest is an important concept in law, the definition of public interest can often reflect the needs of real system. The definition of public interest has been expressed in the text of the Constitution in many countries abroad which are relative to balance public interest and private interest, no matter they are simple or complex. The definition of the public interest in the constitution of our country is the combination of principle and generality. What we should define public interest by the comprehensive application of the constitutional interpretation technology. At the same time, it is necessary to realize that the construction of the complete path of the definition of public interest needs the mutual cooperation between the legislation, administrative law enforcement and judicature.%公共利益是法学中的重要概念,对公共利益的界定往往能反映现实制度的需要。国外诸多国家的宪法均对公共利益的界定有所表述,或繁或简,都是为了寻求公益与私益的相对平衡。我国的宪法对公共利益的界定具有原则性和概括性,应当重视综合运用宪法解释技术,系统地看待公共利益的界定。在发挥宪法根本性作用的同时,须认识到公共利益界定完整路径的建构还需要立法、行政和司法的相互配合。

  1. An Analytical Study on Public Interest and Private Interest from the Perspective of Political Philosophy%政治哲学视域中的公共利益与私人利益之辩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝阳

    2013-01-01

    The issue of interest exists throughout the human history .From the perspective of polit-ical philosophy ,this paper makes an analysis on the relationship between public interest and pri-vate interest .Firstly ,from the angle of the history of Chinese and Western political philosophy , the paper sorts out two different views about the relationship between public interest and private interest and reduces them to public interest sectional theory and private interest sectional theory . Secondly ,from the perspective of Marxist political philosopy ,the paper analyses Marxist view of interest and concludes that the relationship between them is generaity and particularity ,common-ness and individuality .%利益问题贯穿整个人类的历史发展,文章对公共利益与私人利益的关系问题作出了政治哲学的分析。首先从中西方政治哲学史的角度梳理了关于公共利益和私人利益关系上的两种不同观点,将其归纳为公共利益本位论和私人利益本位论;其次从马克思主义政治哲学视角出发,分析了马克思主义利益观,得出两者之间是一般和个别、共性和个性的关系。

  2. 当代西方社群主义的公共利益思想%A Study on the Thought of Communitarianist Public Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓颖

    2015-01-01

    在利益问题上,共同体主义以公共利益为价值取向。尽管共同体主义者对公共利益缺乏一个统一的概念,但他们所说的公共利益都指向共同体的普遍善、共同善。也正是在这个意义上,他们对公共利益优先的论证,主要基于“共同体的共识”。共同体主义者强调公共利益优先,但同时也强调“我”的利益与他人和集体的利益是一致的。总体来看,共同体主义者反对个人利益至上的个人主义,强调整体利益高于个人利益,认为个人利益就包含在整体利益之中。只不过,他们对公共利益的疾呼,并未上升到行为准则的高度。%On the issue of interests,communitarians value in the public interests.Although communitarians lack of a unified concept of public interests,but their public interests point to general goods or the common goods of com-munity.In the sense,their arguments about the priority of public interests mainly base on “community consensus”. Communitarians emphasize the priority of public interests,but also stress that “My”interests with others and col-lective is consistent.Overall,Communitarians oppose to individualism,in which the individual interests is first, and emphasize the overall interests above personal interests,and consider personal interests is included in the over-all interests.But,their claims of the public interests,does not rise to the height of the code of conduct.

  3. 公民参与对公共利益界定的价值%Values of citizen participation on the definition of public interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳君君

    2011-01-01

    The entity definition of public interest is unachievable;therefore the definition of public interest from procedure becomes a necessary choice.Defining public interest through citizen participation is in line with the requirements of modern democratic theory and practice,and it is beneficial to all parties' acceptance to the public interest,to achieve substantive rule of law,and to control the administrative discretion.In order to achieve the definition of public interests through citizen participation,it is necessary to system construction and to make a reasonable restriction.%公共利益的实体界定是难以实现的,为此从程序上对公共利益进行界定成为必要的选择。公民参与对公共利益的界定,符合现代民主理论与实践的要求,并有利于各方对公共利益的接受、实现实质法治、控制行政裁量权。为实现公民参与对公共利益的界定,有必要进行制度上的建构及作出合理的限制。

  4. The Comparative Law Thinking of Administrative Public Interest Litigation%行政公益诉讼的比较法思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢樑

    2015-01-01

    With the development of time, society continues to change. Under this background, the citizen 's con-sciousness of maintain the rights is improving, and the public interest is more attention than ever before. But in re-ality there is still damage of public interest and can't be solved, and the voice of the administrative public interest litigation has a long history. This article attempts through the perspective of comparative law analysis of administra-tive public interest litigation, to breakthrough on the plaintiff qualification and scope of accepting cases, in the hope of our country to perfect the administrative public interest litigation.%时代不断发展,社会也在不断变革,在此背景下,公民维权意识提高,较之以往对于公共利益更为关注。但现实中仍然存在公益损害求助无门之情形,行政公益诉讼的呼声由来已久。论文试图通过比较法的角度,对行政公益诉讼进行分析,在原告资格和受案范围上予以突破,以期我国行政公益诉讼之完善。

  5. 论经济法上的公共利益的识别标准%On Recognition Criteria of Public Interest in the Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗圆

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of abstractness and ambiguity of public interest make it difficult to define the concept of public interest,and scholars differ in their opinions. Therefore,it is necessary to establish the criteria for public interest recognition as it is the core of economic law. In economic law theory,the fundamental position of public interest is first ensured by distinguishing it from other related interests. Then,recognition and definition of public interest are further strengthened through the substantive standards like value judgment and categorization,and the procedure standards such as prior review and the judicial relief mechanism. Thus the legitimacy and validity of the public interests in economic law is ensured.%由于公共利益本身的模糊性和不确定性等特征,使得公共利益成为一个难以界定的概念,学者们各有分歧。但基于公共利益对于经济法的特殊性,需要对经济法上公共利益的识别标准进行探讨。在经济法理论中,需通过区别经济法上的公共利益与其他相关利益,把握公共利益在经济法中的基础地位,再从价值判断、“类型化”方式等实质标准和事前审查、事后司法救济机制等程序标准进一步加强对公共利益的识别和界定,保障经济法中公共利益的正当性与合法性。

  6. Dependability of results in conference abstracts of randomized controlled trials in ophthalmology and author financial conflicts of interest as a factor associated with full publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Ian J; Scherer, Roberta W; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Jampel, Henry D; Dickersin, Kay

    2016-04-26

    Discrepancies between information in conference abstracts and full publications describing the same randomized controlled trial have been reported. The association between author conflicts of interest and the publication of randomized controlled trials is unclear. The objective of this study was to use randomized controlled trials in ophthalmology to evaluate (1) the agreement in the reported main outcome results by comparing abstracts and corresponding publications and (2) the association between the author conflicts of interest and publication of the results presented in the abstracts. We considered abstracts describing results of randomized controlled trials presented at the 2001-2004 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology conferences as eligible for our study. Through electronic searching and by emailing abstract authors, we identified the earliest publication (journal article) containing results of each abstract's main outcome through November 2013. We categorized the discordance between the main outcome results in the abstract and its paired publication as qualitative (a difference in the direction of the estimated effect) or as quantitative. We used the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology categories for conflicts of interest: financial interest, employee of business with interest, consultant to business with interest, inventor/developer with patent, and receiving ≥ 1 gift from industry in the past year. We calculated the relative risks (RRs) of publication associated with the categories of conflicts of interest for abstracts with results that were statistically significant, not statistically significant, or not reported. We included 513 abstracts, 230 (44.8 %) of which reached publication. Among the 86 pairs with the same main outcome domain at the same time point, 47 pairs (54.7 %) had discordant results: qualitative discordance in 7 pairs and quantitative discordance in 40 pairs. Quantitative discordance was indicated

  7. The Application of the Principle of Social Public Interest in the Contract Law%社会公共利益原则的合同法适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永强

    2013-01-01

    The principle of social public interest is one set up by Chinese law itself.The social public interest stipulated in Item 4, Article 52 of the Contract Law, which can nullify a contract, shall be defined in a narrow sense.It shall be limited to the specific requirements as put forward within the law system, and distinguished from social public morality and public policies. Public interest is un-distributable, unrealistic and without a certain subject.Personal rights and public interests are different in nature.Conflicts between public interests and personal rights shall be balanced with principle theories, while personal rights shall be given initial priority.Where public interest is unobvious or uncertain, the validity of a contract shall be protected.There are four types of social public interests, namely those of basic rights protection, state-owned property protection, public security protection and legal orders protection.%  社会公共利益原则是中国法律确立的原则。《合同法》第52条第4项致合同无效的社会公共利益应采狭义说,以区别于社会公德和公共政策,仅限于法律体系内部所提出的确定要求。公共利益具有不可分配性、非现实性、主体不特定性等特征,个人权利与公共利益不具有同一性。公共利益与个人权利的冲突需要采用原则理论进行价值权衡,且个人权利具有初显优先性,在公共利益不明显或不确定时,应维护合同效力。社会公共利益存在基本权利保护型、国有资产保护型、公共安全保护型和法秩序维护型等四种类型。

  8. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-04-01

    The California Energy Commission directed the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions to analyze possible future scenarios for the California electricity system and assess transmission research and development (R&D) needs, with special emphasis on prioritizing public-interest R&D needs, using criteria developed by the Energy Commission. The scenarios analyzed in this report are not predictions, nor do they express policy preferences of the project participants or the Energy Commission. The public-interest R&D needs that are identified as a result of the analysis are one input that will be considered by the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research staff in preparing a transmission R&D plan.

  9. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  10. Effective pseudonymisation and explicit statements of public interest to ensure the benefits of sharing health data for research, quality improvement and health service management outweigh the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This journal strongly supports the sharing of data to support research and quality improvement. However, this needs to be done in a way that ensures the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, and vitally using methods which are inspire both public and professional confidences--robust pseudonymisation is needed to achieve this. The case for using routine data for research has already been well made and probably also for quality improvement; however, clearer mechanisms are needed of how we test that the public interest is served. Ensuring that the public interest is served is essential if we are to maintain patients' and public's trust, especially in the English National Health Service where the realpolitik is that patients can opt out of data sharing.

  11. The Basic Characteristics of the Confucian Outlook on Public and Private Interests%论儒家公私观的基本特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑秀丽

    2016-01-01

    The Confucian outlook on public and private interests was formed in the era of Confucius and Mencius. It has three basic features: strong moral character; long-lasting suppression of private interests and esteeming public interests; opposition of either this or that. Although in different eras public and private interests did not mean the same things, those three features remained unchanged. They determined the basic pattern and trend of outlook on public and private interests, and have deeply inlfuenced the development of Chinese culture, economy and society.%儒家公私观在孔孟荀时代已经成型,它的基本特点有三方面:一是浓厚的道义性,二是持久的崇公抑私,三是非此即彼的对立性。尽管在不同的时代“公”“私”内容不尽相同,但这三个特点始终没有改变。这些特点决定了中国公私观的基本格局和走向,对中国文化、经济及社会发展也都有很深的影响。

  12. 公立医院公益性的概念与加强策略研究%Study on the Definition and Its Enhancement Options of Public-Interests Orientation of Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷海潮

    2012-01-01

    Considering the different opinions towards the public-interests orientation of public hospitals, the author has put forward that public-interests orientation could be divided into two tiers: the natural public-interests orientation and the derivative public -interests orientation. The clarification and the definition for the terms were discussed in the paper The main problem of public hospital* existed in the derivative public-interests orientation aspect. Based upon the analysis on the issues of und reasons for the declining trend of public -interests orientation of public hospitals, six suggestions were presented on correcting and improving the public -interests orientation of public hospitals, which were controlling the overall size and scale of public hospitals, ensuring the adequate public financing, enhancing the budgeting activity and dealing with the residuals of income and expense surplus, controlling the pricing list and lowering the levels of user fees, developing the well -trained and professional hospital managers, and encouraging the philanthropy donations from the public and individuals.%文章针对公立医院公益性讨论的分歧,提出了可以将公益性划分为自然公益性和衍生公益性,并分别界定了两者的内涵.当前,公立医院的公益性问题主要是衍生公益性发挥不良.文章分析了公立医院衍生公益性存在的问题和原因,提出了6点加强建议,即:控制公立医院总规模;确保基本公共投入;加强预算和收支管理;控制收费项目和价格水平;发展职业化专业化管理队伍;鼓励公益性捐赠等.

  13. Effective pseudonymisation and explicit statements of public interest to ensure the benefits of sharing health data for research, quality improvement and health service management outweigh the risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This journal strongly supports the sharing of data to support research and quality improvement. However, this needs to be done in a way that ensures the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, and vitally using methods which are inspire both public and professional confidences – robust pseudonymisation is needed to achieve this. The case for using routine data for research has already been well made and probably also for quality improvement; however, clearer mechanisms are needed of how we test that the public interest is served. Ensuring that the public interest is served is essential if we are to maintain patients’ and public’s trust, especially in the English National Health Service where the realpolitik is that patients can opt out of data sharing.  

  14. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-5. Cumulative Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This Grouped Interest Guide is published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to provide the reader with a regularly published set of bibliographic references for recent, topical literature in designated areas. Topics included in this guide are Youth, Children of Alcoholic Parents, and Social Forces. A wide…

  15. 26 CFR 1.897-9T - Treatment of certain interest in publicly traded corporations, definition of foreign person, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such class are effected, other than in de minimis quantities, on at least 15 days during the calendar... regularly traded for any calendar quarter during which it is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers making a... dealer holds himself out to buy or sell interests in such class at the quoted price. Stock of...

  16. Public Debt, Economic Growth and the Real Interest Rate : A Panel VAR Approach to EU and OECD Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer; Ogawa, Kazuo; Tokutsu, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the causal relationship between the public debt to GDP ratio and economic growth for 31 EU and OECD countries from 1995 to 2013. A number of studies have tackled this problem, but very few make the transmission mechanism explicit in their analysis. We estimate a panel VAR model that

  17. Virtual Space Exploration: Let's Use Web-Based Computer Game Technology to Boost IYA 2009 Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.; Doronila, P.; Kulikov, A.; Lane, K.; Upchurch, P.; Howard, J.; Harvey, S.; Woodmansee, L.

    2008-09-01

    With the recent releases of both Google's "Sky" and Microsoft's "WorldWide Telescope" and the large and increasing popularity of video games, the time is now for using these tools, and those crafted at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to engage the public in astronomy like never before. This presentation will use "Cassini at Saturn Interactive Explorer " (CASSIE) to demonstrate the power of web-based video-game engine technology in providing the public a "first-person" look at space exploration. The concept of virtual space exploration is to allow the public to "see" objects in space as if they were either riding aboard or "flying" next to an ESA/NASA spacecraft. Using this technology, people are able to immediately "look" in any direction from their virtual location in space and "zoom-in" at will. Users can position themselves near Saturn's moons and observe the Cassini Spacecraft's "encounters" as they happened. Whenever real data for their "view" exists it is incorporated into the scene. Where data is missing, a high-fidelity simulation of the view is generated to fill in the scene. The observer can also change the time of observation into the past or future. Our approach is to utilize and extend the Unity 3d game development tool, currently in use by the computer gaming industry, along with JPL mission specific telemetry and instrument data to build our virtual explorer. The potential of the application of game technology for the development of educational curricula and public engagement are huge. We believe this technology can revolutionize the way the general public and the planetary science community views ESA/NASA missions and provides an educational context that is attractive to the younger generation. This technology is currently under development and application at JPL to assist our missions in viewing their data, communicating with the public and visualizing future mission plans. Real-time demonstrations of CASSIE and other applications in development

  18. DISCLOSURE OF EVIDENCE IN CARTEL LITIGATIONS IN THE EU: IS BALANCE OF VICTIMS’ RIGHTS AND PUBLIC INTERESTS POSSIBLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosunova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focus is an assessment of disclosure rules in the European Union and a perspective for implementation of the US discovery rules to improve European private enforcement. For these purposes the EU disclosure rules are compared with the US discovery rules; the influence of tension between disclosure of evidence and leniency programme on the effectiveness of protection of information is analyzed in order to propose areas for improvement and solutions to find a balance between some inconsistencies of the EU disclosure rules with interests of European plaintiffs in cartel litigations.The research method is not limited to a doctrinal approach to the EU and US legislation, but includes case law, and secondary sources. This paper does not deal with particular types of evidence and generic issues of disclosure unrelated to the cartel cases.The author contends that the American model of discovery in cartel cases cannot be transferred to the European context completely, even though disclosure of evidence in the EU is rather inefficient, and new rules are unlikely to protect consumers’ interests. In terms of consumers’ interests, protection facilitating follow-on actions looks more relevant on the EU level. Practically, the design of the US disclosure rules and priority of consumers’ rights effectively allow victims from the EU to sue in the US and obtain all necessary documents in the US proceeding. In this context convergence of the US and EU positions on disclosure of leniency materials could bring more certainty both to plaintiffs and defendants in cartel litigations.

  19. Public interest and private concern: the role of family carers for people suffering mental illness in the twenty first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret; Crowe, Jim

    2010-04-01

    This paper looks to examine the emerging role of carers as essential components in the management of individuals affected by severe mental illness in the context of modern legal and health policy environments. Cultural and legal concepts of confidentiality within the doctor-patient relationship are complex. Increasingly, evidence is recognizing the essential role of carers in the quality management of individuals affected by severe mental illness and this emphasis is being further supported by innovative health policy and legislation. A public health definition for the role of carers may be a more appropriate way to consider their role in mental health management strategies.

  20. The ethics of limiting informed debate: censorship of select medical publications in the interest of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several articles in the scholarly literature on medical ethics proclaim the need for "responsible scholarship" in the debate over the proper criteria for death, in which "responsible scholarship" is defined in terms of support for current neurological criteria for death. In a recent article, James M. DuBois is concerned that academic critiques of current death criteria create unnecessary doubt about the moral acceptability of organ donation, which may affect the public's willingness to donate. Thus he calls for a closing of the debate on current death criteria and for journal editors to publish only critiques that "substantially engage and advance the debate." We argue that such positions as DuBois' are a threat to responsible scholarship in medical ethics, especially scholarship that opposes popular stances, because it erodes academic freedom and the necessity of debate on an issue that is literally a matter of life and death, no matter what side a person defends.

  1. Balancing the interests of patient data protection and medication safety monitoring in a public-private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Nancy A; Blackburn, Stella; Hliva, Valerie; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Richardson, Jonathan; Jamry-Dziurla, Anna; Bourke, Alison; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-04-15

    Obtaining data without the intervention of a health care provider represents an opportunity to expand understanding of the safety of medications used in difficult-to-study situations, like the first trimester of pregnancy when women may not present for medical care. While it is widely agreed that personal data, and in particular medical data, needs to be protected from unauthorized use, data protection requirements for population-based studies vary substantially by country. For public-private partnerships, the complexities are enhanced. The objective of this viewpoint paper is to illustrate the challenges related to data protection based on our experiences when performing relatively straightforward direct-to-patient noninterventional research via the Internet or telephone in four European countries. Pregnant women were invited to participate via the Internet or using an automated telephone response system in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Information was sought on medications, other factors that may cause birth defects, and pregnancy outcome. Issues relating to legal controllership of data were most problematic; assuring compliance with data protection requirements took about two years. There were also inconsistencies in the willingness to accept nonwritten informed consent. Nonetheless, enrollment and data collection have been completed, and analysis is in progress. Using direct reporting from consumers to study the safety of medicinal products allows researchers to address a myriad of research questions relating to everyday clinical practice, including treatment heterogeneity in population subgroups not traditionally included in clinical trials, like pregnant women, children, and the elderly. Nonetheless, there are a variety of administrative barriers relating to data protection and informed consent, particularly within the structure of a public-private partnership.

  2. Public management mechanism for the optimization of the interests of the state and local communities in the public administration system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kostenok

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern understanding of public authority and its essential properties such as transparency, legitimacy and democracy. Local government institutions are considered as the basis of local public authorities. The author describes Ukraine as a country of “new democracy”, which is in the transitive state and, therefore, faced with the problem of underdevelopment of democratic institutions, as leaders of civic participation in governance processes. Stresses the importance of studying the institutional environment within and against the background of which is the establishment of local government practices. The author notes that the power of local government is primarily that it initiates the movement for democracy “from below.” Through it, citizens come to understand that democracy - it is personal involvement of each for society, rather than a set of formal electoral procedures. Do not forget also that the abstract democratic right to freedom realized including in particular the right to local self-government. A sense of responsibility for the common cause is usually quite changes people. Even most passive of which it gradually turns into a socially active individuals. When the number of people in the population exceeds a certain critical point, then we can talk about the presence of civil society in the country

  3. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Prosecutor's Office Role In The Process Of Ensuring Balance Between Private And Public Interests In The Conditions Of The Economic Activity Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda D. But

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the problem of prosecutor participation in the process of ensuring the balance of private and public interests during the supervision over laws on free economic activity execution. Authors noted the existence of need for the formation of the registers of subjects of small and medium business which aren't created so far. According to the authors, for more effective control over the balance of private and public interests the anti-corruption legislation of the Russian Federation, including the Federal Law of July 26, 2006 No. 135-FZ "On the competition protection" should be brought into accord with the international precepts of law and standards. Authors pay special attention to the questions of supervision, including reasons for the fact that during the supervision over the performance of laws in the conditions of the economic activity freedom in sight of prosecutors should be not dispositive, but imperative (regulatory and guarding legal norms. In the sphere of the prosecutor's law-enforcement activity in the conditions of economic activity freedom it is expedient to allocate such activity of prosecutors into the independent supervising subsector as it covers not only economic, but also other spheres of public life (state construction, social questions and many other. In the course of research authors analyze various regulations, opinions of scientists and practice of law application. In the conclusion authors explains opinion that questions listed in the present article need more accurate legislative regulation and realization in the law-enforcement practice.

  5. An Empirical Analysis on Public Prosecutors’ Roles Participating in Environmental Public Interest Litigation%检察机关参与环境公益诉讼的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪坤

    2014-01-01

    At present,the public prosecutors’ roles when participating public interest litigation are still in the “trial and error” phase on the environmental public interest litigation. When procuratorates participate in environmental public interest litigation,there are no specific procedural norms and a set of operating experience for reference. In environmental disputes,environmental authorities with a lot of information of polluting enterprises and other illegal evidences need the support of prosecuting organ which is familiar with the techniques of the proceedings and skills,the prosecuting organ also needs the environmental authorities to provide the necessary evidence. Environmental authorities and public prosecutors should collaborate and use the “steel teeth” of justice to provide a strong support for environmental enforcement. Through the empirical investigation of the main characteristics and realistic constraints of prosecuting organ in environmental public interest litigation. This article attemptes to find a way which fits our county’s reality for procuratorial organ involved in the environmental public interest litigation,thus boost the construction and improvement of ecological civilization’s justice mechanism.%当前,检察机关参与环境公益诉讼仍处于“摸着石头过河”阶段。检察机关参与环境公益诉讼具体程序性规范缺失,具体操作过程中亦缺乏一整套可供借鉴的经验。环境纠纷中,拥有污染企业众多信息以及其他违法证据的环保机关需要熟知诉讼程序与技巧的检察机关的支持,而检察机关亦离不开环保机关为其提供必要的证据与线索。两者应通力协作,以司法的“钢牙”,为环境执法提供强有力的后盾。通过实证考察检察机关参与环境公益诉讼的主要特征与现实掣肘,试图寻求契合我国实情的检察机关参与环境公益诉讼之路,从而助推生态文明建设司法机制的完善。

  6. How to Stimulate Public Interest in Science Museums%科技类博物馆展览如何激发观众参观兴趣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨溪

    2012-01-01

    Public interest plays an important role in their visiting science museums. This article proposes that science museums could use many methods to stimulate public interest more efficiently, in terms of the content and form of the exhibitions. These methods include using peculiar forms, adding interactive exhibition items, utilizing similar background knowledge of audiences and combining humanistic ideas.%兴趣在观众参观科技类博物馆的活动中起到了重要的作用,观众的参观行为在很大程度上受到兴趣的影响。本文结合举例,说明科技类博物、馆可以通过在内容和形式方面下功夫,力求形式设计上的新奇、精美,增加观众对展览的参与度,充分利用观众相似的知识背景作为展览内容为切入点。结合人文科学领域的新思想表达展览设计者的传播意图。

  7. “公益广告”多样化的语言表达技巧%Diversified language expression skills of public interest advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐远水

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a new type of advertisement which is different from the commodity advertisement in recent years.The new type of advertisement talks about the culture of the new public service ads,which expound the significance of public interest advertising.It lists a number of important advertising entries.The advertising words are listed not only classify the language expression methods,but also give a detailed description of the focus and difficulty of advertising content,style of writing.This paper also discusses the specific application of Chinese knowledge and writing skills in the public service advertis-ing.%文章介绍了近年出现的一种别于商品广告的新型广告———“讲文明树新风公益广告”,阐述了公益广告的意义。列举了许多很有意义的重要广告条目,将所列举的广告词从语言表达方法上作了分类,并就广告的内容、写法两方面的重点、难点作了较为详细的说明,论述了有关汉语知识和写作技巧在公益广告中的具体运用。

  8. On moral duty of public interest object in civil society boundary%公民社会界域中公益客体的道德义务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韧韧

    2015-01-01

    During the process of building moderately prosperous society,we should not only ana‐lyze the moral rights of social vulnerable group,but also study their moral duties in order to deal with the problems scientifically and reasonably.Through analyzing civil society and its spiritual essence,as well as moral rights and duties in public interest ethics,this paper puts forward that as main object of public interest in civil society boundary,social vulnerable group should under‐take basic moral duties such as being honest while accepting donations,and taking part in social and political activities responsibly after accepting donations.%在全面建成小康社会的进程中,为了科学合理地协调处理社会弱势群体问题,在分析其应该享有道德权利的同时,需要研究其应该承担的道德义务。通过对公民社会及其精神内核以及公益伦理道德权利与道德义务的分析,提出在公民社会界域中公益行为主要客体即社会弱势群体,该群体应该承担接受捐助时诚信的义务,以及接受援助后负责任地参与社会政治活动等基本道德义务。

  9. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D.

  10. Legitimacy of Public Interest as the Object of Litigation and Litigation Act%“公共利益”作为诉讼标的之正当性及其诉讼担当

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙午生

    2014-01-01

    Article 55 of Civil Procedure Law in 2013 provides the matter in public interest litigation. However, from the perspective of the object of litigation, the public interest is taken as a repressor of the legitimacy of the public interest litigation. Then under the premise that the right not the interest can start proceedings, only that the public interest is depicted as rights is the fundamental way. After proving the object matter of the public interest litigation, the litigation act can be the best theoretical basis for prosecution involved in the public in-terest litigation, however, the prosecution only undertakes the rights in form of public interest, and substantive rights still belong to the real obligee.%2013年《民事诉讼事法》第55条规定了公益诉讼,可是,从诉讼标的的角度,“公共利益”在实体法中的阙如成为公益诉讼正当性的一种阻遏,那么,在以权利而非利益方可启动诉讼的前提下,只有对“公共利益”进行权利化描述才是根本出路。在求证出公益诉讼的诉讼标的之后,诉讼担当是成为检察机关介入公益诉讼的最佳理论依据,但是,检察机关承接的只能是公益诉讼形式上的权利,而实体权利仍归真正权利人。

  11. The Burden of Corporation Environmental Liability and Public Interest%公司环境责任担当与公益诉讼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵万一; 朱明月

    2011-01-01

    日益严峻的环境污染、资源浪费问题是主张公司承担环境保护责任的现实依据。通过康菲事件,不难发现.传统的以保护公民人身权和财产权为宗旨的私益诉讼,只是使得污染公司承担了一部分外部性,这样不利于遏制其污染环境的行为。在对《公司法》第五条作扩大性解释的基础上,引进环境公益诉讼制度,可以使公司对环境造成的外部性内化,使其经济活动的私人成本等于社会成本,从而更好地督促公司履行环境责任。%The realistic basis of the corporate environmental responsibility is the increasingly serious environmental pollution and the resource-wasting problem. Through ConocoPhilips' events, we can find that the private interest litigation which protects the traditional protection of citizens' personal rights and property rights assumes the company a portion of an external pollution. So it is not conducive to curb the pollution behavior. The fifth article of the company law has been given an extended explanation and public interest litigation system has been introduced, which make the company environmental responsibility external, the private and the social cost of the economic activities equal to supervise the corporate environmental responsibility.

  12. Ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030: Scientific Developments from the 2016 INTEREST Conference in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine A; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Kilmarx, Peter; Ferrari, Guido; Schechter, Mauro; Kane, Coumba Touré; Venter, François; Boucher, Charles Ab; Ross, Anna-Laura; Zewdie, Debrework; Eholié, Serge Paul; Katabira, Elly

    2017-01-01

    The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations. Spirited plenary debates on the UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment cascade goal and on antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis took place. Joep Lange career guidance sessions and grantspersonship sessions attracted early career researchers. At the closing ceremony, the Yaoundé Declaration called on African governments; UNAIDS; development, bilateral, and multilateral partners; and civil society to adopt urgent and sustained approaches to end HIV by 2030.

  13. The Dilemma and Breakthrough of Plaintiff System of Environmental Public Interest Litigation%环境公益诉讼原告制度的困境及突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力增

    2016-01-01

    最高人民法院颁布的《关于审理环境民事公益诉讼案件适用法律若干问题的解释》,将环境公益诉讼的原告限定为社会组织和民政部门,实质是确立了环境公益诉讼单一原告制度。环境公益诉讼自身具有复杂性和专业性的特点,单一的原告很难有效实现环境公益诉讼的立法初衷。反思环境诉讼单一原告制度,建立环境公益诉讼联合原告机制,是未来环境公益诉讼制度的发展方向。%In the Interpretation of several Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Civil Public Interest Litigation promulgated by the Supreme People's Court, the plaintiff of environmental public interest litigation is limited to the social organization and civil administration department, so the essence is to establish a single plaintiff system of environmental public interest litigation. Environmental public interest litigation it-self has the characteristics of complexity and professionalism, it is difficult for a single plaintiff to effectively realize the legislative intention of environmental public interest litigation. Based on reflecting the single plain-tiff system of environmental litigation, the establishment of the joint plaintiff mechanism of environmental public interest litigation is the development direction of the future environmental public interest litigation sys-tem.

  14. Definition on Consumption Public Interest Litigation and It’s Actionable Range%论消费公益诉讼的界定及其可诉范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仕兵

    2016-01-01

    Consumption public interest litigation has a very important significance to protect the interests of consumers and safeguard the public interest of the consumer sector.However,there are still a lot of misunderstandings on the definition of consumption public interest litigation.In defining the consumption public interest litigation,we should pay attention to the difference between the private interests and consumption public interest litigation.The article 47 of The Consumer Protection Law is not a basis of judgment of consumption public interest litigation by consumer association.When we definite the actiona-ble range of consumption of public interest litigation,the problems of monopoly,environment and public service cannot be brought into the actionable range of consumption public interest litigation.%消费公益诉讼对于保护消费者权益,维护消费领域的公共利益有着极为重要的意义。但在消费公益诉讼的界定问题上还存在着诸多误区。在界定消费公益诉讼时,应注意其与私益诉讼的区别及其本身所具有的特征,即消费公益诉讼保护对象的公益性、保护不特定利益主体的权益、受益人的非特定性和胜诉结果的不可分性。《消费者权益保护法》第47条的规定,并不能作为消费者协会提起消费公益诉讼的判断依据。在确定消费公益诉讼的可诉范围时,垄断问题、环境问题和公共服务问题不应纳入消费公益诉讼的范围。

  15. Related Issues on the Participation of Procuratorial Organs in Civil Public Interest Litigation%检察机关参与民事公益诉讼相关问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓旭

    2012-01-01

    It has been the consensus both in academic and practical circles that we should construct a civil public interest litigation system in China, and the public all appeal that the procuratorial organs should be involved in the civil public interest litigation. The article studies the means and relevant procedural issues of the participation of procuratorial organs in civil public interest litigation, hoping to benefit the construction of our civil public interest litigation system.%我国需要构建民事公益诉讼制度已经成为学术界和实务界的共识,公众对检察机关参与民事公益诉讼的呼声也颇高。文章对检察机关参与民事公益诉讼的方式及相关程序性问题进行探讨,以期对我国民事公益诉讼制度的构建有所裨益。

  16. Message framing in the context of the national menu-labelling policy: a comparison of public health and private industry interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Colgrove, James; Lee, Grace; Truong, Michelle; Wingood, Gina M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a content analysis of public comments to understand the key framing approaches used by private industry v. public health sector, with the goal of informing future public health messaging, framing and advocacy in the context of policy making. Comments to the proposed menu-labelling policy were extracted from Regulations.gov and analysed. A framing matrix was used to organize and code key devices and themes. Documents were analysed using content analysis with Dedoose software. Recent national nutrition-labelling regulations in the USA provide a timely opportunity to understand message framing in relation to obesity prevention and policy. We examined a total of ninety-seven documents submitted on behalf of organizations (private industry, n 64; public health, n 33). Public health focused on positive health consequences of the policy, used a social justice frame and supported its arguments with academic data. Industry was more critical of the policy; it used a market justice frame that emphasized minimal regulation, depicted its members as small, family-run businesses, and illustrated points with humanizing examples. Public health framing should counter and consider engaging directly with non-health-related arguments made by industry. Public health should include more powerful framing devices to convey their messages, including metaphors and humanizing examples.

  17. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  18. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  19. 环境公益诉讼制度的立法现状及其新课题%Legislative Updates and New Challenges of Environmental Public Interest Litigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟根巴根

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of the environmental public interest litigation system is based on the situation of worsening environmental pollution and urgent need for environmental protection for the public. Presently, the ongoing action of environmental public interest litigation and related local regu⁃lations are leading to the establishment of litigation at state level and creation of the environmental public interest litigation system. The environmental public interest litigation system is a new litigation system. However, the unique issues of our country such as social value orientation, consciousness of civil right, legal thought, and judicial remedies lead to the incomplete environmental public interest litigation. The consequence is limitation to the prosecutors, over harsh prosecution condition, limited type of litigation, and unclear related functions.%环境公益诉讼是在环境污染和生态破坏日趋严重的形势下,为保护环境公共利益的迫切需要而产生的。当下,在全国范围内发生的环境公益诉讼司法实践及某些地方制定的规范性文件牵动着国家层面的立法,并导致环境公益诉讼制度的诞生。然而,由于我国的社会价值取向、公民权利意识、法律思想、司法救济手段等诸多因素影响,使得环境公益诉讼立法不完整、不彻底,存在起诉主体受限、起诉条件过严、诉讼类型单一、相关机制的衔接不明等先天不足,让它面临新的挑战。

  20. 环境公益诉讼的原告模式及司法成本分析%Analysis of plaintiff mode of environmental public interest litigation and judicial cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娜

    2012-01-01

    To date, China has accumulated more than 10 cases of environmental public interest litigation cases. These cases are both a breakthrough of the concept of dynamic justice to the parties in civil litigation sys- tem and providing a number of plaintiff modes of public interest litigation. Com- pare with judicial costs of different modes, can easily find the joint plaintiff mode of procuratorial organs supplemented by gov- ernment departments and environmental or- ganizations is the easiest to reduce the legal costs and decentralize the litigation risk, and the best for the sustainable development of environmental public interest litigation.%迄今为止,我国已累计出现10余例环境公益诉讼案件。这些案例既是“能动司法”理念对民事诉讼当事人制度的突破,也提供了公益诉讼的若干原告模式。比较不同模式的司法成本。不难发现,以检察机关为主,以政府职能部门和环保组织为辅的联合原告模式,最易于降低司法成本和分散诉讼风险,对我国环境公益诉讼的可持续发展最为有利。

  1. Interest Organizations across Economic Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta

    2015-01-01

    on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting the number of potential constituents, the resources available for lobbying and the geographical level....... The European Union interest system is (partially) shaped by economic factors, relatively independent from public policy or institutions.......The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union...

  2. The production of critical theories in Health Systems Research and Education. An epistemological approach to emancipating public research and education from private interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Unger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering alternative methodological perspectives in health systems research, to produce critical, theoretical knowledge in domains such as health policy and management of health care, organization of disease control, political economy of health and medical practice.We first examined the reasons to believe that worldwide economic agents have driven publicly funded schools of public health to adopt their preferred policies and to orient their priority research topics. We then studied whether this hidden leadership has also contributed to shape research methodologies, which we contrasted with the epistemological consequences of a quest for intellectual independence, that is, the researcher’s quest to critically understand the state of health systems and generalize results of related action-research. To do so, we applied concepts of what could be named the ‘French School of Critical Sociology’ to qualitative research methodologies in descriptive health systems research. To do so, we applied concepts of what could be named the ‘French School of Critical Sociology’ to qualitative research methodologies in descriptive health systems research.

  3. 公益法律服务体系构建%The Establishment of a Legal Service System for Public Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超莹; 蔡俊敏

    2009-01-01

    在《现代汉语词典》中,“公益”被解释为“公共的利益(多指卫生、救济等群众福利事业)”;与此相对应,在英文中有“public benefit”(公共利益或公共收益)和“commonweal”和“public welfare”(公共福利)等概念。“公共利益”是我国法律中出现频率最高的术语,作为法律保留条款或说是法律限制条款,其本质是对个人和部分利益的限制,对全民或整体利益的维护和偏袒,但是其概念并未得到明确界定。

  4. 完善我国环境公益诉讼制度的思考%Thought of the Improvement in China′s Environmental Public Interests Litigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曦; 章楚加

    2016-01-01

    With the increasingly severer environmental problems, the government plays a more and more important role in the field of environmental supervision. Environmental Protection Law of the People′s Republic of China ( 2014 Revision) has explicitly stipulated that the local governments at all levels shall be responsible for the environmental quality within their respective administrative regions. But Article 58 in the law has not set up corresponding external supervision system on circumstances of governments indolent in carrying out environmental supervision duties, which objectively leads to the unbalanced development of environmental public interest litigation practice. Reference are learned from the environmental public interest litigation legislation and juridical practice in western countries, of which the major is the environmental administrative public litigation instituted by the civil and environmental groups that filed adminis⁃trative lawsuits. So as to prove that the key to consummate Chinese environmental public interest litigation system should be the con⁃struction of the environmental administrative public interest litigation system, in order to regulate the phenomenon of government failure in the environmental protection field and classify the relationship between the administrative power and judicial power in the field of public affairs.%随着环境形势的日益严峻,政府在环境监管中的作用愈发重要。我国2014年修订的《环境保护法》明确规定各级地方政府对本行政区域的环境质量负责,但该法对地方政府怠于履行环境监管职责的情形没有设计相应的外部监督制度,客观上造成环境公益诉讼实践发展不平衡。借鉴欧美国家主要由公民或环保团体针对政府的环境违法行为提起行政公益诉讼的环境公益诉讼立法例和司法实践,完善我国环境公益诉讼制度的关键是构建环境行政公益诉讼制度,以规制环境保

  5. Managing conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Robert M; Akins, Cary W; Weisel, Richard D

    2015-04-01

    The more extensive conflict of interest information will permit reviewers and editors to ensure the accuracy, balance,and lack of bias of papers accepted for publication.Therefore, a brief conflict statement will be published on the cover page and a more extensive description will be published at the end of the paper to allow concerned readers to make their own judgments about the quality of the information reported.

  6. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver......Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  7. The link between thyroid autoimmunity (antithyroid peroxidase autoantibodies with anxiety and mood disorders in the community: a field of interest for public health in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardu Claudia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between mood and anxiety disorders and thyroid autoimmunity in a community sample. Methods: A community based sample of 222 subjects was examined. Psychiatric diagnoses were formulated using the International Composite Diagnostic Interview Simplified (CIDIS, according to DSM-IV criteria. All subjects underwent a complete thyroid evaluation including physical examination, thyroid echography and measure of serum free T4 (FT4, free T3 (FT3, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO. Results 16.6% of the overall sample had an anti-TPO value above the normal cut-off. Subjects with at least one diagnosis of anxiety disorders (OR = 4.2, C.L. 95% 1.9–38.8 or mood disorders (OR = 2.9, Cl 95% 1.4–6.6, P Conclusions The study seems to suggest that individuals in the community with thyroid autoimmunity may be at high risk for mood and anxiety disorders. The psychiatric disorders and the autoimmune reaction seem to be rooted in a same (and not easy correctable aberrancy in the immuno-endocrine system. Should our results be confirmed, the findings may be of great interest for future preventive and case finding projects.

  8. The Difficulties and Countermeasures of Environmental Public Interests Litigation System in the New Environmental Protection Law%新环保法中环境公益诉讼制度的难点与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐孝辉

    2015-01-01

    The civil procedural law (amendment) in 2012 stipulated environmental public interests litigation system, but the legal provision was simple and lack of maneuver ability. Although the new environmental protection law and relevant judicial interpretation have made great progress, still there are powerless on juridical practice about environmental pollution and ecological damage, which mainly include the main plaintiff being limited, territorial jurisdiction resulting in regional protection, the scope of accepting cases being too narrow etc. Defining procurator and the environmental protection department of the plaintiff qualification, giving citizens and enterprises of the plaintiff qualification, relaxing the plaintiff qualifications of social organization, establishing environmental circuit court, expanding actionable range of environmental public interests litigation, committing case-filing register system of environmental public interests litigation can crack the difficulties of environmental public interests litigation.%2012年民事诉讼法(修正案)最初规定了环境公益诉讼制度,但法律规定简单且缺乏可操作性.新环保法及相关司法解释虽有很大进步,却在环境污染和生态破坏司法实践方面仍显得力不从心,主要表现在原告主体资格受限、地域管辖严格导致地方保护、受案范围过窄等方面. 通过明确检察机关和环保部门原告资格、赋予公民和企业原告资格、放宽社会组织的原告资格条件、设立环境巡回法庭、扩大环境公益诉讼的可诉范围、落实环境公益诉讼立案登记制等措施可以破解环境公益诉讼制度的难点.

  9. On the Protection of Police's Rights and Interests under the Reform of Public Security%论全面深化公安改革背景下的警察权益保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘辉

    2016-01-01

    The development of the times which promotes the reform of public security continues to move forward. To reform is to adapt the time request, the social needs, in order to improve the quality and ability of public security team, and maintain social stability and society development; on the other hand, it inherently contains the augment and improvement of the protection of the rights and interests of the police. The protection of the rights and interests of the police is the proper meaning of public security work, and to deepen the reform of public security therefore provides a rare opportunity. So it should improve relevant laws and regulations, establish the special protection institutions and mechanisms, accelerate the construction of police professionalism, improve police public relations, improve team overall quality and upgrade police equipment and other aspects of the police to protect the rights and interests and to improve the combat effectiveness of the police force.%时代的发展推动着公安改革不断向前发展.改革一方面是为了适应时代的要求、社会的需要,为了提高公安队伍的素质能力,更好地维护社会稳定,服务社会发展;另一方面,它又包含了对警察权益保护的加强和完善.警察权益保护是公安工作的应有之义,全面深化公安改革为此提供了难得的契机,应该从完善有关法律法规、建立专门保护机构和机制、加快警察专业化建设、改善警察公共关系、提高队伍整体素质以及升级警用装备等方面来着手保护警察权益,以提高公安队伍的战斗力.

  10. 从“崇公抑私”到“尚公重私”——儒家公私观的现代转化%From "Respecting Public and Restraining Private Interest" to "Respecting Public and Private Interest" : Modern Transformation of the Confucian View on Public and Private Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正平

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Confucian culture put forward the idea of "respecting public and restraining private interest" from the political dimension of "the whole world as one community", the interest-based dimension of "justice" and the moral dimension of "the public good and private evil". In the "selfless" sense of moral and political philosophy, "respecting public and restraining private interest" constitutes the mainstream of traditional Chinese Confucian culture. However, the Confucian tradition of "respecting public and restraining private interest" has obvious limitations. With the changes in time and space and in modem social transition period, we must pay attention to the rationality and legitimacy of "private interest", in order to build a civil society; and the traditional Confucian public-private values need to be converted to "respecting public and private interest" to adapt to the development of a harmonious society.%儒家传统文化从"天下为公"的政治维度、"重义轻利"的利益维度和"公善私恶"的道德维度提出了"崇公抑私"的思想,在道德意识和政治理念上要求人们"大公无私",使得"崇公抑私"构成了中国儒家传统文化的主流。然而,儒家传统的"崇公抑私"的公私观具有明显的时代局限性:为封建统治阶层服务的"天下为公"导致"天下为私";抑制个人私欲的"以公灭私"导致"假公济私";将公私等同善恶的"公私对立"导致"公私两无"。在时空变迁和语境置换之下,现代社会转型时期必须重视"私"的合理性与正当性,为了构建公民社会,儒家传统的公私观需要转化为"尚公重私",以适应社会和谐发展的需要。

  11. 我国廉政公益广告的传播现状和传播策略研究%On China’s Anti-corruption and Public-interest Advertisings and their Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪

    2013-01-01

    随着经济的发展,廉政公益广告也越来越多的走进人们的视线,而其传播效果却一直不尽如人意。分析了廉政公益广告的传播现状和存在的问题,究其根源,在于广告本身对于受众定位不够清晰。在对广告目标受众、广告创意策略等方面进行分析的基础上,结合对香港、日本等地的优秀廉政公益广告案例的研究析,提出了我国廉政公益广告的传播策略。%With the development of economy,anti-corruption and public-interest advertisings are increas-ingly familiar to the audience,but their effects are not satisfactory.The paper makes an analysis of the ad-vertisings and their problems and suggests that their failure is related to the absence of the audience posi-tioning.Upon analysis of the target audience and advertising innovation,the paper studies the successful advertising cases in Japan and Hong Kong and proposes the strategies for good anti-corruption and public-interest advertisings.

  12. Establishment of Rights Protection Image and Public Space of Rights and Interests of New Generation of Migrant Workers%新生代农民工维权形象与权益公共空间的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保庆

    2014-01-01

    新生代农民工权益受侵正由“显”到“隐”,维权形象和能力不容乐观,其维权方式的失效同城乡移动所带来的“权益共同体”的中断密切相关。乡民在乡村受到乡村“权益共同体”的保护,走入城市意味着乡村“权益共同体”的失效,而城市又没有为其提供相应的维权方式对接,从而造成维权效果低下。以互联网为平台,以地方性权益空间建设为基础,以国家法律法规等体制为依据,以新生代农民工人大代表和权益领袖为主体,通过“事件化”社会舆论监督机制建设社会诚信空间,最终构建新生代农民工权益公共空间。%The rights and interests of new generation of migrant workers have been infringed from the“obvious” to the “hidden”, and their rights image and ability are not optimistic. The failure of the rights protection is closely related to the interrupt of the “rights and interests community” formed by urban and rural migration. Villagers are protected by the “rights and interests community” in their rural villages, but when they move to the city, the rural “rights and interests community” has lost its effect while the city has no way to provide the appropriate rights for them, resulting in the low effect of the rights protection. By taking the Internet as a platform and the construction of local public space as the base, national laws and regulations as the basis, worker representatives and leaders of new generation of migrant workers as the main body and by building social credit space through the “events”-based social media supervision, the construction of public space of rights and interests of new generation of the migrant workers can be estab-lished eventually.

  13. Which Measures Count for the Public Interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The "measure" of this article is a bit different from most--there are almost as many words in the notes as in the body of the text. Notes are a significant part of my writing, both in terms of recognizing the connections and complexities among issues, trying to capture the richness of interdisciplinary teaching, and in terms of…

  14. Mexico's 2014 Public Interest Design Award

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, Francesca; Pennacchio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Design students in Mexico City and Turin, Italy paired up with an NGO in Oaxaca to help a local cooperative build a center for technological innovation. The experimental center is a space to explore low-tech and low-cost innovative technologies, which will lead to a stronger local economy in the future. The built project was designed to incorporate local construction culture and improve thermal properties with local materials, resulting in the use of traditional tejamanil wood shingles and ra...

  15. Analysis on the Relationship between New Generation Migrant Workers' Non - institutionalized Interest Expression and City Public Safety%新生代农民工非制度化利益表达与城市公共安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志胜

    2014-01-01

    在成功案例示范与鼓励下,部分新生代农民工在自身合法权益受损后往往选择非制度化的利益表达方式,从而给城市经济发展、社会安全以及民主法治进程带来诸多负面影响。新生代农民工之所以采取非制度化方式表达其利益诉求主要源于制度化渠道的“形宽实窄”以及现行城市管理存在的“制度歧视”。唯有采取针对性的举措,我们才有可能减少该类表达行为的发生,从而提升城市公共安全水平。%With encouragement from the successful experience,some new generation migrant workers often choose the non - institutionalized interest expression when their rights and interests damaged. Theier behaviors likely to influence the city's economic development,social security,and the rule of law process. For the non - institutionalized interest expression originate from silting and inefficient of the formal expression channel,but also the flaws of city management. So,only we take corresponding measures,can we reduce the incidence of non - institutionalized interest expression behavior,improve the ur-ban public safety.

  16. 论我国行政公益诉讼的外部因素、制度缺陷与路径选择%On External Factors,Systematical Defects and Path Choice of Public Interest Litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    念富强

    2014-01-01

    The dilemma in establishing the system of administrative public interest litigation is caused both by external factors and systematical defects.The external causes such as unwillingness,fear, unawareness and lack of techniques to litigate have existed for long and are quite complicated,and cannot be solved in one try.It needs a gradual and orderly process,relies on social and economic pros-perity,enhancement of social democratic awareness,improvement of ideas about litigation,and per-fection,development and gradual realization of litigation aid theories.The system of legal rights oper-ation can be realized through top level design of national public rights.In terms of paths,we should stick to"the principle of public rights being defined by public rights".By reforming the present j udi-cial system or reconstruct independent j udicial system,we can realize the independence,balance and healthy interaction of j udicial operation,and prevent the interference from administrative rights.On the other hand,this should be based on"fundamental legal spirits of people's rights",granted people or social organizations rights to litigate against the damage.This is a specific example of"the principle of public rights being defined by private rights",and a legal path and guarantee of people'supervision of governments.As for lack and defects of legal action system as a public product,such as damage caused by administration being unable to sue,severe restriction of plaintiff qualifications,difficulties in evidence provision,huge burden of litigation,we can still do something under the present circum-stances.The suggestion is to revise Administrative Procedure Law.This can be constructed and per-fected through expansion of filing of administrative procedure,addition of types of plaintiff qualifica-tions,scientific division of evidence provision,establishment of fund for public interest litigation,re-duction and deferred payment of litigation fee.%建立我国行政公益诉讼制度

  17. Exploration on public interest maintenance issues in BOT project entire life cycle%BOT 项目全寿命期内公共利益维护问题的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马继东; 吴俊洋

    2016-01-01

    简述了 BOT 模式的含义与特点,从项目准备、招投标、合同签订、项目建设、经营、移交等阶段,探讨了 BOT 项目全寿命周期内公共利益的维护措施,有利于实现社会福利最大化的目标。%This PaPer briefly described the meanings and characteristics of BOT mode,from the PreParation,Project bidding,contract signing, Project construction,oPeration,transition and other stage,discussed the maintenance measures of Public interest BOT Project entire life cycle,to achieve the goal of maximizing social welfare.

  18. PlR.org域名注册数达到1000万——Public Interest Registry的.org域名注册数达到1000万

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    弗吉尼亚州雷斯顿2012年7月12日电/美通社亚洲/一运营.ORG域名的非营利性企业Public Interest Registry(PIR)获得了第1000万个ORG注册域名JADFORUM.ORG,取得重要的里程碑式成果。该域名由The Jordan Riverand Dead Sea Basin Forum(简称JAD)注册于2012年6月24日,地址为GoDaddy。JAD致力于推动以色列、约旦和巴勒斯坦权力机构共有的约旦河流域与死海盆地的可持续和区域发展。

  19. Current Predicament of Participation in Environmental Civil Public Interest Litigation and Its Improvement Ways%ENGO参与环境民事公益诉讼的现实困境及完善径路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昌彪

    2016-01-01

    Currently, ENGO participation in environmental civil public interest litigation is still at the conceptual level, and its de-sign intention remains yet to be achieved. ENGO is mainly faced with such internal difficulties as severe governmental intervention, its own imperfect organizational structure and lack of funding, and such external difficulties as high litigation costs, and evidentiary difficulties. Its internal difficulties can be solved by restoring ENGO’ s independence as a third sector, improving its corporate gov-ernance structure and strengthening the non-profit business activities to increase its own funds, etc.;its external difficulties can be settled by adjusting litigation fee payment rules, establishing the plaintiff’ s incentive system and improving the inversion of burden of proof system. All this contributes to realizing the purpose of public interest to protect the environment.%目前ENGO参与环境民事公益诉讼仍停留在理念层面,并未实现其制度设计初衷。 ENGO主要面临政府行政干预严重、组织机构不完善、自身经费匮乏的内部困境,以及诉讼成本高、举证困难等外部困境。通过恢复ENGO第三部门独立地位、完善其法人治理结构、强化非牟利型经营活动以增加ENGO自身经费等手段摆脱内部困境;通过调整诉讼费缴纳规则、建立原告胜诉奖励制度、完善举证责任倒置分配制度解决ENGO所面临的外部困境,实现保护环境公益的目的。

  20. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  1. 行政诉讼原告资格问题研究——以主观公权利、法律上利益与反射利益作为视角的考察%The Research on Plaintiff Qualifications in Administrative Proceedings ——From the Perspective of the Difference between Subjective Public Rights,Legal Interests and Reflective Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉然

    2012-01-01

    行政诉讼中原告资格的认定标准及发展走势与主观公权利、法律上利益和反射利益理论密切相关,司法实践中也以是否为主观公权利、反射利益作为认定原告资格的标尺。通过比较主观公权利、法律上利益与反射利益的区别,探求行政法保障公民权利及公民寻求权利救济之法理,可为我国当代行政诉讼原告资格的认定、发展脉络及立法的建构提供比较性检视。%Administrative litigation plaintiff qualification standard and its development trend are closely related with the theory of subjective public rights,legal interests and reflective interest.In judicial practice,subjective public rights and reflective interest have also been used for ruling the plaintiff qualification.By comparing the difference between the subjective public rights,legal interests and reflective interests,we want to discover the reason of citizens' seeking rights and how to protect citizens' rights through administrative law,and provide a comparative view for the administration litigation plaintiff qualification.

  2. "非公益必要不干扰"原则热的冷思考%Rational Considerations on the Boom of the Principle of Non-public Interest Need not Interfere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杰

    2015-01-01

    最近引发热议的"非公益必要不干扰"原则,来源于百度诉奇虎360不正当竞争纠纷一案的判决,由北京高院石必胜法官提出.2015年2月,最高院驳回了奇虎360的再审请求,并认可了"非公益必要不干扰"原则.而学界对于该原则仍提出了反对意见.从互联网行业中竞争的现状出发,分析该领域中出现的各种不正当竞争行为以及法院审理过程中遇到的困境,并探讨近些年互联网领域中不正当竞争行为的发展态势.根据整理的规制互联网领域不正当竞争的规章以及行业自律公约,讨论由《反不正当竞争法》第2条衍生出来的"非公益必要不干扰"原则,明晰公共利益和竞争秩序原则多发的原因,希冀能够实现互联网领域竞争的良性和可持续发展.%The hot Principle of Non-Public Interest Need not Interfere is proposed by the Judge Shibisheng in Beijing High Court from Baidu V. Qihu 360 unfair competition dispute case. In February 2015, The Supreme Court dismissed 360's retrial requirement, and approved the principle. But some scholars raised ob-jections for the principle. Based on the current situation and dilemma in the competition of the internet, the author analyses several kinds of the unfair competition and the dilemma in trial process, and discusses the trend of unfair competition in the field of internet. According to the regulation of the unfair competition and self-discipline convention in the field of internet, the principle derived from Article 2 in Anti-unfair Competi-tion Law is discussed. Finally, the author tries to clarify the public interest and the reason why principle of competition order appears more in the competition, and hopes to realize the sustainable and benign develop-ment.

  3. Study on Positioning of China' s Energy Network Utilities as State-Owned Enterprises of Public Interest%我国能源网络产业国有企业公益性质的定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周原冰; 张小军; 高国伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the latest progress of the reform of state-owned enterprises (SOE) and the related literatures at home and abroad, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of the connotation and extension of the State-Owned Enterprise of Public Interest and it systematically summarizes the experience of the developed nation's management of the state-owned assets in terms of classified regulation, contract-signing of the public service, corporate governance standard and business operation. On this basis, the paper identifies the idea and logic of reform of China' s SOEs, analyzes the influences on the energy network company in performance assessment, coordinated regulation by government organs, future governance pattern of state-owned assets and development of the unregulated businesses of companies.%结合国有企业改革最新进展及国内外相关文献,深入分析了“具有公益性质国有企业”定位的内涵及外延,系统总结了发达国家对国有资产在分类监管、公共服务合同签订、公司治理要求、公司运营等方面的管理经验,厘清了新定位下我国国有企业的改革思路,并从绩效考核、政府机构协调监管、未来国资管理模式、企业非管制性业务发展4个方面分析了其对能源网络公用事业企业的影响。

  4. 论我国行政公益诉讼制度的完善——以福建漳州PX项目爆炸事件为例%The Analysis of the Problems and Countermeasures of Establishing Administrative Public Interest Litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭翔

    2015-01-01

    The conditions of the establishment of the administrative public interest litigation system are becoming more mature, estab-lishing of the administrative public interest litigation system becomes a hot topic in the field of environmental law and administrative law. On the one hand, it has the characteristics and functions which are different from general administrative litigation, On the other hand, the establishment and development of the administrative public interest are directly related to the judicial maintenance of public interest. This paper takes the popular event Zhangzhou,Fujian PX project explosion accident lead to the administrative public interest litigation system. The meaning and significance of administrative public interest litigation are introduced. And introducing some problems in the establish-ment of the administrative public interest litigation system. Finally, putting forward the corresponding solution to these problems.%构建行政公益诉讼制度的条件日趋成熟,行政公益诉讼制度作为环境法和行政法领域当前共同关注的一个热门话题.一方面它有着不同于一般的行政诉讼的特征和作用,另一方面它的建立与发展直接关系着公共利益的司法维护. 文章以大众关注的热门事件福建漳州PX项目爆炸事件引出行政公益诉讼制度,介绍了行政公益诉讼的涵义和意义以及建立行政公益诉讼制度尚存在的一些问题,进而针对这些问题提出了相应的解决措施.

  5. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  6. 利益团体对公共政策制定的影响分析--基于博弈行为视角%Interest Groups’ Influence Analysis on Public Policy Formulation---Based on Game Behavior Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    光相中

    2015-01-01

    Policy formulation game analysis is a kind of game analysis to the policy participants' conduct during the formulation process, it contributes to policy formulation to inaugurate prediction and optimization. This article presents the hypothesis from interest groups point of view, aspects of the three value orientations of political, social and private, by using of game theory, Nash equilibrium, Prisoner's dilemma as game analysis tool for building model, and taking the participants' in the dynamic behavior process by learn and adjustment method as the basic elements of the game behavior. In addition, thus to import of bounded rationality perspective, combined with dynamic equilibrium and Pareto optimality, to specifically analyze the impact of interest groups’ constructive positive energy and destructive negative energy during the public policy formulation process.%政策制定博弈分析是指在政策制定过程中对参与者行为进行的一种博弈分析,有助于对政策制定展开预测与优化。文章从利益团体观点,依政治、社会及私人三个价值取向提出假设,运用博弈论中纳什均衡与囚徒困境为博弈分析工具建立模型,并将参与者在动态行为过程中的学习和调整方式,视为博弈行为的基本要素。此外,导入有限理性观点,结合动态均衡与帕累托最优,具体分析利益团体在公共政策制定过程中的建设性正能量与破坏性负能量对政策制定的影响。

  7. Discussion about Plaintiff Qualification for Civil Environmental Public Interest Litigation:Simple Analyses of "Environmental Protection Law Amendment(Draft)"%论公民环境民事公益诉讼原告资格--浅析《环境保护法修正案(草案)》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树腾

    2014-01-01

    对环境民事公益诉讼的概念进行了界定,对公民个人享有环境公益诉讼原告的依据进行了分析,最后从公民个人享有环境民事公益诉讼原告资格的弊端方面提出了立法建议。%The concept of environmental civil public interest litigation is defined,the bases that citizen individual can enjoy be-ing a plaintiff of environmental public interest litigation are analyzed,and some legislative suggestions are put forward from the dis-advantages of citizen’s enjoying plaintiff qualification for environmental civil public interest litigation.

  8. Study on China's Public Sports Policy "Interest Imbalance" and Its Solution%我国公共体育政策制定中“利益失衡”现象及其解决方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费瑛

    2012-01-01

    Currently,our public sports policy there is "interest imbalance" phenomenon,mainly as follows: public sports resources configuration imbalance in public health and sports,the interests of vulnerable groups are relatively deprived,and government departments has "interests to create their own "problem in public sports policy-making.Suggestion:(1) Awareness and respect for sports activities are indispensable,important position,(2) Take "the realization of public interest" as only the starting point and measure of the formulation of public sports policy,(3) Gradually increase the financial input of the community sports,(4) Full attention to the sports interests of vulnerable groups,(5) Establish and perfect the mechanism of physical expression of interest of various interest groups.%现阶段我国公共体育政策的制定中存在利益失衡现象,主要表现为:竞技体育与大众健身之间公共体育资源配置比严重失衡、贫弱群体的体育利益被相对剥夺、公共体育政策制定过程中存在政府部门自利性问题,建议:正确认识并尊重社会体育活动的重要地位;把实现公共利益作为制定公共体育政策的唯一出发点和衡量标准;改善社会体育的财政投入情况;充分关注贫弱群体的体育利益;建立并完善各利益群体的体育利益表达机制。

  9. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  10. Genetic interest assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughney, Erin

    Genetics is becoming increasingly integrated into peoples' lives. Different measures have been taken to try and better genetics education. This thesis examined undergraduate students at the University of North Texas not majoring in the life sciences interest in genetic concepts through the means of a Likert style survey. ANOVA analysis showed there was variation amongst the interest level in different genetic concepts. In addition age and lecture were also analyzed as contributing factors to students' interest. Both age and lecture were evaluated to see if they contributed to the interest of students in genetic concepts and neither showed statistical significance. The Genetic Interest Assessment (GIA) serves to help mediate the gap between genetic curriculum and students' interest.

  11. AN IDEAL LIFE IN THE VIEW oF jUSTICE---Theoretical explorations of Plato’s theory of the relation of public and private interests%一种正义熔铸下的“理想生活”--柏拉图公私利益关系思想的政治哲学探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓欣

    2014-01-01

    置身于城邦正义之下的柏拉图,以其理想化的理论智慧诠释了困扰人类政治生活的一个重大理论难题,那就是如何调处公私之间利益矛盾,从而为后世政治哲学对该问题的探讨开启了一种典型的理论范式。认为柏拉图公私利益关系理论的主要内容是:公私理论的形而上学基础;个人与城邦。公私理论的价值指向:一种作为制度设计的正义;公私同一的政治哲学理念;事实性与价值性统一的“理想生活”。%Being exposed to a city-state of justice,Plato tried to interpret a major theoretical issue that plagued human political life with his idealized theoretical wisdom,i. e. how to eliminate the contradiction between public interests and private interests in the political life of mankind,which opened up a typical theoretical par-adigm for later generations to do research into the issue in the view of political philosophy. The article sums up the major content of Plato’s theory of the relation of public and private interests as follows:metaphysical basis of the theory of public and private interests;individual and city-state. The orientation of public-private theory is a kind of justice as a system design,a political philosophy of unified public and private interests,"an ideal life" of facts and values.

  12. Medicine, the media and political interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian; Morrell, Bronwen; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Forsyth, Rowena

    2012-12-01

    The news media is frequently criticised for failing to support the goals of government health campaigns. But is this necessarily the purpose of the media? We suggest that while the media has an important role in disseminating health messages, it is a mistake to assume that the media should serve the interests of government as it has its own professional ethics, norms, values, structures and roles that extend well beyond the interests of the health sector, and certainly beyond those of the government. While considerable attention has been given to the ways in which uncritical publication of industry perspectives by news media can negatively impact on public understandings of health and health behaviours, we would argue that it is equally important that journalists not become the 'lapdogs' of government interests. Further, we suggest that the interests of public health may be served more by supporting the ongoing existence of an independent media than by seeking to overdetermine its purpose or scope.

  13. The Optimal Interest Rates and the Current Interest Rate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.

  14. FWS Interest Simplified

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  15. FWS Interest Simplified

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  16. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Coopersmith

    2011-01-01

    A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

  17. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  18. Interest Check List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  19. Pronounced Practice & Learners’ Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈作棋

    2009-01-01

    <正>The present s tudy presents a detailed report of the project implemented to solve the problem that most of my students don’t like doing the oral practice I assign them to do after class. It is hypothesized that learners’ interest in pronunciation after class will be increased by a better organization in this

  20. Public knowledge and public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  1. Innovation and social interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vratuša-Žunjić Vera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on socially and historically structured circumstances surrounding and moral problems involved in the pragmatic definition of innovation as 'novelty proven useful by its users'. Contending conceptions and strategies of innovation of the organization of social relations in dialectical social systems are compared and socially and historically contextualized in the so-called 'transition countries' on the new Eastern border of the European Union. The conclusion is that the cited pragmatic definition of innovation may be misused for an apology of morally dubious new ends and means in the narrow interest of particular groups of users, often at the expense and against the interest of a majority of other individuals and social groups.

  2. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  3. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  4. Public Value Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  5. 36 CFR 14.75 - Nature of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of interest. 14.75 Section 14.75 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Principles and Procedures, Power Transmission Lines § 14.75 Nature of interest. ...

  6. Inciting Interest in the Newbery Award Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Claudette

    2007-01-01

    Hearing some fun facts about books and authors can bring books to life and help ignite students' interest in books and reading. Because most elementary school media centers and public libraries have many of the Newbery Medal books, students will have a better chance of finding books they decide they want to read once they hear about them. Reading…

  7. Inciting Interest in the Newbery Award Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Claudette

    2007-01-01

    Hearing some fun facts about books and authors can bring books to life and help ignite students' interest in books and reading. Because most elementary school media centers and public libraries have many of the Newbery Medal books, students will have a better chance of finding books they decide they want to read once they hear about them. Reading…

  8. Rangifer and human interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Anderson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  9. Real interest parity decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the general causes of real interest rate differentials (rids for a sample of emerging markets for the period of January 1996 to August 2007. To this end, two methods are applied. The first consists of breaking the variance of rids down into relative purchasing power pariety and uncovered interest rate parity and shows that inflation differentials are the main source of rids variation; while the second method breaks down the rids and nominal interest rate differentials (nids into nominal and real shocks. Bivariate autoregressive models are estimated under particular identification conditions, having been adequately treated for the identified structural breaks. Impulse response functions and error variance decomposition result in real shocks as being the likely cause of rids.O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as causas gerais dos diferenciais da taxa de juros real (rids para um conjunto de países emergentes, para o período de janeiro de 1996 a agosto de 2007. Para tanto, duas metodologias são aplicadas. A primeira consiste em decompor a variância dos rids entre a paridade do poder de compra relativa e a paridade de juros a descoberto e mostra que os diferenciais de inflação são a fonte predominante da variabilidade dos rids; a segunda decompõe os rids e os diferenciais de juros nominais (nids em choques nominais e reais. Sob certas condições de identificação, modelos autorregressivos bivariados são estimados com tratamento adequado para as quebras estruturais identificadas e as funções de resposta ao impulso e a decomposição da variância dos erros de previsão são obtidas, resultando em evidências favoráveis a que os choques reais são a causa mais provável dos rids.

  10. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  11. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... though the conflict of interest exists and a request for waiver is approved in accordance with 48 CFR 9... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of...

  12. Underreporting of conflicts of interest in clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Julie Bolette Brix; Schroll, Jeppe; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts of interest affect recommendations in clinical guidelines and disclosure of such conflicts is important. However, not all conflicts of interest are disclosed. Using a public available disclosure list we determined the prevalence and underreporting of conflicts of interest among authors...... of clinical guidelines on drug treatments....

  13. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  14. The coordination of regional interest in developing river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiangman

    2006-01-01

    River basin is a special region with the characteristics of entirety and relation, regionality and diversity,gradation and network, openness and dissipation etc. It is an important unit that organizes and governs national economy as well as a natural region. In river basin, all natural essential factors relate closely each other, and there is remarkable influence between inter-regions. In the process of developing river basin, the multiplex main interest body,the diverse interest demand and the multi-ways of interest realization constitute a complicated interest network, and result in various contradictions and conflicts. Therefore, effective regional interest coordination mechanism should be established to coordinate various regional interest relations. They are the public interest realization mechanism, the fair interest assignment mechanism, the effective interest integration mechanism, the expedited interest expression mechanism and the reasonable interest compensative mechanism.

  15. ICPD: in whose interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1994-06-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing

  16. Inquiring Minds: Theorizing Children's Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cooper, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Children's interests are a common foundation for early childhood curricula. Yet, little research is available about the fundamental nature of children's interests and analytical ways to recognize and engage with these. Early work on children's interests adopted a psychological perspective and associated interests with activity choices. Recent work…

  17. EDITORIAL: Interesting times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken

    1996-01-01

    `May you live in interesting times' - old Chinese curse. First, many thanks to John Avison, the retiring Honorary Editor, for his hard work over the last five years, and the steady development in style and content under his stewardship. I can only hope to live up to the standards that he set. The next five years will take us into a new millenium, an event preceded - in England and Wales at least - by a period of stability, reflection and consolidation in education. Or so we are told - but whether such a self-denying ordinance will actually be maintained by the Government both before and after an election in 1997 remains to be seen. Nevertheless, we shall be thankful for any mercies, however small, that permit forward thinking rather than instant response. One of the things that readers of a journal called Physics Education should be thinking about is the continued decline in the numbers of students studying physics post-16. This is not a purely local phenomenon; most European countries are finding a similar decline. There are exceptions, of course: in Scotland numbers studying physics for Highers are increasing. Is such a decline a good thing or a bad thing? Only a minority of post-16 physics students go on to use the bulk of what they have learned in further studies or vocations. Does a knowledge and understanding of physics contribute to the mental well-being and cultural level - let alone material comfort - of any except those who use physics professionally? Is physics defensible as a contribution to the mental armoury of the educated citizen - compared with chemistry, biology - or Latin, say? Or should one rephrase that last question as `Is physics as we teach it today defensible...?' Such questions, and many others no doubt, may well be in the mind of the new Curriculum Officer appointed by the Institute of Physics `to engage in a wide-ranging consultation throughout the entire physics community on the nature and style of post-16 physics programmes, with a

  18. Inquiry in the public interest, held at Cadarache into the construction of the reactor 'Jules Horowitz' and the problems related to the public dialogue; L'enquete d'utilite publique sur la creation du 'reacteur Jules Horowitz' a Cadarache et la participation locale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottiglioni, F

    2007-07-15

    In this paper are presented the main points of the inquiry taken by an official board into the demand of the Cea to create a new research tool, the 'Jules Horowitz Reactor', in its research center of Cadarache. The increasing involvement of the people in the decision-making procedures dealing with important projects is summed up, so as the distinctive features of the different regulations that frame the public participation are stressed. Some improvements are suggested to carry through next inquiries faster and more easily. The participation of the public has been low: only 11 people or associations have left their remarks to the inquiry members despite the large audience that attended the different meetings and debates organized on the issue by the CNDP (national board for public debate)

  19. Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen A., Ed.; Mazza, Anne-Marie, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty years ago federal policy underwent a major change through the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, which fostered greater uniformity in the way research agencies treat inventions arising from the work they sponsor. Before the Act, if government agencies funded university research, the funding agency retained ownership of the knowledge and technologies…

  20. 47 CFR 25.701 - Public interest obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., premium priced class of time sold only to candidates. DBS providers may sell higher priced non preemptible... more than 10.5 minutes of commercial matter per hour during children's programming on weekends, or more that 12 minutes of commercial matter per hour on week days. (2) This rule shall not apply to...

  1. Information Utility, Reader Interest, Publication Rating and Student Newspaper Readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates student motivation for reading a college student newspaper, including evaluations of performance and content preferences. Finds general support for expectations derived from utility theory; that localism (i.e. campus news) remains one of the strongest niches for an urban college paper; and that heavier readers perceived higher utility…

  2. 36 CFR 254.36 - Determining public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management of National Forest System lands will be more efficient and will result in improved utilization; (3... impeded or restricted; (4) New or extensive inholdings which would create management problems will not...

  3. Noncommunicable Diseases of Major Public Health Interest and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2015-11-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs; mainly cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) are now responsible for more than 35 million deaths per annum in the world; more than 80% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Dramatic worldwide changes in lifestyle and in the prevalence and incidence of major chronic diseases lends credence to the causative role of modifiable risk factors. For the elucidation of modifiable risk factors, large-scale prospective cohort studies with biobanks often combined in consortia are of paramount importance. Associations between selected risk factors and development of NCDs will be reviewed. In addition to the contribution of treatment, even larger proportions of NCDs can be prevented had risk factors been reduced to the optimum levels or eliminated. Individual-based approaches should be complemented by administrative regulations.

  4. Bed Bug Clearinghouse -- Publications of General Interest (to all audiences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These resources include prevention tips, how to identify nymphs and adults, heat treatment, safe pesticide use, and some Spanish translations.

  5. Electric restructuring: Observations about what is in the public interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, J.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding restructuring of the U.S. electric utility industry are presented in the paper. A brief assessment is made of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission orders requiring open access transmission services and open access same-time information systems. Three subtopics are pursued in some detail: competition between renewables and conservation, the role of government, and the impact of government on the market for renewables. It is concluded that renewable programs can be incorporated into competitive markets through regulatory agencies.

  6. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  7. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts. Th...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems....

  8. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered...

  9. Competing for space in an already crowded market: a mixed methods study of why an online community of practice (CoP) for alcohol harm reduction failed to generate interest amongst the group of public health professionals at which it was aimed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Ford, Jennifer; Korjonen, Helena; Hughes, Emma; Keswani, Asha; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Egan, Matt

    2017-07-21

    Improving mechanisms for knowledge translation (KT) and connecting decision-makers to each other and the information and evidence they consider relevant to their work remains a priority for public health. Virtual communities of practices (CoPs) potentially offer an affordable and flexible means of encouraging connection and sharing of evidence, information and learning among the public health community in ways that transgress traditional geographical, professional, institutional and time boundaries. The suitability of online CoPs in public health, however, has rarely been tested. This paper explores the reasons why particular online CoP for alcohol harm reduction hosted by the UK Health Forum failed to generate sufficient interest from the group of public health professionals at which it was aimed. The study utilises online web-metrics demonstrating a lack of online activity on the CoP. One hundred and twenty seven responses to an online questionnaire were used to explore whether the lack of activity could be explained by the target audience's existing information and evidence practices and needs. Qualitative interviews with 10 members describe in more detail the factors that shape and inhibit use of the virtual CoP by those at which it was targeted. Quantitative and qualitative data confirm that the target audience had an interest in the kind of information and evidence the CoP was set up to share and generate discussion about, but also that participants considered themselves to already have relatively good access to the information and evidence they needed to inform their work. Qualitative data revealed that the main barriers to using the CoP were a proliferation of information sources meaning that participants preferred to utilise trusted sources that were already established within their daily routines and a lack of time to engage with new online tools that required any significant commitment. Specialist online CoPs are competing for space in an already crowded

  10. The Social Construction of Policy Targets and the Interest Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminița Gabriela POPESCU

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequently the major pressures on the political system are generated by groups that project their objectives and interventions – private interest groups. The presence of these groups in the public arena is considered destructive, and the influences they exercise on the political system are deemed similar to those of corruption. However, political analysts consider that, effects notwithstanding, the presence of interest groups represents an unavoidable cost in any democratic system. A reason for maintaining interest groups is the connection established between citizens and public officials through unions and business, trade or professional associations. The value of such a link may be equivalent to the actual price of the unavoidable distortion that occurs when interest groups are active within the public policy process. The interest groups are certainly too important to be eliminated under the pressure of the myth of corruption.

  11. Nutrition policy in whose interests? A New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2012-08-01

    In the context of the global obesity epidemic, national nutrition policies have come under scrutiny. The present paper examines whose interests - industry or public health - are served by these policies and why. Using an exemplary case study of submissions to an inquiry into obesity, the research compared the positions of industry and public health groups with that taken by government. We assessed whether the interests were given equal consideration (a pluralist model of influence) or whether the interests of one group were favoured over the other (a neo-pluralist model). 2006 New Zealand Inquiry into Obesity. Food and advertising industry and public health submitters. The Government's position was largely aligned with industry interests in three of four policy domains: the national obesity strategy; food industry policy; and advertising and marketing policies. The exception to this was nutrition policy in schools, where the Government's position was aligned with public health interests. These findings support the neo-pluralist model of interest group influence. The dominance of the food industry in national nutrition policy needs to be addressed. It is in the interests of the public, industry and the state that government regulates the food and advertising industries and limits the involvement of industry in policy making. Failure to do so will be costly for individuals, in terms of poor health and earlier death, costly to governments in terms of the associated health costs, and costly to both the government and industry due to losses in human productivity.

  12. Conflict-of-interest, copyright and other declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2010-11-01

    Declarations of exclusive publication, author contribution, conflict-of-interest and copyright transfer are important formalities required by most biomedical journals. Conflict-of-interest may be personal, commercial, political, academic or financial. It is particularly important for authors to provide a full and complete disclosure of any financial relationship with a commercial organisation that may have an interest in the contents of the submitted manuscript. Editors, editorial board members and reviewers should also declare any possible conflicts-of-interest. The handling of conflict-of-interest during manuscript preparation, peer review and editorial decision making impacts the credibility of published articles and scientific research in general.

  13. 45 CFR 1386.33 - Protection of employee's interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... action under the plan to provide alternative community living arrangements; and (3) Employee training and... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of employee's interests. 1386.33... Councils § 1386.33 Protection of employee's interests. (a) Based on section 122(c)(5)(K) of the Act (42...

  14. Resolving Conflicts of Interest in State-Owned Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, Jenik; Thaler, Julius

    2005-01-01

    State-owned enterprises (SOEs) face conflicts of interest that stem from a government's dual role as an owner, operator and businessman on the one hand and as the protector of the public interest and therefore a regulator of the SOE on the other hand. Besides pursuing profit maximisation like any private business, SOEs often have a mandate if not…

  15. 45 CFR 73.735-1006 - Reporting financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting financial interests. 73.735-1006 Section... Reporting financial interests. (a) Consultants who will work more than 60 days in a calendar year are... equal to or greater than the basic rate for GS-16, Step 1. Such consultants are covered by the...

  16. 42 CFR 421.312 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... government to award a contract to the offeror (in accordance with 48 CFR subpart 9.503) even though a... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 421.312 Section... Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board. CMS may establish and convene a Conflicts of...

  17. Containing corporatism : EU competition law and private interest government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Corporatism, or private interest government, raises objections both from a democratic and from an economic perspective. This paper examines the application of EU competition law to private rule making that is purportedly in the public interest. Earlier case law holding Member States responsible for

  18. Caffeine, HPLC, Outreach (How Can We Interest Kids in Science?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current challenge for the scientific community is to generate an interest in science in the general public. If we can interest our youth in science we can produce more scientists and raise awareness of science in our society. An outreach activity will be described which can be brought into the cl...

  19. [Public policy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future.

  20. “近代化”范式中的中国公益慈善史研究:一个述评框架%A Literature Review Framework about History Study of China Public Interest and Philanthropy under the Modern Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林光祺

    2016-01-01

    Before reform of the unified system, on the one hand, the research in the history of charity has always been absence for a long time, it is not a “paradigm” crisis about “evolutionary learning”, but a pre-paradigm crisis before normal science, namely, it is a system crisis of academic under power con-trol.On the other hand, State-led“public interest” mobilization has also caused a disaster, it is not a“public interest” crisis, but a power disaster before subject of rights, namely, it is a system disaster of public and private interest perish together under power expansion.After the reform, as the loose of uni-fied control, on the one hand, market and civil society have started to develop.On the other hand, study about the history of China public interest and philanthropy began to rise, and gradually have subordinated to gradually“modern paradigm” under the influence of overseas Chinese study.From the view of method-ology , study about the history of China public interest and philanthropy can be roughly divided into two i-deal types about “scientism-humanism” and “stagnant view-evolutionary view”.On this basis, the academic circle has formed four tendencies, the first, Confucianism charity is stagnation, so it’ s must through the westernized way to modernization; second, Confucianism charity is evolutionary, so has its own modernization;third, folk public interest organization has formed a“public sphere”;fourth, Autho-ritarian country has highly seeped to society.The above argument to our enlightenment lies in the follow-ing respects.The first, researchers may have preference, but system should not be prejudiced, therefore, striving for diversified institutional environment is a common bottom line for scholars.Second, All sorts of“isms” can bring them here, but problem should be indigenous, therefore, we should comprehend re-search value on history of China public interest and philanthropy from the point of view of the

  1. Arousing Students' Interest Through Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新清

    2013-01-01

    As is well known,interest is the best teacher and it can cause motivation. "Motivation is what moves the students from boredom to interest, It's something like engine and steering wheel of an automobile . "(Spolsky. B. 1989 ) So I decided to adopt some different kinds of games in my lessons to arouse the learners' interest and motivate them , and help them keep up their English learning.

  2. Short Interest and Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Asquith; Pathak, Parag A.; Jay R. Ritter

    2004-01-01

    Using a longer time period and both NYSE-Amex and Nasdaq stocks, this paper examines short interest and stock returns in more detail than any previous study and finds that many documented patterns are not robust. While equally weighted high short interest portfolios generally underperform, value weighted portfolios do not. In addition, there is a negative correlation between market returns and short interest over our whole period. Finally, inferences from short time periods, such as 1988-1994...

  3. Navy Interest Inventory: Approach Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    lacking social skills” • Investigative is “analytical, intelligent , skeptical and having academic talent– lacking interpersonal skills” • Artistic is...occupational extroversion introversion scale, an educational orientation scale, and a variability of interests scale. A-25 Norms The General Themes and... introversion scale, an educational orientation scale, and a variability of interests scale. Norms The General Themes and Basic Interest Area scales were

  4. 5 CFR 6001.104 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest in a publicly traded or publicly available investment fund, provided that, at the time of the employee's appointment or upon initial investment in the fund, whichever occurs later, the fund does not... a particular transportation or geographic sector and the employee neither exercises control nor has...

  5. 31 CFR 306.37 - Interest on registered securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S... destroyed after receipt, notification should be sent to the Bureau of the Public Debt, Division of Customer... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest on registered...

  6. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  7. Management of interest rate risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest rate risk is one of the biggest and most dangerous risks that a bank is exposed to. When a change of interest rates occurs, the incomes of a bank based on credits and securities endure significant changes. Banks resources also endure some changes. The change of interest rates changes the value of the assets and liabilities of the bank and it's net and investment worth . The change of interest rates also affects bank's balance sheet, income sheet statement and bank's share capital.

  8. Reconstruction of Modern University System: The Conflict and Integration of Pubiicity, Public Welfare and Private Interests%现代大学制度重构:公共性、公益性、私益性的冲突与整合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚业国

    2011-01-01

    The "knowledge" of modern society has been embedded in every aspect of social production and life. Higher education, as the production, spreading and application of knowledge, has entered social center from social margin, which makes the publicity, public welfare and private interest of higher education have a new change and these changes become one of the decisive force that influence the development of higher education. The strengthening of "publicity" has improved the position and influencing force of higher education, challenging the tradition and spirits of the university; the enhancement of " public interest" makes the society focus more attention on the fairness of higher education; the continuous improvement of private interest causes the complication of cost-sharing of higher education. The reconstruction of modern university system need consider the logic framework of university system from the production, distribution and consumption of higher education, as the form of the social product.%现代社会“知识”已经渗透到社会生产和生活的各个方面,作为知识生产、传播和应用的高等教育,已经从社会边缘进入社会中心,使得高等教育的公共性、公益性与私益性发生了新的变化,这些变化反过来又影响高到等教育的发展:“公共性”的增强提升了高等教育的地位和影响力,挑战着大学的传统与精神;公益性的增强使得社会更为关注高等教育公平;而私益性的增强则使高等教育成本分担日趋复杂化。现代大学制度重构需要从高等教育社会产品的生产、分配与消费去思考大学制度的逻辑框架。

  9. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  10. Community and Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Harold W.

    This brief presentation describes public relations projects of Dubuque schools to popularize athletics. Among the activities cited which are used to promote community interest in sports events are public school-private school informal matches, talks, swim-a-thons, travel and adventure nights, class banquets with popular speakers, booster clubs,…

  11. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  12. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  13. PUBLIC FINANCE FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of public finances is due to objective causes needs and determined their main function being to obtain the financial resources it needs for the State to exercise its powers and on the way to intervene in the economy and society general. Public finances are necessary, subjectively and objectively, as it contributes to accomplishing the tasks and functions of the state, which could not be realized without financial leverage. Public finances are inextricably linked to the existence of the state, and public sector's role in the economy. Thus, they express "social relations, economic arising in the establishment and use of public funds between the state, on the one hand, and members of society on the other hand, to meet the needs of general interest of society" [1]. Thus, the role of public finance is to meet the needs of general interest or collective needs.

  14. The investigation of present situation of public participation in environmental public interest litigation--Take Xi ‘ning city folk environmental protection organization for example%环境公益诉讼中公众参与现状的调查研究报告--以西宁市民间环保组织为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国晓莉

    2015-01-01

    由于人口数量和人类驾驭自然能力不断增长,市场经济给人类带来了巨大繁荣,但是,一味追求经济效益和短期利益致使环境污染加剧,我国民间环保组织即在环境日益恶化的背景下产生并蓬勃发展。%Because of the growing population and human control ability over nature, market economy has brought great prosperity to mankind, but blindly pursuing economic benefits and short-term interests cause environmental pollution aggravate, folk environmental protection organization in our country is in the environment against the backdrop of a worsening and thrive.

  15. Initial Public Offering

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Thesis describes initial public offering on the stock markets. There are mentioned basic phases of this process. In this thesis is named pros & cons of this source of financing. Recommends also other ways how to gain capital for own company business acitivities. Thesis is interested about main conditions for successfull "going public". Initial Public Offering of bonds is described too. Practical part of this thesis is concern IPO in the Czech Republic -- historical data, IPO in the past on Pr...

  16. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames

    2007-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  17. Interest in Mathematics = Interest in Mathematics? What General Measures of Interest Reflect When the Object of Interest Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufer, Stefan; Rach, Stefanie; Kosiol, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Students' motivational characteristics, e.g., subject-related interest, are considered important predictors for successful learning processes. However, few empirical studies provide evidence for the assumed chain of effects between high interest and high achievement in mathematics. One reason for this result might be that the applied measures of…

  18. Medication interest in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Antolič

    2011-12-01

    Medication interest is comparable to literature data: relatively high for acute problems, relatively low for iron supplementation and extremely low for preventative folic acid intake. As to our knowledge, we were the ones to introduce the term »medication interest« into professional literature in Slovenia.

  19. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  20. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  1. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  2. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  3. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  4. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  5. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  6. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  7. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  8. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  9. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  10. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  11. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  12. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  13. Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Galvani, Alison P; Earn, David J D

    2003-09-02

    The recent threat of bioterrorism has fueled debate on smallpox vaccination policy for the United States. Certain policy proposals call for voluntary mass vaccination; however, if individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to self-interest, the level of herd immunity achieved may differ from what is best for the population as a whole. We present a synthesis of game theory and epidemic modeling that formalizes this conflict between self-interest and group interest and shows that voluntary vaccination is unlikely to reach the group-optimal level. This shortfall results in a substantial increase in expected mortality after an attack.

  14. Ideas, interests and institutional changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge R B Tapia; Eduardo R Gomes

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the relations between institutions, interests and ideas, taking as its reference point experiences in social concertation in Europe and welfare system reforms in Latin America in the 1990s...

  15. Interests diffusion in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  16. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  17. VARIATION ANALYSIS ON NATIONAL STANDARD INTEREST RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ferreira Cardia Haddad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study’s main objective is to analyse an econometric model for forecasting purposes concerning the interest rate which is adopted as standard reference within the Brazilian economy, namely, the Actual-Selic rate, so as to verify the feasibility of performing short term predictions as to its variations. Thus the major variables that impact the Actual-Selic rate, such as price variations of agricultural and power commodities, national industrial production level, exchange rate and public sector net debt, are detailed. The modern macroeconomic approach describes the relevance of the Central Bank upon achievement of its goals so as to maintain the economic stability, amongst which lies the convergence of verified interest rates with the Selic rate target, as set forth by the Monetary Policy Committee (COPOM. Furthermore, this study poses to explain the relevance in forecasting, with a reasonable level of accuracy, the benchmark interest rate of Brazilian economy. The proposed model may be used to support decision making concerning investment strategies and as an additional tool for the monitoring of the achievement of macroeconomic policy objectives.

  18. Interests Diffusion in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Understanding cultural phenomena on Social Networks (SNs) and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a p...

  19. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... context of Danish grocery retailer, we identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers), who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing. The central challenge for retailers is how to cope with the different employee types...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  20. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    context of Danish grocery retailer, we identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers), who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing. The central challenge for retailers is how to cope with the different employee types...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  1. Market-Oriented Interest Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The People's Bank of China,the central bank,just took a major step in the market-oriented reform of interest rates,but it's difficult to say how far the govemment can go with the reform. The central bank cut deposit and lending interest rates by 0.25 percentage points and extended the floating range of the rates,in the hope of curbing the downward trend in economic growth.This is a strong signal to the market:The govemment is resolute in maintaining stable economic growth.

  2. Physics Trick Gets Students Interested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, R.; Riley, Joseph P., II

    2008-01-01

    Demonstrations are increasingly becoming staple fare in the armoury of physics teachers. Physics is generally perceived to be a difficult subject, so the use of demonstrations to scaffold understanding as well as generate interest among students is valuable. When a demonstration is presented in a mysterious manner, students want to know how it is…

  3. Speculation, Hedging, and Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Whelan, Paul

    of Treasury bond markets that the singleagent paradigm finds difficult to reconcile. Empirically, we test predictions from themodel using a large dataset on beliefs about fundamentals and find that: (i) shocksto disagreement lower short term interest rates; (ii) raise the slope of the yield curve;and (iii...

  4. Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...

  5. Speculation, Hedging, and Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Whelan, Paul

    of Treasury bond markets that the singleagent paradigm finds difficult to reconcile. Empirically, we test predictions from themodel using a large dataset on beliefs about fundamentals and find that: (i) shocksto disagreement lower short term interest rates; (ii) raise the slope of the yield curve;and (iii...

  6. The Interest Rate Is Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, G. Robert

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the developmental stages of students' reading interests and maintains that the teacher has to discuss the student's life and values "through the intermediary of literature" in order to encourage him to continue to read; paper presented at annual convention of National Council of Teachers of English (59th, Washington, D.C., November 28,…

  7. Organizational Change and Vested Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nature of organizational change and the value of headquarters is derived from a model with costs of delay, vested interests and costs of organizational change.The value of headquarters is derived from imposed organizational change. It is viewed as an institution which is able to prevent surplus

  8. Bioinspiring an Interest in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, Jeffrey; Bartolini, Tiziana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Attracting K-12 students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is viewed as a critical element for benefiting both the economy and society. This paper describes an outreach program, conducted in a Brooklyn, New York, USA, public middle school, aimed at educating students in mechatronics, biology, and…

  9. Lobbying for Contingent Faculty Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Lobbying has become a dirty word thanks to well-publicized cases involving lobbyists such as Jack Abramoff. However, advocating for one's positions is a positive act of civic engagement. The right to petition the government is enshrined in the Constitution, and lawmakers depend on interaction with constituents to know what the people they…

  10. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    Full Text Available Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a large-scale antiviral drug treatment program are as yet unknown. We provide population dynamical and game theoretical analyses of large-scale prophylactic antiviral treatment programs. Throughout we compare the antiviral control strategy that is optimal from the public health perspective with the control strategy that would evolve if individuals make their own, rational decisions. To this end we investigate the conditions under which a large-scale antiviral control program can prevent an epidemic, and we analyze at what point in an unfolding epidemic the risk of infection starts to outweigh the cost of antiviral treatment. This enables investigation of how the optimal control strategy is moulded by the efficacy of antiviral drugs, the risk of mortality by antiviral prophylaxis, and the transmissibility of the pathogen. Our analyses show that there can be a strong incentive for an individual to take less antiviral drugs than is optimal from the public health perspective. In particular, when public health asks for early and aggressive control to prevent or curb an emerging pathogen, for the individual antiviral drug treatment is attractive only when the risk of infection has become non-negligible. It is even possible that from a public health perspective a situation in which everybody takes antiviral drugs is optimal, while the process of individual choice leads to a situation where nobody is willing to take antiviral drugs.

  11. PUBLIC POLICY AND TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF MOLDOVAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state administration process and hence also the economy coordination effort requires the promotion of robust, consistent and transparent public policy, which must be accepted by all stakeholders of economic development. Public policy is a set of measures taken by the authorities legally constituted as public power. Under normal conditions these policy aims at improving living conditions of citizens by developing grounded strategies which are applied by measures implemented to stimulate economic development in all its complexity by harmonizing the efforts of the institutional and non-institutional bodies responsible for ensuring the overall public interest. In Romania, public policies, especially fiscal ones on which we dwell, not reached in many cases the expected effects primarily because of their superficial grounding, lack of transparency, unpredictability, poor communication and secondly as an effect of ineffective management of public financial resources.

  12. Toward a Risk-sharing Cooperation Mode:College Public Security Education to Common Prosperity——Analysis from the Perspective of Interests Theory%基于共荣利益视角的高校公共安全教育探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰奎

    2012-01-01

    "共容利益"是美国著名经济学家奥尔森理论中重要的基础性概念,是他用来解释"集体行动的逻辑"、"国家兴衰现象"、"权力与繁荣"的理论基石。在风险社会面前,无论是高校自身,还是政府、社会、家庭都面临风险的重新分配,那么高校在实施公共安全教育时,惟有通过与政府、社会、家庭形成有机衔接和良性互动,基于平等信任基础上的合作共治,才能使各主体之间的利益共生共荣,推动公共安全教育的地域互补、风险共担和资源整合,保障社会公平正义,促进社会和谐。%"Encompassing interest" is a famous American economists in the theory of important Olsen basic concepts,it's used to explain" the logic of collective action","the rise and fall of a nation","the cornerstone of the theory of power and prosperity" theory foundation.In front of social risks,whether the universities,or government,society and families facing the redistribution of risk and the implementation of the education in public safety,but through and government,society,family formation organic link and the benign interaction,on the basis of equality based on trust,as cooperation,can make each subject of interest between co-existence and co-prosperity between,promote the regional complementary public safety education and risks and resources integration,safeguard social fairness and justice,and promote social harmony.

  13. Representatives of the Public?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne; Carroll, Brendan; Lowery, David

    2014-01-01

    Although scholars have long speculated about how organised interests link the public to decision makers, there has actually been little empirical research on this important element of democratic theory. This important gap in the literature is addressed in this article by examining, in addition...... to other supply-side and demand-side factors, whether groups mobilise on issues in policy areas that are regarded as salient by the public. Based on an analysis of 4,501 contributions in 142 European Commission online consultations, it is found that organised interests potentially can act as a transmission...... belt between the public and decision makers. Although the results vary to some degree by issues, higher rates of mobilisation are found on those issues that fall within policy areas that are regarded as salient by the general public and those with consequences for budgetary spending....

  14. Database Publication Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, P.A.; DeWitt, D.; Heuer, A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems.......There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems....

  15. Public Values and Public Service Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    The literatures on public values (PV) and public service motivation (PSM) both address whether public service delivery is driven by something more than self-interest. They have developed separately, although they can benefit from insights developed by the other, and this article discusses...... conceptual and empirical relationships between them. Based on a survey of 501 public managers, we find that PSM and PV are associated empirically, but not in a manner allowing total integration. The conceptual discussion reveals how the two concepts cannot be totally separated, as values can be motivating...... and motivation is often oriented toward something desirable (e.g., values). This suggests that neither total separation nor integration is a fruitful strategy. Given that the concepts are related, the literatures may benefit from more awareness of the conceptual overlaps and differences....

  16. 曼德维尔的经济思想—以《蜜蜂的寓言—私人的恶德,公众的利益》为中心%Mandeville's Thought on Economy - Focusing on The Fable of the Bees Private Vice, Public Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张後飞

    2012-01-01

    曼德维尔,一个名不见经传的医生,因其一部著作《蜜蜂的寓言—私人的恶德,公众的利益》让他声名狼藉,本书及作者成了千夫所指、众矢之的而知名度却大大增加。在此书中作者认为,人生来就是一种自私、难以驾驭的动物,而正是人的这个恶德促进了社会的进步与繁荣。同样是这部著作,在20世纪初,其中包蕴的经济思想开始被人们所重视,原先对曼德维尔思想及观点的看法在逐渐修正,好评开始降临于曼德维尔身上。%Mandeville, a previously littleknown doctor, becomes now notoriously known for his book The Fable of the Bees - Private Vice, Public Interest. Both he and the book are being condemned worldwide, turning out to be a target for all. Because in the book, he reveals his opinion that human beings, as a species of animals, are born selfish and difficult to manage, and this is the right vice that promotes the progress and prosperity of our society. It is also the same book that wins him much attention to his thought on economy at the beginning of the twentieth century and that some previously negative views on his thoughts and ideas are gradually corrected and replaced by showers of positive comments.

  17. Corruption and Publicity

    OpenAIRE

    Erzsébet Németh; Gábor Körmendi; Beatrix Kiss

    2011-01-01

    The present study sets out to examine the subject of corruption and publicity. It states that: 1. publicity can help to uncover and prevent corruption, and take sanctions against it, 2. business and political interests might hinder the media’s effective anti-corruption activities; 3. the media are able to influence the social judgement of the extent and frequency of corruption. The study proposes to investigate, with empirical research, the links between the level of corruption, its media pre...

  18. Interests versus morality in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojčić Mirjana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.

  19. Iran: Illusion, Reality, and Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    its past— con - temporary, modern, medieval, and ancient—than Iran’s. Nor is any state in the Gulf region more acutely afflicted by a sense of being...concise analysis that con - nects this both real and imagined past to the Iranian present. This analysis focuses on the early role of ideology and...the 19th century, British influence spread to the remainder of the Arab Gulf—Qatar, Abu Dhabi, and Dubai . Given British interests, the newfound Arab

  20. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  1. PUBLIC INTEREST IN COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAW, LEE C.

    COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND LABOR UNION STRENGTH HAVE GIVEN RISE TO TWO SERIOUS CHALLENGES FACING PRIVATE ENTERPRISE, INFLATION AND INTERFERENCE WITH MANAGERIAL AUTHORITY. IN RECENT YEARS, THE COST OF LIVING HAS AVERAGED AN INCREASE OF FOUR PERCENT PER YEAR WHILE LABOR COSTS HAVE ACHIEVED AN ANNUAL RATE OF INCREASE OF OVER SIX PERCENT. AT THE SAME…

  2. Why Are Ring Galaxies Interesting?

    CERN Document Server

    Higdon, James L

    2010-01-01

    Compared with ordinary spirals, the ISM in ring galaxies experiences markedly different physical conditions and evolution. As a result, ring galaxies provide interesting perspectives on the triggering/quenching of large scale star formation and the destructive effects of massive stars on molecular cloud complexes. We use high resolution radio, sub-millimeter, infrared, and optical data to investigate the role of gravitational stability in star formation regulation, factors influencing the ISM's molecular fraction, and evidence of peculiar star formation laws and efficiencies in two highly evolved ring galaxies: Cartwheel and the Lindsay-Shapley ring.

  3. W. Richard Scott, Institutions and Organizations: Ideas, Interests, and Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: W. Richard Scott: Institutions and Organizations: Ideas, Interests, and Identities. 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014. xiii, 345 pp.......Book review of: W. Richard Scott: Institutions and Organizations: Ideas, Interests, and Identities. 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014. xiii, 345 pp....

  4. 43 CFR 30.271 - How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? 30.271 Section 30.271 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? (a) A tribe must pay the full fair market value of...

  5. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  6. Informal Science: Family Education, Experiences, and Initial Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.; Scott, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research and public policy have indicated the need for increasing the physical science workforce through development of interest and engagement with informal and formal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics experiences. This study examines the association of family education and physical scientists' informal experiences in…

  7. 5 CFR 4101.103 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... publicly available investment fund which, in its prospectus, does not indicate the objective or practice of concentrating its investments in the securities of System institutions or related entities, and the employee neither exercises control over nor has the ability to exercise control over the financial interests held...

  8. Interest groups, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attempts to influence public policy and their representation ... concept 'interest group', while in the third I investigate inter- ... groups will play certain roles within this arena and articulate ... Formally organised; have other social functions; part of a governmental ..... social problems that are likely to occur during Phase 1B and.

  9. Considering the Interest-Convergence Dilemma in STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2015-01-01

    This study examines tensions between universalist ideology and racial/ethnic inequalities in STEM education. Using data collected from qualitative interviews with STEM diversity administrators at 10 research-intensive, public universities, the study considers programmatic goals through an interest-convergence framework. Emerging patterns reveal…

  10. Informal Science: Family Education, Experiences, and Initial Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.; Scott, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research and public policy have indicated the need for increasing the physical science workforce through development of interest and engagement with informal and formal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics experiences. This study examines the association of family education and physical scientists' informal experiences in…

  11. Refined Orbital Architecture for Targets of Naval Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    pioneered the Walker delta pattern.29 The technique distributes t total satellites into p orbital planes, evenly spaced with a f relative phasing...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REFINED ORBITAL ...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS REFINED ORBITAL ARCHITECTURE FOR TARGETS OF NAVAL INTEREST 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew Konowicz 7

  12. 18 CFR 367.2370 - Account 237, Interest accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2370 Account 237, Interest... accrued. 367.2370 Section 367.2370 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  13. 31 CFR 306.36 - Termination of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination of interest. 306.36 Section 306.36 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  14. 31 CFR 306.35 - Computation of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of interest. 306.35 Section 306.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  15. 31 CFR 306.38 - Interest on bearer securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest on bearer securities. 306.38 Section 306.38 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  16. Biomedical innovation in academic institutions: mitigating conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Lita L; Bierer, Barbara E

    2011-09-14

    As universities and research hospitals move increasingly toward translational research and encouragement of entrepreneurship, more attention must be paid to management of conflicts of interest (COIs) if the public trust is to be maintained. Here, we describe COI policies at two institutions that aim to structure an academic environment that encourages innovation while protecting academic values.

  17. Dislocated interests and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2016-06-01

    The predicted effects of climate change on surface temperatures are now emergent and quantifiable. The recent letter by Hansen and Sato (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 034009) adds to a growing number of studies showing that warming over the past four decades has shifted the distribution of temperatures higher almost everywhere, with the largest relative effects on summer temperatures in developing regions such as Africa, South America, southeast Asia, and the Middle East (e.g., Diffenbaugh and Scherer 2011 Clim. Change 107 615-24 Anderson 2011 Clim. Change 108 581; Mahlstein et al 2012 Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L21711). Hansen and Sato emphasize that although these regions are warming disproportionately, their role in causing climate change—measured by cumulative historical CO2 emissions produced—is small compared to the US and Europe, where the relative change in temperatures has been less. This spatial and temporal mismatch of climate change impacts and the burning of fossil fuels is a critical dislocation of interests that, as the authors note, has ‘substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.’ Here, we place Hansen and Sato’s ‘national responsibilities’ into a broader conceptual framework of problematically dislocated interests, and briefly discuss the related challenges for global climate mitigation efforts.

  18. Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshan, Harry M.; Arnheim, Louise

    This paper, the second in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, examines some of the issues underlying public broadcasting, primarily public television. It advances two reasons why quality local public television programming is scarce: funds for the original production of programming have…

  19. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  20. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  1. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  2. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  3. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  4. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  5. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  6. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  7. Database Publication Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, P.A.; DeWitt, D.; Heuer, A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems....

  8. Reporting science and conflicts of interest in the lay press.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forthright reporting of financial ties and conflicts of interest of researchers is associated with public trust in and esteem for the scientific enterprise. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched Lexis/Nexis Academic News for the top news stories in science published in 2004 and 2005. We conducted a content analysis of 1152 newspaper stories. Funders of the research were identified in 38% of stories, financial ties of the researchers were reported in 11% of stories, and 5% reported financial ties of sources quoted. Of 73 stories not reporting on financial ties, 27% had financial ties publicly disclosed in scholarly journals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because science journalists often did not report conflict of interest information, adherence to gold-standard recommendations for science journalism was low. Journalists work under many different constraints, but nonetheless news reports of scientific research were incomplete, potentially eroding public trust in science.

  9. 26 CFR 1.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... case of certain transactions after April 30, 1989, subject to income tax, the fair market value of... interests in a charitable remainder annuity trust as defined in § 1.664-2 and a pooled income fund as defined in § 1.642(c)-5. See § 20.2031-7A of this chapter for publications containing tables for valuation...

  10. Information, Interests, and Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination of informa......This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination...... of information processing and interest group literatures, we develop hypotheses about regulatees' reliance upon and the influence of different sources of information. We test these hypotheses for Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental rules. Our findings show that information plays a role in bringing...

  11. Situational or Personal: Interest in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Victoria Caterina

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate how individuals with a stated interest in American history described their interest. Understanding interest and the factors influencing interest development in a particular content is important as personal interest has been described as "having a critical role in the learning and development of…

  12. Interest Rate Pass‐Through in Mongolia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doojav, Gan‐Ochir; Kalirajan, Kaliappa

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically examines the interest rate pass‐through of the money market interest rate to bank lending and bank deposit interest rates in Mongolia using both linear and nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models...

  13. Interesting Multi-Relational Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Spyropoulou, Eirini

    2011-01-01

    Mining patterns from multi-relational data is a problem attracting increasing interest within the data mining community. Traditional data mining approaches are typically developed for highly simplified types of data, such as an attribute-value table or a binary database, such that those methods are not directly applicable to multi-relational data. Nevertheless, multi-relational data is a more truthful and therefore often also a more powerful representation of reality. Mining patterns of a suitably expressive syntax directly from this representation, is thus a research problem of great importance. In this paper we introduce a novel approach to mining patterns in multi-relational data. We propose a new syntax for multi-relational patterns as complete connected subgraphs in a representation of the database as a K-partite graph. We show how this pattern syntax is generally applicable to multirelational data, while it reduces to well-known tiles [7] when the data is a simple binary or attribute-value table. We pro...

  14. Aptamers: Biomedical Interest and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Romero-López

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides specialized in the specific and efficient binding to a target molecule. They are obtained by in vitro selection or evolution processes. It was in 1990 that two independent research groups described the bases of a new in vitro technology for the identification of RNA molecules able to specifically bind to a target [1,2]. Tuerk and Gold established the principals of the in vitro selection process that was named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment, which is based on iterative cycles of binding, partitioning, and amplification of oligonucleotides from a pool of variant sequences [2]. Ellington and Szostak coined the term aptamer to define the selected molecules by the application of this method [1]. To date, numerous reports have described the isolation of aptamers directed against a great variety of targets covering a wide diversity of molecules varying in nature, size, and complexity ranging from ions to whole cells, including small molecules (e.g., aminoacids, nucleotides, antibiotics, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses, among others (for example, see [3–6]. Modifications and optimization of the SELEX procedure aimed to get newly modified aptamers has also attracted much interest (examples can be found in [7,8]. These advances along with the parallel progresses in the nucleic acids chemistry and cellular delivery fields have allowed for the rise of a new hope in developing aptamers as efficient molecular tools for diagnostics and therapeutics (for recent comprehensive reviews, see [9–11].

  15. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  16. Public affairs plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the fiscal year (FY) 1996 UMTRA Project public affairs program and to identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It describes the roles of various agencies involved in the public affairs program and defines the functions of the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It replaces the FY 1995 Public Affairs Plan (DOE/AL/62350-154). The plan also describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about UMTRA Project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in UMTRA Project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Team; the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO); the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Public Affairs (OPA); the TAC; the UMTRA Project Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  17. Public affairs plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  18. Higher Education and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  19. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  20. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception is very important for road users and in the dark it can be facilitated by public lighting. Public lighting has a mostly positive road safety effect. Installing public lighting on roads that were previously unlit generally results in fewer and less serious crashes. This effect seems

  1. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...... an intended policy shift, there seems to be very little public discussion about them. Far-reaching policy changes become politically invisible and de-politicized. Our empirical case is the contracting out of the public employment services in Australia, the Netherlands and Denmark. The main question is what...

  2. 26 CFR 1.61-7 - Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) applies thereto) and on the proceeds of life insurance policies payable by reason of the insured's death... automatically converted to a payment on the principal); interest on legacies; interest on life insurance... between interest dates; amounts received in excess of original issue discount; interest on life...

  3. 7 CFR 3565.211 - Interest credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest credit. 3565.211 Section 3565.211... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.211 Interest credit. (a... assistance in the form of interest credit, to the extent necessary to reduce the agreed-upon rate of interest...

  4. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B. [Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-01

    fibrous dysplasia. Three cases with interesting and unusual bone scan findings assisted in further management and treatment of patients

  5. Inventing conflicts of interest: a history of tobacco industry tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Allan M

    2012-01-01

    Confronted by compelling peer-reviewed scientific evidence of the harms of smoking, the tobacco industry, beginning in the 1950s, used sophisticated public relations approaches to undermine and distort the emerging science. The industry campaign worked to create a scientific controversy through a program that depended on the creation of industry-academic conflicts of interest. This strategy of producing scientific uncertainty undercut public health efforts and regulatory interventions designed to reduce the harms of smoking. A number of industries have subsequently followed this approach to disrupting normative science. Claims of scientific uncertainty and lack of proof also lead to the assertion of individual responsibility for industrially produced health risks.

  6. Dewey's Theory of the Democratic Public and the Public Character of Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Leonard Waks reconsiders the issue of the public character of charter schools, that is, schools funded through public taxation but operated by non-state organizations such as nonprofit and for-profit educational corporations and nongovernmental public interest organizations. Using John Dewey's conception of a democratic public as a…

  7. Ethics in Online Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaart, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to 'open-access' to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is 'on-line' and 'open-access' does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way. [1] The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that 'Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.' Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms 'publication ethics' includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of 'ghosts'), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest [2]. To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) [3] and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) [4]. More recently the issue of 'publisher ethics' has

  8. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual hull reconstruction, resulting in a first 3D approximation of the target, followed by a region-of-interest estimation, tasked with identifying features of interest, which in turn are used to locally refine the voxel grid and extract a higher-resolution surface representation for those regions. This approach is illustrated for the reconstruction of avatars for use in tele-immersion environments, where head and hand regions are of higher interest. To allow reproducability and direct comparison a publicly available data set for human visual hull reconstruction is used. This paper shows that region-of-interest reconstruction of the target is faster and visually comparable to higher resolution focused visual hull reconstructions. This approach reduces the amount of data generated through the reconstruction, allowing faster post processing, as rendering or networking of the surface voxels. Reconstruction speeds support smooth interactions between the avatar and the virtual environment, while the improved resolution of its facial region and hands creates a higher-degree of immersion and potentially impacts the perception of body language, facial expressions and eye-to-eye contact. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  9. Research between conflicts of interest in a small German municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinikmann, Karin; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Lake eutrophication is a traditional topic in hydrology which attracts the attention of scientists all over the world to date. However, in single cases of lakes experiencing severe consequences of nutrient overloads (e.g., toxic algae blooms, loss of species richness…) also a non-scientific public arouses interest in processes behind and reasons for these phenomena. This interest results from the various effects of eutrophication on the anthropogenic use of the lake, such as loss of the lakés recreational value, potential health impairments from contact with lake water, changes of the ecological/esthetical status, etc. We present our manifold experiences in communicating with different actors who are or at least feel affected by our research to identify sources for elevated phosphorus loads to Lake Arendsee in Germany. Among those are supporters and opponents of restoration plans as there are for example • representatives of different public authorities, • inhabitants of local communities making their income from tourism around the lake, • farmers, • fishermen, • etc. We describe different conflicts of interest arising from this situation and describe problems we had interacting with single actors. A citizen-science action was initiated which increased both, the research output and the awareness of the problem within the general local public. We conclude that even in small municipalities a complex structure of stakeholders may develop who might act in unpredictable ways to achieve their personal or political goals.

  10. Virology Interest Group | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Virology Interest Group comprises researchers at NIH and in the local area who are interested in virology. The group organizes activities designed to promote interactions and exchange of information.

  11. Organized Interests in the EC and the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Kohler-Koch

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a truism that the emergent European polity contributes to the transformation of interest representation in Europe. It is, however, highly contested if a uniform system of interest intermediation is in the making and if so, what will be its shape. Pressures to adapt are quite strong, but national traditions provide strong institutional constraints to European convergence. In addition, the institutional properties of the EU make sure that no single system is likely to emerge. The paper presents theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence to that point. The empirical findings concentrate on the relationship between interest representatives and the European Parliament and are taken from a written survey among MEPs and European Public Affairs Consultants.

  12. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session on Examination of the Quaranteed Student Loan Program and the Incidence of Defaults and Interest Rates on Loans Under this Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    The hearings were conducted on September 18 and 19, 1974. This document contains statements by representatives, senators, the U.S. Commissioner of Education, and various directors and assistant directors of financial aid from U.S. colleges. Additional information included is as follows: articles, publications, and communications. Questions and…

  13. The role of self-interest in elite bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVeck, Brad L; Hughes, D Alex; Fowler, James H; Hafner-Burton, Emilie; Victor, David G

    2014-12-30

    One of the best-known and most replicated laboratory results in behavioral economics is that bargainers frequently reject low offers, even when it harms their material self-interest. This finding could have important implications for international negotiations on many problems facing humanity today, because models of international bargaining assume exactly the opposite: that policy makers are rational and self-interested. However, it is unknown whether elites who engage in diplomatic bargaining will similarly reject low offers because past research has been based almost exclusively on convenience samples of undergraduates, members of the general public, or small-scale societies rather than highly experienced elites who design and bargain over policy. Using a unique sample of 102 policy and business elites who have an average of 21 y of practical experience conducting international diplomacy or policy strategy, we show that, compared with undergraduates and the general public, elites are actually more likely to reject low offers when playing a standard "ultimatum game" that assesses how players bargain over a fixed resource. Elites with more experience tend to make even higher demands, suggesting that this tendency only increases as policy makers advance to leadership positions. This result contradicts assumptions of rational self-interested behavior that are standard in models of international bargaining, and it suggests that the adoption of global agreements on international trade, climate change, and other important problems will not depend solely on the interests of individual countries, but also on whether these accords are seen as equitable to all member states.

  14. The Relationship between Occupational Interests and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Campbell, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    A values characterization of the RIASEC occupational interest categories was developed using the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET occupational data. Values profile plots were constructed for each interest category, then correspondence analysis and canonical correlation were carried out to assess the relationship between the interest and values…

  15. Dialectical roots for interest prohibition theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that arguments for strict prohibition of interests must be based on the use of arguments from authority. This is carried out by first making a survey of so-called dialectical roots for interest prohibition and then demonstrating that for at least one important positive interest bearing

  16. The Self- and Other-Interest Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E; Prentice, Deborah A

    2013-09-01

    Five studies develop and validate the Self- and Other-Interest Inventory, an individual-difference measure of the motivation to act in one's own interest and the motivation to act in another's interest that measures these motivations at the level of self-beliefs. Study 1 demonstrates that self- and other-interest can be measured reliably and validly, as independent constructs, with a self-report measure. Study 2 develops a version of the Self- and Other-Interest Inventory for use with a general population and demonstrates systematic changes in the relation between self- and other-interest scores with age. Study 3 shows that self- and other-interest scores vary independently, as a function of the accessibility of related values. Study 4 provides evidence that self-interest scores predict behaviors that benefit the self and that other-interest scores predict behaviors that benefit another person. Finally, Study 5 demonstrates that in situations that involve a trade-off between the pursuit of self-interest and the pursuit of other-interest, such as the prisoner's dilemma, self- and other-interest scores contribute independently to behavioral prediction.

  17. Interest in Subject Matter: The Mathematics Predicament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to explore (a) the extent to which certain school subjects are perceived "sui generis" more interesting than others and (b) the extent to which students' interest in a subject is related to their study choices. A mixed-methods approach was chosen in which an individual interest questionnaire and an open-ended…

  18. 31 CFR 547.305 - Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest. 547.305 Section 547.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 547.305 Interest. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the term interest, when used with...

  19. Interest prohibition and financial product innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2011-01-01

    We give a rough sketch of the Judaic, Greek, Islamic and Christian positions in the matter of interest prohibition during the last few millennia and discuss the way in which interest prohibition is dealt with in Islamic finance, the problems with authority-based arguments for interest prohibition, a

  20. 7 CFR 29.28 - Interested party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interested party. 29.28 Section 29.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.28 Interested party. The owner or other financially interested...