Mahmood, S.; Din, N.U.; Mohsin, J.
Health care (Biomedical) waste is a term used for all waste arising from health care establishments. In most of health care centers of Pakistan, including Lahore, hospital wastes are simply mixed with the municipal waste in collecting bins at road-sides and disposed off similarly. Proper Management of biomedical waste, especially the hazardous one, being produced in hospital settings is important in terms of their ability to cause harm to the related per-sons and the environment as well. To Observe and compare the practices regarding Hospital Waste management of the public sector hospital with private sector hospital. Descriptive, Cross sectional. Methodology: Standardized checklist was used to assess the practices of nursing and sanitary staff. Practices regarding waste segregation were same at both hospitals. While practices regarding waste collection and transportation were better at The Children's Hospital. Public sector hospital has, paradoxically, better practices regarding hospital waste management in comparison to private sector hospital. (author)
Flint, Douglas H
This study has two objectives. First, to predict the outcomes of a public sector downsizing; second to measure effects of downsizing at organizational and inter-organizational levels. Primary data to assess the organizational level effects was collected through interviews with senior executives at two of Metro-Toronto's hospitals. Secondary data, to assess the inter-organizational effects, was collected from government documents and media reports. Due to the exploratory nature of the study's objectives a case study method was employed. Most institutional downsizing practices aligned with successful outcomes. Procedures involved at the inter-organizational level aligned with unsuccessful outcomes and negated organizational initiatives. This resulted in an overall alignment with unsuccessful procedures. The implication, based on private sector downsizings, is that the post-downsized hospital system was more costly and less effective.
Ghafoor, F.; Mohsin, S.N.; Mukhtar, S.; Hussain, W.
Background: Congenital hypothyroidism if left untreated results in growth failure, irreversible mental retardation, and cretinism. National neonatal screening programs are therefore, launched to diagnose congenital hypothyroidism and manage it timely. Objectives: To screen new borns for congenital hypothyroidism in two public sector hospitals of Lahore. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional descriptive study conducted at departments of Gynae/Obs and Pediatric Shaikh Zayed Hospital and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from February 2010 to November 2011. Subjects and Methods: Awareness brochures for congenital hypothyroidism were developed and attached with the antenatal card of each pregnant case attending antenatal clinic at Gynae/Obs OPD. Newborns who had stayed in hospital for more than 24 hour, and whose parents consented for heal prick were tested for blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone. Results were reported within four days and thyroid-stimulating hormone >= 20mIU/L was taken as high value. Parents of those neonates who had high value were contacted to give a fresh sample for confirmation. Confirmed results were provided within next 4-5 days to the parents and treating pediatrician for appropriate treatment. Results: A total of 1357 samples were screened using blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone and out of these 1330 were normal ( =20mIU/L). These 27 neonates were further tested using confirmatory tests For serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, T3 and T4. After confirmatory tests only one case had congenital hypothyroidism who was referred for treatment. Three cases were suspected to have subclinical hypothyroidism and these were retested after six months which, picked another case of confirmed subclinical hypothyroidism who was referred for treatment. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism was 2 out of 1357 cases. Conclusion: The screening could pick 2 cases of hypothyroidism from a total of 1357 cases which is high when compared to global rates
Outsourcing was one process of privatisation used in the Victorian public health sector in the 1990s. However it was used to varying degrees and across a variety of different services. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Why have managers outsourced? What have managers considered when they have decided to outsource? The research was carried out in a rural hospital and a metropolitan network in Victoria. The key findings highlight the factors that decision makers considered to be important and those that led to negative outcomes. Economic factors, such as frequency of exchange, length of relationships between the parties, and information availability, were often ignored. However, other factors such as outcome measurability, technology, risk, labour market characteristics and goal conflict, and political factors such as relative power of management over labour were often perceived as important in the decision-making process. Negative outcomes from outsourcing were due to the short length of relationships and accompanying difficulties with trust, commitment and loyalty; poor quality; and excessive monitoring and the measurement of outcomes.
Containing costs in public sector hospitals - a strategy for the future. ... is increasing concern about expenditure in the public and the private health care sectors. ... at the micro-level comparison of expenditure over a 14-year period in one major ...
Full Text Available Background: Hospitals are among the most interactive organizations in which the rate of knowledge transfer and learning is considerably high. The investigation of the level of organizational learning between public and private sector hospitals can be useful for managers to select proper organizational learning strategies aiming at improving service delivery and organizational behaviour (1. This study was carried out to compare the organizational learning capabilities of the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. Methods: This descriptive survey was performed on the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. According to Krejcie and Morgan’s table, 175 employees were selected via stratified random sampling from 6 public and 2 private hospitals. The instrument for gathering data was Organizational Learning Capability Questionnaire (OLCQ by Gomez et al. (2005 (2. Data were analysed by inferential statistics (K-S test, Levene’s test, t-test, one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 20.00. Results: The level of organizational learning capabilities of personnel was higher in the private hospitals than in public hospitals, indicating a statistically significant difference between them (T (26= 11.779, P0.01، F (3, 68 = 1.859. Conclusion: With regard to the higher average of knowledge transfer and integration than the other capabilities in public and private hospitals, it seems that the managers of hospitals should make use of this component to promote the organizational knowledge of the personnel and improve other organizational learning capabilities too.
Giraldes, Maria Do Rosário
, and by the Garcia de Orta Hospital, which are the less efficient hospitals. In Group V, with central hospitals and hospitals with functions of central hospital, it is the Hospital of Vila Real/Régua, EPE, to present the best situation of the Composite Efficiency Indicator, followed by the Santo António Hospital, EPE, the Santa Maria Hospital, EPE, and the HUC, while the hospitals with a worst situation of the Composite Efficiency Indicator are the Hospitals of Faro, Evora and S. José. In Group VI hospitals with a better Composite Efficiency Indicator are the hospitals of Santa Marta, Gama Pinto Institute and Orthopedic Hospital of Outão, while the Estefânia Hospital is the most inefficient. Tondela, Valongo and Peniche Hospitals (Group I), have a good value of the Composite Efficiency and Quality Indicator, while Barcelos, Oliveira de Azeméis and Póvoa de Varzim/Vila do Conde Hospitals (Group II) present also good values of this indicator. The Hospitals of Vila Franca de Xira, Bragança and Setúbal (Group III), the Hospitals of Santarém, Garcia de Orta, and Curry Cabral (Group IV), the Hospital of Vila Real/Régua, the Egas Moniz Hospital and the Santa Maria Hospital (Group V), and the Gama Pinto Institute, the Orthopedic Hospital of Outão, and the Santa Cruz Hospital (Group VI) are the best classified in their groups. EPE Hospitals (Hospitals publicly owned with private management) are the best classified in their groups in what efficiency is concerned, what is a better result tan the one shown in 2003. The lower inequality in relation to management indicators, in all hospital groups, exists in the areas of expenditure with inpatient care by user, what shows the existence of a norm of proceeding, in this traditional hospital area. The higher inequalities are those of day hospital, drugs in day hospital, drugs in outpatient care and rehabilitation by user. In what management indicators are concerned incentives must be created. The most efficient hospitals
Pérotin, Virginie; Zamora, Bernarda; Reeves, Rachel; Bartlett, Will; Allen, Pauline
Using patient experience survey data, the paper investigates whether hospital ownership affects the level of quality reported by patients whose care is funded by the National Health Service in areas other than clinical quality. We estimate a switching regression model that accounts for (i) some observable characteristics of the patient and the hospital episode; (ii) selection into private hospitals; and (iii) unmeasured hospital characteristics captured by hospital fixed effects. We find that the experience reported by patients in public and private hospitals is different, i.e. most dimensions of quality are delivered differently by the two types of hospitals, with each sector offering greater quality in certain specialties or to certain groups of patients. However, the sum of all ownership effects is not statistically different from zero at sample means. In other words, hospital ownership in and of itself does not affect the level of quality of the average patient's reported experience. Differences in mean reported quality levels between the private and public sectors are entirely attributable to patient characteristics, the selection of patients into public or private hospitals and unobserved characteristics specific to individual hospitals, rather than to hospital ownership. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khan, R.A.W.; Ahmed, W.; Alam, S.E.; Arif, A
Objectives: To find out the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies in patients referred from a tertiary care public sector hospital, other public sector and private hospitals of Karachi. Settings and duration: Pakistan Medical Research Council's Specialized Research Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi from January to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted where patients were referred from different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (tertiary care public sector hospital), other public sector hospitals, private hospitals and clinics for the screening of hepatitis B and C virus infection. Three ml blood was collected from each patient, serum separated and tested for HBsAg and Anti HCV using Abbott Murex fourth Generation ELISA kits. Results: A total of 2965 cases were referred in a year. Overall sero prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV was 5.9% and 12.8% respectively. HBsAg positivity in patient referred from public sector hospitals was 5.8%, those from private hospitals/clinics were 7.2%, and self-referred patients was 5.6%. Anti HCV positivity rates amongst these cases were 12.5%, 16.7% and 8.5% respectively. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus was seen in 0.9, 2.5 and 1.4% cases respectively. Breakdown of viral positivity within different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi showed HBsAg positivity of 7.1% in Medical department, 5.2% in Surgical department, 5.0% in Gynaecology department, 6.6% in other departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre while, only 1.7% were positive from Pakistan Railway, hospital Anti HCV positivity was maximally (20.3%) seen in medical department followed by 14% in other departments, 10.9% in surgical department, 7.9% in gynaecology and 5.1% in railway hospital. Co-infection of HBV and HCV was seen in 2% cases referred from medical department, while rest of the
Prinja, Shankar; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh
Background & objectives: Despite an impetus for strengthening public sector district hospitals for provision of secondary health care in India, there is lack of robust evidence on cost of services provided through these district hospitals. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the unit cost of an outpatient visit consultation, inpatient bed-day of hospitalization, surgical procedure and overall per-capita cost of providing secondary care through district hospitals. Methods: Economic costing of five randomly selected district hospitals in two north Indian States - Haryana and Punjab, was undertaken. Cost analysis was done using a health system perspective and employing bottom-up costing methodology. Quantity of all resources - capital or recurrent, used for delivering services was measured and valued. Median unit costs were estimated along with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of uncertainties in prices and other assumptions; and to generalize the findings for Indian set-up. Results: The overall annual cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through a public sector district hospital in north India was 11,44,13,282 [US Dollars (USD) 2,103,185]. Human resources accounted for 53 per cent of the overall cost. The unit cost of an inpatient bed-day, surgical procedure and outpatient consultation was 844 (USD 15.5), i; 3481 (USD 64) and 170 (USD 3.1), respectively. With the current set of resource allocation, per-capita cost of providing health care through district hospitals in north India was 139 (USD 2.5). Interpretation & conclusions: The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India. PMID:29355142
Prinja, Shankar; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh
Despite an impetus for strengthening public sector district hospitals for provision of secondary health care in India, there is lack of robust evidence on cost of services provided through these district hospitals. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the unit cost of an outpatient visit consultation, inpatient bed-day of hospitalization, surgical procedure and overall per-capita cost of providing secondary care through district hospitals. Economic costing of five randomly selected district hospitals in two north Indian States - Haryana and Punjab, was undertaken. Cost analysis was done using a health system perspective and employing bottom-up costing methodology. Quantity of all resources - capital or recurrent, used for delivering services was measured and valued. Median unit costs were estimated along with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of uncertainties in prices and other assumptions; and to generalize the findings for Indian set-up. The overall annual cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through a public sector district hospital in north India was ' 11,44,13,282 [US Dollars (USD) 2,103,185]. Human resources accounted for 53 per cent of the overall cost. The unit cost of an inpatient bed-day, surgical procedure and outpatient consultation was ' 844 (USD 15.5), ' 3481 (USD 64) and ' 170 (USD 3.1), respectively. With the current set of resource allocation, per-capita cost of providing health care through district hospitals in north India was ' 139 (USD 2.5). The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India.
Hwabamungu, Boroto; Brown, Irwin; Williams, Quentin
Recent literature on organisational strategy has called for greater emphasis on individuals (stakeholders) and what they do in the process of strategizing. Public sector organisations have to engage with an array of heterogeneous stakeholders in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations on the implementation of Information Systems (IS) strategy in public hospitals in South Africa. An interpretive approach using two provinces was employed. The Activity Analysis and Development (ActAD) framework, an enhanced form of activity theory, was used as the theoretical framework. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, meetings, documents analysis, physical artefacts and observation. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis. Findings reveal that IS strategy implementation in public hospitals involves a large and complex network of stakeholder groups at different levels, and over different time periods. These stakeholder groups act in accordance with formal and informal roles, rules and modalities. Various contextual conditions together with the actions of, and interactions between stakeholder groups give rise to the situationality of stakeholder relations dynamics and strategy implementation. The multiple actions and interactions over time lead to the realisation of some aspects of the IS strategy in public hospitals. Given the complexity and dynamism of the context there are also certain unplanned implementations as well. These relationships are captured in a Stakeholder Relations Influence (SRI) framework. The SRI framework can be assistive in the assessment and mapping of stakeholders and stakeholder relations, and the assessment of the implications of these relations for effective IS strategy implementation in public hospitals. The
Verzulli, Rossella; Jacobs, Rowena; Goddard, Maria
Since 2004, English NHS hospitals have been given the opportunity to acquire a more autonomous status known as a Foundation Trust (FT), whereby regulations and restrictions over financial, management, and organizational matters were reduced in order to create incentives to deliver higher-quality services in the most efficient way. Using difference-in-difference models, we test whether achieving greater autonomy (FT status) improved hospital performance, as proxied by measures of financial management, quality of care, and staff satisfaction. Results provide little evidence that the FT policy per se has made any difference to the performance of hospitals in most of these domains. Our findings have implications for health policy and inform the trend towards granting greater autonomy to public-sector organizations.
Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C
This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery.
Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J
The need to balance resources between community and hospital-based mental health services in the post-deinstitutionalisation era has been well-documented. However, few indicators have been developed to monitor the relationship between community and hospital services, in either developed or developing countries. There is a particular need for such indicators in the South African context, with its history of inequitable services based in custodial institutions under apartheid, and a new policy that proposes the development of more equitable community-based care. Indicators are needed to measure the distribution of resources and the relative utilisation of community and hospital-based services during the reform process. These indicators are potentially useful for assessing the implementation of policy objectives over time. To develop and document community/hospital indicators in public sector mental health services in South Africa. A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health coordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all service levels, annual patient admissions to hospitals and annual patient attendances at ambulatory care facilities. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health coordinators in each of the 9 provinces. Population data were obtained from preliminary findings of the 1996 census. The community/hospital indicator measuring staff distribution was defined as the ratio of staff employed in community settings to all staff, expressed as a percentage. The community/hospital indicator measuring patient service utilisation was defined as the ratio of the annual ambulatory care attendance rate per 100,000 population to the sum of this rate and the annual hospital admission rate per 100,000 population, expressed as a percentage. Of psychiatric public sector staff, 25% are located in community settings in South Africa (provincial range: 11-70%). If hospital outpatient
Hussain, Mehwish; Rehman, Rehana; Ikramuddin, Zia; Asad, Nava; Farooq, Ayesha
To observe inpatient satisfaction at different public sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was carried out during 2010-2012 in four major public sector hospitals of Karachi. A total of 710 patients completed the study. Responses were gathered in a self-structured questionnaire that comprised of four dimensions of satisfaction with doctor, staff, administration and treatment. Average Score of each dimension was taken and compared using one way analysis of variance. Satisfaction with doctors, staff and administration of provincial and federal hospitals were comparatively similar (P > 0.05). However, satisfaction with treatment significantly differed in all four hospitals (P public sector hospitals showed satisfaction with healthcare personnel and related administration. However, treatment dimension needs to be improved to get more satisfaction.
Pamecha, Viniyendra; Borle, Deeplaxmi Purushottam; Kumar, Senthil; Bharathy, Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya; Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Sasturkar, Shridhar Vasantrao; Sharma, Vibuti; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Sarin, Shiv Kumar
Deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) is an uncommon procedure in India. We present our experience of DDLT from a public sector teaching hospital. A retrospective analysis of all DDLT was performed from April 2012 till September 2016. Demographics, intraoperative, donor factors, morbidity, and outcome were analyzed. During the study period, 305 liver transplants were performed, of which 36 were DDLT (adult 32, pediatric 4; 35 grafts; 1 split). The median age was 42.5 (1-62) years; 78% were men. The median donor age was 28 (1-77) years; 72.2% were men. About 45% of organs were procured from outside of Delhi and 67% of all grafts used were marginal. Three of 38 liver grafts (7.8%) were rejected due to gross steatosis. Commonest indication was cryptogenic cirrhosis (19.4%). The median model for end-stage liver disease sodium and pediatric end-stage liver disease scores were 23.5 (9-40) and 14.5 (9-22), respectively. Median warm and cold ischemia times were 40 (23-56) and 396 (111-750) min, respectively. Major morbidity of grade III and above occurred in 63.8%. In hospital (90 days), mortality was 16.7% and there were two late deaths because of chronic rejection and biliary sepsis. The overall survival was 77.8% at median follow up of 8.6 (1-54) months. DDLT can be performed with increasing frequency and safety in a public sector hospital. The perioperative and long-term outcomes are acceptable despite the fact that most organs were extended criteria grafts.
Jafree, Sara Rizvi
Cultural and structural forces help sustain workplace violence (WPV) against feminized professions like nursing in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and patterns of workplace violence (WPV) against women nurses (more than 95% of entire nursing population) in two hospitals of Pakistan. A standardized international survey developed by the World Health Organization was used to collect cross-sectional data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and multivariate regression were used for data analysis. A total of 309 nurse respondents were sampled from two public sector tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Findings show that 73.1% of nurses reported experiencing some sort of violence in the last 12 months; with 53.4% suffering from physical violence, 57.3% from verbal violence, and 26.9% from sexual violence. The main perpetrators were reported to be male coworkers, patients, and attendants. Higher risk for WPV includes single status, non-Punjabi provincial belonging, Islamic faith, staff and student nurse designations, temporary government contract, and working additional hours in the evening and night. The primary response to violence included not doing anything and remaining silent. It was also reported that nurse victims experienced moderate levels of emotional grievances after facing violence. The results of this study suggest that public sector hospitals in the region need to improve their policy for the protection and monitoring of WPV against female nurses. Reporting and counseling bodies need to be installed to encourage both complaints and the seeking of medical attention after victimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Memon, Badaruddin AllahDino; Bhutto, Gul Hassan; Rizvi, Wajid Hussain
The aim of this study was to evaluate and assess the index of bacterial contamination in different wards of the Public Sector Hospital of Sukkur (Teaching) Pakistan; whether or not the air contamination was statistically different from the acceptable level using active and passive sampling. In addition to this main hypothesis, other investigations included: occurrence of the most common bacteria, whether or not the bacterial contamination in the wards was a persistent problem and identification of the effective antibiotics against the indentified bacteria. The evidence sought based on the One Sample T test suggests that there is a (statistically) significant difference between the observed (higher) than the acceptance level (pcontamination problem was persistent as there was no significant difference among observed contamination of all three visits at (p>0.01) and the result of antibiotic susceptibility test highlights sensitivity and resistance level of antibiotics for the indentified bacteria.
Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter
The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.
Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S; Tozan, Yeşim
Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health's perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216-609 for pediatric cases and between US$196-866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka.
Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim
Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907
Grimshaw, D.; Jaehrling, K.; van der Meer, M.; Méhaut, P.; Shimron, N.
Drawing on the findings of research in the public hospitals sector in five European countries1—France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK—this article assesses the character of change in wage setting and collective bargaining. It demonstrates the diversity of national arrangements by
Tabassum, Sumera; Haider, Shahbaz
To determine frequencies of different MRI patterns of tuberculous spondylitisin a public sector hospital in Karachi. This descriptive multidisciplinary case series study was done from October 25, 2011 to May 28, 2012 in Radiology Department and Department of Medicine in the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. MRI scans (dorsal / lumbosacral spine) of the Patients presenting with backache in Medical OPD, were performed in Radiology Department. Axial and sagittal images of T1 weighted, T2 weighted and STIR sequences of the affected region were taken. A total of 140 patients who were diagnosed as having tuberculous spondylitis were further evaluated and analyzed for having different patterns of involvement of the spine and compared with similar studies. Among frequencies of different MRI pattern of tuberculous spondylitis, contiguous vertebral involvement was 100%, discal involvement 98.6%, paravertebral abscess 92.1% cases, epidural abscess 91.4%, spinal cord / thecal sac compression 89.3%, vertebral collapse 72.9%, gibbus deformity 42.9% and psoas abscess 36.4%. Contiguous vertebral involvement was commonest MRI pattern, followed by disk involvement, paravertebral & epidural abscesses, thecal sac compression and vertebral collapse.
Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin
The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.
Fenner, Charles, R., Jr.; Selmer, Jan
Although public sector expatriates are becoming increasingly common, research on them is very limited. There is reason to believe that the situation for expatriates from the public sector may be different than for those from the private sector. This study investigated U.S. Department of Defense a...
Full Text Available in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations...
Hospital utilization and out of pocket expenditure in public and private sectors under the universal government health insurance scheme in Chhattisgarh State, India: Lessons for universal health coverage.
Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen; Dixit, Priyanka
Research on impact of publicly financed health insurance has paid relatively little attention to the nature of healthcare provision the schemes engage. India's National Health Insurance Scheme or RSBY was made universal by Chhattisgarh State in 2012. In the State, public and private sectors provide hospital services in a context of extensive gender, social, economic and geographical inequities. This study examined enrolment, utilization (public and private) and out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for the insured and uninsured, in Chhattisgarh. The Chhattisgarh State Central sample (n = 6026 members) of the 2014 National Sample Survey (71st Round) on Health was extracted and analyzed. Variables of enrolment, hospitalization, out of pocket (OOP) expenditure and catastrophic expenditure were descriptively analyzed. Multivariate analyses of factors associated with enrolment, hospitalization (by sector) and OOP expenditure were conducted, taking into account gender, socio-economic status, residence, type of facility and ailment. Insurance coverage was 38.8%. Rates of hospitalization were 33/1000 population among the insured and 29/1000 among the uninsured. Of those insured and hospitalized, 67.2% utilized the public sector. Women, rural residents, Scheduled Tribes and poorer groups were more likely to utilize the public sector for hospitalizations. Although the insured were less likely to incur out of pocket (OOP) expenditure, 95.1% of insured private sector users and 66.0% of insured public sector users, still incurred costs. Median OOP payments in the private sector were eight times those in the public sector. Of households with at least one member hospitalized, 35.5% experienced catastrophic health expenditures (>10% monthly household consumption expenditure). The study finds that despite insurance coverage, the majority still incurred OOP expenditure. The public sector was nevertheless less expensive, and catered to the more vulnerable groups. It suggests the need to
Hospital utilization and out of pocket expenditure in public and private sectors under the universal government health insurance scheme in Chhattisgarh State, India: Lessons for universal health coverage.
Full Text Available Research on impact of publicly financed health insurance has paid relatively little attention to the nature of healthcare provision the schemes engage. India's National Health Insurance Scheme or RSBY was made universal by Chhattisgarh State in 2012. In the State, public and private sectors provide hospital services in a context of extensive gender, social, economic and geographical inequities. This study examined enrolment, utilization (public and private and out of pocket (OOP expenditure for the insured and uninsured, in Chhattisgarh. The Chhattisgarh State Central sample (n = 6026 members of the 2014 National Sample Survey (71st Round on Health was extracted and analyzed. Variables of enrolment, hospitalization, out of pocket (OOP expenditure and catastrophic expenditure were descriptively analyzed. Multivariate analyses of factors associated with enrolment, hospitalization (by sector and OOP expenditure were conducted, taking into account gender, socio-economic status, residence, type of facility and ailment. Insurance coverage was 38.8%. Rates of hospitalization were 33/1000 population among the insured and 29/1000 among the uninsured. Of those insured and hospitalized, 67.2% utilized the public sector. Women, rural residents, Scheduled Tribes and poorer groups were more likely to utilize the public sector for hospitalizations. Although the insured were less likely to incur out of pocket (OOP expenditure, 95.1% of insured private sector users and 66.0% of insured public sector users, still incurred costs. Median OOP payments in the private sector were eight times those in the public sector. Of households with at least one member hospitalized, 35.5% experienced catastrophic health expenditures (>10% monthly household consumption expenditure. The study finds that despite insurance coverage, the majority still incurred OOP expenditure. The public sector was nevertheless less expensive, and catered to the more vulnerable groups. It suggests
Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan
New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...... and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence....
Guinevere M. Lourens
Full Text Available Background: A volunteer programme with 50 registered volunteers was established in 2007 at a secondary-level public, semi-rural regional hospital in the Cape Winelands, South Africa. This was a rapid response to the extensive renovations and system changes brought about by the hospital revitalisation initiated in 2006 and the resultant expanded services, which required additional human resources. This study describes the hospital volunteer programme and provides hospital administrators with practical planning guidance for hospital volunteer programme implementation. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to (1 describe the outcomes of the hospital volunteer programme implementation intervention and (2 to make sound recommendations for volunteer programme implementation. Methodology and approach: A qualitative case-study methodology was employed using purposive sampling as a technique. Participants were recruited from a public hospital in the Western Cape. A case-study design was applied to explore the hospital volunteer programme implementation. In-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with thematic content analysis of transcripts as well as document reviews were conducted to conclude the study during 2015. The key participants were individually interviewed and included two members of the hospital management, two volunteers and one volunteer coordinator. A focus group discussion consisting of three volunteers was also conducted. Findings: The findings of this study indicate that a volunteer programme can meet needs and be a motivational force for both the individual volunteer and the organisation. However, it requires co-ordination and some secure funding to remain sustainable. Such a programme holds huge benefits in terms of human resource supplementation, organisational development, as well as the possibility of gainful employment for the previously unemployed. Practical implications: In practice, a health service contemplating a
Rispel, Laetitia C; Moorman, Julia
Globally, flexible work arrangements - through the use of temporary nursing staff - are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices). In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Hospital managers and policy-makers need to address the effective
Laetitia C. Rispel
Full Text Available Background: Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods: Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices. Results: In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million. The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467 and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874, thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion
Obua, Thomas Ocwa; Adome, Richard Odoi; Kutyabami, Paul; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru
Pharmacists are invaluable resources in health care. Their expertise in pharmacotherapy and medicine management both ensures that medicines of appropriate quality are available in health facilities at the right cost and are used appropriately. Unfortunately, some countries like Uganda have shortage of pharmacists in public health facilities, the dominant providers of care. This study investigated the factors that affect the occupancy of pharmacist positions in Uganda's public hospitals, including hiring patterns and job attraction and retention. A cross-sectional survey of 91 registered pharmacists practicing in Uganda and desk review of records from the country's health care worker (HCW) recruiting agency was done in the months of May, June, and July, 2016. Pharmacist interviews were done using self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Slight majority (53%) of the interviewed pharmacists work in two sectors. About 60% of the pharmacists had ever applied for public hospital jobs. Of those who received offers (N = 46), 30% had declined them. Among those who accepted the offers (N = 41), 41% had already quit. Meanwhile, the pace of hiring pharmacists into Uganda's public sector is too slow. Low socio-economic status of family in childhood (χ 2 = 2.77, p = 0.10), admission through matriculation and diploma scheme (χ 2 = 2.37, p = 0.12), internship in countryside hospitals (χ 2 = 2.24, p = 0.13), working experience before pharmacy school (χ 2 = 2.21, p = 0.14), salary expectation (χ 2 = 1.76, p = 0.18), and rural secondary education (χ 2 = 1.75, p = 0.19) favored attraction but in a statistically insignificant manner. Retention was most favored by zero postgraduate qualification (χ 2 = 4.39, p = 0.04), matriculation and diploma admission scheme (χ 2 = 2.57, p = 0.11), and working experience in private sector (χ 2 = 2
Kanani, F.H.; Noor, F.; Jamil, F.; Khanani, R.; Hossein, N.
Objectives: To determine Vitamin D levels in healthy female medical students. Setting and duration of study:Public sector university in Karachi during the month of November 2010. Subjects and Methods: A total of 84 healthy, female medical students were included in the study. 25(OH) Vitamin D, serum calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels were determined in their blood samples.Vitamin D was analyzed by chemiluminesence technique, while serum calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were determined photometrically. A comprehensive questionnaire was also filled out by 57 students which included biometrics, dietary habits, sun exposure and physical activity details. Results Almost all (98.8%) subjects had low levels of vitamin D, with 96.4% having values less than 10 ng/ml. There was no correlation of low Vitamin D levels with calcium, phosphorous or alkaline phosphatase levels or with biometric measurements. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was very common even in apparently healthy young females with no correlation to calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels. Nationwide studies are needed to see the cases for low levels of vitamins D. (author)
Reuter, P-G; Kernéis, S; Turbelin, C; Souty, C; Arena, C; Gavazzi, G; Sarazin, M; Blanchon, T; Hanslik, T
In-patients characteristics generate cost differences between hospitals. In France, there are few data on the characteristics on the patients referred to hospitals by their general practitioners (GPs) and none on the predictors of referral to the public or for-profit hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyze those characteristics and the predictors of referral to the public or for-profit hospitals. We collected, prospectively, the request for hospitalizations made by the GPs of the Sentinelles network in France, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' characteristics and also the reasons for that request were analyzed. A logistic regression was used to compare the population between local hospitals. Ten thousand seven hundred and eighteen statements were collected. The median age was 73 years. Patients were women in 51% of the cases, and only 14% of the hospitalizations had been planned. Hospitalization in the public sector was preferred for young children and the elderly (Pprivate sector, patients addressed to the public sector were more often seen for emergencies (OR: 2.3 [2.0-2.8]), by a doctor different from their referring GP (OR: 1.7 [1.4-2.1]) and out of the GP's office. The reasons for hospital admission were different depending on the sector of hospitalization (Ppublic sector hospitals presented with greater comorbidity or more complex diagnosis (for example: feeling ill, fainting or syncope and fever) or a greater disability (for example: stroke, neurological and psychiatric diseases). This study suggests that GPs send their patients to the public or for-profit hospitals according to criteria of severity, comorbidity and disability. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Saima Hamid,1 Asmat Ullah Malik,2 Irum Kamran,3 Musarat Ramzan41Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Integrated Health Services, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3GIZ, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Wah Medical College, Wah Cantt, University of Health Sciences, Wah, PakistanBackground: Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse.Methods: A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients.Results: All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system.Conclusion: The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain
This paper explores the value dimension of public innovation in the light of practitioners’ values and asks why there seems to be a clash between innovation imperatives and workplace practices in the public sector. The paper contributes to the research on public innovation from a practice...... perspective by providing evidence from an ethnographic field study on innovation in social and health care studies in Denmark. These studies are part of the vocational education and training (VET) system, which combines coursework at a college and internship in the elder care sector. The study is thus cross...... initiate innovations grounded in their values. The main point put forward is that the value dimension of public innovation must be understood not only in terms of value creation (economic or non-economic), which frontline practitioners are required to contribute to, but also as value-based practices...
Batool, K.; Bano, K.A.; Sherwani, M.I.K.
Background: Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease which seemed to have disappeared or had been controlled over the years, has now been re-emerged as a major public health problem in many communities. It can complicate the pregnancies with serious consequences. Appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications. Aims: To study the frequency of syphilis in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital, and see the positivity for HIV/AIDS among syphilis positive women. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional and interventional study was conducted among pregnant women attending Sir Ganga Ram hospital for antenatal care at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Blood samples from 2000 women were collected after taking consent. The blood was tested for syphilis by Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination. History of the subjects for risks factors was also taken. Syphilis positive women were further screened for human immunodeficiency virus positivity. Results: The treponemal antibodies were detected in less than one percent (9) pregnant women. The highest positivity was observed among age group of 21-26 years. Women in third trimester were significantly more infected with syphilis. Risk factors included husband's history with frequent traveling and drug abuse. All husbands of syphilis positive women were also positive. All syphilis positive women and their husbands were negative for Human immunodeficiency virus /Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Conclusions: Less than 1% of pregnant women were infected with syphilis, and most of the spouses of these positive women were either travelers or drug addicts.(author)
Vanderbeke Dave; Christiaens Johan; Verbruggen Sandra
Although the number of non-profit audit fee studies recently has risen, evidence in the hospital sector is rather scarce. Apart from NHS studies, hospitals are a fairly new topic and several specific fee determinants are yet to be tested. For instance, hospitals can have a private or a public status and they have a distinct number of clinical services. These and other dependent variables known from earlier research are added to a fee model and investigated. As hypothesized the hospital status...
Luni, F.K.; Hamid, S.A.; Mamji, S.; Baig, S.M.
To assess the clinicians management of patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke in the emergency departments of two large state run hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. A questionnaire was filled by 59 registered medical practitioners working at these two government hospitals who would be managing stroke patients presenting in the emergency. It was a descriptive cross sectional study designed to assess the methods used by the doctors for diagnosing and treating stroke patients. The data was collected from October to November 2007 and entered using Epi Data Entry and analyzed by SPSS 13.0. Results: The preferred overall investigation for a suspected stroke patient in an emergency ward was an ECG (98%). 51% of the respondents would prescribe aspirin to most patients (300 mg by 40% respondents). Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was thought to be beneficial by 43% of doctors, low molecular weight heparin by 91%, subcutaneous heparin by 86.5%, intravenous Vitamin B complex by 20% and steroids by 39% of respondents. Regarding elevated blood pressure, 60% answered that they would manage the blood pressure according to the type of stroke and 73% responded that they would lower blood pressure when it reached greater than 150/80. 88% of the doctors answered that they would use cholesterol lowering drugs in the management of stroke patients in an emergency. 97% of the doctors recommended rehabilitation and 88% of the respondents believed that there should be separate stroke units. Conclusion: The development of a standardized protocol and stroke team is recommended which should speed the clinical assessment, decisions for early management and also increase the performance of diagnostic studies. (author)
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians′ perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector. Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5% and second stage (98.2% of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%, instrumental delivery (58.8% and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%. None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2% were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001 of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses.
Karhula, Kati; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ropponen, Annina; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kivimäki, Mika; Härmä, Mikko
This epidemiological cohort study, based on Finnish public sector data, investigated the associations between objective working hour characteristics and work-life conflict in day and shift work. The comprehensive data of hospital workers (n = 8 931, 92% women, average age 45 years), consisted of survey responses from 2012, linked with the payroll data of working hour characteristics from 91 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between working hour characteristics and experiencing work-life conflict often/very often. The analyses were adjusted for age (50 years), sex, level of education, marital status, number of small (0-6 years) and school-aged (7-18 years) children, and the overall stressfulness of the life situation. We also conducted stratified analyses of age and sex on the basis of significant interactions. Difficulties in combining work and life were more often associated with shift work without night shifts and shift work with night shifts than with day work (41% and 34 versus 27%; OR for shift work with night shifts 1.78, 95% CI 1.59-2.00, OR for shift work without night shifts 1.42, 95% CI 1.26-1.60). A high proportion (> 25%) of long (> 40h, (OR 1.26, 95% 1.14-1.39) and very long (> 48h, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49) weekly working hours were associated with work-life conflict, and in the stratified analysis, the latter was also true among women (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.25-1.89). Of the unsocial working hour characteristics, a relatively large amount (> 10% of all shifts) of evening (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.41-1.72) and night shifts (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.32-1.61), a high proportion (> 25% of all shifts) of quick returns (work (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.58) were associated with work-life conflict. A large amount of single days off (> 25% of all days off) was associated with work-life conflict among men (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.11-3.25), but not in the whole sample. When the two types of shift work were analyzed separately
Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina
Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses.
Introduction of EDI in the public administration is apriority for the Danish Government. EDI is both seen as a catlyst for development towards an information society ans as a means for more efficient use of scarce resources. EDI in the banking sector and the retail sector is reviewed, drivers...
Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar
To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper emphasises the role of the market-type mechanisms within the activity of the organisations from the public sector. The end of the 20th century was defined by the effects of the public sector reform. The public sector is placed within the cultural and political environment of each country and the reforms have aimed to redefine the structures of the state organisations in the economy and the relationships such as market-government, government-bureaucracy, government- citizens, bureaucracy-citizens, civil servants-politicians-citizens. The public sector reform, achieved at the managerial systems, organisational structures and regulations levels is accompanied by specific and structural reforms. Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.
Brodribb, Wendy; Zadoroznyj, Maria; Nesic, Michelle; Kruske, Sue; Miller, Yvette D
In Australia, maternity care is available through universal coverage and a parallel, competitive private health insurance system. Differences between sectors in antenatal and intrapartum care and associated outcomes are well documented but few studies have investigated differences in postpartum care following hospital discharge and their impact on maternal satisfaction and confidence. Women who birthed in Queensland, Australia from February to May 2010 were mailed a self-report survey 4 months postpartum. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between sector of birth and postpartum care, and whether postpartum care experiences explained sector differences in postpartum well-being (satisfaction, parenting confidence and feeling depressed). Women who birthed in the public sector had higher odds of health professional contact in the first 10 days post-discharge and satisfaction with the amount of postpartum care. After adjusting for demographic and postpartum contact variables, sector of birth no longer had an impact on satisfaction (AOR 0.95, 99% CI 0.78-1.31), but any form of health professional contact did. Women who had a care provider's 24 hour contact details had higher odds of being satisfied (AOR 3.64, 95% CI 3.00-4.42) and confident (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.08- 1.65). Women who birthed in the public sector appeared more satisfied because they had higher odds of receiving contact from a health professional within 10 days post-discharge. All women should have an opportunity to speak to and/or see a doctor, midwife or nurse in the first 10 days at home, and the details of a person they can contact 24 hours a day.
Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.
Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony
Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...
Ouma, Paul O; Maina, Joseph; Thuranira, Pamela N; Macharia, Peter M; Alegana, Victor A; English, Mike; Okiro, Emelda A; Snow, Robert W
%) women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Paul O Ouma, MSc
282 013 (29·0% people and 64 495 526 (28·2% women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Interpretation: Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Funding: Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development.
Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly
This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…
Hameed Khaliq, Imran; Zahid Mahmood, Hafiz; Akhter, Naveed; Danish Sarfraz, Muhammad; Asim, Khadija; Masood Gondal, Khalid
Breast cancer is one of the major causes of death incurring highest morbidity and mortality amongst women of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the role of two public sector tertiary care hospitals' management in reducing out of pocket (OOP) expenses on direct medical costs borne by breast carcinoma patients' household from diagnosis through treatment. Moreover, the study intended to explore the reasons of opting private diagnostic facilities by the said patients during the services taken from the foresaid tertiary care centers. A purposive sample of 164 primary breast carcinoma patients was recruited for data collection of this cross-sectional study. Face to face interviews and semistructured questionnaires were adopted as method of data gathering tools. Major cost components of direct medical costs were used to compare the financial strain on the patients' households of both targeted hospitals. In addition, information was collected regarding the reasons of opting private diagnostic centers for investigations. Frequency, percentages, median and inter quartile range (IQR) were calculated for the data. Non-parametric variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. It was observed that overall direct medical cost borne by the breast carcinoma patients' households in Jinnah hospital (median US$1153.93 / Rs. 118,589) was significantly higher than Mayo hospital (median US$427.93 /Rs. 43,978), pprivately opted investigations procedures was the common issue of the patients under treatment in both hospitals.
Reviews the status of EDI in the sectors of health, public transport and taxation and public administration. The impact of this on the diffusion of EDI in other sectors is analysed.......Reviews the status of EDI in the sectors of health, public transport and taxation and public administration. The impact of this on the diffusion of EDI in other sectors is analysed....
Jafree, Sara Rizvi; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Fischer, Florian
There is an absence of formal error tracking systems in public sector hospitals of Pakistan and also a lack of literature concerning error reporting culture in the health care sector. Nurse practitioners have front-line knowledge and rich exposure about both the organizational culture and error sharing in hospital settings. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between organizational culture and the culture of error reporting, as perceived by nurses. The authors used the "Practice Environment Scale-Nurse Work Index Revised" to measure the six dimensions of organizational culture. Seven questions were used from the "Survey to Solicit Information about the Culture of Reporting" to measure error reporting culture in the region. Overall, 309 nurses participated in the survey, including female nurses from all designations such as supervisors, instructors, ward-heads, staff nurses and student nurses. We used SPSS 17.0 to perform a factor analysis. Furthermore, descriptive statistics, mean scores and multivariable logistic regression were used for the analysis. Three areas were ranked unfavorably by nurse respondents, including: (i) the error reporting culture, (ii) staffing and resource adequacy, and (iii) nurse foundations for quality of care. Multivariable regression results revealed that all six categories of organizational culture, including: (1) nurse manager ability, leadership and support, (2) nurse participation in hospital affairs, (3) nurse participation in governance, (4) nurse foundations of quality care, (5) nurse-coworkers relations, and (6) nurse staffing and resource adequacy, were positively associated with higher odds of error reporting culture. In addition, it was found that married nurses and nurses on permanent contract were more likely to report errors at the workplace. Public healthcare services of Pakistan can be improved through the promotion of an error reporting culture, reducing staffing and resource shortages and the
the findings. The study also suffers from the limits of a quantitative research approach, which provides less elaborate accounts of public communication officers’ perceptions of the strategic role of communication in the public sector. Originality/value of paper: This study contributes to the existing......Purpose of the paper: The aim of this study is to examine the level of strategic management of public administrations and information and communication programs by public communication officers in Italy. Methodology: The study is quantitative in nature. It was constructed according to the findings...... of the Excellence Project in Public Relations and thus applies a research instrument similar to that used in other international scholarly investigations in public relations. The population comprises civil servants working in information and communication activities for Italian public administrations. Findings...
Nadir, Maha; Hamza, Muhammad; Mehmood, Nadir
Biopsychosocial (BPS) model has been a mainstay in the ideal practice of modern medicine. It is attributed to improve patient care, compliance, and satisfaction and to reduce doctor-patient conflict. The study aimed to understand the importance given to BPS model while conducting routine doctor-patient interactions in public sector hospitals of a developing country where health resources are limited. The study was conducted in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The study design is qualitative. Structured interviews were conducted from 44 patients from surgical and medical units of Benazir Bhutto Hospital and Holy Family Hospital. The questions were formulated based on patient-centered interviewing methods by reviewing the literature on BPS model. The analysis was done thematically using the software NVivo 11 for qualitative data. The study revealed four emerging themes: (1) Lack of doctor-patient rapport. (2) Utilization of a paternalistic approach during treatment. (3) Utilization of a reductionist biomedical approach during treatment. (4) Patients' concern with their improvement in health and doctor's demeanor. The study highlights the fact that BPS is not given considerable importance while taking routine medical history. This process remains doctor centered and paternalistic. However, patients are more concerned with their improvement in health rather than whether or not they are being provided informational care. Sequential studies will have to be conducted to determine whether this significantly affects patient care and compliance and whether BPS is a workable model in the healthcare system in the third world.
Cribb, Jonathan; Emmerson, Carl; Sibieta, Luke
This report looks at trends in public sector pay and compares these with what has been happening in the private sector. We start by analysing the overall levels of public and private sector pay, including how they have evolved over recent years and the differences after accounting for the different composition of the public and private sector workforces. We then examine how the difference between pay in the public and private sector varies across different groups of workers and areas of the c...
Schou, Jannick; Hjelholt, Morten
This book provides a study of governmental digitalization, an increasingly important area of policymaking within advanced capitalist states. It dives into a case study of digitalization efforts in Denmark, fusing a national policy study with local institutional analysis. Denmark is often framed....... Digitalization and Public Sector Transformations pushes for a renewed approach to governmental digitalization and will be of interest to scholars working in the intersections of critical political economy, state theory and policy studies....... as an international forerunner in terms of digitalizing its public sector and thus provides a particularly instructive setting for understanding this new political instrument. Advancing a cultural political economic approach, Schou and Hjelholt argue that digitalization is far from a quick technological fix. Instead...
Flokou, Angeliki; Aletras, Vassilis; Niakas, Dimitris
The main objective of this study was to apply the non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of Greek NHS hospitals between 2009-2013. Hospitals were divided into four separate groups with common characteristics which allowed comparisons to be carried out in the context of increased homogeneity. The window-DEA method was chosen since it leads to increased discrimination on the results especially when applied to small samples and it enables year-by-year comparisons of the results. Three inputs -hospital beds, physicians and other health professionals- and three outputs-hospitalized cases, surgeries and outpatient visits- were chosen as production variables in an input-oriented 2-year window DEA model for the assessment of technical and scale efficiency as well as for the identification of returns to scale. The Malmquist productivity index together with its components (i.e. pure technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change and technological scale) were also calculated in order to analyze the sources of productivity change between the first and last year of the study period. In the context of window analysis, the study identified the individual efficiency trends together with "all-windows" best and worst performers and revealed that a high level of technical and scale efficiency was maintained over the entire 5-year period. Similarly, the relevant findings of Malmquist productivity index analysis showed that both scale and pure technical efficiency were improved in 2013 whilst technological change was found to be in favor of the two groups with the largest hospitals.
Richard B. Freeman
This paper argues that public sector labor relations is best understood in a framework that focuses on unions' ability to shift demand curves rather than to raise wages, as is the case in the private sector. It reviews the public sector labor relations literature and finds that: (i) public sector unionism has flourished as a result of changes in laws; (2) the effects of public sector unions on wages are likely to have been underestimated; (3) public sector unions have a somewhat different eff...
Full Text Available Despite a growing body of evidence favouring a family-centred approach to rehabilitation services for children with cerebral palsy (cp, the essential components for a quality service for children with disabilities and their families living in poorly-resourced South African (SA settings remains unknown. The study aimed to identify key components of an appropriate rehabilitation service which would meet the needs of children with CP and their caregivers at SA public sector hospitals. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the modified Measure of processes of care (Mpoc-20 questionnaire together with two open-endedquestions with a convenience sample of caregivers attending therapy at CP Clinics in gauteng and limpopo hospitals. A total of 263 caregivers attending cerebral palsy clinics at 31 public sector hospitals in gauteng and limpopo were interviewed. Kind and caring attitudes, exercises or “training” for the child, and practical assistance (handling ideas and suggestions, assistive devices, food supplements, nappies, advice were components of care most valued. The most frustration was caused by long queues waiting for files or at the pharmacy and being treated disrespectfully whilst providing caregivers with information and explanations regarding treatment choice were services that could be improved. Key components for an appropriate therapy service include caring and respectful attitudes, hands-on therapy, handling suggestions and practical assistance. Logistical and administrative procedures together with disrespectul and unhelpful attitudes negatively impact rehabilitation service delivery.
Full Text Available Agency theory analyses the effects of contractual behaviour between two parties: principal(s and agent(s. This relation is inevitably characterized by information asymmetry because agent holds a substantially larger volume of information than the principal. Due the negative effects of information asymmetry for the principal, this should cover supplementary costs with monitoring agents and/or grant incentives. The first objective of this paper is to emphasize the effects of information asymmetry, particularly on adverse selection and moral hazard. The second objective is to evaluate the negative effects of information asymmetry and to assess the viability of solutions proposed by scholars for mitigation. The third objective is linked with personal contribution, respectively to highlight specificity of agency theory in public sector and the mechanisms of action in this particular field. In this paper, literature is mainly based on scholarsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ contribution to the proposed theme. Little literature approaches agency theory in public sector, in most cases the analysis being restricted to general issues. Research methodology is based on synthesizing relevant information from literature and adapting them to public sector particularities. The results reflect some threats for public bodies in their contracting activity. Conclusions present also a set of solutions which could be used by public institutions to optimize their activity of mitigating information asymmetryÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s effects. These solution guidelines could represent a useful instrument for make more efficient public money spending. Personal contribution and the novelty of this paper consist in presenting a new approach regarding mechanisms of managing information by agents. In case of public institutions, principals have more opportunities the take possession over the information managed by the agent. Nevertheless, agents can limit the principalÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s access
Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry
are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....
Full Text Available Background: Low back pain has been found to be the most prevailing musculoskeletal condition as well as a common cause of absence from workplace. Studies report that low back pain is common and accounts for a large number of reported disabilities among nurses. In fact nursing have one of the highest levels of back injury in all occupation groups. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of low back pain among nurses in a public sector teaching hospital of Karachi. This study has mainly focused on confounding factors leading to low back pain and level of education among nurses regarding patients handling or shifting techniques. Methods: A self-administered questionnaires comprises of three sections, were used to collect data. The first section requested for socio-demographic information, followed by medical history of back pain during last month and during last year.The second section assessed the medical history of LBP in two categories i.e. during last month and during last year.The third and last section inquired about participants’ level of education about ergonomics with simply in yes or no pattern.The questionnaires were given to 100 nurses. All questionnaires were completed in the presence of theresearcher. Out of 100 questionnaires distributed and recorded, only 47 participants returned the questionnaire. Results: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. Relationship between the prevalence of low back pain and training in patient moving techniques, manual material handling techniques is significant (p=0.017,p= 0.068. There is a weak relationship with the knowledge of ergonomics, biomechanics and back pain preventive measures (p=0.719,p=0.457,p=0.704. Conclusion: More than two third of the participated nurses were well trained in transfer techniques, manual material training and preventive measures of back pain. But they lack the biomechanical knowledge. The prevalence
Agger, Annika; Hedensted Lund, Dorthe
Collaborative innovation in the public sector is increasingly used as a strategy for balancing citizens’ rising expectations for public services with limited public resources. This article suggests that public polices construct citizens as clients, consumers, or coproducers and thereby encourage...
Khan, Sara; Khan, Naveed Ali; Rehman, Ata Ur; Khan, Iqra; Samo, Khursheed A; Memon, Amjad Siraj
There is a noticeable change in the approach with which women nowadays seek help for diseases like breast cancer, primarily due to awareness campaigns, but what happens after surgical procedures is of great significance too. This study focused on the several psychological connotations attached to mastectomy and how the patients cope. To understand the pattern of anxiety and level of depression among Pakistani patients undergoing mastectomy. The sample size consisted of 88 patients who had undergone mastectomy at the different surgical units of the Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January 2012- December 2014; The questionnaire was administered before they were discharged i.e. within 3 days of surgical procedures. The patients were asked if they were willing to participate in this study, those who agreed signed the consent form and then we preceded by asking questions with a standardized tool. A self made questionnaire was constructed keeping in mind the nature and specification of the disease, which consisted of 20 questions related to anxiety and depression, focusing on a mixture of psychological and physiological symptoms. There were a total of 88 patients out of which 36 (41%) were aged 51 to 60 years, 24 (27.2%) of the patients were in the age category of 41 to 50 years, 17 aged 61 and above (19.3%) and only 11 (12.5%) 30-40 years of age, the youngest of all the age categories. The pattern of depression and anxiety was found to be similar among all age categories, severe depression and anxiety predominating over moderate level of such symptoms, with only relatively few patients sufering mild or no depression symptoms. It was concluded that going through mastectomy leads to moderate to severe levels of depression and anxiety, primarily because the females feel incomplete and insecure after losing a part of themselves.
Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Cloete, Christie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Rabideau, Dustin J; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Parker, Robert A; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V
HIV clinics formerly supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief are transferring patients to public-sector clinics. We evaluated adolescent linkage to care after a large-scale transfer from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-subsidized pediatric HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa. All adolescents (11-18 years) in care at a pediatric state-subsidized, hospital-based clinic (HBC) were transferred, from May to June 2012, to government sites [primary health care (PHC) clinic; community health center (CHC); and HBCs] or private clinics. Caregivers were surveyed 7-8 months after transfer to assess their adolescents' linkage to care and their reports were validated by clinic record audits in a subset of randomly selected clinics. Of the 309 (91%) caregivers reached, only 5 (2%) reported that their adolescent did not link. Of the 304 adolescents who linked, 105 (35%) were referred to a PHC, 73 (24%) to a CHC and 106 (35%) to a HBC. A total of 146 (48%) linked adolescents attended a different clinic than that assigned. Thirty-five (20%) of the 178 who linked and were assigned to a PHC or CHC ultimately attended a HBC. Based on clinic validation, the estimated transfer success was 88% (95% confidence interval: 77%-97%). The large majority of adolescents successfully transferred to a new HIV clinic, although nearly half attended a clinic other than that assigned.
.... This demand has created a trend in the public sector, not only in the United States, but worldwide as well, towards the importation of private sector business practices to improve accountability-oriented analysis...
Objectives. To determine the main factors causing infertility in an urban, tertiary hospital population. To establish if any such major causal factor could be used to rationalise and improve the service for infertile couples in the public sector. Design. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 206 women who had a tubal ...
Hansson, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Vad, Torben Bundgaard
The New Public Management drive to innovate in the public sector has become less influential and new initiatives to drive innovation are now sought. There are well-known challenges when using social science research to inform innovation in the public sector. In order to address these challenges, ...
Pan, Jay; Zhao, Hanqing; Wang, Xiuli; Shi, Xun
In 2009, the Chinese government launched a new round of healthcare reform, which encourages development of private hospitals. Meanwhile, many public hospitals in China also became increasingly profit-oriented. These trends have led to concerns about social justice and regional disparity. However, there is a lack of empirical scientific analysis to support the debate. We started to fill this gap by conducting a regional-level analysis of spatial variation in spatial access to hospitals in the Sichuan Province. Such variation is an important indication of (in) equity in healthcare resource allocation. Using data of 2012, we intended to provide a snapshot of the situation that was a few years later since the new policies had set out. We employed two methods to quantify the spatial access: the nearest-neighbor method and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. We recognized two sub-regions of Sichuan: the rural West Sichuan and the well-developed East Sichuan. We classified the hospitals using both ownership and level. We applied the analysis to the resulting groups of hospitals and their combinations in the two sub-regions. The two sub-regions have a high contrast in the spatial access to hospitals, in terms of both quantity and spatial pattern. Public hospitals still dominated the service in the province, especially in the West Sichuan, which had been solely relying on public hospitals. Private hospitals only occurred in the East Sichuan, and at the primary level, they had surpassed public hospitals in terms of spatial accessibility. However, the governmental health expenditures seemed to be disconnected with the actual situation of the spatial access to hospitals. The government should continue carrying on its responsibility in allocating healthcare resources, be cautious about marketizing public hospitals, and encourage private hospitals to expand into rural areas. Methodologically, the results from the two methods are concurring but not
Andreasson, Kim J
The Internet has given rise to new opportunities for the public sector to improve efficiency and better serve constituents in the form of e-government. But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new risks. An accessible primer, Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses focuses on the convergence of globalization, connectivity, and the migration of public sector functions online. It identifies the challenges you need to be aware of and examines emerging trends and strategies from around
Due to a strike among nurses in the spring of 2008, the existing waiting time guarantee of one month was suspended until June 1, 2009. Regions turned to private hospitals to assist reducing the hump of patients. It has been claimed that the private sector used to be favorably treated by the Liber...
This report examines the inputs, outputs and outcomes of the public sector in 36 countries (including the EU-28) over the period 1995-2012. We study two sectors – education and health – in some detail, while taking a more general look at the sectors social safety, housing, social security and
Transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público: el caso de los hospitales de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Transparency in public sector acquisitions: The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires
gestión de compra claros y precisos y con una normativa homogénea y uniforme, pueden lograr un buen nivel de actividad. Además, pueden contribuir a la baja de precios y la disminución de la dispersión de los mismos, a la vez que mejoran la eficiencia en la asignación y utilización de los recursos.This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation. Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality. Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budeget administration (activity and negotiation indicators. Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares, which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public
This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...
Objective. To investigate errors in administering drugs by anaesthetists working in public hospitals in the Free State province. Methods. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to doctors performing anaesthesia in public hospitals in the Free State, i.e. 188 doctors at 22 public sector hospitals. Outcomes included ...
M.W.J.M. Buurman (Margaretha); A.J. Dur (Robert); S. Bossche, van den (Seth)
textabstractWe assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered
Buurman, M.; Delfgaauw, J.; Dur, R.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den
We assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered a
Buurman, M.; Dur, R.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den
We assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered a
The article analyses the popular concept of Competence Development as constructed of at least three different discourses (Life Long Learning, New Public Management and professionalisation) and discusses the relations between the transformations of the public sectors in Scandinavian Welfare States......, Competence Development and Professionalisation/Deprofessionalisation among the public employees....
Alford, John; Greve, Carsten
Strategic concepts and practices first evolved in the private sector, so they evoked much controversy when they migrated to the public sector from the late 1970s onwards. Partly this was about their (in)applicability to the distinctive features of government organizations, in particular their focus...... on public as well as private value, their situation in a political rather than a market environment, their almost exclusive capacity to use legal authority to achieve purposes, and the extent to which they often need to share power over personnel and resources with other public sector agencies....... These and other factors complicated efforts to apply New Public Management and similar frameworks in strategy concepts in a governmental context. Partly also the traditional private-sector focus on single organizations did not resonate with the growth of network governance from the 1990s. The authors argue...
.... Development and application of ROI analysis is challenging in the public sector since most government organizations do not generate profit necessary for calculation of ROI in the manner in which it...
As the changes underpinning the Coordinated Care Trials in South Australia have become more apparent, similarities have emerged between the rationalisation of public schooling in the mid 1980s and the transformation of public health in the 1990s. This article aims to discuss the evolution of health services in South Australia and help us answer the question of how best to manage our public and private health infrastructure in a changing economic and social context. Both strategies in education and health share common elements of cost cutting, attempts at improving efficiencies, a flirting with the private sector and the attendant risk of reduced quality of services to the public. This situation in both sectors is indicative of a shift in public policy and a growth in the belief that private management of public sector infrastructure can help resolve the funding crises around our education and health systems.
Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse
Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...
Find the public administration industries EPA regulations affect, with their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. On those pages you can find a list of laws and regulations that affect your industry as well as compliance information
three regional governments, this article exposes how public sector management system (public finance and human resource management system) determines decentralization outcomes. It contends that outcomes of decentralization reforms are shaped not only by political and economic factors, as suggested in the ...
Full Text Available In recent years, Alberta’s fiscal stance has shifted from large surpluses to deficits, and a large part of the blame appears to be due to rising public sector salaries. Since 2000, the province’s public sector wage bill has shot up by 119 percent — almost double the rate of growth in the rest of Canada. Wages, previously roughly at par with the rest of the country, are now higher (in many cases very substantially across all public sector categories, including health care, social services, education and government, consuming 95 percent of the increase in provincial revenues over the past decade. At the same time, the number of public sector employees has grown faster than the overall population; it is difficult to attribute this sharp uptick to a rise in productivity, or the need to compete with private industry for skilled workers. This paper breaks down the increases in every category, arguing that if the provincial government is looking to trim expenditures, public sector salaries are a good place to start. The authors make their case using detailed Statistics Canada data, throwing down the gauntlet to defenders of the status quo and challenging them to justify these disparate increases.
Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan
is strengthened by globalization, it is inferred that the marginal costs of public funds increase and a retrenchment of the public sector follows. We challenge whether these conclusions have support in a general equilibrium model featuring standard effects from open macroeconomics and trade theory. Even though...... income taxation unambiguously worsens wage competitiveness, it does not follow that marginal costs of public funds increase with product market integration due to gains from trade. Moreover, non-cooperative fiscal policies do not have a race-to-the-bottom bias despite that taxes harm competitiveness......It is widely perceived that globalization is a threat to tax financed public sector activities. The argument is that public activities (public consumption and transfers) financed by income taxes distort labour markets and cause higher wages and thus a loss of competitiveness. Since this link...
Brooks, Laurence; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Janssen, Marijn
face the challenge of advancing their policy-making practices to take advantage of these new developments. Many new tools and instruments are available that can help to improve policy-making, yet little is known about their costs, benefits, or contribution. The objective of this panel is to advance our......Policies are traditionally developed by experts with limited forms of stakeholder involvement. New technologies can change policy making practice through new methods of citizens’ engagement. As a result, the traditional boundaries between governments and the public are also changing. Policy makers...
Hansen, Morten Balle
Traditionally, men have occupied top managerial positions in the public as well as the private sector. In recent decades this tradition has gradually changed. Although slowly and with significant variation between countries and sectors, the share of female top managers has been increasing....... This article analyzes whether this demographic change may be related to the leadership priorities of public top managers. Is gender significantly related to the leadership priorities of public sector top managers? The article presents a short review of theories and empirical research in the relations between...... gender and leadership behavior. Based on this review, hypotheses are formulated and tested in an empirical analysis of survey data from the Danish local government context. The results indicate that the behavior of female top managers is significantly more task and change oriented and significantly less...
Arena, Marika; Jeppesen, Kim Klarskov
This article aims to analyze the rise of practice variations in public sector internal auditing (IA), giving special attention to the role of agents’ embeddedness in multiple institutional arrangements. IA's trends of development and the characteristics of the public sector context, in fact, make...... types of IA developed in three case settings, shaped by the agents’ embeddedness in different institutional fields. This article provides a more comprehensive approach to the study of IA adoption and development in public sector organizations than previous literature, and it highlights the relevance...... of the interplay between actors’ contemporary embeddedness in professional systems and the focal social system as a relevant source of practice variation. In this respect, the case of IA can contribute to previous studies of practice variation in the field of management accounting, shedding some light on the types...
Vallentin, Steen; Thygesen, Niels Thyge
to a substitution view when it comes to accounting for public sector reform as structure and process. Also, we propose a widening of the theoretical lens in the form of an emergent view of how trust and control, instead of being beforehand determinable and more or less stable identities, emerge in multiple......This paper provides an analysis of trust-based management reform in the Danish public sector from the point of view of the trust–control nexus. Based on a qualitative case study of home care in the municipality of Copenhagen we argue that a complementary view of trust and control is superior...... and singular ways from multiple events in the organisation. Noticing a dearth of research that explicitly addresses trust issues with regard to public sector management and organisation, the paper is a response to the call for more studies of trust as an institutionally embedded phenomenon....
Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the situation of the public-private partnership model in agriculture sector, which has been started to apply in Turkey since 1980’s and in which an extensive increase has been observed in the number of projects in some fields such as airport, hospital, electric, etc. in recent years. In this scope, the legislation and the practices related to public-private partnership in Turkish agricultural sector have been examined after referring the literature, development process, features, advantages/disadvantages and various models of public-private partnership model, and the situation in the World and Europe respectively. The findings collected indicate that the public-private partnership model has been applied especially in major-substructure projects such as construction of electric, airport, road and healthcare facilities in Turkey since 1990, and that the budget allocated into the projects of agricultural sector has been quite low in comparison with other fields, although the number of projects executed in agriculture sector has been quite much. However, it is predicted that the practices of public-private partnership in agriculture sector in Turkey will increase much more in line with the legislative arrangements implemented and increasing experience in the projects.
enhance public officers' quality service delivery in Ethiopia. Most public ... Ethiopia. The study concluded the Libraries in the Ethiopian public sector are inadequately ... portion of a nation's affairs, especially economic ... and in some cases considered an irrelevant arm of the ..... approving the sponsorship of this research ...
Fritzen, Scott A.; Serritzlew, Søren; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Corruption and trust are two important determinants of the quality of public sectors. Empirical studies in different literatures suggest that corruption and trust have effects on factors such as economic growth, the quality of democratic institutions, life quality, the size and effectiveness....... The aim is to show that these two concepts are highly relevant to each other, and that their interconnections are important to understand the public sector consequences of corruption and trust. By focusing on these concepts, we hope that this special issue can pave the road for further comparative...
Hansson, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Vad, Torben Bundgaard
. The paper will discuss how to plan and execute research-based knowledge in innovation in the public sector. The paper discusses and criticizes the often-met linear thinking in the application of new knowledge, especially in relation to innovation. It also suggests, by the help of a model based on ideas from...... organizational learning, another strategy for organizing the use of social science research for innovation in the public sector. As a consequence the paper advocates new evaluation strategies, where learning and dialogue is in focus....
Daniela Angelina JELINČIĆ
Full Text Available Over the past few decades public-private partnership or PPP has become a new way for delivering and fi nancing public sector projects. It may involve investment in fully economic infrastructure such as highways, railways, airports, seaports, etc. up to the investments in social infrastructure projects, such as schools, hospitals, museums and other signifi cant and historic buildings of public interest. The main objective of this article is to analyze the situation in Croatia, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia concerning the topic of public- private partnership (PPP in order to provide grounds for possible future investments in cultural heritage in these countries. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of legal and institutional frameworks was carried out as well as structured interviews with key stakeholders (public and private sector representatives. Special attention has been paid to the use of PPP projects in the revitalization of cultural heritage. The results of the analysis showed the lack of PPP investments in the cultural sector, and also identifi ed possible obstacles in public sector administrative procedures. The results of the analysis may be further used to stimulate both public authorities to set strategic directions for heritage revitalization plans based on PPP schemes as well as private investors who may seek feasible business models complemented with social responsibility benefits.
Yang, Estin; Cook, Colin; Kahn, Delawir
South Africa has a low incidence of acute appendicitis, but poor outcomes. However, South African studies on appendicitis focus solely on public hospitals, neglecting those who utilize private facilities. This study aims to compare appendicitis characteristics and outcomes in public and private hospitals in South Africa. A prospective cohort study was conducted among two public and three private hospitals in the Cape Town metropole, from September 2013 to March 2014. Hospital records, operative notes, and histology results were reviewed for patients undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Patients were interviewed during their hospitalization and followed up at monthly intervals until normal function was attained. A total of 134 patients were enrolled, with 73 in the public and 61 in the private sector. Education and employment were higher among private sector patients. Public sector patients had a higher rupture rate (30.6 vs 13.2 %, p = 0.023). Times to presentation were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Public sector patients had longer hospital stays (5.3 vs 2.9 days, p = 0.036) and longer return to work times (23.0 vs 12.1 days, p public hospitals were more severe. Public sector patients in South Africa with appendicitis have higher rupture rates, worse complications, longer hospital stays, and longer recoveries than private sector patients. Patients with perforation had longer delays in presentation than patients without perforation.
Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob
demand for public innovation, and demonstrates how it can be enhanced through multiactor collaboration. The case for collaborative innovation is supported by insights from three different social science theories. The theoretical discussion leads to the formulation of an analytical model that can be used......Encouraged by the proliferation of governance networks and the growing demands for public innovation, this article aims to advance “collaborative innovation” as a cross-disciplinary approach to studying and enhancing public innovation. The article explains the special conditions and the growing...... in future studies of collaborative innovation in the public sector....
This section of Information Polity consists of papers presented during the workshop “Rethinking Information Systems in the Public Sector: Bridging Academia and Public Service”. The workshop was held on 8 June 2014 in Tel Aviv, Israel, in conjunction with the European Conference on Information...... Systems (ECIS 2014), and it is part of the activities of the Special Interest Group for eGovernment (SIGeGov) of the Association for Information Systems (AIS)....
Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
In this paper we use the concept of ecological modernisation as frame to understand the relationship between two parallel developments in the public catering sector, namely the sustainability discourse and the rationalisation discourse. We argue that the two tendencies are increasingly merging...
van der Kolk, Berend
This thesis examines configurations of management control (MC) packages in public sector organizations, and how they relate to employee motivation and behavior. Using multiple case studies and a survey study, this thesis contributes to the extant literature in three ways. First, it enhances the
This paper contributes to an explanation of why pay for performance (PFP) in the public sector has difficulties in functioning properly and why, despite the difficulties, its use is continued. To do so, the paper draws on insights from behavioural economics. The explanation focuses on cognitive...
Scupola, Ada; Zanfei, Antonello
Based on a longitudinal case study of ICT adoption and e-services development in a Danish library, we examine how governance modes affect technical and organizational change in the public sector. We contribute to extant literature on the links between governance and innovation by highlighting three...
This thesis consists of four essays dealing with topics that are relevant for the public sector. The essays cover diverse issues of economics partly overlapping with political science. The topics reach from the taxation of labor over monetary policy to preferences over voting institutions.
Full Text Available Purpose: The object of this research is to investigate work motivating factors in the public sector in Greece, as well as to study demographic attributes, placing emphasis on age and gender as determinants of employee motives. Design/methodology/approach: To answer our research questions, a questionnaire was distributed at the beginning of 2015 to a public - sector organization in central Greece. A total of 318 anonymous survey responses were collected and analysed with SPSS. Findings: In the public organization under survey, the leading employee motives are an increase in salaries, opportunities for hierarchical advancement in the organization, as well as the development of personal skills. Moreover, motivational differences are noted among Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y. Research limitations/implications: As the present study has been conducted on a single public organization, awareness should be raised as far as the generalizability of the results providing useful insights for further exploration. Originality/value: Limited research has been conducted in the Greek public sector comparing motives among generations.
Full Text Available The article offers an insight on the ethical dilemmas specific to a public sector and brings some suggestions for coping with these. Ethics management is a complex system that deals also with ethical dilemmas. The instruments and tools of ethics management are helpful in dealing with these issues. There are a lot of cases in which public employees do not know what to do or how to react in a certain situation, so, a debate on this subject is very useful for people working in public institutions.
Hospitality sector needs new technological training tools, which can assist to improve sector employees' skills and services quality. The sector might be more interactive when these technological training tools used on the job-training program. This study addresses to issue of illumination of new technologic tools that enforce training in which…
SUMMARYThis article presents an analysis of public sector employment (PSE) and makes comparisons with the private sector, using data from the Labour Force Survey and Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings. It looks at the nature of employment in the public sector before discussing the characteristics that differentiate people employed in both the public and private sector, comparing proportions of public and private sector workers in different groups: by sex, age, ethnicity, disability, working ...
Löfgren, Karl; Pedersen, John Storm
Is it possible to imagine New Public Management without marketization? In Denmark the present liberal-conservative Government has, throughout its 10 years in power, designed and implemented more than 15 major management reforms in the public sector. Although most of the reforms are rhetorically...... firmly rooted in neo-liberal ideologies they have, in practice, promoted tools and mechanisms of the “traditional,” or Old, Public Management. Based on an empirical study of the reforms, we suggest that the notion of “pragmatic” New Public Management is introduced to enhance the current understanding...... of New Public Management in the Western industrialized societies....
Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Madsen, Henning
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of perceived work-related stress among public sector managers. Design/methodology/approach: A general questionnaire-based survey of managers at all managerial levels in Danish organizations concerning the content of their job...... and the way it is practiced (n=1,500, response rate 72 per cent) are applied. For the purpose of this paper only specific information related to the perception of work stress among public sector managers is analyzed (n=400). Findings: The perception of stress are influenced by factors like gender, managerial...... - in a positive as well as a negative way. However, the findings point to issues which call for more in-depth analyses. Practical implications: The identified significant determinants influencing the perception of stress point to issues where preventive initiatives can be taken. Social implications: Since work-related...
De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vinod
This paper aims to empirically demonstrate the size and composition of the private health care sector in one of India's largest provinces, Madhya Pradesh. It is based on a field survey of all health care providers in Madhya Pradesh (60.4 million in 52,117 villages and 394 towns). Seventy-five percent of the population is rural and 37% live below poverty line. This survey was done as part of the development of a health management information system. The distribution of health care providers in the province with regard to sector of work (public/private), rural-urban location, qualification, commercial orientation and institutional set-up are described. Of the 24,807 qualified doctors mapped in the survey, 18,757 (75.6%) work in the private sector. Fifteen thousand one hundred forty-two (80%) of these private physicians work in urban areas. The 72.1% (67793) of all qualified paramedical staff work in the private sector, mostly in rural areas. The paper empirically demonstrates the dominant heterogeneous private health sector and the overall the disparity in healthcare provision in rural and urban areas. It argues for a new role for the public health sector, one of constructive oversight over the entire health sector (public and private) balanced with direct provision of services where necessary. It emphasizes the need to build strong public private partnerships to ensure equitable access to healthcare for all.
PPP) model in the Country's healthcare sector. Public - Private Interaction offers opportunity of leveraging private sector investment in the sector and further enhances improvements in service delivery as well as increases access to quality ...
The paper will examines and discusses the results from a structured observational study, wherein 50 first-line managers from the public sector in Denmark in five areas of employment where observed. These observational studies are a key contribution in the ‘greenhouse for management’ project...... in first-line managers’ practice. Answering this question helps to illustrate and understand the degree of professionalism in terms of managers' usage of time....
I investigate the public-private pay gap using Italian microdata covering the period 1980-2006. Even after controlling for observable characteristics of the labour force, I find a positive wage premium for the public sector, almost negligible during the eighties and averaging at about 12 percent in the period 1993-2006. While the pay gap for women and workers in southern regions turns out to be higher than the average in the whole sample period, the greater advantage from working in the publi...
R. Zoutenbier (Robin)
markdownabstractThe public sector makes up for an important part of our economy. According to estimates by the OECD (2008) a large share of the labor force in OECD countries is employed by the public sector. These public sector workers provide a wide range of goods and services to the public.
Hongoro, Charles; Dinat, Natalya
Increasing access to palliative care services in low- and middle-income countries is often perceived as unaffordable despite the growing need for such services because of the increasing burden of chronic diseases including HIV and AIDS. The aim of the study was to establish the costs and cost drivers for a hospital outreach palliative care service in a low-resource setting, and to elucidate possible consequential quality-of-life improvements and potential cost savings. The study used a cost accounting procedure to cost the hospital outreach services--using a step-down costing method to measure unit (average) costs. The African Palliative Care Association Palliative Outcome Score (APCA POS) was applied at five intervals to a cohort of 72 consecutive and consenting patients, enrolled in a two-month period. The study found that of the 481 and 1902 patients registered for outreach and in-hospital visits, respectively, 4493 outreach hospital visits and 3412 in-hospital visits were done per year. The costs per hospital outreach visit and in-hospital visit were US$71 and US$80, respectively. The cost per outreach visit was 50% less than the average cost of a patient day equivalent for district hospitals of $142. Some of the POS of a subsample (n=72) showed statistically significant improvements. Hospital outreach services have the potential to avert hospital admissions in generally overcrowded services in low-resource settings and may improve the quality of life of patients in their home environments. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scott, Ian A
* Increasing demand on public hospital beds has led to what many see as a hospital bed crisis requiring substantial increases in bed numbers. By 2050, if current bed use trends persist and as the numbers of frail older patients rise exponentially, a 62% increase in hospital beds will be required to meet expected demand, at a cost almost equal to the entire current Australian healthcare budget. * This article provides an overview of the effectiveness of different strategies for reducing hospital demand that may be viewed as primarily (although not exclusively) targeting the hospital sector - increasing capacity and throughput and reducing readmissions - or the non-hospital sector - facilitating early discharge or reducing presentations and admissions to hospital. Evidence of effectiveness was retrieved from a literature search of randomised trials and observational studies using broad search terms. * The principal findings were as follows: (1) within the hospital sector, throughput could be substantially improved by outsourcing public hospital clinical services to the private sector, undertaking whole-of-hospital reform of care processes and patient flow that address both access and exit block, separating acute from elective beds and services, increasing rates of day-only or short stay admissions, and curtailing ineffective or marginally effective clinical interventions; (2) in regards to the non-hospital sector, potentially the biggest gains in reducing hospital demand will come from improved access to residential care, rehabilitation services, and domiciliary support as patients awaiting such services currently account for 70% of acute hospital bed-days. More widespread use of acute care and advance care planning within residential care facilities and population-based chronic disease management programs can also assist. * This overview concludes that, in reducing hospital bed demand, clinical process redesign within hospitals and capacity enhancement of non-hospital
John Campbell; Craig McDonald; Tsholofelo Sethibe
This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar ...
markdownabstractThe public sector makes up for an important part of our economy. According to estimates by the OECD (2008) a large share of the labor force in OECD countries is employed by the public sector. These public sector workers provide a wide range of goods and services to the public. Examples of services that are publicly provided range from education, health care, transport, garbage collection, to public safety. This large variety in public services suggests that all people, at some...
Pettersen, Inger Johanne
Over the last decade a number of management accounting practices and techniques have appeared to improve the quality and reliability of management accounting information in public sector. The aim of this paper is to gain more insight into the link between management accounting reforms and organizational learning and change in the hospital sector. Especially, the focus is put on the processes of defining, interpreting and sense-making of accounting information in this complex public sector man...
Improving Performances in the Public Sector: The Scientific Management Theory ... adopts the principles for enhanced productivity, efficiency and the attainment of ... of the public sector, as observed and reported by several scholars over time.
Towards a Public Sector GIS Evaluation Methodology. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... However, evaluation methodologies for public sector GIS are largely lacking.
Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias
The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...
Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg
Sector switching is interesting in relation to understanding how to get and keep people working in the public sector as well as to understand public and private differences. This paper focuses on why public employees leave public organizations to work in the private sector. We use a design studying...... higher educated Danish employees who recently worked in the state, comparing those who shift job to another public organization with those who switch to the private sector. We focus on different motives for job shifts which may influence sector switching such as salary, job security, organizational...... characteristics and public service motivation....
Sood, Sanjay P; Negash, Solomon; Mbarika, Victor W A; Kifle, Mengistu; Prakash, Nupur
Telemedicine is the use of communication networks to exchange medical information for providing healthcare services and medical education from one site to another. The application of telemedicine is more promising in economically developing countries with agrarian societies. The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) identifies three healthcare services: clinical medical services, health and medical education, and consumer health information. However, it is not clear how these services can be adopted by different sectors: public and private. This paper looks at four Indian case studies, two each in public and private sectors to understand two research questions: Are there differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private hospitals. If there are differences: What are the differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private sectors? Authors have used the extant literature in telemedicine and healthcare to frame theoretical background, describe the research setting, present the case studies, and provide discussion and conclusions about their findings. Authors believe that as India continues to develop its telemedicine infrastructures, especially with continued government support through subsidies to private telemedicine initiatives, its upward trend in healthcare will continue. This is expected to put India on the path to increase its life expectancy rates, especially for it rural community which constitute over 70% of its populace.
Mara Andreea SÎNTEJUDEANU
Full Text Available The concept of transparency has increasingly attracted the attention of academic, political and business areas. Many studies have demonstrated the need for adopting this corporate governance principle also in the public sector, a phenomenon that has become widespread at international level. The academic study field defines transparency as the ability to look clearly through the window of an institution. Starting from this statement, the research focuses on the importance of transparency in public governance and on the framework for identifying and assessing this concept. Furthermore, this paper also analysis the limits of this notion in order to maintain its significance and effectiveness. Thus, based on the literature review, this study summarizes the opinions and arguments of various authors in the field regarding the notion of transparency in the public sector. At the same time, it analysis the conclusions of empirical studies on this topic. The results of the study reveal the importance and necessity of information disclosure among different users for increasing citizens' trust in government and achieving good governance. However, the positive aspects of transparency tend to be overestimated and considering the ambiguity of this concept it should be carefully handled.
Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata; Meyer, Renate E.
This paper explores the deployment of rhetorical legitimation strategies during public-sector accounting reforms by investigating how organizational actors justify related changes in the central governments of the United Kingdom (UK), Italy and Austria. The study shows that changes are largely...... legitimated (and rarely delegitimated) by key actors, with authorization strategies dominating. Country differences and actors’ professional backgrounds also impact upon the use of legitimation strategies, with those from an accounting background and working in the UK being more likely to justify change...... in terms of rationalization and normalization. Italian and Austrian actors more frequently resort to authorization strategies to explain accounting change....
Full Text Available This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar managerial-level IT issues and challenges, we argue that there are systemic differences between private and public sector organizations suggesting that a one size fits all approach to IT Governance may not apply.
Full Text Available Bureaucracy and corruption represent major causes of fiscal crises, and structural unemployment all over the world. According to WEF 2014 Global Risk Report, the bureaucracy has a high level in European countries and appreciation is growing that high historical rates of economic progress, especially those experienced by emerging markets, may not be sustainable in the future. Corruption is growing in a changing global environment and is considered one of the most important geopolitical risks. Most of the time, corruption is associated with fraud and money laundering. European growing cities and public administration have a strong influence over bureaucracy in public sector accounting and more time to process the accounting and fiscal information.
Full Text Available The story of the growth of open source use in Canada has been far more a matter of evolution than revolution, so quiet in its pace that its progress has been difficult to measure. This has posed many challenges to Canadian open source advocates in their efforts to ensure that their country does not lag behind the rest of the world in understanding the social and business benefits open source provides. Perhaps some of the leading soldiers in the trenches might be our civil servants who protect the public purse. In addition to managing and minimizing the costs of delivering necessary services, public sector projects should also advance the social good through the delicate balance of transparency and efficiency.
Dincer, I. E-mail: email@example.com; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I
In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning.
Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.
In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning
Full Text Available It’s known in the literature that public-private partnerships (PPPs are one the main instruments that permit private collaboration in projects that are public otherwise. It’s also clear that their implementation is different depending on the rules of the countries, their market level of acceptance etc. The first objective of this paper is to revise PPPs projects in the water sector in Albania, seen in the context of alternative financing ways for joint-stock companies of Albanian water sector, due to the nature of the market (a developing emerging market, in the context of bad financial times after 2008 (the start of the international financial crisis. The second objective is to describe the development of the Albanian legislation for management contracts introduced for the first time in the waters and sanitation sector in 2004 and privatization practices in public sector. The main conclusion is that in the developing markets creating possibilities for private sector participation in the infrastructure public services (especially in the drinking water and sanitation sector will be seen with skepticism because of failed previous privatization practices or the sensitivity degree of the water sector related to the penetration level of private factor in the sector. Public finance will be explored as a convenient alternative.
Ileana Cosmina PITULICE
Full Text Available In Romania the development of public sector accounting was initiated in 2002, and enlarged for all public sector entities in 2005, but the transition is a static process although there are many issues that should be changed. Based on Hepworth’s (2003 preconditions of success in adoption accrual accounting for public sector, this paper aims to analyse through a qualitative research whether accruals implementation in Romanian public sector was fulfilling its purposes or not. Financial information disclosed through public sector entities’ financial statements make the connection between citizens and state over the last one’s capacity to respond to community’s goals.
D. Orazi; A.Turrini; G. Valotti
In this paper, we aim to portray the state of the art in public sector leadership in order to recommend directions for research and training practice. To this end, we review the scattered strands of literature on public sector leadership (PSL) and classify them in a single framework. The results of the study suggest that public sector leadership is emerging as a distinctive and autonomous domain in public administration/public management studies, although the debate is still underdeveloped co...
Ernst, Jette; Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Andersen, Vibeke
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine, first, how social capital was crafted and transformed from a theoretical concept to an organizational tool for public sector improvement that was adopted by a Danish region and implemented in all regional hospitals. Second, the paper examines...... produce a pressure on the department management and the nurses. Originality/value – The explanatory critical framework combined with the ethnographic approach is a useful approach for theorizing and understanding social capital as an example of the emergence and consequences of new managerial tools...
A public service sector can be conceived as a multi agent system subordinated to a principal, mostly a department of a national government. The agents are relative autonomous and have decisional discretion, as long as they respect the boundaries setup by law and legislation. The hierarchy is less
The notion that the security sector's primary responsibility is to protect and preserve autocratic Arab regimes is widely discredited today. ... of public opinion in security sector reform by providing evidence-based information on public perceptions, and in so doing, encouraging civilian oversight and transparency in the sector.
Harris, Mark Cameron
This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…
A.J. Dur (Robert); R. Zoutenbier (Robin)
textabstractWe examine differences in altruism and laziness between public sector employees and private sector employees. Our theoretical model predicts that the likelihood of public sector employment increases with a worker's altruism, and increases or decreases with a worker's laziness depending
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801... public sector employers. (a) Section 7(a) provides an exclusion from the Act's coverage for the United... public officials (i.e., appointed by an elected public official(s) and/or subject to removal procedures...
Direct wage comparisons show that public-sector employees earn around 15% more than private-sector employees. But should these differences be interpreted as a “public-sector premium”? Two points need to be considered. First, the public and private sectors differ in the jobs they offer and the type of workers they employ, which explains a large share of the wage gap. Second, public- and private-sector careers also differ in other important dimensions, such as job stability and income progress...
Thirtle, Colin G.; Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Heisey, Paul W.
Intellectual property protection, globalization, and pressure on public budgets in many industrialized countries have shifted the balance of plant breeding activity from the public to the private sector. Several economic factors influence the relative shares of public versus private sector plant breeding activity, with varying results over time, over country, and over crop. The private sector, for example, dominates corn breeding throughout the industrialized world, but public and private act...
Transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público: el caso de los hospitales de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Transparency in public sector acquisitions: The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires
T. Rossi; C. Murillo Fort; J.C. Puente Karolys
El presente trabajo trata el tema de la corrupción y falta de transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público y los instrumentos que pueden colaborar para obtener resultados positivos en la gestión de compras. En primer lugar, se plantea el estado actual de la discusión del tema y la preocupación que manifiestan los gobiernos, los organismos internacionales, los centros académicos, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y la sociedad civil ante el avance de la corrupción. Se destaca la i...
Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A
This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals.
May 14, 2009 ... sector management in the name of PSR. ... the importance attached to this agenda, the World Bank created a fully fledged. Public Sector Group in 1997. ..... There is also a need to exploit indigenous knowledge in carrying out.
Full Text Available The public sector in developed countries went through various forms of transformation in the twentieth century. The expansion of the public sector resulted in high levels of public spending in developed countries. The financial crisis of 2008 led to recessions in the economies of developed countries, the public debt growth, and actualized the issue of the public sector optimal size and efficiency. This study analysed the public sector efficiency in 19 developed countries. The analysis focuses on the relationship between the size of public expenditure and economic growth in the global financial crisis and the measures implemented. The aim of the research in this paper is a comparison of total and partial efficiency of the public sector in developed countries, in order to determine the characteristics of the public sector operations. The comparison covers the areas of the public sector operations in order to identify sources of inefficiency. Partial and overall efficiency of countries are analysed with different size and concept of the public sector, to determine the relationship between the public sector size, efficiency and welfare of citizens. The research results clearly indicate (unjustified state intervention in developed countries.
Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of knowledge management in Slovenian public sector organizations. Knowledge management has received a lot of attention in the past two decades, however in the public sector it is still under-researched. The global financial and economic crisis revealed some important organizational weaknesses in the Republic of Slovenia, some particularly due to the ineffectiveness of the Slovenian public sector, which ranks amongst the worst in the Euro zone. Authors argue that a stronger commitment to knowledge management, which is currently unused in the Slovenian public sector, represents an opportunity to coordinate and exploit public sector organizational knowledge resources. After analysing existing literature, authors have identified examples of good practices from foreign countries that could be partially transferred and adapted into the Slovenian environment. Since the efficient use of knowledge is linked to the performance of public sector organizations, the paper suggests that successful implementation of knowledge management initiatives should result in a more efficient public sector and, indirectly, in improved international public sector competitiveness rankings. This paper is also considered to be important for public sector practitioners and managers, as it proposes implementation of a knowledge management pilot project in Slovenian public sector.
Full Text Available With its large footprint in terms of employment and consumption of natural resources, the hospitality is often at the forefront of social responsibility practices. From environmental to social causes, brands must make sure that their corporate social responsibility practices are both genuine and align with business strategy.
Bank.1. The World Bank articulated its position in two reports,2,3 basically recommending ... lution in public sector management thinking, termed “new public management” The new public man- ..... Buso DL, Hausler H, Jinabhai N. Knowledge,.
Edwards, Nigel; Saltman, Richard B
Public hospitals are well known to be difficult to reform. This paper provides a comprehensive six-part analytic framework that can help policymakers and managers better shape their organizational and institutional behavior. The paper first describes three separate structural characteristics which, together, inhibit effective problem description and policy design for public hospitals. These three structural constraints are i) the dysfunctional characteristics found in most organizations, ii) the particular dysfunctions of professional health sector organizations, and iii) the additional dysfunctional dimensions of politically managed organizations. While the problems in each of these three dimensions of public hospital organization are well-known, and the first two dimensions clearly affect private as well as publicly run hospitals, insufficient attention has been paid to the combined impact of all three factors in making public hospitals particularly difficult to manage and steer. Further, these three structural dimensions interact in an institutional environment defined by three restrictive context limitations, again two of which also affect private hospitals but all three of which compound the management dilemmas in public hospitals. The first contextual limitation is the inherent complexity of delivering high quality, safe, and affordable modern inpatient care in a hospital setting. The second contextual limitation is a set of specific market failures in public hospitals, which limit the scope of the standard financial incentives and reform measures. The third and last contextual limitation is the unique problem of generalized and localized anxiety , which accompanies the delivery of medical services, and which suffuses decision-making on the part of patients, medical staff, hospital management, and political actors alike. This combination of six institutional characteristics - three structural dimensions and three contextual dimensions - can help explain why
Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W
To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China's national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities.
Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W.
Aim To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. Methods We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Results Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. Conclusion The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China’s national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities. PMID:23630142
Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan
of product market integration for the public sector are far from straightforward. The reason is gains-from-trade effects which tend to increase the tax base and decrease the opportunity costs of public consumption (marginal utility of private consumption falls). It follows that the retrenchment view...... that product market integration inevitable leads to a downward pressure on public sector activities does not get support in a standard setting. A particularly noteworthy finding is that a country with a large public sector (strong preferences for public consumption) may benefit more by integrating......The implications of product market integration for public sector activities (transfers and public consumption) are considered in a standard setting. The analysis supports that a larger public sector (higher tax rate) tends to increase wages and worsen wage competitiveness. However, the implications...
The aim of this study is to explain the decisions that public sector organizations make with regard to the design and use of their management control system. New Public Management, based on economics theory, suggests that employees in the public sector should be freed from traditional bureaucratic
Georgellis, Y; Iossa, E; Tabvuma, V
Employing intrinsically motivated individuals has been proposed as a means of improving public sector performance. In this article, we investigate whether intrinsic motivation affects the sorting of employees between the private and the public sectors, paying particular attention to whether extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation. Using British longitudinal data, we find that individuals are attracted to the public sector by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic rewards that the se...
Prinja, Shankar; Kanavos, Panos; Kumar, Rajesh
Income inequality is associated with poor health. Inequities exist in service utilization and financing for health care. Health care costs push high number of households into poverty in India. We undertook this study to ascertain inequities in health status, service utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures in two States in north India namely, Haryana and Punjab, and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Data from National Sample Survey 60 th Round on Morbidity and Health Care were analyzed by mean consumption expenditure quintiles. Indicators were devised to document inequities in the dimensions of horizontal and vertical inequity; and redistribution of public subsidy. Concentration index (CI), and equity ratio in conjunction with concentration curve were computed to measure inequity. Reporting of morbidity and hospitalization rate had a pro-rich distribution in all three States indicating poor utilization of health services by low income households. Nearly 57 and 60 per cent households from poorest income quintile in Haryana and Punjab, respectively faced catastrophic OOP hospitalization expenditure at 10 per cent threshold. Lower prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was recorded in higher income groups. Public sector also incurred high costs for hospitalization in selected three States. Medicines constituted 19 to 47 per cent of hospitalization expenditure and 59 to 86 per cent OPD expenditure borne OOP by households in public sector. Public sector hospitalizations had a pro-poor distribution in Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. Our analysis indicates that public sector health service utilization needs to be improved. OOP health care expenditures at public sector institutions should to be curtailed to improve utilization of poorer segments of population. Greater availability of medicines in public sector and regulation of their prices provide a unique opportunity to reduce public sector OOP expenditure.
Full Text Available The labour legislation applicable in public sector is very different from the one applicable in private sector. Unlike the private sector where the market is the most efficient regulator and sanctions all errors made by the assessor, in the public sector there isn’t always a feed-back from the economic realities that may prove the accuracy and the efficiency of the assessment. Consequently, the law goes further on and imposes requirements, deadlines and procedures. While the private sector enjoys a certain flexibility regarding the assessment of the staff, in order to adjust it to the requirements of the economic realities, in the public sector, flexibility can lead to manifestations of subjectivism and arbitrariness. On the other hand, the excessive amount of regulations applicable in public sector may provide versatile and even contradictory results.
Stentoft, Jan; Mikkelsen, Ole Stegmann; Ingstrup, Mads Bruun
The concept of coopetition is well-known in a private-sector context, but it is greatly neglected in a public-sector context. In continuation of this, the article sets out to explore and further position coopetition in the public sector. This is achieved through a study of coopetition among seven...... municipalities located in a Danish business region named the Triangle Region. The article concludes by identifying and describing four public-sector coopetition segments, and by providing a segmentation model to categorize and discuss different coopetition initiatives. Furthermore, the model can help public...
Kennedy, Virginia C
The purpose of this study was to describe the number and distribution of 26 administrative, professional, and technical public health occupations across the array of US governmental and nongovernmental industries. This study used data from the Occupational Employment Statistics program of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. For each occupation of interest, the investigator determined the number of persons employed in 2006 in five industries and industry groups: government, nonprofit agencies, education, healthcare, and all other industries. Industry-specific employment profiles varied from one occupation to another. However, about three-fourths of all those engaged in these occupations worked in the private healthcare industry. Relatively few worked in nonprofit or educational settings, and less than 10 percent were employed in government agencies. The industry-specific distribution of public health personnel, particularly the proportion employed in the public sector, merits close monitoring. This study also highlights the need for a better understanding of the work performed by public health occupations in nongovernmental work settings. Finally, the Occupational Employment Statistics program has the potential to serve as an ongoing, national data collection system for public health workforce information. If this potential was realized, future workforce enumerations would not require primary data collection but rather could be accomplished using secondary data.
Hartog, J.; Oosterbeek, H.
There is much debate in the Netherlands about underpayment of public-sector workers relative to private-sector workers. In this paper, the authors analyze the wage structures in both sectors using an endogenous switching regression model. Unlike previous Dutch studies, the authors find that the
Paulo Aguiar do Monte
Full Text Available It has been widely assumed in the literature that public sector organization operates in a different way compared to private sector organization. This paper intends to contribute to develop further this issue by investigating whether the relationship between worker efforts differs significantly both in the public and in the private sector. By drawing on data from the Monthly Employment Survey (PME, Brazil 2003–2012, and proxies for worker effort (unpaid overtime work and absences, it was observed, initially, significant differences between worker’s profiles depending on the sector they are employed. In turn, the estimation results of the dynamic panel models confirm that the level of worker effort alters according to their switches from one sector to another in the labor market. Briefly, public sector workers do not tend to do unpaid overtime work comparable to those in private sector, and they are more likely to be absent at work.
Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim
This paper explores the apparent paradox that while public sector auditors have become more powerful by claiming performance auditing expertise and linking this to New Public Management reforms, the same reforms have provided an opening for competition between private and public sector auditors....... In Denmark, the competitive relation has led to a jurisdictional dispute between public and private sector auditors in which the former have developed a special qualification for public sector auditors. The paper analyses the development of this qualification using Abbott's (1988) theory of the system...... of professions, thus focusing on how the involved groups have attempted to build networks of support for their competing jurisdictional claims of expertise. The case contributes to knowledge about the potential for development of a distinct public sector auditor identity. The case suggests that to develop...
This paper addresses the nature of skills in service work with specific reference to international tourism and its hospitality subsector. It explores the role of experiential factors (cultural, emotional and aesthetic) in equipping those entering work in the sector. The specific context of work in less developed countries and within migrant labour…
Hao, Aimin; Yi, Tao; Li, Xia; Wei, Lei; Huang, Pei; Xu, Xinzhou; Yi, Lihua
Purpose: The quality of medical services provided by competing public hospitals is the primary consideration of the public in determining the selection of a specific hospital for treatment. The main objective of strategic planning is to improve the quality of public hospital medical services. This paper provides an introduction to the history, significance, principles and practices of public hospital medical service strategy, as well as advancing the opinion that public hospital service strategy must not merely aim to produce but actually result in the highest possible level of quality, convenience, efficiency and patient satisfaction.
Staff Indiscipline and Productivity in the Public Sector in Nigeria. ... acts of indiscipline which characterize contemporary public organizations in Nigeria. ... to regularize the payment of workers' salaries and wages to increase their productivity.
Using earnings functions estimates on a survey of Egyptian establishments conducted in 1990, standard decomposition techniques of wage differentials show that both males and females have an earnings disadvantage in the public enterprise and government sectors after correcting for a range of personal and job characteristics. Gender based pay discrimination is small in the public sector. In contrast, it is quite high by international comparisons in the private sector and mainly takes place by p...
Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…
Teelken, Christine; Ferlie, Ewan; Dent, Mike
In view of the approaching age of austerity for the public sector, leadership is likely to continue to become a key theme. This edited volume brings together a host of material from the public sector to analyzethe issue internationally. Teelken, Dent & Ferlie lead a team of contributors in examining
16, 17, 18, or equivalent public law positions) and private sector managers and executives in terms of job content, job characteristics, and...2) both groups of managers indicate that they do not have time for reflective, systematic planning, and (3) public and private sector managers agree
Verbeeten, Frank H.m.
Purpose – The purpose of this research project is to validate the claim that recent developments in the public sector have increased the demand for and use of cost management information in public sector organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken is a survey of financial
Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.
Full Text Available Abstract This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed.
There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist 'dual practice', that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel 'needed' and 'relevant'. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision-making, inter alia. These interventions may be more cost
This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Clement, J P; Grazier, K L
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care.
Contarino, F; Grosso, G; Mistretta, A
The growing debate in recent years over how to finance public works through private capital has progressively highlighted the role of project finance (PF) and publicprivate partnerships (PPP) in general. More and more European countries are turning to PF to finance their public infrastructure development. The UK, which pioneered the adoption of project finance in this field, has been followed by Italy, Spain, France, Portugal and Germany and more recently by Greece, Czech Republic and Poland. Beginning in the late 1990's, Italy has steadily amplified its use of PF and PPPs in key sectors such as healthcare as an alternative way of funding the modernisation of its health facilities and hospitals. The trend reveal an average annual growth of 10.9% since 2002 with peaks of varying intensity over the five year period. Project finance and PPPs represent an effective response to the country's infrastructure gap and support the competitiveness of local systems and the quality of public services. None of this will transpire, however without energetic new planning efforts and adequate policy at the centre.
The aim of this thesis is to analyse how economic transition affected earnings differentials in Eastern European economies. In particular, as the public sector was the sole employer in the pre-transition period, the analysis of public sector pay setting is crucial to understanding how privatisation affected the labour market during the transition.\\ud \\ud The central idea of the first essay is to develop a theoretical model that explains the pay setting behaviour of the employer in the public ...
Zweimuller, Jopsef; Winter- Ebmer, Rudolf
In this study gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs in Austria are calculated. Occupational attainment is considered as endogeneous by the use of an ordered response model. Results show that wage discrimination is also present in the public sector,though on a lower level. Both in private firms and for public servants a substantial part of this unwarranted differential is due to unequal professional advancement.
Antônio Artur de Souza
Full Text Available Hospitals are considered complex organizations mainly due to the high cost of the health care structure employed for care. Reducing operating costs is a challenge for hospital managers. Particularly in the clinical engineering sector, adequate hospital logistics can reduce costs. In this context, the aim of the research was to analyze the activities of hospital logistics of the Clinical Engineering department at a charity hospital, focusing on cost reduction. The paper presents a case study in a large charity hospital located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG. The analysis focuses on the activities of hospital logistics at this hospital clinical engineering sector. The work in this sector is concentrated in the realization and implementation of equipment maintenance, to the detriment of efforts to reduce costs and increase safety for all streams managed by the sector. It was also found that there are risks of increased costs with inadequate routines: (i acquisition of new and large equipment; (ii maintenance and release schedule for use; and (iii the theft of equipment.
van Mierlo, J.G.A.
Paper Originally Presented at the 65th Annual Conference of the Southern Economic Association , Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America, November 18-20, 1995. Bureaucratic service organisations in the public sector are increasingly loosing their previous comfortable monopoly positions in providing services to the public, due to radical structural changes in modern society. The public finance of their services by politicians ordering public services as elected represen...
Our Healthcare and Public Health (HPH) sector is vast, complex and essential to virtually all other sectors of our nation’s infrastructure. Without a healthy workforce modern society quickly grinds to a halt. The often messy networks of healthcare providers, insurance companies, emergency departments, pharmaceutical manufactures and other equally important actors are bound together in fragile alliances to maintain and restore basic health. Thus the HPH sector becomes an important cog in the w...
Nielsen, Søren Bo
This paper considers the role of the public sector in future exploitation of non-renewable resources, especially minerals, in Greenland. The focus is on fiscal sustainability, principles for public sector involvement and the form of government take from mining activities. At present, the public...... budget in Greenland is nearly in balance, but at unchanged policies and standards public expenditures relative to GDP are bound to increase dramatically over the next decades due to population ageing. At the same time, the freezing of the block grant from Denmark implies a decrease in revenues relative...... to GDP. Hence, fiscal policy is quite far from being sustainable. Apart from a need for reforms, these facts also constrain the possible role of the public sector in future resource exploitation. In any case, the government should preferably adhere to strict principles when developing the mineral sector...
Kjeldsen, Anne Mette; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher
Numerous studies have shown that public service motivation (PSM) is positively associated with public sector employment. However, the question of whether PSM influences or is influenced by employment decisions remains open, since previous studies have mostly relied on cross-sectional samples...... with experienced employees. This article investigates the relationship between PSM and employment sector in pre-entry and post-entry settings using data from a panel of Danish physiotherapy students surveyed before and after their first job in the public or private sector. The analyses show that PSM is neither...
Lewis, Jenny; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik-Hans
Social innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, as they try to solve intractable policy problems. The pressure on governments to do more with less in response to shrinking budgets and expanding community expectations...... and obligations has increased attention on how the public sector manages change and innovation. This heightened focus has created a need to understand the social innovation capacity of public sector environments. Work package 1of the LIPSE project on social innovation, examined this for four municipalities...
Bysted, Rune; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg
Innovation is argued to be of key importance in the public sector. Little is known about possible sector differences in innovative behaviour. The stereotype in literature is that public employees are less innovative. We analyse whether sector is associated with innovative behaviour...... and the influence of job/organizational characteristics. We test this by using a three-country representative survey in Scandinavia with 8,310 respondents. We control for subsectors/industries and job functions. We do not find that public employees are less innovative. Furthermore, the study emphasizes...... the importance of understanding the major differences in innovative behaviour between different subsectors/industries and job types....
Vlad, Liviu B.; Vasile, Dragos C.; Macovei, Octav-Ionut; Tuclea, Claudia E.
Green marketing is falling into the category of answers provided by the business world to the requirement to combine the economic development with the preservation of natural resources which represents a pressing concern of the modern times. In this context, the hospitality sector is facing as well an increasing pressure to pay attention to environmental issues, hotel organizations are increasingly tending to use environmentally friendly products and services, and to implement programs to man...
Full Text Available Increasing requirements for financial reporting of public sector led to a need to create a system that would provide relevant and reliable information for management of accounting entities of public sector and also to increase the quality of accounting and financial statements of public institutions. The International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board (IPSASB is therefore creating high-quality financial reporting standards for public sector (IPSAS. Paper points out the ongoing reform of accounting in the field of public finances in the Czech Republic, where there are substantial changes in accounting rules and it also introduces new accounting methods. Regarding the fact that accounting of public sector is nowadays accounting system perhaps with the greatest potential of development, paper highlights the differences in financial reporting in accordance with Czech legislation and IPSAS system. It tries to catch the essential differences that arise from the financial legislation, the accounting basis and also from the content of financial statements. The paper also indicates the difference between Czech Accounting Standards for selected accounting entities that maintain accounts in accordance with Decree No. 410/2009 Coll. and International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. There is also recommended approach to the creation of national standards with regard to international harmonization.
Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Leeder, Stephen R
Objective The aim of the present study was to explore characteristics of interhospital transfers (IHT) and sharing of care among hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods Data were extracted from patient-level linked hospital administrative datasets for separations from all NSW acute care hospitals from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2015. Patient discharge and arrival information was used to identify IHTs. Characteristics of patients and related hospitals were then analysed. Results Transfer-in patients accounted for 3.9% of all NSW admitted patients and, overall, 7.3% of NSW admissions were associated with transfers (IHT rate). Patients with injuries and circulatory system diseases had the highest IHT rate, accounting for one-third of all IHTs. Patients were more often transferred to larger than smaller hospitals (61% vs 29%). Compared with private hospitals, public hospitals had a higher IHT rate (8.4% vs 5.1%) and a greater proportion of transfer-out IHTs (52% vs 28%). Larger public hospitals had lower IHT rates (3-8%) compared with smaller public hospitals (13-26%). Larger public hospitals received and retransferred higher proportions of IHT patients (52-58% and 11% respectively) than their smaller counterparts (26-30% and 2-3% respectively). Less than one-quarter of IHTs were between the public and private sectors or between government health regions. The number of interacting hospitals and their interactions varied across hospital peer groups. Conclusion NSW IHTs were often to hospitals with greater speciality services. The patterns of interhospital interactions could be affected by organisational and regional preferences. What is known about the topic? IHTs aim to provide efficient and effective care. Nonetheless, information on transfers and the sharing of care among hospitals in an Australian setting is lacking. Studies of transfers and hospital partnership patterns will inform efforts to improve patient-centred transfers and hospital accountability
José Nel Carreño R., MD, esp.
Full Text Available In order to acquire a real and useful knowledgeof medicine, the practice in the hospital setting is indispensable. Public, former charity hospitals have been the scenary for student practice. In a paternalistic model of medicine this was understandable.Nevertheless now that the model has changed to a more respectful of autonomy and justice this discrimination appears as unethical. There are no real reasons to discriminate educationin such a way. Medical education should happen in both the public and private sector.
Selmer, Jan; Fenner, Jr., Charles R.
While the literature on private sector expatriates is burgeoning, research on public sector expatriates is scant, despite their increasing numbers. This is unfortunate, since these two groups of expatriates may face different work conditions at their foreign assignment. The target group for this...
Melik, R.G. van; Aalst, I. van; Weesep, J. van
Relatively rare in the Netherlands. The public sector has traditionally played a central role in spatial planning and development. Since the 1980s, however, local authorities have been sharing the responsibility for urban development with the private sector. This article explores the viability of
Wright, Donald J
A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity. For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions. In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices (government as a role model. The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection. A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in 2012–2013 on a group of 220 public sector organizations (102 Polish and 118 other European. The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility. There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.
Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C
We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee's work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers' need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans.
May 14, 2009 ... and impact on their people provided these policies are part of the new public ... consequent perpetual slavery. So, the two ..... officials are shareholders. ..... those prevailing in non-modern sectors of African society by which.
Record management in the Nigerian public sector and freedom of ... government relies upon policy documents, budget papers, procurement records, property ... play in administrative efficiency and success of Freedom of Information Act 2011.
Trainor, Tim; Henderson, Dale
... in provincial reconstruction efforts. Specifically, the mission was to assist in building the capacity of the public sector utility leadership in project prioritization, project planning and project management in order to enhance...
substantive (or emancipatory) democracy in the long run”. Democratic .... the paradigm focused exclusively on short-term macro-economic stabilization, with little ..... Paper presented at the Guy Mhone Memorial Conference on Public Sector.
Verbeeten, Frank H.M.
Purpose - The aim of this study is to investigate whether performance management practices affect performance in public sector organizations. Design/methodology/approach - Theoretically, the research project is based on economic as well as behavioral theories. The study distinguishes amongst
at a private hospital in Denmark or at a hospital abroad if the public healthcare system is unable to provide treatment within the stated maximum waiting time guarantee. A queue modelling approach is used to analyse the potential negative consequences of the policy on the utilization of public hospital......This thesis is concerned about the novel applications of operations research methods for capacity and flow analysis within hospital sector. The first part of the thesis presents a detailed Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) model that has been developed as an analytical tool designed to facilitate...... by an improved patient flow. The specially developed structure of the model facilitates its reuse at different units, with no advanced modelling skills required in day-to-day use. This feature amplifies the usefulness of DES in conducting comprehensive patient flow analyses at any department with emergency...
Liviu B. Vlad
Full Text Available Green marketing is falling into the category of answers provided by the business world to the requirement to combine the economic development with the preservation of natural resources which represents a pressing concern of the modern times. In this context, the hospitality sector is facing as well an increasing pressure to pay attention to environmental issues, hotel organizations are increasingly tending to use environmentally friendly products and services, and to implement programs to manage energy and water consumption and waste. The adoption of green marketing in hospitality industry is significantly facilitated by internal and external factors. The paper focuses on the analysis of determinant internal factors: first and foremost on the pro-environmental behavior of the hotel managers and employees, and also on the already implemented green practices in the daily hotel activity. The implementation of green marketing strategies further examined being taken into account the organizational change theory, discloses a third determinant factor, namely, to what extent the process of changing is prepared. This paper is advancing an integrated model of determinant internal factors of green marketing implementation in the hospitality sector. The proposed research model has been tested and validated after analyzing the data collected in a quantitative research conducted on 330 managers and employees from the hospitality industry in Romania. The results show that the three predictors - pro-environmental behavior, current green practices and the change readiness - are having a significant influence on the implementation of green marketing.
Dell, A J; Kahn, D; Klopper, J
The full extent of the global burden of surgical disease is largely unknown; however, the scope of the problem is thought to be large. Despite the substantial burden of surgical disease, surgical services are inaccessible to many of those who need them most. There are disparities between public and private sectors in South Africa, which compounds inequitable access to surgical care. This study involved a descriptive analysis of surgical resources and included the total number of hospitals, hospital beds, surgical beds, general surgeons (specialist and nonspecialist), and the number of functional operating theatres in South Africa. A comparison was performed between the public sector resources per uninsured population and private sector resources per insured population. Hospitals were contacted during the period 01 October 2014 to 31 December 2014. Surgical resources were concentrated in metropolitan areas of urban provinces. There were striking differences between sectors when a comparison was made between patients with and without health insurance. Private resources were comparable to those available in high income countries (HICs) and were accessible to only 16% of South Africans. Improving access to surgical services in lower middle income countries (LMICs) requires addressing gaps between the public and private sector regarding infrastructure, personnel, as well as equipment. South Africa is unique in that although it is classified as an upper middle income country (UMIC), it comprises of two sectors; a public sector which has resources similar to other LMICs, and a private sector which has resources similar to HICs. These data identified disparities between geographic regions which may be contributing to ongoing inequity in South Africa, and by doing so allows for evidence-based planning towards improving surgical infrastructure and workforce.
This commentary offers preliminary considerations around a phenomenological investigation of chiropractic services in a Danish public sector setting. In this narrative description, the main venue for chiropractic public (secondary) sector practice in the Danish context is briefly described...... and defined. Furthermore, a contextually relevant definition of an integral health care service is presented; and the professional importance for chiropractic in providing such services is also discussed. Finally, salient questions requiring empirical investigation in this context are posed; and selected...
Emerson Wagner Mainardes; Alexandre dos Santos Cerqueira
The application of internal marketing in organizations has been researched by scholars for nearly three decades, but literature has little empirical research in the public sector. There is a latent debate on the relevance of internal marketing in the public sector, given the need to provide a more effective service to the citizens. Given the possibility that the internal-market orientation is an antecedent of job satisfaction, the objective of this research was to measure the level of interna...
Людмила Геннадіївна Ловінська
Full Text Available The necessity of obtaining objective information about the activities of the public sector in various areas of the production is defined. It is proved an expediency of development the Project of «Guidelines for the structure of production costs» on the basis of the approved in the public sector NP(SAPS 135 "Costs". The need for accounting costs by type of activity (operational, financial and investment is marked. The composition of production costs is defined
This research note uses two German data sets – the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel and unique data from own student questionnaires – to analyse the relationship between risk aversion and the choice for public sector employment. Main results are: (1) more risk averse individuals sort into public sector employment, (2) the impact of career specific and unemployment risk attitudes is larger than the impact of general risk attitudes, and (3) risk taking is rewarded with higher wages in th...
Codruța OSOIAN; Monica ZAHARIE
The capacity to attract highly skilled human resources is dependent on the employee recruitment process implemented by organizations, which plays an important role for their competitiveness on the market. As the concern for the success of the recruitment process in public sectors is becoming more salient, the present study compares the use of recruitment practices in public and private sectors through a survey applied to 97 organizations. It also explores the outcomes in terms of quantity and...
Francisca Francineide Andrade da Silva
Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer os fatores de risco relacionados aos acidentes com material perfurocortante presente no trabalho dos técnicos de enfermagem do setor de atendimento de urgência de um hospital público. Método:Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa realizado com 14 profissionais. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, no período de julho a setembro de 2010 e analisados seguindo a análise temática categorial. Resultados: As categorias emergidas dos discursos dos entrevistados foram: situações de urgências e emergências, adesão aos Equipamentos de Proteção Individual, Descuido e armazenamento inadequado do material perfurocortante. Conclusão: Observou-se que as condições de trabalho no setor de urgência necessitam ser revistas, a fim de oferecer um ambiente adequado para minimizar os riscos ocupacionais durante o desenvolvimento dos procedimentos de enfermagem. Descritores: Saúde do trabalhador, riscos ocupacionais, fatores de risco.
Йолита Ричардовна Вайнхардт
Full Text Available Objective: to examine the details of declared activities of social responsibility in the public sector. To achieve the objective the following tasks are formulated: (1 to review the CSR research carried out inLithuania; (2 to analyse the communicative actions of public sector organizations concerning socially responsible activities. Method of work: the article is written using the methods of content analysis, analogy and reflection. Results: Corporate social responsibility (CSR activities focused on external interest groups and their representation are analysed in the article. The survey covers state capital enterprises or enterprises, in which a larger part of the portfolio of shares is owned by the public sector, and educational organizations, the founder of which is the state. The research of CSR carried out in Lithuania in recent years is overviewed and analysis of the way the public sector organizations, which belong to United Nations Global Compact (hereafter GC network communicate their socially responsible activities is provided. It has been found that the membership of the majority of public sector organizations in the GC is rather formal, and insufficient attention is given for communicating socially responsible activities in information carriers, most easily accessible to the user. Application of results: management in the public sector.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-32
Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Barros Pedro Pita
A feature present in countries with a National Health Service is the co-existence of a public and a private sector. Often, the public payer contracts with private providers while holding idle capacity. This is often seen as inefficiency from the management of public facilities. We present here a different rationale for the existence of such idle capacity: the public sector may opt to have idle capacity as a way to gain bargaining power vis-Ã -vis the private provider, under the assumption of ...
Alper, M. E.
Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.
Cline Gregory B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation.
Furnham, Adrian; Stieger, Stefan; Haubner, Tanja; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren
There is a scarcity of evidence pertaining to the general public's perception of public sector pay. Hence, in the present study, 161 women and 149 men were asked to estimate the wages 35 public sector professions should receive annually in the fictitious nation of Maldoria, based on a comparison value of an annual income of T10,000 for general practitioners. Analysis showed that only pilots were given a higher annual income than general practitioners; miners and local government workers were also provided with relatively high annual incomes. By contrast, newscasters were provided with the lowest annual income. Participants' sex did not affect these evaluations, and other demographic variables and public sector-related information of the participants were poor predictors of their evaluations. The implications of this research on public attitudes toward wage determination are discussed, and avenues for further research highlighted.
Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui; Costa, José
The inability of traditional state organisations to respond to new economic, technological and social challenges and the associated emerging problems has made it necessary to adopt new methods of health management. As a result, new directions have emerged in the reform of Public Administration together with the introduction of innovative models. The aim is to achieve a type of management that focuses on results as well as on effort and efficiency. We intend to analyse to what extent the adoption of business management models by hospital healthcare units can improve their performance, mainly in terms of standards of efficiency. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to investigate the efficiency of a set of public Portuguese hospitals. The aim was to evaluate the impact of business management in Portuguese public hospitals with regards to efficiency, specifically taking into account the fact that lack of resources and increased health care needs are a present and future reality. From a total of 83 public hospitals, a sample of 59 hospitals was chosen, of which 21 are state-owned hospital enterprises (SA) and 38 are traditional public administration sector hospitals (SPA). This study evaluates hospital performance by calculating two efficiency measures associated with two categories of inputs. The first efficiency measures the costs associated with hospital production lines and the number of beds (representing fixed capacity) as inputs. The annual costs generated by the hospitals in the consumption of capital and work (direct and indirect costs) are used. A second measure of efficiency is calculated separately. This measure includes in the inputs the number of beds as well as the human resources available (number of doctors, number of nurses and other personnel) in each hospital. With regard to output, the variables that best reflect the hospital services rendered were considered: number of inpatient days, patients discharged, outpatient visits, emergencies
Full Text Available Consolidated financial statements represent one of the main benefits that the public sector reforms brought. The novelty of the subject sparked out interest for a detailed research, research that can bring an added value to the development of this issue in the public sector. The paper aims to analyze the degree of similarity and dissimilarity between the initial regulations regarding the issue of consolidated reporting in the public and private sector. In order to obtain information about the similarity or dissimilarity between IPSAS and IAS regarding to consolidation we used correlation and/or association coefficients. We conclude that there is a high similarity between the two sets of standards, thing that is not surprising, because it is known that IPSAS are based on IAS. Even if IPSAS are based on IAS, there still are differences which arouse from the specificity of each sector.
Full Text Available on this phenomenon in the healthcare sector. Building on previous IS strategizing research we explored the challenges of Information Systems strategy implementation. We then explored the challenges of IS strategy implementation in public hospitals in developing...
Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S
Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In the debate over the tax status of voluntary hospitals, most hospital executives and trustees do not seem to comprehend--or want to comprehend--the underlying issues. First, the terror of being associated with a tax hike has led many politicians to seek other "revenue enhancements" that are more ingenious than they are honest. On the other hand, many of these governments have legitimate financial problems and are seeking new sources of revenue. A second, related issue is uncertainty over what should be done about the uninsured and Medicaid populations. In the absence of an acceptable solution, we will continue to provide direct public support to public hospitals and indirect public support to private providers--including charitable tax exemptions. The third underlying issue is hospitals' curiously narrow view of their private-sector status. Most of the functions hospitals provide are not only publicly funded; they are, in fact, public functions. Finally, hospitals believe they are inherently moral organizations because they provide an inherently moral service. But hospitals grew to their present role in society almost by accident; their services are neither unique nor ethically superior. It is in how hospitals provide care that their morality can be measured, not in the fact that they provide some kind of care to somebody. An honest appraisal of these issues will help each hospital answer the basic question: As an ethical and moral matter, should this organization be paying taxes? But is this fight really about taxes? I believe society and government are using taxation as a metaphor for trust in hospitals.
Scupola, Ada; Zanfei, Antonello
changes; (ii) user-driven innovations have significantly increased with the diffusion of ICTs and Web based public services; and (iii) complex innovations are facilitated by face-to-face meetings between public servants and users. Third, it is suggested that changes in governance modes affect the balance...... between the different actors involved, thus influencing the nature and intensity of innovation. Fourth and finally, it is argued that the transition towards a networked governance approach requires information policies which persist over time, and are designed to increase collaboration between different...
Tiron Tudor, Adriana; Blidisel, Rodica
The purpose of this paper is to present experiences from the use of accrual accounting information in the public higher education sector in Romania and, thus, to contribute to our understanding of the prospects for using that kind of accounting in public organizations.
Tiron Tudor, Adriana; Blidisel, Rodica
The purpose of this paper is to present experiences from the use of accrual accounting information in the public higher education sector in Romania and, thus, to contribute to our understanding of the prospects for using that kind of accounting in public organizations.
Schillemans, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229913881; Busuioc, Madalina
Principal-agent theory has been the dominant theory at the heart of public sector accountability research. The notion of the potentially drifting agent-such as independent public agencies, opaque transnational institutions, or recalcitrant street-level bureaucrats-has been the guiding paradigm in
In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…
Barros, Pedro Pita
A feature present in countries with a National Health Service is the co−existence of a públic and a private sector. Often, the public payer contracts with private providers while holding idle capacity. This is often seen as inefficiency from the management of public facilities. We present here a different rationale for the existence of such idle capacity: the public sector may opt to have idle capacity as a way to gain bargaining power vis−à−vis the private provider, under the assumption of a...
The hospitality sector is one of the most important employment services sectors in the Irish economy, and there is significant potential for future expansion. The objective of this study is to assess the skills demand needs arising within the Hospitality sector in Ireland – hotels, restaurants, bars, canteens and catering – over the period to 2020. The aim is to ensure that there will be the right supply of skills to help drive domestic hospitality sector business and employment growth.
Decision-makers increasingly mention public-private partnerships (PPPs) as potential tools for innovation in the public sector. In contrast, literature on PPPs has mostly evaluated their economic efficiency, whereas their ability to enhance innovation has been subordinated and sometimes assumed....... Empirical investigations of innovations in PPPs have been rather scarce and scattered between different PPP types and sectors. This article strives for a more comprehensive and reflexive approach and contribute to an increasing body of literature on public sector innovation by constructing a conceptual...... framework, which can be used to investigate the potential for innovation in different PPP types across sectors. The last decades have seen sequential waves of public sector reforms, which have resulted in an increased hybridity in the public sector, where ideas, goals and tools from hierarchy, market...
Frederiksen, Dennis Jim
-going establishment and negotiation of interpersonal relations always takes place (Madsen, 1996). Using pragmatic speech act theory (Alrø & Kristiansen, 2006; Searle, 1969; Vagle, Sandvik, & Svennevig, 1993), the aim is to gain insight into the relation building in the two types of work and to show how micro level...... they are not interested in (Scheibel, 2014). The debate seems to boil down to a concern, that people doing volunteer work in the third sector, would loose their motivation to volunteer, if their work was like working in the public sector. As a contribution to this debate, this paper will examine the role interpersonal...... organisational communication can play in understanding how working in the third sector can differ from working in the public sector. This is based on Ryan & Deci who argue that the way people relate to other people and consequently communicate with them, plays a key role in their motivation for conducting...
Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad
The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software's. In quality - effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial - efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.
Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements.
Full Text Available The government is one of the key players in the economic area of each country. Its impact is evident in all areas, such as political, economic and socio-cultural ones. This impact is measured by an indicator which economists call 'the size of the public sector'. As government's influence is so significant a question naturally arises: Should the impact of the government be big or small? There are many arguments in favor and against this issue and it is difficult to come to a consensus on the extent of government's intervention in the economy. That is why the purpose of this paper is to present a picture of this intervention in the economic life of our country by connecting this indicator with the budget deficit. First, we will elaborate the progress of the size of the public sector in Albania and its measurement by various indicators. Secondly, we will compare the size of the public sector in Albanian with the sizes of the public sector of other countries in the region. Finally, we will present the results of a study on the optimal size of the public sector in the economy of a country being analyzed and in terms of our country.
van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian
In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.
private sector, Capital Asset Pricing Models ( CAPM ) models provide valuation tools, of which the Black-Scholes equation is the most well known and...maximized mean of discounted cash flows on the assumption that the risk to underlying investment options can be replicated by assets in a financial... assumptions seldom apply for large-scale infra-modernization programs, in either the public or the private sector. In addition, NPV investment is
Akhtar, Iram; Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman
The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance in context of student learning of principals in public sector and private sector schools. For this purpose five main domains were used as variables are: 1) teaching, learning and professional growth, 2) Inter-personal and inter-professional relationship and collaboration, 3) Parent and faculty involvement in decision making, 4) Vision and values, 5) Innovation and change. The population for this study was selected randomly. The target sa...
Kouvonen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Cox, Sara J; Cox, Tom; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika
To examine the extent to which the justice of decision-making procedures and interpersonal relationships is associated with smoking. 10 municipalities and 21 hospitals in Finland. Cross-sectional data derived from the Finnish Public Sector Study were analysed with logistic regression analysis models with generalised estimating equations. Analyses of smoking status were based on data provided by 34,021 employees. Separate models for heavy smoking (> or = 20 cigarettes/day) were calculated for 6295 current smokers. After adjustment for age, education, socioeconomic position, marital status, job contract and negative affectivity, smokers who reported low procedural justice were about 1.4 times more likely to smoke > or = 20 cigarettes/day compared with their counterparts who reported high levels of justice. In a similar way, after adjustments, low levels of justice in interpersonal treatment was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of heavy smoking (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.77 for men and OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.83 for women). Further adjustment for job strain and effort-reward imbalance had little effect on these results. No associations were observed between justice components and smoking status or ex-smoking. The extent to which employees are treated with justice in the workplace seems to be associated with smoking intensity independently of established stressors at work.
Marutani, Miki; Okada, Yumiko; Hasegawa, Takashi
We clarified collaborations between public health nurses (PHNs) and the private sector, such as nonprofit organizations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 private sector organizations and 13 PHNs who collaborate with them between December 2012 to October 2013. Interview guides were: overall suicide preventive measurements, details of collaboration between private sector organizations and PHNs, and suicide prevention outcomes/issues. Data from private sector organizations and PHNs were separately analyzed and categories created using qualitative and inductive design. Private sector organizations' and PHNs' categories were compared and separated into core categories by similarities. Six categories were created: 1. establishing a base of mutual understanding; 2. raising public awareness of each aim/characteristic; 3. competently helping high suicidal risk persons detected during each activity; 4. guarding lives and rehabilitating livelihoods after intervention; 5. restoring suicide attempters/bereaved met in each activity; and 6. continuing/expanding activities with reciprocal cohesion/evaluation. PHNs are required to have the following suicide prevention tasks when collaborating with private sector organizations: understanding the private sector civilization, sharing PHN experiences, improving social determinants of health, meeting basic needs, supporting foundation/difficulties each other (Dear editor. Thank you for kind comments. I was going to explain that PHNs and NPOs support each other their foundation of activity and difficulties in their activities. The foundations include knowledge, information, budgets, manpower etc. The difficulties mean like suffering faced with suicide during activities.), and enhancing local governments' flexibilities/ promptness.
Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M
New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted.
Full Text Available Work in the public sector has been changing dramatically in recent decades. Reforms aimed at increasing the efficiency of public services have been extensive in the Nordic countries and elsewhere since the 1980s. The reforms and changes have to a large extent been associated with so-called New Public Management (NPM principles, emphasizing the market as a central coordination mechanism. Consequently, public institutions have been restructured, their services are standardized and commodified, and market-like relationships between them have been created. In order to create markets and transform citizens into customers on a market, outsourcing and privatization have been stimulated (Blomqvist & Rothstein 2000, Busch et al 2005, Christensen & Lægreid 2007, Greve 2003. At the same time, traditional Weberian bureaucratic principles are still viable and even enhanced within the sector, for instance, as a consequence of the use of contracts as a means of managing public organizations (Greve 2008. Lately, large reforms aimed at centralized coordination of different service providers, such as the integration of the Norwegian welfare administration, have been labeled post-NPM reforms by some researchers. The implication of all these parallel tendencies is that the institutional and organizational landscape surrounding the work situations of employees in the public sector have become increasingly complex, some call them hybrid, putting a variety of conflicting pressures on the performance of work within the sector (Christensen & Lægreid 2011, Hasselbladh et al. 2008. In this special issue, we explore some of the consequences of these structural and normative changes on the work of public sector employees in different sectors and contexts (...
Full Text Available The connection between human resources and performance in firms in the private sector is well documented. What is less clear is whether the move towards managerialism that has taken place within the Australian public sector during the last twenty years has brought with it some of the features of the relationships between Human Resource Management (HRM and performance experienced within the private sector. The research begins with a review of the literature. In particular the conceptual thinking surrounding the connection between HRM and performance within private sector organizations is explored. Issues of concern are the direction of the relationship between HRM and performance and definitional questions as to the nature and level of HRM to be investigated and the measurement of performance. These conceptual issues are also debated within the context of a public sector and particularly the Australian environment. An outcome of this task is the specification of a set of appropriate parameters for a study of these linkages within Australian public sector organizations.
Ferreira, Augusta; Santos, Carlos
In the “New Public Management” context , in which public organisations and institutions are required to adopt management model practices, based on economy, efficiency and efficacy criteria, it is important to obtain information, prepared so as to allow for the decision-makers to have a global point of view of the public sector. Thus, the accounting information system shall allow the receipt of consolidated information in order to meet the growing needs of information w...
DeRousse, John W.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the factors that help and hinder employee morale at public safety agencies within the homeland security enterprise. The Department of Homeland Security, and the various agencies that support it, have reported low levels of job satisfaction. Through an in-depth analysis of literature that discusses workplace morale in the public sector, this document provides recommendations for agencies interested in improving it. ...
Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.
Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should
van Helden, G. Jan; Johnsen, Age; Vakkuri, Jarmo
This article explores distinctive research patterns of public administration and accounting disciplines concerning public sector performance measurement (PSPM). Our review shows that accounting researchers from Europe investigate reasons for limited PM use and factors explaining a rational or
This report presents a methodological framework to evaluate public sector financial risk exposure when : delivering transportation infrastructure through public-private partnership (PPP) agreements in the United : States (U.S.). The framework is base...
Peter L. Mkhize
Full Text Available In the knowledge economy, organisations are shifting their investment focus to intellectual capital in order to sustain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Organisational survival is increasingly dependent on the organisation’s ability to create and distribute knowledge that contributes to the improvement of performance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate individual knowledge-acquisition and sharing practices in the South African public sector. I applied the techniques of grounded theory analysis to extract themes from data that could provide insight into the knowledge sharing that takes place in the South African public sector. Findings revealed that the informal sharing of knowledge takes place in discussion forums within communities of practice through web-based, socially orientated platforms. These communities of practice are widespread throughout the public sector and are established with the purpose of soliciting expert knowledge from those who have been using open-source software successfully.
Langergaard, Luise Li
of citizenship. Thus, we need to be aware of what different perspectives of user involvement imply for citizenship and collaborative innovation in the public sector. The chapter is based on a literature study and uses an empirical case as an example to illustrate and discuss differences in democratic......The chapter presents and discusses how we can conceptualize user involvement in the public sector, as well as users, in very different ways: As consumers, co-producers, lead users or citizens. One important question which is subsequently discussed, is what such different conceptualizations imply...... for citizenship understood in more traditional terms, i.e. defined by political deliberation and rights. This question is important because conceptualizations of users imply certain ideas about the public sector, state and society, which have political implications as well as implications for our understanding...
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to track the evolution of this specific topic of consolidated financial statements in the public sector, in order to be able to present a global picture of the actual knowledge stage of this issue at international level. The study conducted for reaching the proposed objective is a quantitative one. We tried to find out how this issue of public sector consolidated financial statements has sparked the interest of researchers around the world and when the issue was most debated. We concluded that the research of consolidated financial statements in the public sector is in its infancy and nowadays the topic starts to be more and more in the attention of the researchers in this field.
Schmandt, J. (Editor)
The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.
Drewry, Gavin; Greve, Carsten; Tanquerel, Thierry
This book addresses issues to do with public accountability, audit and performance measurement that are both highly topical and of crucial importance to the theory and practice of public administration in an era of contractualized public management. The literature on public sector contracting...... of audit and accountability in a variety of countries and contexts; the third part offers some wider, cross-cutting perspectives. Based on the work of the EGPA permanent study group on the history of contractualization, Contracts, Performance Measurement and Accountability in the Public Sector draws upon...... - covering both 'hard' agreements (ones that are legally enforceable) and 'soft' agreements (enforced by negotiation and mutual trust) - has been growing for some time and the present book adds a primarily European perspective on contracting, performance-based management and accountability. One important...
Cammell, Paul; Amos, Jackie; Baigent, Michael
This article reviews the forms that psychotherapeutic leadership can take for psychiatrists attempting to optimise outcomes for individuals receiving treatment in the public mental health sector. It explores a range of roles and functions that psychiatrists can take on as psychotherapy leaders, and how these can be applied in clinical, administrative and research contexts. Psychiatrists need to play an increasing role in clinical, administrative and academic settings to advance service provision, resource allocation, training and research directed at psychotherapies in the public health sector. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market.
Full Text Available Based on widely ranged theoretical discussion of isomorphic diffusion, this article traces the process of isomorphism in the context of public service center diffusion in China and discovers relationships between isomorphism and distance within different time and space. With data for a sample of 238 prefecture level cities collected from China, the authors aim to explore the correlation between isomorphism diffusion and spatial distance. The results of the analysis suggest that local governments will be at a disadvantage if these are stated in a further location when isomorphic diffusion takes place. Moreover, the correlation between isomorphic diffusion and spatial distance varies according to the different phases of the diffusion process. The effect of geographical distance is initially strong in the growth period, but weakens later. The results will build bridges on isomorphic and geographical distance within diverse time and space in China, and have implications both theoretically and practically.
Ab Rahman Zety Norhaiza
Full Text Available Since 1991, the government has started the forces to encourage public sector to innovate in order to strengthen the capability and solve problems at workplace for the benefit of organization and its people. The focuses of this forces is to create value creation, encourage cost reduction, and provide services that meet aspirations and people's expectations through high impact ideas. However, to achieve these focuses, public sector faces few challenges that affect the management of innovation; which includes lack of leadership skills and poor innovative culture to stimulate innovation. Although there are various initiatives conducted to enhance the management innovation, the innovative performance is still less satisfactory. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the determinant factors that affect managing innovation in the selected public sectors which consist of two categories; patron and executor agencies. Thematic approach was used to analyse the interview data. Findings from the interview suggested that in the organization, an employee especially a leader should show his full commitment towards innovative culture, he needs to be committed and supportive and communicate well with the employees and he also should provide attractive rewards to encourage the innovative culture for an effective management innovation. These determinant factors need to be considered as high significant for the public sector to develop new strategies or approaches in managing innovation towards sustaining their competitive advantages in a long term for the benefit of public.
Moschuris, Socrates J; Kondylis, Michael N
The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent of outsourcing, the decision-making process, the impact of outsourcing, and the future trend of outsourcing in public hospitals in Greece. A survey instrument was designed and mailed to a random sample of 100 public hospitals in Greece and 43 usable questionnaires were received, representing a response rate of 43 percent. The survey instrument focused on the extent to which public hospitals outsource services, the decision-making process for choosing an external service provider, the impact of outsourcing, and the future trend of outsourcing in public healthcare organisations. Public hospitals in Greece outsource a variety of activities. Cost savings and customer satisfaction are the main factors affecting the outsourcing decision. The cooperation with a contract service provider has led to significant improvement in service quality levels. Most users are satisfied with the performance of these companies and believe that there will be an increase in the usage of these services in the future. It provides a decision-making framework regarding outsourcing in public healthcare organisations. This research fills the gap in the area of outsourcing in public hospitals in Greece.
Donaldson Walter James
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and innovation form the cornerstone of economic development in many developing countries. Through this, rather ideal combination employment can be enhanced, communities can be uplifted through education, and growth can be increased through discretionary purchasing power. This cycle has positive spinoffs which can alleviate poverty and decrease famine. Recent local research suggests that more than eighty percent of entrepreneurs, start-ups and Business ‘Incubatees’ don’t make it through their first year of establishment after leaving a Business Incubator programme. This paper tries to identify some of the marketing challenges faced by Business Incubators, and indeed BIMs in the Public Sector environment in South Africa. Identification and highlighting the possible drawbacks for ‘incubatees’ may assist them with success or meeting competitive challenges when they depart from the security of the relevant programmes. This study examines some of the skills, knowledge and attributes required for BIMs in this sector and what is required to meet the business and marketing challenges faced to remain sustainable. The survey was aimed at the largest, focused segment of South African Business Incubators affiliated to the industrial public sector and the hypothesis was to prove that strategic marketing information, acumen and knowledge is a key differentiator towards the growth and sustainability of Business Incubators in that sector. It is notable that these marketing challenges may also compare favourably with several other public sector segments in relevant countries of the southern African region as similar macroeconomic challenges are faced.
Gominho, Nuno Manuel Afonso
Presenteeism is a relatively new concept meaning working while sick. It is though to account for a large amount of productivity loss due to illness. Presenteeism’s body of literature is reviewed. This paper focuses on differences between public and private organizations, and between men and women. Survey data (n=235) was collected from the region of Ferrol, Spain. Evidence is found to suggest that private sector workers, but not public workers, come to work ill because they fea...
Since 2007/2008 governments all over the world are facing considerable economic constraints. Public expenditures are reduced from central and local governments challenging the existing ways of creating and producing welfare. The premise of work smarter not harder is applied in different policy...... in most Western countries with the purpose of reforming the public sector. However, the mechanisms of these modernising reforms do not provide governments the solutions required to the existing problems. Among other reasons for the silo and competitive thinking embedded in NPM. New and creative ideas...... are necessary to transform governments’ capacity to cope with wicked problems. Innovation in the public sector can be a way of rethinking old ideas and practices and find solutions to the new problems. In order to create an innovation culture and work systematically with innovation, politicians and public...
It is becoming apparent that the environment in which Executive Masters in Public Administration programmes operate has changed dramatically in the wake of economic crisis and subsequent cuts in public spending. Changes in the funding of public sector organisations has been compounded by a broader "crisis" in the wider public sector…
This article reviews literature on governance in order to facilitate an analysis of the governance of the South African public healthcare sector. Some of the key theoretical perspectives have been presented on how best to organise the state and its bureaucracy. Theorists have long interrogated in what way public institutions foster or impede economic growth. Evans and Rauch point out for example, that the role of bureaucratic authority structures in facilitating economic growth has been a soc...
Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan
It is widely perceived that globalization squeezes public sector activities by making taxation more costly. This is attributed to increased factor mobility and to a more elastic labour demand due to improved scope for relocation of production and thus employment across countries. We argue...... that this consensus view overlooks that gains from trade unambiguously work to lower the marginal costs of public funds, and moreover that globalization via increased trade in intermediaries may actually lower the labour demand elasticity....
Milner, Eileen M
.... In this book Eileen Milner introduces the reader to the concepts of information and knowledge and explores a variety of tools and techniques which may be usefully adopted in actively managing and developing these resources. Wherever possible, real-life public sector cases and examples are used to illustrate good practice, as well as some of the pitfalls of poor application. Down-to-earth and taking into account the critically important characteristics unique to public services, this will be an illuminati...
Bloch, Carter Walter; Lopez-Bassols, Vladimir
This document provides an overview of recent NESTI work on developing guidelines for measuring public sector innovation (PSI). The paper includes an update on various ongoing activities which will contribute to the development of a measurement framework for PSI and outlines a number of areas which...
Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald
We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…
Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…
Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.
New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…
Chouinard, Jill Anne
In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…
This study aims to explore the attributes of ethical employees in public sector and to pattern match the attributes with human behavior, social and ethics theories. A qualitative research is used by focusing on first-order attributes (through interviews) and second-order concepts (using theories to explain the facts). This study ...
PSR will consult with various stakeholders - the Ministry of the Interior, the security services, the judiciary, members of Parliament, human rights organizations and international donors - in extensive surveys of the public's perception of the security sector in all its dimensions, including capacity, mission, performance, service ...
departments. The three arms of the central government, the executive, the legislature and the judiciary also come under the conceptual canopy of the public sector in this study. The central research question of the study therefore borders on how the effective management of the national budgetary processes in Nigeria may ...
Andrews, Rhys William; Beynon, Malcolm James; McDermott, Aoife
This paper brings together resource-based theory and contingency theory to analyse organizational capability in the public sector. Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis is used to identify configurations of organizational attributes (department size, structural complexity, agencification, personnel instability, use of temporary employees), associated with high and low organizational capability in UK central government departments. Findings identify a single core configuration of organiza...
Selmer, Jan; Fenner, Jr., Charles R.
with job satisfaction, making it a more important job factor than role conflict, role overload or role discretion. While role clarity may have a similar impact on work outcomes of expatriates both in the private and public sector, the findings regarding role conflict and role overload may constitute...
Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss
and more delimited policy areas take place. In our analysis we apply four governance perspectives (rational-instrumental, rational-interest based, institutional-cultural and a chaos perspective) in a comparative analysis of the evaluations of two large-scale public sector reforms in Denmark and Norway. We...
State and Local Government Labor-Management Committee, Washington, DC.
This short booklet is a joint expression by public sector labor and management that recognizes that neither side has all the answers to the problems of employee substance abuse and that both share a common concern for a successful outcome. The booklet summarizes the dimension of substance abuse in today's workplace; and it tries to encourage…
Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles
Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…
S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)
textabstractMeasuring and comparing the overall performance of countries’ public sectors requires agreement on definitions and objectives of government. I argue that such an agreement is about finding a consensus rather about finding better definitions. Measuring government requires a number of
Lunt, Neil; Exworthy, Mark; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard D
Many public health systems in high- and middle-income countries are under increasing financial pressures as a result of ageing populations, a rise in chronic and non-communicable diseases and shrinking public resources. At the same time the rise in patient mobility and concomitant market in medical tourism provides opportunities for additional income. This is especially the case where public sector hospitals have a reputation as global centres of excellence. Yet, this requires public sector entrepreneurship which, given the unique features of the public sector, means a change to professional culture. This paper examines how and under what conditions public sector entrepreneurship develops, drawing on the example of international patients in the UK NHS. It reports on a subset of data from a wider study of UK medical tourism, and explores inward flows and NHS responses through the lens of public entrepreneurship. Interviews in the English NHS were conducted with managers of Foundation Trusts with interest in international patient work. Data is from seven Foundation Trusts, based on indepth, semi-structured interviews with a range of NHS managers, and three other key stakeholders (n = 16). Interviews were analysed using a framework on entrepreneurship developed from academic literature. Empirical findings showed that Trust managers were actively pursuing a strategy of expanding international patient activity. Respondents emphasised that this was in the context of the current financial climate for the NHS. International patients were seen as a possible route to ameliorating pressure on stretched NHS resources. The analysis of interviews revealed that public entrepreneurial behaviour requires an organisational managerial or political context in order to develop, such as currently in the UK. Public sector workers engaged in this process develop entrepreneurship - melding political, commercial and stakeholder insights - as a coping mechanism to health system constraints
PhD(AccountingMBA.Mukoro Dick Oluku
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss the differences in the concept and measurement of efficiency between the private and public sectors, stressing that the lessons from the private sector can only be transferred to the public sector if there is a proper awareness of these issues and constrains imposed by considerations of equity. In evaluating policy initiatives, the governments method for all the talk of “rolling back the public sector” and opposition companies of “cuts,” the public expenditure/EDP ration went up steadily during Obasanjo’s first term. However deep the divisions over what ought to be in the public sector, it is of paramount importance to all concerned that the resources are managed effectively. The paper argued that an attempt to instill into the public sector the cost consciousness of the best parts of the private sector is wholly admirable. In conclusion, the severity of the impending budgetary crises will make the search for greater efficiency in the public sector of paramount importance. The paper recommends that the common theme of all these cases in that an appropriate set of relative prices can encourage resources to be minimized. very great care has to be taken when introducing piecemeal charging in order to ensure that this does not have side-effects at odds with programme objectives
Full Text Available The capacity to attract highly skilled human resources is dependent on the employee recruitment process implemented by organizations, which plays an important role for their competitiveness on the market. As the concern for the success of the recruitment process in public sectors is becoming more salient, the present study compares the use of recruitment practices in public and private sectors through a survey applied to 97 organizations. It also explores the outcomes in terms of quantity and quality of applications received when using various recruitment methods. Common points and differences were identified. Internal recruitment methods and e-recruitment based on job posting on the website of the organization are favored regardless of the type of organization (private or public. The differences weight mostly against public sector as public institutions use less often the recommendations received from acquaintances and networks, post fewer job adds on specialized online job boards, get fewer direct applications from candidates, and participate less often in job fairs. The largest number of applications is received through the use of online job boards, job posting on the website of the hiring organization and job advertising in written press. On the other hand, internal recruitment is perceived to result in attracting the highest quality applications.
Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny
accounting standards in Member States. The suitability of IPSAS for the Member States” (European Commission, 2013b). This report takes into account the Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States. The European Commission (2013b, p. 8) considers that IPSASs cannot easily......The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government...... and Social Security, considering that at the same time it can help ensure high quality statistics (European Commission, 2013a). In 2012 Eurostat issued a Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, later publishing the report “Towards implementing harmonised public sector...
Ali, Raja Haslinda Raja Mohd; Mohamad, Rosli; Sudin, Suhizaz
Growing interest over big data mainly linked to its great potential to unveil unforeseen pattern or profiles that support organisation's key business decisions. Following private sector moves to embrace big data, the government sector has now getting into the bandwagon. Big data has been considered as one of the potential tools to enhance service delivery of the public sector within its financial resources constraints. Malaysian government, particularly, has considered big data as one of the main national agenda. Regardless of government commitment to promote big data amongst government agencies, degrees of readiness of the government agencies as well as their employees are crucial in ensuring successful deployment of big data. This paper, therefore, proposes a conceptual framework to investigate perceived readiness of big data potentials amongst Malaysian government agencies. Perceived readiness of 28 ministries and their respective employees will be assessed using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (survey) approaches. The outcome of the study is expected to offer meaningful insight on factors affecting change readiness among public agencies on big data potentials and the expected outcome from greater/lower change readiness among the public sectors.
Wakaba, Mabel; Mbindyo, Patrick; Ochieng, Jacob; Kiriinya, Rose; Todd, Jim; Waudo, Agnes; Noor, Abdisalan; Rakuom, Chris; Rogers, Martha; English, Mike
Kenya's human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved.
Winters, John V
This paper used microdata from the 2013-2015 American Community Survey to examine differences in federal government, state and local government, private sector, and self-employment among employed veterans and nonveterans. The U.S. federal and state governments have hiring preferences to benefit veterans, especially disabled veterans. Other factors may also push veterans toward public sector employment. I found that veteran status substantially increased the likelihood of federal employment, with the largest magnitudes for severely disabled veterans. Differences in state and local government employment were modest and exhibited heterogeneity by disability severity. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Raut, Anant; Yarbrough, Chase; Singh, Vivek; Gauchan, Bikash; Citrin, David; Verma, Varun; Hawley, Jessica; Schwarz, Dan; Harsha Bangura, Alex; Shrestha, Biplav; Schwarz, Ryan; Adhikari, Mukesh; Maru, Duncan
Globally, electronic medical records are central to the infrastructure of modern healthcare systems. Yet the vast majority of electronic medical records have been designed for resource-rich environments and are not feasible in settings of poverty. Here we describe the design and implementation of an electronic medical record at a public sector district hospital in rural Nepal, and its subsequent expansion to an additional public sector facility.DevelopmentThe electronic medical record was designed to solve for the following elements of public sector healthcare delivery: 1) integration of the systems across inpatient, surgical, outpatient, emergency, laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy sites of care; 2) effective data extraction for impact evaluation and government regulation; 3) optimization for longitudinal care provision and patient tracking; and 4) effectiveness for quality improvement initiatives. For these purposes, we adapted Bahmni, a product built with open-source components for patient tracking, clinical protocols, pharmacy, laboratory, imaging, financial management, and supply logistics. In close partnership with government officials, we deployed the system in February of 2015, added on additional functionality, and iteratively improved the system over the following year. This experience enabled us then to deploy the system at an additional district-level hospital in a different part of the country in under four weeks. We discuss the implementation challenges and the strategies we pursued to build an electronic medical record for the public sector in rural Nepal.DiscussionOver the course of 18 months, we were able to develop, deploy and iterate upon the electronic medical record, and then deploy the refined product at an additional facility within only four weeks. Our experience suggests the feasibility of an integrated electronic medical record for public sector care delivery even in settings of rural poverty.
Full Text Available The introduction of Business Process Reengineering (BPR to the public sector follows the much broader trend of New Public Management. BPR in the public sector mostly means amalgamation of business processes, computerization of various activities and removal of some unnecessary ones. BPR assimilates a radical premeditated scheme of business pro-cess reengineering and an additional progressive technique of uninterrupted process improvement with adequate information technology (IT and e-business infrastructure strategies. Public organizations have specific and exclusive features that differentiae-ate them from private sector organizations. Based on the literature review and examining of study find-ings, it is argued that a public sector organization can employ BPR to get better its process and overall organizational performance, if it (1 has accrues a collection of BPR-relevant resources and capabilities; (2 has embarked on BPR with adequate depth and breadth; (3 is developing a post-BPR complementary set of skills, systems and technologies, which are essential to further develop the organizational impact of the BPR; and (4 has successfully mitigated the effects of BPR implementation problems. In addition to its effect on administration and ser-vice delivery processes through reduction of the processing time, work steps and cost of government processes, BPR also contributes to enhancing citizen/customer and employee satisfaction, increasing organizational transparency and responsiveness which have also become an essential objective of New Public Management. Therefore, public sector BPR is emerging as an indispensable to performance of organizations in the developing economy. The essential questions addressed in this paper are: What are the scenario and impending problems of reengineering applications in the public sector? Can it be functional for the public sector in attending to frequent problems blockading bureaucracies of developed and
Jeurissen, P.P.; Duran, A.; Saltman, R.B.
BACKGROUND: This article examines uncomfortable realities that the European hospital sector currently faces and the potential impact of wide-spread rationalization policies such as (hospital) payment reform and privatization. METHODS: Review of relevant international literature. RESULTS: Based on
Full Text Available With the recent approval of a South African (SA National Policy Framework and Strategy for Palliative Care by the National Health Council, it is pertinent to reflect on initiatives to develop palliative care services in public hospitals. This article reviews the development of hospital-based palliative care services in the Western Cape, SA. Palliative care services in SA started in the non-governmental sector in the 1980s. The first SA hospital-based palliative care team was established in Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital in 2001. The awareness of the benefit of palliative care in the hospital setting led to the development of isolated pockets of excellence providing palliative care in the public health sector in SA. This article describes models for palliative care at tertiary, provincial and district hospital level, which could inform development of hospital-based palliative care as the national policy for palliative care is implemented in SA.
Simões, Jorge; Barros, Pedro Pita; Temido, Marta
In Portugal, the PPP in the healthcare sector appeared only at the dawn of the new century, with the central feature of including clinical activities within its scope. Currently--except for one hospital--the Portuguese PPP experience can only be assessed in terms of conceptual model and tender processes. The analysis showed that, based on arguments associated with non-contractible investment and ex-post renegotiation opportunities, hospitals with higher technological complexity should exclude clinical activities from the PPP contract, and also that, despite the time-consuming process, the PPP can be considered a success in price competition dimension. The analysis also showed that, assessing the performance of the single PPP hospital in Portugal with two comparable units, there is no evidence that the best or worst results are correlated with the legal status and with the established management model.
. Conclusion: The demographic profile of presently serving public sector optometrists poses many human resource (HR challenges and opportunities. Universities should pay attention to rural origin of students and provide exposure to rural clinical experiences during study. Departments of Health use study bursary incentives to recruit optometrists, but need to consider financial and non-financial incentives for their retention. At hospital level, a responsive HR management system should be implemented with emphasis on career management, recognition, improving infrastructure and supporting professional development.
Croes, R R; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Mikkers, M C
There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a system involving managed competition and mandatory healthcare insurance. Information about the quality of care provided by hospitals has been publicly available since 2008. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship between quality scores for three diagnosis groups and the market power indicators of hospitals. We estimate the impact of competition on quality in an environment of liberalized pricing. For this research, we used unique price and production data relating to three diagnosis groups (cataract, adenoid and tonsils, bladder tumor) produced by Dutch hospitals in the period 2008-2011. We also used the quality indicators relating to these diagnosis groups. We reveal a negative relationship between market share and quality score for two of the three diagnosis groups studied, meaning that hospitals in competitive markets have better quality scores than those in concentrated markets. We therefore conclude that more competition is associated with higher quality scores.
Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.
According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…
Bonacim, Carlos Alberto Grespan; Araújo, Adriana Maria Procópio de
This paper contributes to public institutions with the adaptation of a performance evaluation tool based on private companies. The objective is to demonstrate how the impact of an educational activity might be measured in the economic value added for the society of a public university hospital. The paper was divided in four parts, despite the introductory and methodological aspects and the final remarks. First, the hospital sector is explained, specifically in the context of the public university hospitals. Then, the definitions, the nature and measure of the intellectual capital are presented, followed by the disclosure of the main economic performance evaluation models. Finally, an adapted model is presented, under the approach of the value based management, considering adjustments of the return and the respective investment measures, showing the impacts of the intellectual capital management and the education activity on the economic result of those institutions. The study was developed based on a methodology supported by a bibliographical research, using a comparative method procedure in the descriptive modality. At last, it is highlighted the importance of accountability for the society regarding the use of public resources and how this study can help in this way.
Pedersen, Mogens Jin
of economics, political science, and law, this article tests (1) the relationship between PSM and attraction to public versus private sector employment, and (2) the moderating effect on this relationship of students’ academic field of study (i.e., their profession once graduated). Overall, results underscore...... the multidimensionality of the PSM construct, as the PSM dimension of “public interest” is positively associated with attraction to public sector employment and negatively associated with attraction to private sector employment, while the PSM dimension of “compassion” is unrelated to both. Importantly, however......Despite extensive public service motivation (PSM) research, our knowledge of PSM’s influence on individuals’ sector employment preferences is limited. Few studies examine this relationship by suitable research designs and the empirical findings are mixed. Using a sample of 718 Danish students...
Nurse managers are central to health delivery in South Africa. However, there is a paucity of research that analyzes their competence to successfully discharge their managerial role. To identify the competencies perceived to be important for effective nursing management in the South African public sector and the managers' self-assessed proficiency in these. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. 215 senior nursing managers at South African public sector hospitals. Respondents rated the level of importance that 51 proposed competencies had in their job and indicated their proficiency in each. Public sector managers ranked controlling as the most important competency, followed by leading, organizing, and self-management. Health/clinical skills, planning, and legal/ethical competencies were ranked as being relatively less important. They assessed themselves as being most competent in self-management, followed by planning, controlling, leading, and specific health skills. The competency gap was the largest for legal/ethical issues, organizing, and controlling. The competency gap for planning and self-management was relatively smaller. This research confirms that there is a lack of management capacity within the public health sector and also identifies the areas in which the lack of knowledge or skills is most significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available In Zimbabwe reports of abuse of public office have manifested in various forms resulting in public outcry; poor service delivery, and government losing millions of dollars. This study aims to undertake a reflective inquiry on the ethical conduct in the Zimbabwean public sector through content and process analysis in order to provide intervention mechanisms to the problem. Statistical analysis of corruption level is made to benefit the study. Results indicated some legislative gaps and an incapacitated Anti-Corruption Commission which has been unable to execute its mandate fully. Most senior public officials and politicians appear to have too much power and authority with no checks and balances in place. Practical implications of the widespread unethical practices call for the government to plug the glaring legislative gaps; take stern measures against offenders; empowering the Anti-Corruption Commission; term limits for senior public officials as well as for political appointments; and motivating political will to uphold ethical leadership. The recommendations will open a window for the Zimbabwean government and administrators to view how some advanced economies have propped up ethical behaviour in the public sector. It is the way to go for ailing economies like Zimbabwe. The paper demonstrated the importance of ethical awareness in another political and economic setting-Zimbabwe.
Naylor, Justine M; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne
Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41-3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1-2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28-4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p private sector are not more satisfied with their acute-care experience nor are they more likely to recommend their hospital provider. Rather, avoidance of complications in either sector appears to result in
Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne
Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p private sector are not more satisfied with their acute
Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Moland, Karen Marie; Massay, Deodatus Amadeus; Blystad, Astrid
Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a resource constrained health system
Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert
‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.
Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study explores the dynamics involved in establishing discourses necessary for constructing organizational change within the public sector. Drawing upon critical discourse analysis, the study identifies two competing discourses – a ‘patient’ and a ‘healthy citizen’ discourse, which exist...... in the context of public sector change. First, the study shows that discourses not only provide different senses of meaning and warrant particular social actors a louder voice than others, but that these actors also develop discursive legitimizing strategies and translate particular meanings...... into the organization and organizational practices. Second, when the strategies make a discourse resonate with the local context, in this case a highly political context, then specific organizational practices become more legitimate than others, and the discourse is more inclined to become manifest. Finally...
This paper reviews the implementation of the accrual accounting in the entities of the Estonian public sector. It gives a brief overview of the historical development of governmental accounting theories and examines the introduction of theory-based accounting policy. It explains main problems and risks to face in connection with the accounting system change process and offers solutions. This study attempts to answer the following research question: how to gain full benefit from accounting inf...
Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.
Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.
Monteiro, Mónica F. J. R.; Pacheco, Claudia C. L.; Dinis-Carvalho, José; Paiva, Francisco C.
Applying lean approaches in office areas can lead to performance improvements and other benefits as achieved in traditional manufacturing environments. The intangibility of office operations may appear as a major difficulty for lean implementations but in fact the benefits achievable are as important as the ones achieved in manufacturing environments. This paper reports a successful case of lean office implementation in a public sector organization giving emphasis to its major performance imp...
RESEARCH OF QUALITY CULTURE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION Izoldas AŠKELAVIČIUS Paper for the Master’s degree Quality Management Master’s Program Vilnius University, Faculty of Economics, Management Department Supervisor – Assoc. Prof. Dr. R. Adomaitienė Vilnius, 2017 SUMMARY 64 pages, 8 charts, 13 pictures, 81 references. The main purpose of this master thesis is to analyze Vilnius local labor exchange quality culture topics, reveal the current state of quality culture. The work consists ...
Soguel, N.; Bucher, R.
Whether or not to consolidate financial statements is dealt with in IPSAS#6. This standard is by and large based on IAS#27. It deals with the criterion according to which an entity's financial statements should be considered and which consolidation technique should be used. However, it remains silent when it comes to exposing the reason why a public sector entity should consolidate its financial statements. The literature is almost as silent as IPSAS on this issue. Which means that there is a...
Van de Walle, Steven
textabstractMeasuring and comparing the overall performance of countries’ public sectors requires agreement on definitions and objectives of government. I argue that such an agreement is about finding a consensus rather about finding better definitions. Measuring government requires a number of leaps of faith, where certain definitions, assumptions and statistics are accepted as good enough for measurement and comparison. The political science and economic research community have a different ...
Laura María Gutiérrez Medina
Full Text Available The Canary Islands receive 10 million tourists every year. Tourism represents a key sector for economic development in the Canaries. This work presents the benefits of open data usages in the tourism sector both in municipalities and in the island government. These public institutions have valuable information that should be shared with other institutions: 600 hotels and apartments, 10,000 bars and restaurants, and more than 15,000 retail businesses. This article describes an open data project to validate and to publish such data across multiple administrations. The main benefits for the public sector are the improvement of the data quality and the interoperability between different administrations.
Mohammad Asghari Jaafarabadi
Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals.Methods: In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative study, systematic review and expert panel hasbeen done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second stepwe prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicatorsby Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 andExpert Choice11 software’s.Results: In quality – effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections(100%, hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%, pure rate of hospital mortality (63%, patientsatisfaction percentage (53%, in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatientwaiting time (100% and average outpatient waiting time (74%, and in financial – efficiency area,indicators including average length of stay (100%, bed occupation ratio (99%, specific incometo total cost ratio (97% have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the prioritizationof the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own,operate and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance indicatorareas.Conclusion: This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.
Olesia Leontiivna TOTSKA
Full Text Available n this article an author conducted the analysis of labour in the public sector of Canada after such nine subgroups of establishments: 1 federal general government; 2 provincial and territorial general government; 3 health and social service institutions (provincial and territorial; 4 universities, colleges, vocational and trade institutes (provincial and territorial; 5 local general government; 6 local school boards; 7 federal government business enterprises; 8 provincial and territorial government business enterprises; 9 local government business enterprises. On the basis of statistical information about these sub-groups for 2007-2011 from a web-site «Statistics Canada» the maximal and minimum values of such three indexes are found: amount of employees, general annual sums of wages and annual sums of wages per employee. Rating for nine sub-groups of establishments of public sector of Canada on these indexes is certain. The got results testify, that during an analysable period most of the employees of public sector was concentrated in health and social service institutions, the least – in local government business enterprises. In 2007– 2011 a most general sum was earned also by the employees of health and social service institutions, the least – by the employees of local government business enterprises. At the same time in an analysable period among the state employees of Canada a most wage in a calculation on one person was got by the employees of federal general government, the least – by the employees of local general government.
Bødker, Susanne; Zander, Pär-Ola
This paper discusses three cases where design was carried out at the intersection between public sector and citizen communities. Based on three dominant traditions meeting there–public (municipal) decision-making, Web 2.0 and participatory design–we identify challenges and solutions regarding......-win situations, rather than to maximize participation; to work with motivation for long-term projects across municipality and communities; to identify and work with early movers, and not just representative citizens; and to create space for local municipal agencies to develop bottom-up technological solutions...
Full Text Available This article reviews literature on governance in order to facilitate an analysis of the governance of the South African public healthcare sector. Some of the key theoretical perspectives have been presented on how best to organise the state and its bureaucracy. Theorists have long interrogated in what way public institutions foster or impede economic growth. Evans and Rauch point out for example, that the role of bureaucratic authority structures in facilitating economic growth has been a sociological concern since Max Weber’s classic contributions almost 100 years ago. These debates and others are explored in this article with specific reference to the provision of equitable public healthcare. Weber’s theory on rational bureaucracy as well as New Public Management will be reviewed as these theories offer two distinct approaches to governance
Paterson Jaclyn A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%, severe weather (68% and poor air-quality (57%. Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into
Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs
Swaan, Corien M; Öry, Alexander V; Schol, Lianne G C; Jacobi, André; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Timen, Aura
During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD). In this study, we evaluated experiences in preparedness among stakeholders of both curative and public health sectors to formulate recommendations for optimizing preparedness protocols. Timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD was used as indicator for preparedness. In focus group sessions and semistructured interviews, experiences of curative and public health stakeholders about the regional and national process of preparedness and response were listed. Timeliness recordings of all referred patients with suspected EVD (13) were collected from first date of illness until arrival in the referral academic hospital. Ebola preparedness was considered extensive compared with the risk of an actual patient, however necessary. Regional coordination varied between regions. More standardization of regional preparation and operational guidelines was requested, as well as nationally standardized contingency criteria, and the National Centre for Infectious Disease Control was expected to coordinate the development of these guidelines. For the timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD, the median delay between first date of illness until triage was 2.0 days (range: 0-10 days), and between triage and arrival in the referral hospital, it was 5.0 hours (range: 2-7.5 hours). In none of these patients Ebola infection was confirmed. Coordination between the public health sector and the curative sector needs improvement to reduce delay in patient management in emerging infectious diseases. Standardization of preparedness and response practices, through guidelines for institutional preparedness and blueprints for regional and national coordination, is necessary, as preparedness for emerging infectious
This paper uses 2006 Canadian census data to examine patterns of wage differentials between immigrants and Canadian natives across the public and private sectors. Results reveal that the wage gap is much more a private sector issue than a public sector issue: the average wage gap is in favour of Canadian natives in the private sector but in favour of immigrants in the public sector; compared to natives, immigrants earn significantly less per year of domestic schooling and per year of domestic...
Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. 16 of 29 states in India, 2009-2012. Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009-2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians' prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009-2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is undefined as yet but it should not be neglected as a useful complement to
Gherai Dana Simona
Full Text Available Theme – It is know that the large public and auditors hold different beliefs about the auditors’ duties and responsibilities. In this conditions audit expectation gap represents that level of expectation that remains uncovered. In this study paper, audit expectation gap represents the difference between the achievements of public auditors and the expectations that general public (students have beyond those responsibility. Purpose – The evolution of audit expectation gap has been examined in various countries, but the extent of the concept has not been investigated so much in public area. This study attempts to assess the perceptions of possible future auditors, students, regarding the existence of expectation gap in public area. Literature review – A review of the literature identifies many researches who define the concept since was given the first definition of audit expectation gap as the difference between the levels of expected performance and the results that auditors give, but just a few analysis the public area using students’ knowledge to understand the perception of future users of accounting information or potential bidders of accounting information. Methodology – This paper represents the beginning of a broader study that will be part of the doctoral thesis entitled “Organization and exercise of public audit in Romania”, started in 2009 at University Babes Bolyai from Cluj Napoca, coordinated by PhD Professor Matis Dumitru. The aim of this paper is to explore the findings of an empirical study, made on 352 students, were the primary data used were obtained through a questionnaire technique regarding the audit expectation gap in the public sector in Romania, looking into future to obtain responses using a larger respondent group. Findings – A reasonableness gap was uncovered, there is a gap between the expectation of students regarding the public auditors' profession and their results and there are differences
Full Text Available This article discusses the arguments against adopting collective bargaining in the public sector and its benefits. Collective bargaining in the public sector is viewed primarily as undermining democratic governance in one way and paradoxically it is seen as an essential part of democratic governance. In the former view, collective bargaining in the public sector is seen as an interference with administrative law for personal benefit to the detriment of the taxpayer. Proponents of this view argue that unionising public sector employees encourages disloyalty to the government at the expense of public welfare. In the later view, public sector collective bargaining is viewed as a fundamental human right in a pluralistic society. Advocates of this view posit that, public sector unions provide a collective voice that stimulates improvement of government services as well as sound administration of law. They also argue that, public sector collective bargaining represents public policy interests and serves as a watchdog to government’s monopoly power in employment matters. Public sector unions raise employee salaries and perks to levels higher than they would have been in the absence of collective bargaining. These two opposite views are subjected to a critical analysis in this paper, with empirical evidence for both the benefits of public sector collective bargaining and arguments against public sector unions. The article found that public sector collective bargaining depends on the socio-economic background of states although international laws favour public sector unionism.
Mônica Clark Nunes Cavalcante
Full Text Available Controllership is considered a Corporate Governance instrument, to the extent that it can contribute to reduce information asymmetry ad conflicts of interest, deriving from agency problems between organizational owners and managers, by making available information that permit valuing the organization and the extent to which its goals are achieved. Disclosure and accountability are basic pillars of Corporate Governance as well as Controllership. The Public Sector Committee (PSC of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC developed a study on governance for the public context, considering that governance principles should be present in public entities, reflected in four dimensions, two of which related to control and to the availability of external reports (Federação Internacional dos Contadores [IFAC] (2001. The main goal in this research is to identify which information the Office of the Comptroller General (CGU makes available on its website comply with the type and contents of IFAC recommendations for control and external reports, as governance dimensions in the public sector. Through a bibliographic and documentary research, it was verified that only information related to budgetary and financial reports comply with the type and contents recommended by IFAC. The research also revealed that information related to internal audit and annual Government accountability partially address the contents recommended by IFAC.
Kondilis, Elias; Gavana, Magda; Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Dombros, Nikolaos; Benos, Alexis
Empirical evidence on how ownership type affects the quality and cost of medical care is growing, and debate on these topics is ongoing. Despite the fact that the private sector is a major provider of hospital services in Greece, little comparative information on private versus public sector hospitals is available. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the operation and performance of private for-profit (PFP) and public hospitals in Greece, focusing on differences in nurse staffing rates, average lengths of stay (ALoS), and Social Health Insurance (SHI) payments for hospital care per patient discharged. Five different datasets were prepared and analyzed, two of which were derived from information provided by the National Statistical Service (NSS) of Greece and the other three from data held by the three largest SHI schemes in the country. All data referred to the 3-year period from 2001 to 2003. PFP hospitals in Greece are smaller than public hospitals, with lower patient occupancy, and have lower staffing rates of all types of nurses and highly qualified nurses compared with public hospitals. Calculation of ALoS using NSS data yielded mixed results, whereas calculations of ALoS and SHI payments using SHI data gave results clearly favoring the public hospital sector in terms of cost-efficiency; in all years examined, over all specialties and all SHI schemes included in our study, unweighted ALoS and SHI payments for hospital care per discharge were higher for PFP facilities. In a mixed healthcare system, such as that in Greece, significant performance differences were observed between PFP and public hospitals. Close monitoring of healthcare provision by hospital ownership type will be essential to permit evidence-based decisions on the future of the public/private mix in terms of healthcare provision.
Leisink, P.L.M.; Steijn, B.
This article contributes in three ways to our understanding of public service motivation (PSM) and its effects. In the first place, it applies an abridged version of Perry's measurement scale in the Dutch public sector. Although the results of the analysis show that PSM is a valid concept in this
Verbeeten, Frank H M; Speklé, Roland F.
New Public Management (NPM) has been guiding public sector reform for over 25 years. Its position on the design of effective management control rests on three key ideas: (1) performance improvement requires a results-oriented culture that emphasizes outcomes rather than inputs or processes; (2)
Arrieta, Alejandro; Suárez, Gabriela; Hakim, Galed
To assess the patient safety culture in Peruvian hospitals from the perspective of healthcare professionals, and to test for differences between the private and public healthcare sectors. Patient safety is defined as the avoidance and prevention of patient injuries or adverse events resulting from the processes of healthcare delivery. A non-random cross-sectional study conducted online. An online survey was administered from July to August 2016, in Peru. This study reports results from Lima and Callao, which are the capital and the port region of Peru. A total of 1679 healthcare professionals completed the survey. Participants were physicians, medical residents and nurses working in healthcare facilities from the private sector and public sector. Assessment of the degree of patient safety and 12 dimensions of patient safety culture in hospital units as perceived by healthcare professionals. Only 18% of healthcare professionals assess the degree of patient safety in their unit of work as excellent or very good. Significant differences are observed between the patient safety grades in the private sector (37%) compared to the public sub-sectors (13-15%). Moreover, in all patient safety culture dimensions, healthcare professionals from the private sector give more favorable responses for patient safety, than those from the public sub-systems. The most significant difference in support comes from patient safety administrators through communication and information about errors. Overall, the degree of patient safety in Peru is low, with significant gaps that exist between the private and the public sectors.
Mahomed, S; Sturm, A W; Moodley, P
Intensive care units (ICUs) are designed to care for patients who are often at increased risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections. The structure of ICUs should be optimally designed to facilitate the care of these critically ill patients, and minimise their risk of infection. National regulations (R158) were developed to govern the building and registration of private hospitals, and until recently equivalent regulations were not available for public hospitals. To assess and compare the compliance of ICUs in the private and public sectors with the R158 regulations. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the infrastructure of 25 private sector and 6 public sector ICUs in eThekwini Health District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. We used the R158 checklist, which was developed by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health Private Licensing Unit and Infection Prevention and Control Unit. The aspects covered in the R158 checklist were categorised into the design, general safety and patient services of the ICUs. Most of the ICUs in both sectors met the general safety requirements. There were varying levels of compliance with the design criteria. Only 7 (28.0%) and 1 (16.7%) of the private and public ICUs, respectively, had sufficient space around the beds. Twenty-two private ICUs (88.0%) and 4 public ICUs (66.7%) had isolation rooms, but only some of these isolation rooms (15 private and 2 public) had appropriate mechanical ventilation. None of the ICUs had clinical hand-wash basins in the nurse stations and dirty utility rooms. The majority of the ICUs had the required number of oxygen and electric outlets at the bedside. None of the public ICUs met the light intensity requirement over the bed area. Adequate spacing in ICUs is an issue in many cases. Interventions need to be put in place to ensure that ICUs meet the relevant design standards. There is an urgent need to revise the R158 regulations to reflect current best practices, particularly
The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.
Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Madsen, Ole Nørgaard
The applicability of the EFQM model (or the European Quality Award Model) to the public sector is to be discussed from three different angels referring to projects all funded by the Danish national government. First, as a recent part of the Aarhus Business School research project on quality...... as a guideline for implementing quality management at vocational colleges. This project is referring to the EFQM model as one of the approaches to be used. Thirdly, the EFQM Model is recommended by the Danish national government as the tool for assessing not only private companies business excellence, but public....... The final aim is to empower public institutions to compete with private companies for the Danish National Quality Award based upon the EFQM Model....
Hope, Kempe Ronald, Sr.
The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment and analysis of public sector performance contracting as a performance management tool in Kenya. It aims to demonstrate that performance contracting remains a viable and important tool for improving public sector performance as a key element of the on-going public sector transformation…
Emerson Wagner Mainardes
Full Text Available The application of internal marketing in organizations has been researched by scholars for nearly three decades, but literature has little empirical research in the public sector. There is a latent debate on the relevance of internal marketing in the public sector, given the need to provide a more effective service to the citizens. Given the possibility that the internal-market orientation is an antecedent of job satisfaction, the objective of this research was to measure the level of internal market orientation in the public sector, and the Military Fire Department of the State of Espírito Santo (MFDESS was surveyed using quantitative research. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire, which follows the model used by Gounaris (2006 in research with employees of a hotel chain in Greece. 522 firefighters were surveyed. The choice of this organization was due to the importance of the service performed and the society visibility, given the direct relationship with life and assets of the taxpayers. Therefore, the level of job satisfaction of firefighters is relevant for the achievement of excellence in their missions. The results showed that firefighters have the perception that there is little internal-market orientation in the Military Fire Department and the level of job satisfaction is low. The research result converged with the literature on the direct relationship of the internal-market orientation with job satisfaction. Furthermore, the research concluded that job satisfaction is influenced by the identification of the exchange of value, segment internal market, job description, management concern and training.
Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten
the fact that analysis of boundary spanning leadership and power relations is an essential, significant, and critical tool in questioning different forms of management in public sector organizations. The aim of the workshop is to investigate, elucidate and discuss management across organizational units...... on the practice that evolves on the boundaries that span occupational groups, departments and organizations. The workshop takes it’s starting point in an interdisciplinary Scandinavian research project which deals with the question of how power processes can promote, or hinder, boundary spanning leadership...
Thozamile Richard Mle
Full Text Available One of the basic values and principles governing public administration enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Chapter 10 is that “a high standard of professional ethics must be promoted and maintained. Ethics is a process by which we clarify right and wrong and act on what we take to be right, that is, a set or system of moral principles that are generally accepted. Ethics simply means what is right and wrong, what is acceptable or unacceptable and is intertwined with the value system of people. Ethics can also be seen as being relative, not absolute, as ethical behaviour is in the eyes of the beholder. Be that as it may, however, ethical conduct and behaviour normally refer to conforming with generally accepted social norms. Relative to ethics is professionalism, which entails a high standard of work and adherence to certain standards and principles pertaining to specific work to be done. Professionalism embodies skills, competence, efficiency and effectiveness. Public institutions exist for the public good and employ public servants to render services to ensure a better life for all. The public sector is characterised by unprofessional and unethical conduct. The article unearths these and suggests strategies/mechanisms to address this ‘ill’. Can an unethical, unprofessional public servant be trusted to deliver services? Can, for example, a debt-trapped public servant who survives on borrowing money from micro-lenders, who cannot manage personal finances, be trusted to efficiently manage public funds and thus enhance service delivery? Can an incompetent, corrupt, disloyal, unaccountable, shoddy public servant who flouts the principles of Batho Pele and the code of conduct be entrusted with the responsibilities of ensuring a better life for all? The answers to these questions constitute the core of this article.
Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Yong-Jun; Park, Hyeung-Keun; Do, Young Kyung; Eun, Sang-Jun
After the 1997 economic crisis, the South Korean government implemented neoliberal policies in many sectors. In health care, the government attempted to privatize nine public hospitals, framing the initiative as "better management." In this discourse, public hospital workers were stereotyped as lazy and incompetent, while public hospitals were portrayed as poorly managed and of low quality. However, the government did not present any relevant evidence of improvement in already privatized hospitals, even though three hospitals had been semi-privatized at that time. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of the semi-privatization, comparing the performance of the semi-privatized hospitals with that of the nine other hospitals targeted for privatization. The study found adverse effects on performance, unlike the claims made by the government. Semi-privatization intensified the workloads of hospital workers and the instability of employment, froze or decreased real wages, and drastically increased hospital revenue per patient stay. The changes may have resulted from redefining profit as the goal of the hospitals, as opposed to the previous focus on decision-making on public health. These research findings played a decisive role in the struggle to keep the targeted public hospitals free of privatization, especially in two of the nine hospitals targeted for privatization in 2001.
Hostenkamp, Gisela; Kronborg, Christian; Arendt, Jacob Nielsen
We analyse pharmaceutical imports in the Danish hospital sector. In this market medicines are publicly tendered using first-price sealed-bid procurement auctions. We analyse whether parallel imports have an effect on pharmaceutical prices and whether the way tenders were organised matters for the competitive effect of parallel imports on prices. Our theoretical analysis shows that the design of the procurement rules affects both market structure and pharmaceutical prices. Parallel imports may...
Agger, Annika; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted
Collaborative innovation in the public sector is increasingly used as a strategy for balancing citizens’ rising expectations for public services with limited public resources. This article suggests that public polices construct citizens as clients, consumers, or coproducers and thereby encourage...
Pradip Ninan Thomas
Full Text Available Investigations into the potential for public sector software (PSS to empower citizens are at a very nascent stage. This article explores the theoretical basis for, and practical advantages of, PSS, in the making of an informed and pro-active citizenry. Using the example of the emerging PSS movement in India and in particular the ICT literacy movement in Kerala, South India, it argues, that access to and use of software based on the principles of free and open source has the potential to contribute to an empowered citizenry. However the very concept of PSS is contested by major private software companies given that they stand to lose from public investments that are based on open standards. The article argues that PSS can contribute to the making of an ‘information commons’ and that the need of the hour is for innovative and creative solutions to the information deficits faced by communities in India and elsewhere.
Full Text Available Companies in the hospitality sector (hotels, restaurants etc. aim to distinguish their brandimage and differentiate their product or service among the competitors by adopting particular brandstrategies since identifying a target customer base and understanding their needs and preferences areof primary significance for hospitality firms. The achievement of a distinguished designationnecessitates utilizing research based and strategic branding techniques and suggestions. One majorbranding strategy particularly for international firms is co-branding. Nevertheless, there are scarcestudies which examine the role of strategic co-brand management in the hospitality sector. Thisreview paper aims to critically discuss the current position of strategic co-branding in the hospitalitysector and possible problems involved in this issue. Recommendations for future research on cobrandingof hospitality firms within the strategic management paradigm are provided. Furthermore,managers in the hospitality sector are given suggestions for enhancing strategic management of cobrandingin hospitality and particularly in destination firms.
Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan
OBJECTIVES: A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use...... of these procedures may differ from region to region. SETTING: We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic...... for public and private procedures for each region. RESULTS: Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal...
Full Text Available Public sector accounting has emerged as an area of concern within the sphere of professional accounting education. The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC allows its member bodies to apply discretion in the application of public sector accounting education requirements. This study explored the nature and extent to which public sector accounting features in the education syllabi of the leading chartered accountant professional bodies that form part of the IFAC contingent. By following an explorative approach, the study identified international trends within the ambit of public sector accounting education and provides guidance for other professional bodies in assessing the nature and extent of their public sector accounting education requirements
Full Text Available The public economy, branch of economic science analyses the state, as economic actor; its field of research interacts with investigations of other areas of economic science (monetary, international trade, market organization etc.. The state has experienced various stages of manifestation of its role in the economy, against the changes in society, which led to either an increase in its intervention, to regulate market phenomena, the recovery of economic activity in times of crisis, or to its decline against the modernization of the economies of industrialized countries, the increase of the role of entrepreneurs, technological progress. Thus, the development of economic science, changes in economic area, the emergence of capitalism, of industrialization in the nineteenth century, especially the second half, outlined a new role towards state intervention in economic life; in the context of new economic developments of the last decades of the twentieth century, the interventionist role of the state has diminished, the state giving up certain activities, in return for initiating other actions (privatization, reducing state monopoly, deregulation.nThe paper presents conceptual elements referring to public sector, peculiarities that distinguish it from the private sector, as well as issues about the state implication in the economic life, in different periods of evolution of society.
Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.
Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.
Van Damme Wim
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of human resources for health (HRH is increasingly being recognized as a major bottleneck to scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, whose societies and health systems are hardest hit by HIV/AIDS. In this case study of Swaziland, we describe the current HRH situation in the public sector. We identify major factors that contribute to the crisis, describe policy initiatives to tackle it and base on these a number of projections for the future. Finally, we suggest some areas for further research that may contribute to tackling the HRH crisis in Swaziland. Methods We visited Swaziland twice within 18 months in order to capture the HRH situation as well as the responses to it in 2004 and in 2005. Using semi-structured interviews with key informants and group interviews, we obtained qualitative and quantitative data on the HRH situation in the public and mission health sectors. We complemented this with an analysis of primary documents and a review of the available relevant reports and studies. Results The public health sector in Swaziland faces a serious shortage of health workers: 44% of posts for physicians, 19% of posts for nurses and 17% of nursing assistant posts were unfilled in 2004. We identified emigration and attrition due to HIV/AIDS as major factors depleting the health workforce. The annual training output of only 80 new nurses is not sufficient to compensate for these losses, and based on the situation in 2004 we estimated that the nursing workforce in the public sector would have been reduced by more than 40% by 2010. In 2005 we found that new initiatives by the Swazi government, such as the scale-up of ART, the introduction of retention measures to decrease emigration and the influx of foreign nurses could have the potential to improve the situation. A combination of such measures, together with the planned increase in the training capacity of the country's nursing
The paper explores the effect of large-scale privatization of public sector activities on public-private sector pay differential, for groups of workers according to educational qualification on average and across the pay distribution in Serbia, from 2004 until 2008. The paper finds that both unskilled and skilled men and women in the public sector saw significant improvements in their financial position relative to their private sector counterparts with the progress of the economic tran...
DR. GAGAN SINGH
Full Text Available After 1991 the Government of India is following a policy of economic liberalisation and concept of disinvestment has been more or less accepted by at least all the parties whenever they are Government Disinvestment involves the sale of equity and bond capital invested by the government in PSUs. The failure of the public sector to fulfill the role assigned to it resulted in the protest become louder and more articulate. The main focus of the present paper is to examine the impact of disinvestment on the financial and operating performance of fertilizers and chemical & pharmaceutical sectors of Indian Public sector enterprises. April 2009 onwards, there are fourteen enterprises in which government has undertaken disinvestment recently. After partial disinvestment of both fertilizers and chemical & pharmaceutical sectors of Indian Public sector enterprises, their dependence on the outsiders’ funds has been increased+
Kruse, Florien M; Stadhouders, Niek W; Adang, Eddy M; Groenewoud, Stef; Jeurissen, Patrick P T
European countries have enhanced the scope of private provision within their health care systems. Privatizing services have been suggested as a means to improve access, quality, and efficiency in health care. This raises questions about the relative performance of private hospitals compared with public hospitals. Most systematic reviews that scrutinize the performance of the private hospitals originate from the United States. A systematic overview for Europe is nonexisting. We fill this gap with a systematic realist review comparing the performance of public hospitals to private hospitals on efficiency, accessibility, and quality of care in the European Union. This review synthesizes evidence from Italy, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Greece, Austria, Spain, and Portugal. Most evidence suggests that public hospitals are at least as efficient as or are more efficient than private hospitals. Accessibility to broader populations is often a matter of concern in private provision: Patients with higher social-economic backgrounds hold better access to private hospital provision, especially in private parallel systems such as the United Kingdom and Greece. The existing evidence on quality of care is often too diverse to make a conclusive statement. In conclusion, the growth in private hospital provision seems not related to improvements in performance in Europe. Our evidence further suggests that the private (for-profit) hospital sector seems to react more strongly to (financial) incentives than other provider types. In such cases, policymakers either should very carefully develop adequate incentive structures or be hesitant to accommodate the growth of the private hospital sector. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Olsen, Ida Østrup; Tewes, Marianne
BACKGROUND: In recent years, perioperative nursing has received ongoing attention as part of an interprofessional collaboration. Perioperative nursing is constantly faced with new challenges and opportunities that necessitate continual updates of nursing knowledge and technical skills. In light...... of the longstanding relationship between nursing and technology, it is interesting that few studies with this focus have been performed. Therefore, our research question was: What is the content of perioperative nursing and how do nurses facilitate the interaction between nursing care and technology in highly...... specialized operating rooms in public university hospitals? METHODS: An ethnography involving participant observations and interviews was conducted during a 9-month study period. The participants comprised 24 nurses from 9 different operating wards at 2 university hospitals in different regions of Denmark...
The hospitality sector in Ireland represents an important part of the tourism industry and comprises hotels, restaurants, pubs and clubs, guesthouses and self-catering operations. The largest component within the Irish hospitality sector is hotels. In addition to hotels, food and beverage operations comprise a significant proportion of the industry. These businesses operate in a highly competitive environment as a consequence of a number of factors. First, there is a downturn in the global an...
Murphy, J C; Hansen, P S; Bhindi, R; Figtree, G A; Nelson, G I C; Ward, M R
Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) is a proven technology for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but is not reimbursed despite the fact that it is frequently used to defer PCI. Costs incurred with use of FFR were compared in both the public and private sectors with the costs that would have been incurred if the technology was not available using consecutive cases over a two year period in a public teaching hospital and its co-located private hospital. FFR was performed on 143 lesions in 120 patients. FFR was cost of $A1200 per wire, FFR actually saved money. Mean savings in the public sector were $1200 per patient while in the private sector the savings were $5000 per patient. FFR use saves money for the Federal Government in the public sector and for the Private Health Funds in the private sector. These financial benefits are seen in addition to the improved outcomes seen with this technology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Albæk, Karsten; Larsen, Mona; Stage Thomsen, Lars
This paper examines the relation between segregation and the gender wage gap in the public and the private sectors in Denmark from 2002 to 2012. The analysis shows that male–female differences in the share of females in occupations, industries,establishments and job cells (occupations within...... establishments) constitute 46% of the raw gender wage gap in the private sector, while segregation in t he public sector accounts for as much as 63 %. Segregation thus plays a substantially more important role in accounting for the gender wage gap in the public sector than in the private sector. While...... the importance of segregation for wage formation decreased substantially in the public sector over time, it only decreased slightly in the private sector. Although the remaining gender wage gap, after controlling for segregation, is close to zero in the public sector, a substantial within-job cell differential...
Thomas, J; Lungo, A; Bobrow, M
As access to capital tightens, more hospitals are exploring the benefits of partnerships with private companies. A California hospital, burdened by the long-term debt it incurred for a medical office building, worked together with its medical staff and an outside real estate developer. By selling the building to the developer, not only was the hospital able to finance a much-needed expansion and reconstruction project, but the hospital's medical staff had an opportunity to become limited partners in the ownership of the building.
Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko
The present study examined the differences between physicians working in public and private health care in strenuous working environments (presence of occupational hazards, physical violence, and presenteeism) and health behaviours (alcohol consumption, body mass index, and physical activity). In addition, we examined whether gender or age moderated these potential differences. Cross-sectional survey data were compiled on 1422 female and 948 male randomly selected physicians aged 25-65 years from The Finnish Health Care Professionals Study. Logistic regression and linear regression analyses were used with adjustment for gender, age, specialisation status, working time, managerial position, and on-call duty. Occupational hazards, physical violence, and presenteeism were more commonly reported by physicians working in the public sector than by their counterparts in the private sector. Among physicians aged 50 years or younger, those who worked in the public sector consumed more alcohol than those who worked in the private sector, whereas in those aged 50 or more the reverse was true. In addition, working in the private sector was most strongly associated with lower levels of physical violence in those who were older than 50 years, and with lower levels of presenteeism among those aged 40-50 years. The present study found evidence for the public sector being a more strenuous work environment for physicians than the private sector. Our results suggest that public healthcare organisations should pay more attention to the working conditions of their employees.
Karl, Katherine A.; Sutton, Cynthia L.
A comparison of 47 public- and 170 private-sector workers revealed private-sector workers value good wages most and public-sector workers value interesting work. Results suggest that employers must keep in touch with employee values to design jobs, reward systems, and human-resource policies that will result in maximum job satisfaction. (JOW)
This paper reassesses the public-sector pay gap using AFQT score and college major as measures of skill. Among the college educated, there is strong evidence that those with lower skills enter the public sector. In contrast to the private sector, for college-educated public-sector workers, AFQT score is not correlated with pay, and college major is only weakly predictive of pay. Furthermore, simple controls for college major explain most of the public-private-sector pay gap. I conclude that t...
Full Text Available The article examines trends shaping the problem of "public sector". The research shows the history of the formation of the concept of "social economy", its relationship with the basic principles of theoretical economic analysis and development. The paper investigates process of establishing the structure of the phenomenon of the public sector and its interaction with the challenges of the modern world and the global economy. The article deals with the role of the public sector in the production of public goods. The researchers evaluated the effect of its scale in indicators of social, economic and i institutional development. The study singled out performance criteria for public sector institutions and analyzed changes of vectors public choice in terms of globalization changes. It was revealed the impact of global institutional transformation and structural reforms in the public sector, in-depth conceptual basis of improving the efficiency of public sector functions.
Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon
Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.
National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.
The results of a 2-year study on the interactions between government and private sector information activities are presented in terms of principles and guidelines for federal policy to support the development and use of information resources, products, and services, and to implement the principles. Discussions address sources of conflict between…
Teresa Muñoz Santiago
construction work management in the Spanish public sector is by competition. During this time we have progressively passed from the “direct award” to the open competition, in line with European rules. From the coming into force of Law 13/1995, dated 18 May, on Public Administration Contracts, an important landmark in the massive application of competitions, to the start of the present economic crisis in 2008, many public works took place in Spain, and many of them of high quality. A deciding factor has been the participation of numerous professionals who have viewed the competition not only as a stimulus, but as a road to professional commissions. In this process there have been, and still are, several questions under debate: the enforceability of the technical or professional competence assessed in the open procedures, and the importance of the economic proposal in the award. The latter has been progressively accentuated, especially in the currently stagnant property market, in both the public and private sectors. Yet, from the point of view of the quality of the architecture promoted by the public administrations, the competition has demonstrated its effectiveness. The result is the sum of the sustained effort from all the participants: the administrations, the professionals and the companies. However, it is essential that they all participate with the same sensitivity towards quality architecture, especially the contracting public administrations.
Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Friis, Alan; Lassen, Anne Dahl
The paper addresses some of the challenges the food service sector faces in relation to the increased pressure for cost effective operations. The approach pertains to application of semi-prepared constituents for meals the so-called meal elements. The study uncovers attitudes towards application ...
Honda, Ayako; Ryan, Mandy; van Niekerk, Robert; McIntyre, Diane
The introduction of national health insurance (NHI), aimed at achieving universal coverage, is the most important issue currently on the South African health policy agenda. Improvement in public sector health-care provision is crucial for the successful implementation of NHI as, regardless of whether health-care services become more affordable and available, if the quality of the services provided is not acceptable, people will not use the services. Although there has been criticism of the quality of public sector health services, limited research is available to identify what communities regard as the greatest problems with the services. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken to elicit public preferences on key dimensions of quality of care when selecting public health facilities in South Africa. Qualitative methods were applied to establish attributes and levels for the DCE. To elicit preferences, interviews with community members were held in two South African provinces: 491 in Western Cape and 499 in Eastern Cape. The availability of necessary medicine at health facilities has the greatest impact on the probability of attending public health facilities. Other clinical quality attributes (i.e. provision of expert advice and provision of a thorough examination) are more valued than non-clinical quality of care attributes (i.e. staff attitude, treatment by doctors or nurses, and waiting time). Treatment by a doctor was less valued than all other attributes. Communities are prepared to tolerate public sector health service characteristics such as a long waiting time, poor staff attitudes and lack of direct access to doctors if they receive the medicine they need, a thorough examination and a clear explanation of the diagnosis and prescribed treatment from health professionals. These findings prioritize issues that the South African government must address in order to meet their commitment to improve public sector health-care service provision. Published
Ogbewere Bankole Ijewereme
Full Text Available Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria. The article reviews the concept of corruption in line with its forms and effects on the Nigerian State, as well as corruption in public service from Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa’s era to President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. The article examines the idealistic, resource curse, two public, low risk–high benefit and anomie theories, and consequently adopts resource curse, low risk–high benefit theories to explain causes of corruption in Nigeria. Also, some personal observations and data from Transparency International are utilized to explain corrupt practices in Nigeria. The article concludes that there is corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector because of societal pressure, tribalism, nepotism, low risk–high benefits of involving in corruption among others. The article recommends some measures to combat corruption in Nigeria.
Micheline J. Naude; Intaher M. Ambe; René Kling
The public sector is recognised as being one of the most important customer groups for many suppliers and service providers because of the volume of public expenditure. Supplier relationship management (SRM) is a necessary tool on which businesses in the public and private sectors rely. However, in the South African public sector, despite the intention to boost service delivery through efficient and effective supplier-management processes, the development of sound supplier relationships is a ...
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency of cancellation of scheduledsurgeries at a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, and to identifythe reasons of cancellation. Methods: A descriptive, exploratory,retrospective study, with quantitative analysis, of records ofprocedures cancelled and medical charts of patients whose surgerieswere cancelled, between January 2006 and July 2007. Results: Ofthe 6,149 (100% surgeries scheduled for the period surveyed, 701(11.4% were canceled and 5,448 (88.6% conducted; among thesurgeries cancelled, most were general surgeries (237/33.8% andorthopedic surgery (200/28.5%; surgeons or assistant surgeons(518/73.9% and anesthesiologists (183/26.1% were responsible forcancellations. The primary reasons for cancellation were unfavorableclinical status of patients (225/32.1%, no show up of patients(119/17.0%, change in medical management (79/11.3%, patientnot appropriately prepared (53/7.5% and lack of material (52/7.4%.Conclusions: This study enabled identifying the frequency and causesof surgical cancellations at a public hospital, so as to contribute toimproving professional performance in this area.
Drezner, Jeffrey Alan
Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market
Rietbergen, M.G.; Van Rheede, A.
The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if
Arlina Nurbaity Lubis
Full Text Available Contemporary society demands that every organization operate with a sense of social responsibility. Many organizations now include corporate social responsibility (CSR activities in their work programs. In the health sector, however, the role of CSR has not been studied as intensively as in private corporations because the services provided by the health sector are already valued as directly serving humanity. This research aims to evaluate the impact of CSR on the health sector, specifically on government hospitals. This model was developed by analyzing the influence of CSR on hospital reputation, customer loyalty, and hospital values. By answering questionnaires, a total of 200 hospital patients from four government hospitals participated in the study. The proposed model was evaluated using path analysis with AMOS tools. The results of this study provide empirical evidence that overall, CSR positively affects the reputation of the hospital, patient loyalty, and hospital value. Although there is a direct negative effect of CSR on hospital value, the larger influence of indirect effect that occurs through the mediating role of reputation and patient loyalty variables shows that CSR is able to increase the hospital value. Practically, these results imply that CSR should be applied as a strategic tool in improving the value of the hospital.
Neriz, Liliana; Núñez, Alicia; Ramis, Francisco
In Chile, the use of costing systems in the public sector is limited. The Ministry of Health requires hospitals to manage themselves with the aim of decentralizing health care services and increasing their quality. However, self-management with a lack of accounting information is almost impossible. On the other hand, nutrition department costs have barely been studied before, and there are no studies specifically for activity based costing (ABC) systems. ABC focuses on the process and traces health care activities to gain a more accurate measurement of the object costs and the financial performance of an organization. This paper uses ABC in a nutrition unit of a public hospital of high complexity to determine costs associated with the different meals for inpatients. The paper also provides an activity based management (ABM) analysis for this unit. The results show positive effects on the reduction of costs for the nutrition department after implementing ABC/ABM. Therefore, there are opportunities to improve the profitability of the area and the results could also be replicated to other areas in the hospital. ABC shed light on the amount of nutritionist time devoted to completing paperwork, and as a result, system changes were introduced to reduce this burden and allow them to focus on more relevant activities. Additional efficiencies were achieved through the elimination of non-value adding activities and automation of reports. ABC reduced the cost of the nutrition department and could produce similar results in other areas of the hospital. This is a practical application of a financial management tool, ABC, which would be useful for hospital managers to reduce costs and improve the management of the unit. This paper takes ABC and examines its use in an area, which has had little exposure to the benefits of this tool.
Kjeldsen, Anne Mette
The relationship between employment sector and public service motivation remains unclear since previous studies fail to control for the occupation of the investigated employees. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews with Danish nurses and nursing assistants working in the public or private health...... sector, this study shows that occupation and employment sector have very different relationships with the separate dimensions of public service motivation. This suggests that future studies of sector differences in public service motivation should pay attention to employees' occupation as an important...... control variable, and the benefits of using a qualitative approach to measure public service motivation....
Naseer, Maliha; Khawaja, Ali; Pethani, Amin S; Aleem, Salik
Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Pakistan which ranks fifth amongst the twenty two countries designated to be highly burdened by TB according to the World Health Organization. However, there is paucity of data regarding the knowledge of diagnosis of TB and its management amongst public and private practitioners. In this study, we endeavor to identify this gap in knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of TB between public and private doctors and the factors affecting these knowledge scores in urban Pakistan. This cross sectional survey was conducted between June and December 2011. Doctors from public hospitals, private hospitals and private clinics scattered in all eighteen towns of Karachi were included in the study. Qualified MBBS doctors working in any specialty were eligible to participate whereas doctors working in both the public and private sectors were excluded from the study. Vignette based clinical scenarios were given to assess the knowledge score regarding the diagnosis and management of TB. A total of 196 doctors participated in the study. There was a significant difference between private and public physicians in terms of age and years of practice (p-value differences in the proportion of knowledge scores were observed between the public and private doctors and National TB Control Program trained and untrained doctors in Karachi. Factors associated with inadequate knowledge scores were being female gender [OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.418-5.384)], private employment status [OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.258-2.439)], and not trained by NTP [OR: 2.98 (95% CI: 1.286-3.225)] on multivariate logistic regression analysis. It is concluded that a knowledge gap exists between the public and private doctors in Karachi. Strengthening of currently implemented public private mix model along with improvement in the trainings of public and private practitioners is highly recommended to control TB in Pakistan.
The development of sectoral training systems in two economic sectors--the printing industry and the sector of health care in hospitals--was examined in a study that entailed parallel research projects in five European countries: Belgium, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The study was based on the assumption that the…
Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd
Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.
Full Text Available Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.
Hall, Rohan Matthew; Linklater, Nicholas; Coughlin, Geoff
During 2008, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital became the first public hospital in Australia to have a da Vinci Surgical Robot purchased by government funding. The cost of performing robotic surgery in the public sector is a contentious issue. This study is a single centre, cost analysis comparing open radical prostatectomy (RRP) and robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) based on the newly introduced pure case-mix funding model. A retrospective chart review was performed for the first 100 RALPs and the previous 100 RRPs. Estimates of tangible costing and funding were generated for each admission and readmission, using the Royal Brisbane Hospital Transition II database, based on pure case-mix funding. The average cost for admission for RRP was A$13 605, compared to A$17 582 for the RALP. The average funding received for a RRP was A$11 781 compared to A$5496 for a RALP based on the newly introduced case-mix model. The average length of stay for RRP was 4.4 days (2-14) and for RALP, 1.2 days (1-4). The total cost of readmissions for RRP patients was A$70 487, compared to that of the RALP patients, A$7160. These were funded at A$55 639 and A$7624, respectively. RALP has shown a significant advantage with respect to length of stay and readmission rate. Based on the case-mix funding model RALP is poorly funded compared to its open equivalent. Queensland Health needs to plan on how robotic surgery is implemented and assess whether this technology is truly affordable in the public sector. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Although research on private-sector expatriates is abundant, not much is known about their public-sector counterparts, especially self-initiated expatriates, who themselves initiate the move to live and work abroad. Comparing work outcomes and creativity of self-initiated expatriates in the private...... vs. the public sector, the results of a survey including 329 respondents indicated that performance and effectiveness were higher in the private sector. However, only in the public sector was there a positive association between creativity and the two work outcomes. These findings are discussed...
Nigeria's healthcare sector over the years has continued to degenerate with health indicators ... in service delivery as well as increases access to quality healthcare. ... Key words: Nigeria, Healthcare Sector, Health Outcomes, Health Indicators, ...
Basri Siti Aisyah
Full Text Available Whistleblowing is an internal control system that be a way to reduce or eradicate fraud. This paper focuses on investigating the reasons for whistleblowing is not a preferred method to eradicate fraud. This paper starts with defining the term “whistleblowing”. In its simplest form, whistleblowing involves the act of reporting improper conduct within an organisation to internal or external parties. This paper explains the issues and effects concerning whistleblowing. One of the issues is the violation of public trust. Lastly, this paper will describe the reasons for resistance of people to blow the whistle. Among the reasons is the fear of reprisal. This is a concept paper and it aims to conduct interview session with the Head for every local authority in Melaka. The findings of this paper can be used by the Government to create a new model related to whistleblowing to eradicate fraud in public sector. The Government could use this paper as the support to enhance the achievement of National Key Result Areas (NKRAs Against Corruption.
Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch
A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Historically in the United States, the public sector has served as an equalizing institution through the expansion of job opportunities for minority workers. This study examines whether the public sector continues to serve as an equalizing institution in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I investigate changes in public sector employment between 2003 and 2013. My results point to a post-recession double disadvantage for black public sector workers: they are concentrated in a shrinking sector of the economy, and they are more likely than white and Hispanic public sector workers to experience job loss. These two trends are a historical break for the public sector labor market. I find that race and ethnicity gaps in public sector employment cannot be explained by differences in education, occupation, or any of the other measurable factors that are typically associated with employment. Among unemployed workers who most recently worked for the public sector, black women are the least likely to transition into private sector employment.
Javed Nayyar Malik
Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual model of public sector corporate entrepreneurship for the state government higher education institutions. The proposed model is intended to depict the main antecedents that relate to corporate entrepreneurship within the public sector higher education institution and the impact of corporate entrepreneurship on public sector HEI’s performance, as well as factors influencing its continuous performance.
Averkieva Elena, S.
Full Text Available The impact of public procurement on the Russian economy is investigated in the paper. An assessment of the system’s effect on national competitiveness and the activities of small businesses is provided. Public contract system is a versatile tool that can be used to control a wide variety of economic sectors. Every year, the share of public sector in the Russian economy is increasing, that means the state influence on economic processes taking place in the country is growing steadily. First of all the importance of public procurement in the Russian economy can be estimated by matching parameters of the budgetary system and GDP. The interrelationship of public procurement and national competitiveness is identified in the paper based on the consideration of measures to ensure energy efficiency and national treatment. Efficient spending of budget funds, as stated in the objectives of the contract system, is analyzed by the indicator of the savings in absolute and relative terms. Indicators of system openness, which will improve the monitoring of its transparency, are given to determine the effect on the economy of corruption component of public procurement.
Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.
This paper provides a sub-sectoral analysis of changes in the public-private sector pay gap in Ireland between 2003 and 2006. We find that between March 2003 and October 2006 the public sector pay premium increased from 14 to 26 per cent and that there was substantial variation between subsectors of the public service. Within the public service the premium in 2006 was highest in Education and Security Services and lowest in the Civil Service and Local Authorities. In the private sector the pa...
Full Text Available One of heatlh policies implemented by the hospital is the minimum service standards (MSS. MSS is a benchmark of hospital service quality in providing services to the public. Talking about health service quality problem, it was found out as the field fact that the achievement of MSS indicator in General Hospital of Dr. H. Koesnadi Bondowoso, Indonesia in 2016 still did not fulfill target of standard hospital service (type B and minimum service standard (MSS of hospital. This fact shows that the quality of health services in general hospital of dr. H. Koesnadi Bondowoso is still low. So, this research aims to describe the policy implementation of minimum service standard and to analyze the obstacles in the implementation of MSS policy at general hospital of dr. H. Koesnadi Bondowoso. So, this research would discuss the policy implementation of minimum service standards by using Edward III concept as a tool to analyze it. This research employed qualitative research with phenomenological approach. The results showed that the implementation of MSS policy of dr. H. Koesnadi Bondowoso general hospital still did not run well. This was due to several factors such as communication, bureaucratic structure, sources, dispositions (attitude and leadership in sectoral ego control. Sectoral ego can be shaped from educational background of specialist doctors who still adhered seniority and lack of individual role of implementor in building interpersonal communication and conflict management.
Full Text Available The paper explores the effect of large-scale privatization of public sector activities on public-private sector pay differential, for groups of workers according to educational qualification on average and across the pay distribution in Serbia, from 2004 until 2008. The paper finds that both unskilled and skilled men and women in the public sector saw significant improvements in their financial position relative to their private sector counterparts with the progress of the economic transition. The results showed that the size of the public sector pay premium declines both with higher educational level and higher percentile of earnings distribution. This indicates, between and within groups, the inequality-reducing feature of the public sector pay determination.
Kumar, Ramesh; Ahmed, Jamil; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Rehan; Hafeez, Assad
Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee's work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.
Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), finds that the concept of franch...
Roy, Anish Kumar
To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In
Spyridaki, Niki-Artemis; Banaka, Stefania; Flamos, Alexandros
This paper applies a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to evaluate public policy mechanisms that foster energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in the Greek building sector, based on stakeholders’ understanding and perceptions of the functionality of policy instruments. The objective is to shed light on the implementation of currently employed policy mechanisms that aim to achieve the 2020 energy savings targets and beyond, providing useful information to policy makers for future policy (re-) formulations. In this framework, policy instruments were evaluated against process-related criteria, such as implementation costs, distributional effects, and coherence of policy processes, so as to highlight successful policy practices during their implementation phase as well as to unveil cases of policy underperformance or unintended policy outcomes. To hedge uncertainties related to policy instrument selection, the method employs probabilistic evaluations of every alternative against each criterion. The MCA results showed that the country is still missing significant energy saving opportunities that could be reached through more streamlined implementation practices and political support. In times of fiscal crisis, the Greek government should also revitalize the implementation of alternative funding mechanisms and support policy alternatives such as green public procurement, voluntary agreements, and energy performance contracting. - Highlights: • We apply an MCA analysis to evaluate EE and RES policies instruments. • We focus on the implementation stage through qualitative criteria and ordinal scales. • We use the probabilistic evaluations of each alternative against each criterion. • We provide rankings of instruments according to process related criteria. • Greece should revitalize the implementation of funding mechanisms, GPP and VAs.
Anca Monica Ardeleanu
Full Text Available Equal opportunities are a goal to achieve in Romania at the legislative and institutional/ organizational level.In terms of legislation Romania has made progress, but the institutional mechanisms of the government dealing with gender equality issues are not functioning properly, are not generating a concreate impact on the equal opportunities for women and men.For this reason there is no specific and significant political commitmentto these issue of gender equality in Romania. Gender discrimination is addressed both by anti-discrimination and equal opportunities laws.Equality,fairness and non-discrimination in the workplace environment are present as objective requirements of economic, social and ethical behavior that goes beyond the labor market. Theoretically, on the labor market , both public and private sectors do not accept direct or indirect discrimination at the workplace, espeially during the process of recruitment , training , development, promotion, establishment, payment of the salary and benefits. In practice , the legislation regarding the equal opportunities and equal treatment it is not respected by the employers all the time.Promotion of the policies at the national and organizational level, focused on ensuring equal opportunities , will enhance the social cohesion of the population that will generate economic growrh overall.
Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers
Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya
Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance of “wo...... of “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....
Jourdain, Alain; Muñoz, Jorge; Hudebine, Hervé
Hypothesis: The 2009 Hospital, Patients, Health and Territories Act crystallises a central government attempt to regain control over the social and long term care sector, which involves the utilisation of policy instruments borrowed from the hospital sector: capped budgets, agreements on targets and resources, competitive tendering or quasi-market mechanisms involving hospitals and services, etc. This paper is therefore based on the hypothesis of a recentralisation and healthicization of the social and long term care sector, with a key role for the regional health authorities. Method and data: 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with actors operating within and outside the regional health agencies and thereafter analysed using Alceste. The aim was to describe and to analyse the positioning of the RHAs in relation to key actors of the social and long-term care sector in 2 regions in 2011. Results: Key issues for public organisations include the style of planning and knowhow transfer, while the professionals were chiefly concerned with the intensity of the ambulatory turn and needs analysis methodology. The compromises forged were related to types of democratic legitimacy, namely representative or participatory democracy. Conclusion: There is little evidence to support the initial hypothesis, namely the existence of a link between the creation of RHAs and a recentralisation of health policy between 2009 and 2013. One may rather suggest that a reconfiguration of the activities and resources of the actors operating at the centre (RHAs and conseils départementaux) and at the periphery (territorial units of the RHAs and third sector umbrella organisations) has occurred.
Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Kumar, Rajesh
Access to free essential medicines is a critical component of universal health coverage. However availability of essential medicines is poor in India with more than two-third of the people having limited or no access. This has pushed up private out-of-pocket expenditure due to medicines. The states of Punjab and Haryana are in the process of institutionalizing drug procurement models to provide uninterrupted access to essential medicines free of cost in all public hospitals and health centres. We undertook this study to assess the availability of medicines in public sector health facilities in the 2 states. Secondly, we also ascertained the quality of storage and inventory management systems in health facilities. The present study was carried out in 80 public health facilities across 12 districts in Haryana and Punjab states. Overall, within each state 1 MC, 6 DHs, 11 CHCs and 22 PHCs were selected for the study. Drug procurement mechanisms in both the states were studied through document reviews and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. Stock registers were reviewed to collect data on availability of a basket of essential medicines -92 at Primary Health Centre (PHC) level, 132 at Community Health Centre (CHC) level and 160 at tertiary care (District Hospital/Medical College) level. These essential medicines were selected based on the Essential Medicine List (EML) of the Department of Health (DOH). Overall availability of medicines was 45.2% and 51.1% in Punjab and Haryana respectively. Availability of anti-hypertensives was around 60% in both the states whereas for anti-diabetics it was 44% and 47% in Punjab and Haryana respectively. Atleast one drug in each of the categories including analgesic/antipyretic, anti-helminthic, anti-spasmodic, anti-emetic, anti-hypertensive and uterotonics were nearly universally available in public sector facilities. On the contrary, medicines such as thrombolytics, anti-cancer and endocrine medicines were available in less
Varabyova, Yauheniya; Schreyögg, Jonas
There is a growing interest in the cross-country comparisons of the performance of national health care systems. The present work provides a comparison of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector using unbalanced panel data from OECD countries over the period 2000-2009. The estimation of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector is performed using nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) and parametric stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Internal and external validity of findings is assessed by estimating the Spearman rank correlations between the results obtained in different model specifications. The panel-data analyses using two-step DEA and one-stage SFA show that countries, which have higher health care expenditure per capita, tend to have a more technically efficient hospital sector. Whether the expenditure is financed through private or public sources is not related to the technical efficiency of the hospital sector. On the other hand, the hospital sector in countries with higher income inequality and longer average hospital length of stay is less technically efficient. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Canaway, Rachel; Bismark, Marie; Dunt, David; Prang, Khic-Houy; Kelaher, Margaret
Public reporting of hospital performance data is a developing area that is gaining increased attention. This is the first study to explore a range of stakeholder opinions on how such public reporting could be strengthened in Australia. Thirty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of expert healthcare consumer, provider and purchaser informants who worked in a variety of senior roles and had knowledge of or involvement in public reporting of hospital data within the public or private healthcare sectors. Informants from all Australian states, territory and national jurisdictions participated. Thematic analysis was used to gain an overview of experts' opinions to inform policy and systems-development for strengthening foundational frameworks for public reporting of health services performance. Themes arising were synthesised to generate explanatory figures to highlight key areas for strengthening public reporting. Our findings suggest that in Australia there is a lack of agreement on what the objectives and who the audience are for public reporting of hospital performance data. Without this shared understanding it is difficult to strengthen frameworks and impacts of public reporting. When developing frameworks for public reporting of hospital data in Australia, more explicit definition of what or who are the 'public' is needed along with identification of barriers, desired impacts, data needs, and data collection/reporting/feedback mechanisms. All relevant stakeholders should be involved in design of public reporting frameworks. Offering multiple systems of public reporting, each tailored to particular audiences, might enable greater impact of reporting towards improved hospital quality and safety, and consumer knowledge to inform treatment decisions. This study provides an overview of perspectives, but further research is warranted to develop PR frameworks that can generate greatest impacts for the needs of various audiences
Full Text Available This unique study tries to link corporate governance, intellectual capital and organizational performance in the public sector in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC. To do so we collected data from 371 managers in public entities within the GCC region. Our findings indicate the importance of corporate governance (in form of human, social and structural capital to enhance performance in the public sector. Not only have those, results showed that the examined forms of capital are interrelated. We therefore support earlier findings that attribute impact of intellectual capital variables on performance. These results are highly relevant within the context of the GCC public sector. The findings of the papers help both, scholars and practitioners: the findings of the paper help to better understand the links between corporate governance and intellectual capital. Further, the study provides – based on GCC public sector data - the unique opportunity to see the interrelationships between corporate governance, intellectual capital and performance within the GCC public sector
related to environmental impacts, social impacts and image issues. The Finnish programme has so far managed to keep the time schedule set as early as in 1983. The choice of location for a spent fuel repository is planned to be made by the end of 2000. The reasons for the successful implementation of the programme have presumably been the clearly defined division of responsibilities between the main actors in the field, and a commitment to keep the time schedule. In this overall context the role of the Public Sector's Nuclear Waste Management Programme has been to support authorities in their work. It appears that the research programme has been successful in this role. (orig.)
Aksan, Hediye A D; Ergin, Işıl; Ocek, Zeliha
Substantial regional health inequalities have been shown to exist in Turkey for major health indicators. Turkish data on hospitals deserves a closer examination with a special emphasis on the regional differences in the context of the rapid privatization of the secondary or tertiary level health services.This study aims to evaluate the change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey between 2001-2006 and to determine the regional differences. Data for this retrospective study was provided from Statistical Almanacs of Inpatient Services (2001-2006). Hospitals in each of the 81 provinces were grouped into two categories: public and private. Provinces were grouped into six regions according to a development index composed by the State Planning Organisation. The number of facilities, hospital beds, outpatient admissions, inpatient admissions (per 100 000), number of deliveries and surgical operations (per 10 000) were calculated for public and private hospitals in each province and region. Regional comparisons were based on calculation of ratios for Region 1(R1) to Region 6(R6). Public facilities had a fundamental role in service delivery. However, private sector grew rapidly in Turkey between 2001-2006 in capacity and service delivery. In public sector, there were 2.3 fold increase in the number of beds in R1 to R6 in 2001. This ratio was 69.9 fold for private sector. The substantial regional inequalities in public and private sector decreased for the private sector enormously while a little decrease was observed for the public sector. In 2001 in R1, big surgical operations were performed six times more than R6 at the public sector whereas the difference was 117.7 fold for the same operations in the same regions for the private sector. These ratios decreased to 3.6 for the public sector and 13.9 for the private sector in 2006. The private health sector has grown enormously between 2001-2006 in Turkey including the less developed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial regional health inequalities have been shown to exist in Turkey for major health indicators. Turkish data on hospitals deserves a closer examination with a special emphasis on the regional differences in the context of the rapid privatization of the secondary or tertiary level health services. This study aims to evaluate the change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey between 2001-2006 and to determine the regional differences. Methods Data for this retrospective study was provided from Statistical Almanacs of Inpatient Services (2001-2006. Hospitals in each of the 81 provinces were grouped into two categories: public and private. Provinces were grouped into six regions according to a development index composed by the State Planning Organisation. The number of facilities, hospital beds, outpatient admissions, inpatient admissions (per 100 000, number of deliveries and surgical operations (per 10 000 were calculated for public and private hospitals in each province and region. Regional comparisons were based on calculation of ratios for Region 1(R1 to Region 6(R6. Results Public facilities had a fundamental role in service delivery. However, private sector grew rapidly in Turkey between 2001-2006 in capacity and service delivery. In public sector, there were 2.3 fold increase in the number of beds in R1 to R6 in 2001. This ratio was 69.9 fold for private sector. The substantial regional inequalities in public and private sector decreased for the private sector enormously while a little decrease was observed for the public sector. In 2001 in R1, big surgical operations were performed six times more than R6 at the public sector whereas the difference was 117.7 fold for the same operations in the same regions for the private sector. These ratios decreased to 3.6 for the public sector and 13.9 for the private sector in 2006. Conclusions The private health sector has grown
Alejandro Huergo Lora
Full Text Available This paper examines how European and Spanish public procurement rules tackle agreements between entities within the public sector. In Spain these agreemets were initially above those rules, but now they cannot have the same object as a contract. Spanish law is not in line with European law, since under European law agreements are valid even if their object could be attained with a contract, provided that they meet some requirements. On the other hand, attention is paid to these requisites, laid down by Eurepean law, in order to ascertain if agreements are asked to comply with harder rules than «in house providing», and if it has to be so. Public entities are not obliged to «buy» if they can fulfill their needs with their own resources. And «their own resources» include the resources of entities or bodies closely related, or even any entity within the public sector. Otherwise decentralized States, in which there are many autonomous entities whose cooperation involves agreements between independent bodies, would be impaired.
Ashmore, John; Gilson, Lucy
'Dual practice', or multiple job holding, generally involves public sector-based health workers taking additional work in the private sector. This form of the practice is purported to help retain public health care workers in low and middle-income countries' public sectors through additional wage incentives. There has been little conceptual or empirical development of the relationship between dual practice and retention. This article helps begin to fill this gap, drawing on empirical evidence from a qualitative study focusing on South African specialists. Fifty-one repeat, in-depth interviews were carried out with 28 doctors (predominantly specialists) with more than one job, in one public and one private urban hospital. Findings suggest dual practice can impact both positively and negatively on specialists' intention to stay in the public sector. This is through multiple conceptual channels including those previously identified in the literature such as dual practice acting as a 'stepping stone' to private practice by reducing migration costs. Dual practice can also lead specialists to re-evaluate how they compare public and private jobs, and to overworking which can expedite decisions on whether to stay in the public sector or leave. Numerous respondents undertook dual practice without official permission. The idea that dual practice helps retain public specialists in South Africa may be overstated. Yet banning the practice may be ineffective, given many undertake it without permission in any case. Regulation should be better enforced to ensure dual practice is not abused. The conceptual framework developed in this article could form a basis for further qualitative and quantitative inquiry.
Faber, A.S.C.; Budding, G.
The field of public sector reporting is moving from vertical to horizontal accountability: from hierarchical relationships that mediate between public organisations and citizens to directly disclosing available information. IT developments play an important role in innovative forms of reporting that
The field of public sector reporting is moving from vertical to horizontal accountability: from hierarchical relationships that mediate between public organisations and citizens to directly disclosing available information. IT developments play an important role in innovative forms of reporting that
S.J. Dorsman (Stephan)
markdownabstractPublic sector organizations throughout the world are facing unprecedented challenges. Given these challenges and demands, fostering innovation could obviously be a very useful strategy for public organizations. As proposed by scholars, increased innovativeness is of key importance
Gotz, N K; van Tongeren, M; Wareing, H; Wallace, L M; Semple, S; Maccalman, L
To monitor and disseminate the short-term effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and employee exposure in businesses of the hospitality industry. Indoor particle concentrations and salivary cotinine levels were measured in businesses in the hospitality sector and non-smoking employees one month before and after the implementation of the legislation. Results were immediately released to the media to announce the improvements in air quality and employee exposure to the wider public. Measurements were collected in 49 businesses and from 75 non-smoking individuals. Indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased by 95% from 217 microg/m(3) at baseline to 11 microg/m(3) at follow-up (P hospitality industry sector. We believe that quick and positive feedback to the public on the effects of smoking restrictions is essential when introducing public health legislation such as the Smoke-free legislation.
Camillo, Nadia Raquel Suzini; Oliveira, João Lucas Campos de; Bellucci Junior, José Aparecido; Cervilheri, Andressa Hirata; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Matsuda, Laura Misue
to analyze the perceptions of the multidisciplinary team on Accreditation in a public hospital. descriptive, exploratory, qualitative research, performed in May 2014, using recorded individual interviews. In total, 28 employees of a public hospital, Accredited with Excellence, answered the guiding question: "Tell me about the Accreditation system used in this hospital". The interviews were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. of the speeches, three categories emerged: Advantages offered by the Accreditation; Accredited public hospital resembling a private hospital; Pride/satisfaction for acting in an accredited public hospital. participants perceived Accreditation as a favorable system for a quality management in the public service because it promotes the development of professional skills and improves cost management, organizational structure, management of assistance and perception of job pride/satisfaction.
Juliane Madeira Leitão; José Alves Dantas
Materiality in private sector financial audit is a topic that has been relatively well developed in the literature. Specific research in this regard in public sector auditing, on the other hand, is scarce at the international level and absent in Brazil. In view of this, the purpose of this study was to identify the parameters used to determine materiality in public sector financial audit. To this end, we sent questionnaires to the 192 Supreme Audit Institutions that are members of INTOSAI and...
Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam
The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work...... of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector....
Nguyen Danh, Hoang Long
This study examines public administration-private wage differentials and SOEs-private wage differentials for males and females. Based on data from Vietnam Living Standards Survey in 2002 (VLSS 2002), wage equations with and without selectivity correction are estimated by sector of employment for males and females. From these results, the study compares the wage structure by sector of work for males and females. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the public administration-private sector wage diff...
Mora, Ricardo; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
In many countries, recruiting and promotion procedures in the public sector would appear to leave less room for gender discrimination than in the private sector. Using data for Spain in 1977 and 1992, this paper explores the consequences of these practices for gender segregation in those occupations where there is a private and a public sector of a minimum size. In particular, an additive index based on the entropy concept is used to compare occupational gender segregation in the private vers...
Vesna Vašièek; Ivana Dražiæ Lutilsky; Hrvoje Perèeviæ
Success of many public sector reforms depends on successful public management. Key components of public management are introduction of accrual basis accounting and management on the basis of results which is possible to achieve with improvements of accounting systems, mainly cost accounting and financial reporting in public sector. Results are long term and broad, ensuring development based on knowledge and responsibility. Costs are important element in a decision making process by determinat...
Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…
S.I. Bergh (Sylvia)
textabstractThis paper discusses the extent to which civil society contributes to strengthening public sector accountability in Morocco. The main argument in this paper is that despite a few recent encouraging examples, civil society’s role in strengthening public sector accountability remains
Knol, Arjan; Janssen, Marijn; Sol, H G
Sourcing has become a popular practice for public sector managers aiming for transformations to save costs and improve service delivery. Nevertheless, public sector sourcing often fails due to stakeholder resistance and power struggles, stressing the need for stakeholder analysis. This paper
Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Rehman, Rashid; Bibi, Zainab
The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the earlier mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of university type (public and private sector) was examined on the conflict…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public and private sector comment procedures. 302.1 Section 302.1 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMENTS ON UNICOR BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 302.1 Public and private sector comment procedures. (a...
Koerten, H.; Veenswijk, M.B.; Poot, J.
The success of Google Maps suggests that free access to public sector information (PSI) contributes to a prosperous economy. While there has been considerable attention for legal and economical considerations concerning the implications of policies on public sector information (PSI), also labeled as
Kankaanranta, Terhi; Nummi, Tapio; Vainiomäki, Jari; Halila, Hannu; Hyppölä, Harri; Isokoski, Mauri; Kujala, Santero; Kumpusalo, Esko; Mattila, Kari; Virjo, Irma; Vänskä, Jukka; Rissanen, Pekka
This study is based on a unique data set for the years 1988-2003 and uses structural equation models to examine the impact of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction on physicians' intention to switch from public- to private-sector work. In Finland, physicians who work primarily in a public-hospital or health-centre setting can also run a private practice. Therefore, we also analysed the impact of having a private practice on a physician's intention to change sector. We found that private practice had a positive, statistically significant effect on the intention to switch sector in 1998 and 2003. Results also suggest that job satisfaction decreases a physician's intention to switch sector, although for 1998 it had no effect. Surprisingly, job dissatisfaction significantly increased the physicians' intentions to leave the public sector only in the 1988 data.
Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J
To investigate whether tax-exempt hospitals' investments in community health are associated with patterns of governmental public health spending focusing specifically on the relationship between hospitals' community benefit expenditures and the spending patterns of local health departments (LHDs). We combined data on tax-exempt hospitals' community benefit spending with data on spending by the corresponding LHD that served the county in which a hospital was located. Data were available for 2 years, 2009 and 2013. Generalized linear regressions were estimated with indicators of hospital community benefit spending as the dependent variable and LHD spending as the key independent variable. Hospital community benefit spending was unrelated to how much local public health agencies spent, per capita, on public health in their communities. Patterns of local public health spending do not appear to impact the investments of tax-exempt hospitals in community health activities. Opportunities may, however, exist for a more active engagement between the public and private sector to ensure that the expenditures of all stakeholders involved in community health improvement efforts complement one another. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Companies in the hospitality sector (hotels, restaurants etc.) aim to distinguish their brand image and differentiate their product or service among the competitors by adopting particular brand strategies since identifying a target customer base and understanding their needs and preferences are of primary significance for hospitality firms. The achievement of a distinguished designation necessitates utilizing research based and strategic branding techniques and suggestions. One major branding...
Aurathai Lertwannawit; Sirivan Serirat; Siroj Pholpantin
This research assesses the relationship between career competencies and career success of Thai employees in the tourism and hospitality sector. The authors distinguished and operationalized four career competencies, i.e. computer and language skills, work spirits and ethics, team working and leadership, and tourism and hospitality knowledge and skills, and two career successes, i.e. objective and subjective career successes. A quantitative study was performed using 800 employees in four indus...
Alameddine, Mohamad; Baumann, Andrea; Laporte, Audrey; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Levinton, Carey; Onate, Kanecy; Deber, Raisa
This paper is a report of an analysis of the career trajectories of nurses 1 year after leaving hospitals. Although hospitals are traditionally the largest employers of nurses, technological advances and budgetary constraints have resulted in many countries in relative shrinkage of the hospital sector and a shift of care (and jobs) into home/community settings. It has been often assumed that nurses displaced from hospitals will move to work in the other workplaces, especially the community sector. Employment patterns were tracked by examining a longitudinal database of all 201,463 nurses registered with the College of Nurses Ontario (Canada) between 1993 and 2004. Focusing on the employment categories Active (Working in nursing), Eligible-Seeking nursing employment or Dropout from the nursing labour market, year-to-year transition matrixes were generated by sector and sub-sector of employment, nurse type, age group and work status. For every nurse practising nursing in any non-hospital job or in the community a year after leaving hospitals, an average of 1.3 and four nurses, respectively, dropped out of Ontario's labour market. The proportion of nurses leaving hospitals transitioning to the Dropout category ranged from 63.3% (1994-95) to 38.6% (2001-02). The proportion dropping out of Ontario's market was higher for Registered Practical Nurses (compared to Registered Nurses), increased with age and decreased with degree of casualization in nurses' jobs. Downsizing hospitals without attention to the potentially negative impact on the nursing workforce can lead to retention difficulties and adversely affects the overall supply of nurses.
Full Text Available This study is about the exploration of innovative management control systems in the context of New Public Management (NPM initiatives. NPM initiatives created the changes to the structure and processes of public sector organizations with the objective of getting them to run better. A government department in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT has been selected as the field for investigation. This study draws on a single theoretical perspective, Giddens’s structuration theory to understand the management control systems evolved in the researched organization. Qualitative research methodology is applied to obtain a better understanding of the phenomena. Case-based research method is used in developing a complete understanding of the relative role of controls in the management of organizational performance. In this study, it is argued that the researched organization has adopted various management control tools to improve its performance and demonstrate transparency and accountability. Some of the control tools it has adopted are the innovations in the public sector. It appears from the case that these adopted management control tools forced the researched organization towards better performance supporting the rationale of adopting New Public Management practices.
Kohler Jillian C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments, and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the
Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M
Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and
Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi
Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries.
Butler, I R T; Ceronio, D; Swart, T; Joubert, G
The age of diagnosis of congenital hearing loss is one of the most important determinants of communication outcome. A previous study by the lead author had evaluated the performance of the public health services in Bloemfontein, South Africa (SA), in this regard. This study aimed to examine whether the private health services in the same city were any better. To determine whether the age of diagnosis of congenital hearing loss (CHL) in children seen in the private healthcare sector in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, SA, was lower than that in the public healthcare system in the same city. A comparative study design was utilised and a retrospective database review conducted. Data obtained from this study in the private healthcare sector were compared with data from a previous study in the public healthcare sector using the same study design. Forty-eight children aged private healthcare sector during the study period; 33/47 (70.2%) did not undergo hearing screening at birth. The median age of diagnosis of DHI in the private healthcare sector was 2.24 years, and this was statistically significantly lower than the median age of diagnosis of 3.71 years in the public healthcare sector (pprivate healthcare sector was 3.01 years in children who were not screened at birth, and 1.25 years in those who were screened at birth. This difference was statistically significant (pprivate healthcare sector who were not screened at birth (median 3.01 years) with that in children in the public healthcare sector (median 3.71 years). This difference was statistically significant (pprivate healthcare sector than in the public healthcare sector. With the social and economic benefits of early intervention in cases of DHI well established internationally, SA healthcare providers in both the public and private sectors need to develop screening, diagnostic and (re)habilitation services for children with hearing impairment.
Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Hearld, Larry; Menachemi, Nir; Epané, Josué Patien; O'Connor, Stephen
As safety net providers, public hospitals operate in more challenging environments than private hospitals. Such environments put public hospitals at greater risk of financial distress, which may result in privatization and deterioration of the safety net. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether financial distress is associated with privatization among public hospitals. We used panel data merged from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, Medicare Cost Reports, Area Resource File, and Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Our study population consisted of all U.S. nonfederal acute care public hospitals in 1997 tracked through 2009, resulting in 6,426 hospital-year observations. The dependent variable "privatization" was defined as conversion from public status to either private not-for-profit or private for-profit status. The main independent variable, "financial distress," was based on the Altman Z-score methodology. Control variables included market and organizational factors. Two random-effects logistic regression models with state and year fixed-effects were constructed. The independent and control variables were lagged by 1 year and 2 years for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Public hospitals in financial distress had greater odds of being privatized than public hospitals not in financial distress: (OR = 4.53, p resources and may provide financial relief to government entities from the burden of continuously funding a hospital operating at a loss, which in turn may help keep the hospital open and preserve access to care for the community. Privatizing a financially distressed public hospital may be a better strategic alternative than closure. The Altman Z-score could be used as a managerial tool to monitor hospitals' financial condition and take corrective actions.
Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Varnava, Alice; Buck, Rhiannon; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Griffiths, Amanda; Phillips, Ceri; Cox, Tom; Kahn, Sayeed; Main, Chris J
To investigate the utility of the Work and Organization Assessment Questionnaire (WOAQ) for public sector data. A cross-sectional survey was performed in public sector organizations measuring demographics, work characteristics, work perceptions (WOAQ), sickness absence, and work performance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WOAQ showed that factor structure derived for the manufacturing sector, for which the questionnaire was developed, could be replicated moderately well with public sector data. The study then considered whether a better more specific fit for public sector data was possible. Principal components analysis of the public sector data identified a two-factor structure linked to four of the five scales of the WOAQ assessing Management and Work Design, and Work Culture. These two factors may offer a context-sensitive scoring method for the WOAQ in public sector populations. These two factors were found to have good internal consistency, and correlated with the full WOAQ scales and the measures of performance and absence. The WOAQ is a useful and potentially transferable tool. The modified scoring may be used to assess work and organizational factors in the public sector.
Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea; Garavan, Thomas N.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide insights about the usefulness of management education for the public sector in the Republic of Mauritius, which embarked on reforms initiatives around two decades ago. In this context, public officers were encouraged to follow specialised management courses. However, as at date, there is…
Full Text Available This study compares the internal audit functions between private and the public sector. Features examined include hierarchical rank of internal audit function, internal audit transfer, outsourcing of internal audit services and working relationship of internal audit with external auditor. The study is based on a survey of internal audit managers and chief internal auditors in private and public sector entities in Nigeria. The results revealed that there is no much difference in hierarchical rank of internal audit function in both sectors. While the results showed that differences exist in the reporting status between internal audit in the two sectors with private sector internal audit reporting to audit committee and chief executive officer and public sector internal audit reporting to chief executive officer and chief financial officer. Almost a similar amount of work is outsourced, and private sector entities are more likely to outsource than those in public sector. There is slight difference between internal audit activities and interaction with external auditor in the two sectors with private sector more likely to coordinate in the area of access to audit working papers.
Harding, April; Preker, Alexander S
... hospitals play a critical role in ensuring delivery of health services, less is known about how to improve the efficiency and quality of care provided. Much can be learned in this respect from the experiences of hospital reforms initiated during the 1990s. Innovations in Health Service Delivery: The Corporatization of Public Hospitals is an a...
potential for growth and development within the Nigerian economy. Adenikinji and Chete (2002), conducted ... a fall in the performance level of the manufacturing sector in the country. However ..... Academic Book Press. Ugwuh, C.C. (2004).
Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F
Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.
Longest, Beaufort B
Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.
Objective The pricing of follow-on drugs, that offer only limited health benefits over existing therapeutic alternatives, is a recurring health policy debate. This study investigates whether follow-on therapeutic substitutes create price competition between branded hospital medicines. Methods New...... pioneer products were significantly reduced as a reaction to competition from follow-on drugs. Conclusion Competition between patented therapeutic substitutes did not seem to increase price competition and containment of pharmaceutical expenditures in the Danish hospital market. Strengthening hospitals......’ incentives to consider the price of alternative treatment options paired with a more active formulary management may increase price competition between therapeutic substitutes in the Danish hospital sector in the future....
Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca
This paper analyses the process that led the European Commission to the decision to develop European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) for harmonizing public sector accounting practices within the European Union. The paper finds that there was limited scope in terms of stakeholder...... participation in the public consultation that served as a basis for the decision. In addition, the decision to adopt EPSAS for EU member states raises questions on the relationship between regional and global governance in the area of public sector accounting....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee’s work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee’s organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Results Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Conclusion Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.
Tengilimoglu, D; Kisa, A; Dziegielewski, S F
This article reports the results of a patient-satisfaction survey administered by interview to 2045 adults discharged from several major public and private hospitals in Turkey. The direct measurement of patient-satisfaction is a new phenomenon for this country. An instrument was designed similar to those available in the United States and administered during exit interviews. Two primary areas of analyses were determined in comparing services provided by these public and private hospitals: demographic factors with regard to accessibility and consumer perceptions of the quality of service provided. Relationships and percentages within and among the five public and two private hospitals are reported. Several statistically significant differences were found between the hospitals, with the private hospitals achieving the greatest satisfaction on most of the quality of services issues examined. Future recommendations outline the need to take into account the public's perception of these hospitals and enhancing customer satisfaction as a means of increasing service utilization.
Craglia, Massimo; Friis-Christensen, Anders; Ostländer, Nicole; Perego, Andrea
INSPIRE is a European Directive aiming to establish a EU-wide spatial data infrastructure to give cross-border access to information that can be used to support EU environmental policies, as well as other policies and activities having an impact on the environment. In order to ensure cross-border interoperability of data infrastructures operated by EU Member States, INSPIRE sets out a framework based on common specifications for metadata, data, network services, data and service sharing, monitoring and reporting. The implementation of INSPIRE has reached important milestones: the INSPIRE Geoportal was launched in 2011 providing a single access point for the discovery of INSPIRE data and services across EU Member States (currently, about 300K), while all the technical specifications for the interoperability of data across the 34 INSPIRE themes were adopted at the end of 2013. During this period a number of EU and international initiatives has been launched, concerning cross-domain interoperability and (Linked) Open Data. In particular, the EU Open Data Portal, launched in December 2012, made provisions to access government and scientific data from EU institutions and bodies, and the EU ISA Programme (Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations) promotes cross-sector interoperability by sharing and re-using EU-wide and national standards and components. Moreover, the Research Data Alliance (RDA), an initiative jointly funded by the European Commission, the US National Science Foundation and the Australian Research Council, was launched in March 2013 to promote scientific data sharing and interoperability. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), besides being the technical coordinator of the implementation of INSPIRE, is also actively involved in the initiatives promoting cross-sector re-use in INSPIRE, and sustainable approaches to address the evolution of technologies - in particular, how to support Linked Data in INSPIRE and
Olga Vladimirovna Kozhevina
Full Text Available The development management quality assessment methodology in the public sector is relevant scientific and practical problem of economic research. The utilization of the results of the assessment on the basis of the authors’ methodology allows us to rate the public sector organizations, to justify decisions on the reorganization and privatization, and to monitor changes in the level of the management quality of the public sector organizations. The study determined the place of the quality of the control processes of the public sector organization in the system of “Quality of public administration — the effective operation of the public sector organization,” the contradictions associated with the assessment of management quality are revealed, the conditions for effective functioning of the public sector organizations are proved, a mechanism of comprehensive assessment and algorithm for constructing and evaluating the control models of management quality are developed, the criteria for assessing the management quality in the public sector organizations, including economic, budgetary, social and public, informational, innovation and institutional criteria are empirically grounded. By utilizing the proposed algorithm, the assessment model of quality management in the public sector organizations, including the financial, economic, social, innovation, informational and institutional indicators is developed. For each indicator of quality management, the coefficients of importance in the management quality assessment model, as well as comprehensive and partial evaluation indicators are determined on the basis of the expert evaluations. The main conclusion of the article is that management quality assessment for the public sector organizations should be based not only on the indicators achieved in the dynamics and utilized for analyzing the effectiveness of management, but also should take into account the reference levels for the values of these
Micheline J. Naude
Full Text Available The public sector is recognised as being one of the most important customer groups for many suppliers and service providers because of the volume of public expenditure. Supplier relationship management (SRM is a necessary tool on which businesses in the public and private sectors rely. However, in the South African public sector, despite the intention to boost service delivery through efficient and effective supplier-management processes, the development of sound supplier relationships is a challenge. The purpose of this article is to provide insight into supplier-relationship challenges and to suggest a framework for implementing SRM in the South African public sector. The research presented is based on a survey using both descriptive and exploratory research. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 15 participants at eight institutions in KwaZulu-Natal. Purposive sampling techniques were used. The findings reveal that the main supplier-related challenges that handicap procurement practices in the province are a lack of experience, a lack of affirmable suppliers, threats and bribes, a lack of integrity, an inability to meet delivery deadlines and quality issues. The findings further reveal that supplier relationships in the public sector are of a transactional nature. A five-stage framework is therefore recommended for implementing SRM in the South African public sector and in order to assist government procurement officials to reap the benefits of SRM whilst supporting the requirements of public-sector procurement.
Full Text Available Efficiency has a key-role in the measurement of the impact of the National Health Service (NHS reforms. We investigate the issue of inefficiency in health sector and provide empirical evidence derived from Italian public hospitals. Despite the importance of efficiency measurement in health care services, only recently advanced econometric methods have been applied to hospital data. We provide a synoptic survey of few empirical analyses of efficiency measurement in health care services. An estimate of the cost efficiency level in Italian public hospitals during 2001-2003 is obtained through a sample. We propose an efficiency indicator and provide cost frontiers for such hospitals, using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA for longitudinal data.
The debate on Public-Private mix has been around in South Africa (SA) for the past ten years. The debate arose out of a realisation of the weaknesses in the public health parallel with the ever-increasing private sector worldwide. The concept has been referred to in different terminologies, public-private mix, public private ...
Storm, Ilse; den Hertog, Frank; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J
The causes of health inequalities are complex. For the reduction of health inequalities, intersectoral collaboration between the public health sector and both social policy sectors (e.g. youth affairs, education) and physical policy sectors (e.g. housing, spatial planning) is essential, but in local practice difficult to realize. The aim of this study was to examine the collaboration between the sectors in question more closely and to identify opportunities for improvement. A qualitative descriptive analysis of five aspects of collaboration within sixteen Dutch municipalities was performed to examine the collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors: 1) involvement of the sectors in the public health policy network, 2) harmonisation of objectives, 3) use of policies by the relevant sectors, 4) formalised collaboration, and 5) previous experience. Empirical data on these collaboration aspects were collected based on document analysis, questionnaires and interviews. The study found that the policy workers of social sectors were more involved in the public health network and more frequently supported the objectives in the field of health inequality reduction. Both social policy sectors and physical policy sectors used policies and activities to reduce health inequalities. More is done to influence the determinants of health inequality through policies aimed at lifestyle and social setting than through policies aimed at socioeconomic factors and the physical environment. Where the physical policy sectors are involved in the public health network, the collaboration follows a very similar pattern as with the social policy sectors. All sectors recognise the importance of good relationships, positive experiences, a common interest in working together and coordinated mechanisms. This study shows that there is scope for improving collaboration in the field of health inequality reduction between the public health sector and both social policy sectors
Ioana – Julieta Josan
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.
Udo Braendle; Assaad Farah; Patrick Balian
This unique study tries to link corporate governance, intellectual capital and organizational performance in the public sector in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). To do so we collected data from 371 managers in public entities within the GCC region. Our findings indicate the importance of corporate governance (in form of human, social and structural capital) to enhance performance in the public sector. Not only have those, results showed that the examined forms of capital are interrelated....
Claudio Lucifora; Dominique Meurs
We investigate public-private pay determination using French, British and Italian microdata. While traditional methods focus on parametric methods to estimate the public sector pay gap, in this paper, we use both non-parametric (kernel) and quantile regression methods to analyse the distribution of wages across sectors. We show that the public-private (hourly) wage differential is sensitive to the choice of quantile and that the pattern of premia varies with both gender and skill. In all coun...
Chatterji, Monojit; Mumford, Karen; Smith, Peter N.
Using new linked employee-workplace data for Britain in 2004, we find that the nature of the public private pay gap differs between genders and that of the gender pay gap differs between sectors. The analysis shows that little none of the gender earnings gap in both the public and private sector can be explained by differences in observable characteristics. Decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution of differences in workplace characteristics to the public private earnings g...
The main question around which this paper is based is whether the public sector in Albania needs to establish the Audit Committees as a demand for enhanced quality of services and accountability over the use of public funds is increasing. This paper analyzes the role of public sector Audit Committees in common law practices established to advise management on the adequacy of structures and processes that ensure the integrity of the accounting, auditing, risk management internal controls, and ...
Rentoumis, Anastasios; Mantzoufas, Nikolaos; Kouris, Gavriil; Golna, Christina; Souliotis, Kyriakos
To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania. We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental hospitals.
Kirigia Joses M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Ghana has been implementing various health sector reforms (e.g. user fees in public health facilities, decentralization, sector-wide approaches to donor coordination in a bid to improve efficiency in health care. However, to date, except for the pilot study reported in this paper, no attempt has been made to make an estimate of the efficiency of hospitals and/or health centres in Ghana. The objectives of this study, based on data collected in 2000, were: (i to estimate the relative technical efficiency (TE and scale efficiency (SE of a sample of public hospitals and health centres in Ghana; and (ii to demonstrate policy implications for health sector policy-makers. Methods The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach was used to estimate the efficiency of 17 district hospitals and 17 health centres. This was an exploratory study. Results Eight (47% hospitals were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 61% and a standard deviation (STD of 12%. Ten (59% hospitals were scale inefficient, manifesting an average SE of 81% (STD = 25%. Out of the 17 health centres, 3 (18% were technically inefficient, with a mean TE score of 49% (STD = 27%. Eight health centres (47% were scale inefficient, with an average SE score of 84% (STD = 16%. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated to policy-makers the versatility of DEA in measuring inefficiencies among individual facilities and inputs. There is a need for the Planning and Budgeting Unit of the Ghana Health Services to continually monitor the productivity growth, allocative efficiency and technical efficiency of all its health facilities (hospitals and health centres in the course of the implementation of health sector reforms.
Full Text Available Poor quality, safety and environmental (QSE performance within Ghana's road sector has been cited as a major challenge in the procurement of infrastructure. This study evaluates the applicability and level of integrated consideration of QSE in the delivery of roads through procurement by public sector agencies in Ghana. Integrated delivery is explored on the basis of theoretical and empirical evidence of an existing synergistic relationship among QSE in the management and delivery of projects. A mixed methodological design was adopted to investigate two public road agencies through a questionnaire survey and interviews of technical staff with procurement responsibilities. This was done concurrently with soliciting professional perspectives on the subject. Procurement is widely regarded as paramount to the delivery of better QSE in the Ghana road sector. However, the level of synergistic consideration is low, which is attributable to an over-reliance on traditional procurement arrangements as a result of non-supportive local procurement regulatory frameworks. It is further established that a general lack of know-how and experience in the use of modern and integrated procurement arrangements prevent effective management and realisation of QSE beyond the current focus on time and cost through procurement processes within public road sector agencies.
Anthun, Kjartan Sarheim; Kittelsen, Sverre Andreas Campbell; Magnussen, Jon
This paper analyses productivity growth in the Norwegian hospital sector over a period of 16 years, 1999-2014. This period was characterized by a large ownership reform with subsequent hospital reorganizations and mergers. We describe how technological change, technical productivity, scale efficiency and the estimated optimal size of hospitals have evolved during this period. Hospital admissions were grouped into diagnosis-related groups using a fixed-grouper logic. Four composite outputs were defined and inputs were measured as operating costs. Productivity and efficiency were estimated with bootstrapped data envelopment analyses. Mean productivity increased by 24.6% points from 1999 to 2014, an average annual change of 1.5%. There was a substantial growth in productivity and hospital size following the ownership reform. After the reform (2003-2014), average annual growth was case mix between hospitals, and thus provides a framework for future studies. The study adds to the discussion on optimal hospital size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Onwujekwe, Ogochukwu C; Soremekun, Rebecca O; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Shu, Elvis; Onwujekwe, Obinna
Malaria in pregnancy (MIP) is a major disease burden in Nigeria and has adverse consequences on the health of the mother, the foetus and the newborn. Information is required on how to improve its prevention and treatment from both the providers' and consumers' perspectives. The study sites were two public and two private hospitals in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Data was collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The respondents were healthcare providers (doctors, pharmacists and nurses) providing ante-natal care (ANC) services. They consisted of 32 respondents from the public facilities and 20 from the private facilities. The questionnaire elicited information on their: knowledge about malaria, attitude, chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis using pyrimethamine, chloroquine proguanil as well as IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). The data was collected from May to June 2010. Not many providers recognized maternal and neonatal deaths as potential consequences of MIP. The public sector providers provided more appropriate treatment for the pregnant women, but the private sector providers found IPTp more acceptable and provided it more rationally than public sector providers (p sector providers and 25 % of public sector providers prescribed chemoprophylaxis using pyrimethamine, chloroquine and proguanil to pregnant women. There is sub-optimal level of knowledge about current best practices for treatment and chemoprophylaxis for MIP especially in the private sector. Also, IPTp was hardly used in the public sector. Interventions are required to improve providers' knowledge and practices with regards to management of MIP.
Full Text Available Since the declaration of Malaysian independence, the public sector has significantly contributed to the country’s development. In the 1990s, a new procurement system was developed due to CIBD various changes in the construction industry. Since that period, the poor quality of public sector projects has started to attract public attention. This paper describes a study that was conducted to identify the dominant public procurement systems in place, the problems associated with these systems, and the satisfaction level of the industry players in the Malaysian construction industry. The results were drawn from 84 survey responses and interviews with industry players. The public sector is using a traditional system inherited from the British, with an intention to adopt new procurement systems. Aside from the disputes that are present in most systems, the public sector seems to encounter particular problems in relation to capabilities, time, and cost of the major procurement systems used. Traditional work culture and the industry environment influence public sector practice, which accounts for the modifications of each procurement system used. Thus, the full advantages of using an alternative procurement system may not be realised in public sector organizations. This produces an average level of satisfaction gained from the procurement system adopted. As a developing country, Malaysia needs to exert significant efforts to improve the public procurement system.
Full Text Available Since the declaration of Malaysian independence, the public sector has significantly contributed to the country’s development. In the 1990s, a new procurement system was developed due to CIBD various changes in the construction industry. Since that period, the poor quality of public sector projects has started to attract public attention. This paper describes a study that was conducted to identify the dominant public procurement systems in place, the problems associated with these systems, and the satisfaction level of the industry players in the Malaysian construction industry. The results were drawn from 84 survey responses and interviews with industry players. The public sector is using a traditional system inherited from the British, with an intention to adopt new procurement systems. Aside from the disputes that are present in most systems, the public sector seems to encounter particular problems in relation to capabilities, time, and cost of the major procurement systems used. Traditional work culture and the industry environment influence public sector practice, which accounts for the modifications of each procurement system used. Thus, the full advantages of using an alternative procurement system may not be realised in public sector organizations. This produces an average level of satisfaction gained from the procurement system adopted. As a developing country, Malaysia needs to exert significant efforts to improve the public procurement system.
Salini, M. P.
The aim of this work is the evolution of the energy and telecomunication public services. The article runs through the main stages in the public services' history and shows how open market rules may cause the future dissolution of public service notion. The conclusion wishes the hastening of public services privatisation and a Corporate Governance reform as a mean to pursue general interest [it
Moraka E. Maake
Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, optometry has been traditionally positioned within the private sector. The situation has gradually changed over the past two decades, with optometry being introduced into the public sector in many parts of the country. Despite the growing numbers, optometrists are still new within the public health sector, motivating this study to evaluate the eye care services they provide. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study was undertaken. Stratified random selection was applied to select the study sites, and systematic sampling was used to select patients’ files. A saturated sample of public sector optometrists employed in the selected districts completed study questionnaires. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 21. Results: A total of 2968 records were reviewed, and gender distribution was 67.6% female and 32.4% male. Refraction (86.73% was the most frequently conducted test, followed by ophthalmoscopy (74.73%, colour vision (0.07% and gonioscopy (0.03%. The response rate for the questionnaires was 64.7%. Optometric outreach services were conducted by 54.5% of optometrists, and the majority (83.3% reported that the farthest outreach facility was more than 50 km from their base hospital. The availability of equipment at outreach facilities was less as compared to base hospitals, while some reported not having the necessary equipment even at base hospitals. None of the optometrists did contact lens fitting at outreach facilities. A lack of equipment was cited as one of the reasons for not providing this service by 100% of optometrists. Most optometrists (63.6% believed that more than 30% of their referrals might have been avoided if they had prescribed therapeutic agents to manage ocular conditions. Conclusion: Introducing optometrists within the public sector improves access to services for rural communities. However, the minimum standard of optometric care
Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this research was to determine regional aspects (such as clinical, geographic and socio-demographic influencing the use of public sector long-term psychiatric services in the Eastern Cape. This is important in improving service delivery, to assist policy developers with evidence-based research and in providing equitable and efficient resource utilisation. Methodology: A situational analysis of Tower Psychiatric Hospital and Psychosocial Rehabilitation Centre (TPHPRC in the Eastern Cape was conducted. Patient administrative data were utilised to determine geographic origin, date and age at admission, gender and diagnosis as of December 2015. The number of admissions from each region for the years 2010–2015 was also extracted from these data. Results: As of December 2015, there were a total of 390 patients at TPHPRC. Of these, 87% were male patients. The average age at admission for male and female patients was 36 years and 44 years, respectively. Of the patients, 53% originated from the western regions and 57% of female patients presented with a dual diagnosis. The highest number of admissions was in 2015, with the majority originating from Port Elizabeth. Conclusion: Despite higher access to public psychiatric care in the western region, the majority of patients originated from there. Contributing factors to this include diagnoses, insufficient bed numbers and the absence of admission criteria and referral pathways. It is recommended that the provincial Department of Health set up a task team to determine a standardised working framework for all public sector psychiatric institutions. This should be informed by national policies, legislation and provincial norms and indicators.
Alam, Anadil; Lotarevich, Tatyana; Das, Tapash R; Reichenbach, Laura; Bracken, Hillary
To examine the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for menstrual regulation among Bangladeshi women attending public sector facilities. In a prospective study, women (aged ≥18 years) with up to 9 weeks of amenorrhea were enrolled at 24 government health facilities in Bangladesh from November 2012 to June 2015. Paramedics or female welfare visitors provided most menstrual regulation care. Participants took 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg buccal misoprostol after 24 hours, and were asked to return to the clinic 10-14 days later for clinical assessment and an exit interview. The primary outcome was successful evacuation of the uterus without need for surgical intervention. Women who completed follow-up were included in analyses for the primary outcome. Among 1744 enrolled participants, 1738 completed follow-up. Most (1674, 96.3%) had a successful uterine evacuation without the need for surgical intervention. A successful outcome was significantly more common in primary (724/744, 97.3%) and secondary facilities (861/895, 96.2%) than in the specialty hospital (89/99, 89.9%; Ppublic sector facilities in Bangladesh. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01798017. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Francisco Javier Pereda Pérez
Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the assessment of management skills in the public sector of Cordoba (Spain, trying to find out the possible relationship or influence between the administration of belonging to a set of management skills.Design/methodology/approach: Initial Theoretical study on the public sector, public management and managerial skills, conducting fieldwork affecting four administrations and application of statistical techniques contrast, which, finally, the analysis of their results and the conclusions drawn from them.Findings and Originality/value: The findings of an investigation into the management skills in the context of the public sector in the Province of Córdoba (Spain are presented. At present the personal, interpersonal and managerial skills to manage, are becoming increasingly important in companies and organizations. The strong commitment to the development of management skills becomes a true competitive advantage capable of leading business improvement processes in organizations, especially those in which the human resource is crucial, as is the case of the public sector.Research limitations/implications: To progress in research on management skills in the public sector, it would be desirable to develop more sector research to comparative studies the results of which lead to the establishment of specific labor policies aimed at improving the selection of public employees, developing training policies that emphasize the enhancement of skills and a true career based on merit and efficient performance.Social implications: The selection, training and development of public employees, and greater give greater importance to human resource processes in which the skills and competencies should fill the role they need.Originality / value: The better knowledge of the public sector, the importance of having competent public managers , and basically point out the critical importance of developing leadership skills at all levels
Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to identify the level of accounting harmonization in Romania for both public and banking sector with international referential (IPSAS and IFRS focusing on financial reporting requirements, by providing both vertical and horizontal analysis beginning with the year 2001 up to present. Unlike prior studies conducted on the same topic, which measure the general accounting harmonization for private sector, our paper is focused on specific economic fields – public vs. banking sector – thus providing a different approach of accounting harmonization. The research methodology used for achieving our goal was based on both static and dynamic analysis of the degree of similarity and dissimilitude between national and international accounting frameworks, by using appropriate statistical tools (e.g. Euclidian distance, Jaccard and Spearman coefficients. Our results reveal continuous improvements in accounting regulations in both sectors along time, but banking sector was always much closer to international standards than the public one. Considering the controversies between cash and accrual basis accounting which affected harmonization in public sector, as well as the latest challenges for banking sector due to IFRS adoption, we appreciate the overview image of accounting development in Romania provided by our empirical results as valuable for a wide range of users: academics, researchers, practitioners for both public and banking sector.
Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Thomsen, Christa
Within the theoretical frameworks of strategic communication and legitimation and through the use of a case study analysis, this article investigates the creation of managerial legitimation towards internal stakeholders in text and talk as a particular mode of strategic communication in a public...... sector organization. Following a theoretical discussion of the interconnectedness of strategic communication and managerial legitimation, we present a case study analysis of management talk at three interrelated management meetings dealing with the implementation of New Public Management-based (NPM......) reforms in a public sector organization. The context of NPM in the case study is particularly relevant for our investigation, because it sets the stage for the creation of legitimation by the public sector managers. Our analysis finds that these public sector managers use the integration of ‘voices...
Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth
Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms
Dolton, Peter J.; Makepeace, Gerald; Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar
This paper examines the impact of the Pay Review Bodies (PRBs) on the public sector pay of their remit groups. We compare the real weekly earnings of groups of workers in occupations covered by PRBs, in the remainder of the public sector and in the private sector using LFS data from 1993 to 2006 for 10 occupational sub-groups. We describe how the pattern of relative occupational pay varies over time and by gender and can be interpreted as compensating pay differentials. In several public sect...
Dolton, Peter; Makepeace, Gerry
This paper examines the impact of the Pay Review Bodies (PRBs) on the public sector pay of their remit groups. We compare the real weekly earnings of groups of workers in occupations covered by PRBs, in the remainder of the public sector and in the private sector using LFS data from 1993 to 2006 for 10 occupational sub-groups. We describe how the pattern of relative occupational pay varies over time and by gender and can be interpreted as compensating pay differentials. In several public sect...
Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Halm, Ethan A; Makam, Anil N
Hospitals that have robust financial performance may have improved publicly reported outcomes. To assess the relationship between hospital financial performance and publicly reported outcomes of care, and to assess whether improved outcome metrics affect subsequent hospital financial performance. Observational cohort study. Hospital financial data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in California in 2008 and 2012 were linked to data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare website. Hospital financial performance was measured by net revenue by operations, operating margin, and total margin. Outcomes were 30-day risk-standardized mortality and readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia (PNA). Among 279 hospitals, there was no consistent relationship between measures of financial performance in 2008 and publicly reported outcomes from 2008 to 2011 for AMI and PNA. However, improved hospital financial performance (by any of the 3 measures) was associated with a modest increase in CHF mortality rates (ie, 0.26% increase in CHF mortality rate for every 10% increase in operating margin [95% confidence interval: 0.07%-0.45%]). Conversely, there were no significant associations between outcomes from 2008 to 2011 and subsequent financial performance in 2012 (P > 0.05 for all). Robust financial performance is not associated with improved publicly reported outcomes for AMI, CHF, and PNA. Financial incentives in addition to public reporting, such as readmissions penalties, may help motivate hospitals with robust financial performance to further improve publicly reported outcomes. Reassuringly, improved mortality and readmission rates do not necessarily lead to loss of revenue. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:481-488. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Zhong, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Fu, T.
During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management
de Beer, I.H.
Engaging the private sector in healthcare is a central theme in the work of PharmAccess Foundation, a Dutch not-for-profit organization, based in Amsterdam, with offices in several African countries, including Namibia. This thesis describes interventions developed and applied in Namibia to engage
Allen, Pauline; Cao, Qi; Wang, Hufeng
Following decades of change in health care structures and modes of funding, China has recently been making pilot reforms to the governance of its public hospitals, primarily by increasing the autonomy of public hospitals and redefining the roles of the health authorities. In this paper, we analyse the historical evolution and current situation of public hospital governance in China, focussing the range of governance models being tried out in pilot cities across China. We then draw on the experiences of public hospital governance reform in a wide range of other countries to consider the nature of the Chinese pilots. We find that the key difference in China is that the public hospitals in the pilot schemes do not receive sufficient funding from government and are able to distribute profits to staff. This creates incentives to charge patients for excessive treatment. This situation has undermined public service orientation in Chinese public hospitals. We conclude that the pilot reforms of governance will not be sufficient to remedy all the problems facing these hospitals, although they are a step in the right direction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dobre Ovidiu Iliuta
Full Text Available Turnover rates for hospital personnel (nurses, doctors and auxiliary staff have been increasing in recent years, especially in the public sector, being the result of a couple of factors. I believe that one of the main causes is related to organizational culture aspects. This research analyses if dated facilities, unpleasant work environment and lack of personnel contribute to a low job satisfaction and involvement. The study also compares the results obtained from persons working in the public sectors with the results given by respondents from private clinics. An organization’s culture could be strong or weak, being dependent to cohesiveness, value consensus and individual commitment to collective goals. Effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adapt to environment changes, thus proactive cultures should enhance and support profitability on the long-run. This research also investigates strength of the occupational culture by comparing the results obtained in the public sector with results from private sector. My study is developed on 63 professionals working in the medical system and it is based mainly on quantitative methods. The instrument of the research is the structured questionnaire. The main goal of the study is to highlight the significant cultural differences between the state-owned and public-owned hospitals and to assess if they have a greater influence to the institutions, as compared to common occupational values and norms. The implications of my research for the field of organizational behavior refers to the fact that I have identified the organizational elements that are common to both public and private hospitals, influenced by a strong occupational culture, and those that differ significantly, being the result of underfunding and poor management. As a conclusion, I consider that this is a great starting point for further research in the field and I plan to enlarge the investigation on a greater number or
Leovic, K.W.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.
The paper compares private and public sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the US. In response to elevated levels of radon in many houses throughout the U.S., the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public information efforts resulting in a range of radon reduction installations in the U.S. Government sponsored research and development of radon mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that sub-slab ventilation is the most common technique in both public and private sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government sponsored mitigation. (author)
Witter, K.A.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.
This paper compares private- and public-sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public-information efforts resulting in a range of radon reduction installations in the U.S. Government-sponsored research and development of radon-mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the application of mitigation techniques to various substructure types, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that subslab ventilation is the most common technique in both public- and private-sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government-sponsored mitigation
The private sector in health care in Vietnam has been increasingly competing with the government in primary health care services. However, little is known about the use of skilled birth attendance or about choice of public and private sectors among those who opt for skilled attendants. Using data from the Vietnam 2002 Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines factors related to women's decision-making of whether to have a skilled birth attendant at a recent childbirth, and if they did, whether it was a public or private sector provider. The study indicates that the use of the private sector for delivery services was significant. Women's household wealth, education, antenatal care and community's wealth were positively related to skilled birth attendance, while ethnicity and order of childbirth were negatively related. Order of childbirth was positively associated with skilled birth attendance in the private sector. Among service environment factors, increased access to public sector health centres was associated with an increased likelihood of skilled birth attendance in general, but a lowered chance of that in the private sector. Further studies are needed to assess the current situation in the private sector, the demand for delivery services in the private sector, and its readiness to provide quality services.
Miller, R D
The extensive literature concerning public mental hospitals has largely been written from the perspective of administrators and systems analysts; most of the reports emphasize the frustrations and problems of working in public mental hospitals and the continued exodus of psychiatrists from these facilities. The author addresses the pros and cons of such a career choice from the viewpoint of one who has been an "Indian" rather than a "chief" for a decade. He suggests that the current financial situation in both private practice and academia makes work in public mental hospitals increasingly attractive.
How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learn from crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisis management researchers. This dissertation sheds light on the problems regarding the lack of knowledge on how public organizations manage and
Only 7 (28.0%) and 1 (16.7%) of the private and public ICUs, respectively, had sufficient space around the beds. Twenty-two private ICUs (88.0%) and 4 public ICUs (66.7%) had isolation rooms, but only some of these isolation rooms (15 private and 2 public) had appropriate mechanical ventilation. None of the ICUs had ...
Bied, J.Ch.; Philippon, B.
The global body dose due to the technetium is 1.2 and 1.9 mSv for the two nurses of the private sector. In the public sector, the level reached by the personnel is 0.75 mSv for the global body dose, and the only technetium (global body dose 1.4 and 2.1 mSv for the private sector, 0.95 for the public sector and for the whole of radiations measured by the O.P.R.I. film dosemeter. The doses received at the fingers level present higher levels in the private sector. But these values, 15.2 and 10.7 mSv by month, that is to say 180 mSv by year are the 2/5 of the maximum permissible value. The two persons of the private sector received whole body doses, higher that the doses of the public sector. These doses are about 1.2 to 1.9 these ones received in the public sector. (N.C.)
Based on the results of a study on policies in a number of sectors (e.g. railways and electric utilities) the privatization of those sectors in the Netherlands is evaluated. Recommendations are formulated, among which a plead for 'public enterprise' as an alternative for privatization of large infrastructural businesses, e.g. railways, networks, and Schiphol (airport) [nl
Baarspul, Hayo Christiaan; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
Governmental, public-sector organizations are known to operate differently than private, for-profit organizations. But do sector differences exist at the individual level as well? In this article we review twenty-eight hypothesis-driven empirical studies on this question. Most of the single studies
Pieterson, Willem Jan; Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.
Like the private sector, the public sector makes more and more use of user profiling to personalize the electronic services that are being offered to citizens. User profiling offers great opportunities to make communication more effective and efficient, to infer and predict citizens’ behavior and to
Full Text Available Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, finds that the concept of franchising, so successfully used by the private sector to deliver many goods and services, if applied to water services operation and maintenance, could alleviate and address many challenges in the management of water services. At the same time, franchising could provide an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive to perform, and would also enjoy the benefit of the franchisor’s expert guidance and quality assurance. Some areas for potential franchising include meter management, billing, plumbing, pressure management, sewer maintenance, and wastewater treatment processes. The help from the franchisor would be of particular value to water services authorities at a distance from the major urban centres. Few of these authorities can afford to employ competent qualified staff, and often non-compliance with the laid down performance standards is a direct consequence of this lack. Significant improvements would soon be seen if the generally under-qualified and under-resourced water services staff could have this ongoing support, mentoring and quality control — or if the authority could enter into partnerships with small local enterprises or NGOs which would, through franchising, enjoy the necessary ongoing support, mentoring and quality control, and would have
Kar, Saibal; Roy, Poulomi; Saha, Sarani
This paper tries to document the presence of unreported income among public sector employees in India. We investigate empirically the wage gap as well as consumption expenditure parity between public and private sector workers. It tests the hypothesis that despite a lower level of public sector income in some of the quantiles, if the level of durable goods consumption between the private and the public sector employees are similar, then it might be indicative of the presence of unreported inc...
Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Ewan, Ferlie
This article discusses the utility of two different strategic management theories in different types of public organizations including contemporary New Public Management-based public organizations, namely Porter's strategic positioning model and the resource-based view of strategy. We argue...... conditions: the degree of administrative autonomy, performance-based budgeting and market-like competition. We give empirical examples drawn from public servives in the UK and Denmark. We call for more exploration of these (and other) strategic management approaches within contemporary public services...
Zhou, Ping; Bundorf, Kate; Le Chang, Ji; Huang, Jin Xin; Xue, Di
To measure perceptions of organizational culture among employees of public hospitals in China and to determine whether perceptions are associated with hospital performance. Hospital, employee, and patient surveys from 87 Chinese public hospitals conducted during 2009. Developed and administered a tool to assess organizational culture in Chinese public hospitals. Used factor analysis to create measures of organizational culture. Analyzed the relationships between employee type and perceptions of culture and between perceptions of culture and hospital performance using multivariate models. Employees perceived the culture of Chinese public hospitals as stronger in internal rules and regulations, and weaker in empowerment. Hospitals in which employees perceived that the culture emphasized cost control were more profitable and had higher rates of outpatient visits and bed days per physician per day but also had lower levels of patient satisfaction. Hospitals with cultures perceived as customer-focused had longer length of stay but lower patient satisfaction. Managers in Chinese public hospitals should consider whether the culture of their organization will enable them to respond effectively to their changing environment. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Jota, Patricia Romeiro da Silva; Ribeiro, Mariane Correa; Martins, Fernando Henrique Dias; Silva, Valeria R. Borges da [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia Inteligente
Energy consumption evaluation at schools is very important for school management. However, there is a great difference among consumption rates, and a simplified analysis would lead to wrong evaluation. It is not possible to analyze schools that have different number of students or different sizes, unless these variables are applied. This article proposes a methodology in order to develop a sector analysis taking into account operation features. A case study is presented to illustrate this methodology. (author)
Reichert, Janice M; Milne, Christopher-Paul
Recently, well-publicized reports by Public Citizen and the Joint Economic Committee (JEC) of the US Congress questioned the role of the drug industry in the discovery and development of therapeutically important drugs. To gain a better understanding of the relative roles of the public and private sectors in pharmaceutic innovation, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development evaluated the underlying National Institutes of Health (NIH) and academic research cited in the Public Citizen and JEC reports and performed its own assessment of the relationship between the private and public sectors in drug discovery and development of 21 "impact" drugs. We found that, ultimately, any attempt to measure the relative contribution of the public and private sectors to the research and development (R&D) of therapeutically important drugs by output alone, such as counting publications or even product approvals, is flawed. Several key factors (eg, degree of uncertainty, expected market value, potential social benefit) affect investment decisions and determine whether public or private sector funds, or both, are most appropriate. Because of the competitiveness and complexity of today's R&D environment, both sectors are increasingly challenged to show returns on their investment and the traditional boundaries separating the roles of the private and public research spheres have become increasingly blurred. What remains clear, however, is that the process still starts with good science and ends with good medicine.
This document contains information about a Public Sector Workshop held in Minnesota that focused on increasing the awareness of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards. It gives an overview of how the workshop proceeded, which topics were ...
The Need for Better Branded Public Sector Condoms in South Africa. ... However, targeted marketing strategies that make condoms more attractive to ... purchased more attractive condoms to distribute in higher-education settings free of ...
Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Oaxaca, Ronald L.; Smith, Nina
The gender wage gap in Denmark has virtually stagnated since the early 70s. This study examines whether this stagnation is mainly due to a changing wage dispersion or to changing prices on observed and unobserved skills. Since about half the female labour force is employed in the public sector....... These techniques are applied to a sample of Danish wage earners in the period 1983-94. The decomposition results suggest different explanations behind the stagnation of the gender wage gap in the public and private sectors. The development in average public sector wages is calculated assuming observed......, the impact of the changing wage structure between the public and private sectors is investigated. The analysis is based on the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce decomposition applied to a pooled wage regression model. The equivalence between the former and the Oaxaca-Ransom generalized wage decomposition is established...
Full Text Available Contemporary economic science is looking for ways of research actualisation to resolve the challenges under the world financial crisis. Besides existing challenges in private de-regulated sector, one of the efficient innovations can be found in broadening ERP applications in the Public Sector. This paper approaches to the ERP applications mainly from the economical rather than from technical perspective. Comparative analysis of New Zealand public sector is supported by relevant international practical experience (implementations, and by core fundamental analysis of economical nature of business processes used by public entities. The key advantage (based on a historical timeline comes from a full integration of financial scope and operational activities. Using the example of ERP (as one of the drivers of productivity and performance improvement, the paper is aiming to underline how to bring the best practice and technology (data management and logical architecture from the private sector into the public sphere.
PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION by Jason A. Schwartz...PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...describing how public sector organizations can implement a research and development (R&D) portfolio optimization strategy to maximize the cost
Aurelia Stefanescu; Eugeniu Turlea
The development of the accounting system of the public sector entities atmondial level has focused on taking up the accrual accounting as foundation for the financialreporting and totally or partially giving up the cash accounting. Within this context, by thisresearch, we define the coordinates of the accrual accounting, we analyse the adoption of itas a financial reporting basis into the public sector at international level and also theimplications of completing the cash accounting with the ...
Monojit Chatterji; Karen Mumford; Peter N Smith
This study examines the role of individual characteristics, occupation, and workplace features accounting for differences in hourly earnings between male and female fulltime employees in the public and private sectors. Using new linked employeeemployer data for Britain in 2004, we find that the nature of the public private pay gap differs between genders and that of the gender pay gap differs between sectors. The analysis shows that essentially none of the gender earnings gap in both the publ...
Andreea CÎRSTEA; Stefan-Dragos CÎRSTEA
The reforms that have lately influenced the public sector determined several changes in the reporting system, causing the introduction of a new reporting practice in the public sector, namely the consolidated reports. These reports come to bring added value to the accounting and reporting system, but this practice is at the beginning and requires time in order to be taken over at international level. This paper aims to be a theoretical one, with slight empirical traces, analysing the introduc...