WorldWideScience

Sample records for public historically black

  1. Working on the Short Grass: A Qualitative Analysis of Fundraiser Roles and Experiences at Public Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Natalie T. J.

    2009-01-01

    The former president of Morehouse College, Dr Benjamin E. Mays, once said, "Higher education for Blacks has always been in a precarious position. These institutions were founded on short grass financially, and they live today on short grass." Today, many public and private historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have found success in…

  2. Strings Attached? Linking Historically Black Colleges and Universities Public Revenue Sources with Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupet, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), a set of US higher education institutions historically tasked with educating African-American students, receive both state and federal funding. However, state governments often assert operational control through the political process, potentially influencing how key resources are used. Do these…

  3. Strings Attached? Linking Historically Black Colleges and Universities Public Revenue Sources with Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupet, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), a set of US higher education institutions historically tasked with educating African-American students, receive both state and federal funding. However, state governments often assert operational control through the political process, potentially influencing how key resources are used. Do these…

  4. Historically Black Medical Schools: Addressing the Minority Health Professional Pipeline and the Public Mission of Care For Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Keith C.; Baker, Richard S.; Taylor, Robert; Montgomery-Rice, Valerie; Higginbotham, Eve J.; Riley, Wayne J.; Maupin, John; Drew-Ivie, Sylvia; Reede, Joan Y.; Gibbons, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Substantial changes in not only access to care, cost, and quality of care, but also health professions education are needed to ensure effective national healthcare reform. Since the actionable determinants of health such as personal beliefs and behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and the environment disproportionately affect the poor (and often racial/ethnic minorities), many have suggested that focusing efforts on this population will both directly and indirectly improve the overall health of the nation. Key to the success of such strategies are the ongoing efforts by historically black medical schools (HBMSs) as well as other minority serving medical and health professional schools, who produce a disproportionate percentage of the high-quality and diverse health professionals that are dedicated to maintaining the health of an increasingly diverse nation. Despite their public mission, HBMSs receive limited public support threatening their ability to not only meet the increasing minority health workforce needs but to even sustain their existing contributions. Substantial changes in health education policy and funding are needed to ensure HBMSs as well as other minority-serving medical and health professional schools can continue to produce the diverse, high-quality health professional workforce necessary to maintain the health of an increasingly diverse nation. We explore several model initiatives including focused partnerships with legislative and business leaders that are urgently needed to ensure the ability of HBMSs to maintain their legacy of providing compassionate, quality care to the communities in greatest need. PMID:19806842

  5. From Matriculation to Engagement on Campus: Delineating the Experiences of Latino/a Students at a Public Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.; Ozuna Allen, Taryn; Goings, Ramon B.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a larger study on Asian Americans and Latino/as at HBCUs, this chapter focuses exclusively on the Latino/a students, sheds light on factors that motivated Latino/a students to attend a historically Black university, and discusses the on-campus experiences of these students. The chapter provides insight into what HBCUs might do to help…

  6. A Critique of Race Relations Theory as Applied to Public Policy: The Case of Historically Black Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William H.

    American race relations theory is applied to the conceptualization of assimilation in America and to problems in planning in higher education desegregation. Black colleges can be viewed as microcosms of American race relations in their patterns of conflict, accommodation, and assimilation. The conflict over the propriety of black colleges' claims…

  7. Black layers on historical architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Lucia; Zerbi, Carlotta M; Bugini, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    The external surface of any building in urban polluted environment is unavoidably destined to be covered with layers that assume a grey to black colour and are generally called 'black crusts'. These, according to standard protocols and glossary, are deteriorated surface layers of stone material; they can have variable thickness, are hard and fragile and can detach spontaneously from the substrate, which, in general, is quite decayed. Plain visual examination may lead to consider 'black crusts' all similar, whilst only a careful diagnostic investigation can distinguish 'black crusts' and the consequences of their formation on stone substrates. In this paper, various black layers on marble are studied and compared and the morphological and compositional characteristics discussed according to the related mechanisms of formation. Differences between old (hundred years) and recent crusts (30 years) are investigated and pointed out. Samples of black crusts collected from the Milan Cathedral façade (Candoglia Marble) have been studied and compared with the careful and synergic employ of traditional techniques: optical (transmission and reflected VIS light) and electron microscopy, X-ray spectrometry and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Visual examination of loose fragments does not allow to point out outstanding differences amongst the various samples; black layers have similar main mineral components, gypsum and airborne particles, with different spatial distribution. The microscopic studies allowed to point out the porosity differences, the gypsum crystallisation habit, different amount of embedded particles, level and progress of marble decay. The observations lead to define three main types of black crusts: black crust deriving from marble sulphation, compact deposit and encrustation due to exogenic materials deposition. Black crusts show evidence of sulphation in progress, without a clear continuity solution between crust and marble; the lack of

  8. 75 FR 60778 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Historically Black Colleges and Universities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Historically Black Colleges and Universities Program. The purpose of this document... Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) expand their role and effectiveness in addressing...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Historically Black Colleges and Universities Program was approved by...

  9. The Relationship between Fundraising Practice and Job Satisfaction at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Natalie T. J.; Waters, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Fundraising, as studied from a communications/public relations perspective, is an understudied function. This research examines fundraising at public and private historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), specifically exploring how these fundraisers incorporate various fundraising strategies into their communication outreach programs…

  10. Digitized Historical Geomagnetic Publications in PDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A catalog of 732 historical geomagnetic publications that were at risk of loss have been digitized and converted in pdf documents.

  11. The Dilemma of the Historically Black Universities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilorah, R.

    2006-01-01

    The historical black universities (HBUs) in South Africa were established by the apartheid government to serve black students banned from attending segregated white-only universities. These universities were poorly funded compared to the white-only universities. The poor funding affected their output (research and postgraduates) adversely. With…

  12. Historical Astrolexicography and Old Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Terry J.

    I describe how the principles of lexicography have been applied in limited ways in astronomy and look at the revision work under way for the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, which, when completed, will contain the widest and most detailed coverage of the astronomical lexicon in the English language. Finally, I argue the need for a dedicated historical dictionary of astronomy based rigorously on a corpus of quotations from sources published in English from the beginnings of written English to the present day.

  13. 75 FR 42081 - The Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of Education. The Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting... Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board (Board). The notice also...

  14. 77 FR 1471 - The Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, The Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice of an... meeting of the Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board (Board)....

  15. 77 FR 56635 - The Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...-56636] [FR Doc No: 2012-22603] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION The Historically Black College and University..., The Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice of an... of the Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Advisory Board (Board). The...

  16. 78 FR 57135 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities. ACTION: Notice of... President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The notice also describes...

  17. Whither Shall We Go? The Past and Present of Black Churches and the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra H. Barber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the contemporary role of the Black Church in the public sphere. Some argue that despite the historical role of the Black Church in addressing racial inequality, it should not be involved in the public sphere, as there should be a clear separation between church and state. I argue that black churches are filling a gap created by the self-help ideology of a neo-liberal era where addressing the outcomes of contemporary racial inequality is left to private sector organizations, such as churches, rather than the federal government. I assert that the Black Church should remain engaged in the public sphere for two reasons: first, black churches are operating in the absence of state welfare rather than as an alternative to it and second, black churches are among the few institutions providing race-specific remedies that have been abandoned in a colorblind era.

  18. 78 FR 14297 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities AGENCY: U.S. Department of... Black Colleges and Universities scheduled for March 6, 2013, and announced in the Federal Register on... Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland...

  19. 48 CFR 52.226-2 - Historically Black College or University and Minority Institution Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-2 Historically Black College or University and... Black College or University and Minority Institution Representation (OCT 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this provision— Historically black college or university means an institution determined by...

  20. Educational Outcomes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Simms

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed variability in Historically Black Colleges and Universities’ (HBCUs educational outcomes. Analyses were conducted on two nationally representative databases via hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Intraclass correlation coefficients for HBCUs were compared with those of (a a random sample—theorized to have no systematic similarity in educational outcomes to HBCUs and (b a sample of other Predominately Black Institutions (PBIs. Findings indicate that HBCUs’ educational outcomes were generally more cohesive than those of the random sample, and this cohesiveness followed a different pattern than the cohesiveness of outcomes at other PBIs. On the whole, then, this study suggests that educational outcomes at HBCUs are cohesive and distinct from other institutional groups.

  1. Is it Really a Man's World? Black Men in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to improve the Black science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) pipeline have focused on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs); however, this work generally fails to acknowledge men. This article characterized Black male receipts of bachelor's degrees from HBCUs in STEM fields between 1981 and 2009 using a…

  2. Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions" examines the ways in which historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions have used the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) funds to enhance the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  3. 77 FR 29621 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... education communities in a national dialogue regarding new HBCU programs and initiatives; (iii) improving...: 2012-12158] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black...

  4. A Guide to Fundraising at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An All Campus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Bowman, Nelson, III

    2011-01-01

    "A Guide to Fundraising at Historically Black Colleges and Universities" is a comprehensive, research-based work that brings the best practices and expertise of seminal professionals to the larger Black college environment and beyond. Drawing on data-driven advice from interviews with successful Black college fundraisers and private sector…

  5. A Guide to Fundraising at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An All Campus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Bowman, Nelson, III

    2011-01-01

    "A Guide to Fundraising at Historically Black Colleges and Universities" is a comprehensive, research-based work that brings the best practices and expertise of seminal professionals to the larger Black college environment and beyond. Drawing on data-driven advice from interviews with successful Black college fundraisers and private sector…

  6. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  7. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  8. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  9. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  10. Conference on energy research at historically black universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A conference was convened to present and discuss significant research and development in Historically Black Institutions (current and past); areas that show potential for inter-institutional collaboration and the sharing of facilities; existing capabilities to sustain funded research activities and future potential for expansion and enhancement; and appropriate arrangements for maximum interaction with industry and government agencies. Papers were presented at small group meetings in various energy research areas, and abstracts of the projects or programs are presented. The Solar Energy small group provided contributions in the areas of photovoltaics, biomass, solar thermal, and wind. Research reported on by the Fossil Fuel small group comprises efforts in the areas of fluidized bed combustion of coal, coal liquefaction, and oil shale pyrolysis. Five research programs reported on by the Conservation Research small group involve a summer workshop for high school students on energy conservation; use of industrial waste heat for a greenhouse; solar energy and energy conservation research and demonstration; energy efficiency and management; and a conservation program targeted at developing a model for educating low income families. The Environment Impact groups (2) presented contributions on physical and chemical impacts and biological monitors and impacts. The Policy Research group presented four papers on a careful analysis of the Equity issues; one on a model for examining the economic issue in looking at the interaction between energy technology and the state of the economy; and a second paper examined the institutional constraints on environmental oriented energy policy. Six additional abstracts by invited participants are presented. (MCW)

  11. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  12. 76 FR 7550 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ..., business, government, military, homeland- security, and education communities in a national dialogue... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Board)....

  13. 75 FR 53279 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... education communities in a national dialogue regarding new HBCU programs and initiatives; (iii) improving... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Board)....

  14. 78 FR 11865 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... education communities in a national dialogue regarding new HBCU programs and initiatives; (iii) improving... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Board)....

  15. 78 FR 31910 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ..., business, government, military, homeland- security, and education communities in a national dialogue... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Board)....

  16. Cultural Archaeology and Historical Geographies of the Black Presence in Rural England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressey, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the exclusion of black peoples from the English countryside. It particularly considers how white imaginaries of the English rural have ignored historical geographies of the black presence. Firstly the paper reflects upon the heritage of Englishness as represented in and through the rural tradition. It then presents some…

  17. The black gender gap in educational attainment: historical trends and racial comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Anne; DiPrete, Thomas A; Buchmann, Claudia; Shwed, Uri

    2011-08-01

    It is often asserted that the gender gap in educational attainment is larger for blacks than whites, but historical trends comparing the black and white gender gap have received surprisingly little attention. Analysis of historical data from the U.S. census IPUMS samples shows that the gender gap in college completion has evolved differently for whites and blacks. Historically, the female advantage in educational attainment among blacks is linked to more favorable labor market opportunities and stronger incentives for employment for educated black women. Blacks, particularly black males, still lag far behind whites in their rates of college completion, but the striking educational gains of white women have caused the racial patterns of gender differences in college completion rates to grow more similar over time. While some have linked the disadvantaged position of black males to their high risk of incarceration, our estimates suggest that incarceration has a relatively small impact on the black gender gap and the racial gap in college completion rates for males in the United States.

  18. 75 FR 9747 - Promoting Excellence, Innovation, and Sustainability at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... Colleges and Universities By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of... colleges and universities to provide the highest quality education, increase opportunities for these.... Policy. Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have made historic and ongoing...

  19. 48 CFR 252.226-7000 - Notice of historically black college or university and minority institution set-aside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... black college or university and minority institution set-aside. 252.226-7000 Section 252.226-7000... Notice of historically black college or university and minority institution set-aside. As prescribed in 226.370—9(a), use the following clause: Notice of Historically Black College or University...

  20. Academic Leaderships Views of School Psychology and Black Students: The Case of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeks, Amirah; Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand academic leadership's views of the field of school psychology. This is the first study that has attempted to incorporate the views of historically Black college and university (HBCU) Psychology Department Chairs' regarding the field of school psychology and the potential development of school psychology…

  1. Exploration of Factors Affecting Success of Undergraduate Engineering Majors at a Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinoba, Egheosa P.

    Blacks are underrepresented amongst persons who earn college degrees in the United States and Black males attend and complete college at a lower rate than Black females (Toldson, Fry Brown, & Sutton, 2009). According to Toldson et al. (2009), this quandary may be attributed to Black males' apathy toward education in general, waning support and ideological challenges toward Pell Grants and affirmative action, cultural incompetency on the part of the 90% White, ethnic makeup of the U.S. teaching force, and the relatively high numbers of Black males who are held back in school. In spite of the dismal statistics regarding Black male academic achievement and matriculation, there are those Black males who do participate in postsecondary education. While many studies have highlighted reasons that Black males do not achieve success in attending and persisting through college, few have adopted the anti-deficit research framework suggested by Harper (2010), identifying reasons Black males do persist in higher education. Although science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers are identified as those most imperative to the economic competitiveness of the United States, few studies have concentrated solely on engineering majors and fewer, if any, solely on Black male engineering majors at an historically Black college and university. The aim of this study was to address an apparent gap in the literature and invoke theories for recruitment, retention, and success of Black males in engineering degree programs by employing an anti-deficit achievement framework for research of students of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data garnered from the study included insight into participants' definitions of success, precollege experiences, factors contributing to the persistence during undergraduate study, and perceptions of attending a historically Black college and university versus a primarily White institution.

  2. Exploring the Perceptions of Study Abroad among Black Undergraduates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Nykia Dionne

    2012-01-01

    International education helps students become more engaged within the United States and abroad. Black undergraduates continue to be underrepresented in study abroad despite two decades of increased enrollment by Black students in higher education in the United States. This study had three purposes: (1) to explore how Black undergraduates attending…

  3. From navigation to negotiation: an examination of the lived experiences of Black gay male alumni of historically Black colleges and universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Obie

    2015-01-01

    This research presents an examination of Black gay men and their lived experiences while undergraduates at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Based on 10 in-depth interviews with self-identified Black gay men, the author presents four emergent themes, which reveal the complex ways in which Black gay men navigate and negotiate the intersections of their multiple identities as related to race, sexual orientation, and gender at HBCUs. The findings of this research have implications for larger discussions of community, Black masculinity, and gay identity in predominantly Black and non-Black contexts.

  4. Colorism within the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Abiola, Ufuoma

    2016-01-01

    Complexion privilege and color bias have long acted in concert with racism to foster intraracial forms of stratification among African Americans such as the tendency for educational levels and other measureable outcomes (e.g., income) to correspond with skin tone. In this article, we examine the salience of color prejudice at Historically Black…

  5. Colorism within the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Abiola, Ufuoma

    2016-01-01

    Complexion privilege and color bias have long acted in concert with racism to foster intraracial forms of stratification among African Americans such as the tendency for educational levels and other measureable outcomes (e.g., income) to correspond with skin tone. In this article, we examine the salience of color prejudice at Historically Black…

  6. The task of urban black public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after the demise of apartheid, a typical South African city remains bifurcated. The mushrooming of squatter camps, mekhukhu, in our big cities, symptomises a history that defined the majority of South Africans as sojourners and vagabonds in their motherland. Destined to die in the rural reserves after the extraction of their labour and confined to ‘locations’ in-between the ‘city’ and the rural ‘home’, black experience in the post-1994 city continues to be a manifestation of a life disintegrated from an integrated vision of ikhaya (oikos − household − and urban life in democratic South Africa. By critiquing the policies of the post-1994 government on urbanisation, the article argues that for inclusion in the city, the colonial and apartheid polis is not adequate redress to the black experience of urbanisation in South Africa. The quest for the transformation of a city in order for an integrated city in the post-1994 South Africa to be achieved is ostensibly the best starting point, this article argues.

  7. White Students at the Historically Black University: Toward Developing a Critical Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.; Closson, Rosemary B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the potential of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to facilitate the development of a critical consciousness among their White students. It discusses philosophical views regarding the process of unveiling "Whiteness," including White critical studies and White identity development…

  8. Disclosure of Sexual Assault Experiences among Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…

  9. Business in Social Work Education: A Historically Black University's Social Work Entrepreneurship Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Paul; Muhammad, Omar; Estreet, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The destabilization of the current economy has sparked increased interest in entrepreneurship, especially for underrepresented minority social work students. The entrepreneurial thinking of these social work students entering social work programs at historically Black colleges and universities needs to be fostered in a learning environment. This…

  10. Looking through the Looking Glass: A Historical and Factual Perspective on Black Higher "Book Learning."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dease, Barbara C.

    1982-01-01

    The history of Black colleges and universities is chronicled through excerpts from five articles. Four stages in the colleges' historical development are noted, and the history treats the topics of origins, objectives, legislative landmarks, controversies and conflicts, foreign language education's role, curriculum development, enrollment,…

  11. Perceived Norms and Marijuana Use at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Wahesh, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the extent of marijuana use and related risk-taking behavior by college students on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Undergraduate students (N = 212) from an HBCU in the southern region of the United States completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed their marijuana-related behaviors and…

  12. Framing the Effect of Multiculturalism on Diversity Outcomes among Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Brighid

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the effect of multiculturalism on diversity outcomes among students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. This investigation examines the multiculturalism literature, as well as the literature specific to HBCUs, in an attempt to answer the question: What is the effect of multiculturalism on diversity outcomes of…

  13. Assessing Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Students' Familiarity with the FCS-BOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jin; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Walker, Jane

    2015-01-01

    University faculty who are teaching courses in family and consumer sciences (FCS) have sought to integrate the body of knowledge (BOK) in their curricula. This article reports on a study assessing the familiarity of Historically Black College and University (HBCU) students with the FCS-BOK by their major (specialized area) and classification…

  14. NCLEX-RN Examination Performance by BSN Graduates of Four Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Anita M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study research explored and described differences as well as NCLEX-RN preparation strategies used by Historically Black College and University (HBCU) baccalaureate nursing programs with consistent NCLEX pass rates versus those with inconsistent pass rates. Two of the four selected programs had a history of consistent…

  15. Perceived Norms and Marijuana Use at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Wahesh, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the extent of marijuana use and related risk-taking behavior by college students on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Undergraduate students (N = 212) from an HBCU in the southern region of the United States completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed their marijuana-related behaviors and…

  16. General Education Assessment at Private Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research on general education assessment in recent years has focused primarily on predominately white institutions. Very little is known about general education assessment at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUS). Using descriptive analysis, this exploratory study examines the state of general education assessment at…

  17. Business in Social Work Education: A Historically Black University's Social Work Entrepreneurship Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Paul; Muhammad, Omar; Estreet, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The destabilization of the current economy has sparked increased interest in entrepreneurship, especially for underrepresented minority social work students. The entrepreneurial thinking of these social work students entering social work programs at historically Black colleges and universities needs to be fostered in a learning environment. This…

  18. The Membership Intake Movement of Historically Black Greek-Letter Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Walter M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the history of pledging and the recent movements for reform of this practice among historically Black fraternities and sororities. Describes the membership intake process that has been adopted and its resultant problems. Suggests that the national leadership should emphasize founding ideals as a means of overcoming resistance to change.…

  19. Physical Activity Behaviors of Students of a Rural Historically Black College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Karen A.; Welsh, Ralph S.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity can have a positive impact on health disparities among African Americans. Objective: In this study, we assessed physical activity behaviors and correlates of students of a Historically Black College. Methods: In September 2004, an online survey and pedometers were used to measure physical activity behavior and correlates.…

  20. Improving the research culture at historically black universities : The situation at the University of the North

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelen, J

    2003-01-01

    An important part of the transformation of higher education in South Africa concerns the professionalisation of historically black universities (HBUs). A vital element in this process forms the enhancement of a research culture that was hardly alive at these universities during the apartheid era. In

  1. Still Digitally Divided? An Assessment of Historically Black College and University Library Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Renee Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are post-secondary institutions which, at one time, were considered to be particularly affected by the digital divide. Research study results have suggested the need for HBCUs to continuously increase campus technology. Guided by four research questions, this study examines the current state of…

  2. Relational Mentoring of Doctoral Social Work Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal; Berry Edwards, Janice; Orme, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the distinctive mentoring experiences of social work doctoral students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). With a philosophical emphasis on social justice, self-determination, racial identity and pride, and social integration, social work faculty at HBCUs mentor African American and other students in PhD…

  3. The Historically Black College and University Community and the Obama Administration: A Lesson in Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Collins, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Obama administration has some improbable critics: members of the Historically Black College and University (HBCU) community. What started out as carefully worded commentaries have given way to more direct criticisms and complaints about the administration's policies affecting HBCUs. Although some of these gripes can be attributed to…

  4. Longitudinal Test of the Social Cognitive Model of Choice in Engineering Students at Historically Black Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Gloster, Clay S.; Wilkins, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We tested the social cognitive model of choice (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) using a longitudinal design. Participants were 116 students taking beginning engineering courses at two historically Black universities. They completed measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, goals, and environmental supports and barriers near the end…

  5. Improving the Climate for LGBTQ Students at an Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Ericksen, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    African American lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students attending an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) may experience bullying. Using snowball sampling, the authors recruited six LGBTQ students for a focus group to learn how they perceived their HBCU campus atmosphere toward LGBTQ students. Thirty faculty…

  6. Students' Perceptions of Entrepreneurship at a Historically Black University in Central Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Mercidee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' perceptions of entrepreneurship at a historically black university in central Mississippi. The study examined five areas of students' perceptions: entrepreneurship, an entrepreneur, entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurship education, and entrepreneurship and technology, and demographic…

  7. Gender Differences in Student Engagement among African American Undergraduates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Carini, Robert M.; Bridges, Brian K.; Hayek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Differences in student engagement between women and men at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are examined in this study. Data were collected from 1,167 African American undergraduate students at 12 four-year HBCUs that participated in the National Survey of Student Engagement. Controlling for several factors that might obscure…

  8. Cultural Diversity in Introductory Psychology Textbook Selection: The Case for Historically Black Colleges/Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Clay, William A. L.; Broussard, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes a culturally relevant approach to introductory psychology textbook selection for students attending a historically Black college/university (HBCU). The following multistage procedure was used: (1) a survey of HBCU psychology departments was conducted to ascertain how they selected their introductory psychology…

  9. Depressive Symptoms, Stress, and Social Support among Dental Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Brian; Williams, Carla; Eiland, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms among dental students at a historically black college in the United States to determine how depressive symptoms, stress, and social support influence each other within this student population. Participants: Dental students (n = 143) completed a self-administered survey to assess…

  10. Improving the Climate for LGBTQ Students at an Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Ericksen, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    African American lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students attending an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) may experience bullying. Using snowball sampling, the authors recruited six LGBTQ students for a focus group to learn how they perceived their HBCU campus atmosphere toward LGBTQ students. Thirty faculty…

  11. Improving the research culture at historically black universities : The situation at the University of the North

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelen, J

    An important part of the transformation of higher education in South Africa concerns the professionalisation of historically black universities (HBUs). A vital element in this process forms the enhancement of a research culture that was hardly alive at these universities during the apartheid era. In

  12. Students' Perceptions of Entrepreneurship at a Historically Black University in Central Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Mercidee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' perceptions of entrepreneurship at a historically black university in central Mississippi. The study examined five areas of students' perceptions: entrepreneurship, an entrepreneur, entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurship education, and entrepreneurship and technology, and demographic…

  13. Assessment of Marijuana Use and Psychosocial Behaviors at Two Historically Black Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen-Reid, Terra L.; Rhodes, Warren A.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed three constructs (resilient, invulnerable, and vulnerable) as they related to marijuana use, examining the role of spirituality and social support as potential buffering mechanisms. Data on 103 African American undergraduates from two historically black colleges indicated that students who continued to use marijuana were less spiritual…

  14. How National Foreign Language Week Promotes Cultural Awareness at a Historically Black University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan-Cobb, Irma; Lassiter, Linda E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how celebrating National Foreign Language Week has increased cultural awareness and appreciation among students enrolled in foreign language courses at one of the largest historically Black universities in the United States. In addition, more students have expressed an interest in pursuing minors in foreign languages. (Author/VWL)

  15. 3 CFR 8404 - Proclamation 8404 of August 30, 2009. National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Pivotal in the Civil Rights Movement, HBCUs offer us a window into our Nation's past as well as a path..., to the growth of local communities, and to our Nation's overall economy. This week, we celebrate the... complete college and prepare themselves for the global economy. During National Historically Black Colleges...

  16. Professionalization and public health: historical legacies, continuing dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Professionalization in public health reflects wider institutional and political forces. Depending on the historical context in different countries, public health has developed as a medical specialty or as an independent field, entirely within the state or in mixed public-private institutions, closely or weakly tied to social movements, and in varying relations to fields such as engineering, nursing, environmental science, and the military. In early 20th-century America, the rise of the medical profession and the biomedical model of disease had a formative influence on public health, leading to a different institutional pattern from Britain. Public health in the United States emerged (1) largely outside the medical profession, but under the sway of the biomedical model; (2) without medicine's command of an exclusive jurisdiction and high status; and (3) with a limited role in healthcare organization and planning. Professionalism in public health continues to be subjected to contradictory pressures and uncertainties. Healthcare reform, bioterrorism, and environmental crises could expand its mandate and access to resources, but conflicts with other institutions are likely to result in limits on the capacity of public health professionals to assert an exclusive jurisdiction.

  17. Overweight and Physical Inactivity Among African American Students at a Historically Black University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Heimdal, James; Sbrocco, Tracy; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about correlates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American students at historically Black colleges and universities. To assess overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American college students at a historically Black university in Maryland in the USA. Data were collected from 268 African American college students in 2013. Data were analyzed with percentage difference z-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression. Cross-sectional survey (student response rate = 49.9%). The overweight/obesity rate of participants was 47.5%, which was higher than that of the U.S. college student population overall (34.1%) and a representative sample of African American college students (38.3%). When age and sex were controlled, a family history of obesity, skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated drinks, lower family income, and smoking a pipe, cigars, or cigarettes daily were significant correlates of overweight (obesity included). The percentage of physical inactivity was 68.3, and physical inactivity was higher among women and overweight or obese students. Given the high overweight and obesity prevalence among African American college students, historically Black colleges and universities in the USA should increase health promotion efforts targeting weight-related behaviors, particularly physical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Black Lives Matter: A Commentary on Racism and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee-Lyn García, Jennifer; Sharif, Mienah Zulfacar

    2015-08-01

    The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices in our legal system, racialized police violence, and police (mis)conduct. What is glaringly absent is a public health perspective in response to these events. We aim to fill this gap and expand the current dialogue beyond these isolated incidents to a broader discussion of racism in America and how it affects the health and well-being of people of color. Our goal is not only to reiterate how salient structural racism is in our society, but how critical antiracist work is to the core goals and values of public health.

  19. Exploring the (k)not of relationship between lecturers and management at a historically Black university : the lecturer's perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cilliers, Frans; Van Deventer, Vasie; May, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    Orientation : Within the new South African socio-political context this research focussed on lecturers' at historically Black universities who were confronted with unresolved experiences in their relationship with management...

  20. Scholarly Productivity of Social Work Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Are h-Index Scores a Suitable Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Isiah, Jr.; Smith, Belinda Davis; Green, Makeba T.; Anderson, Brian; Harry, Sonja V.; Byrd, Yolanda M.; Pratt-Harris, Natasha C.; Bolden, Errol S.; Hill, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Faculty scholarship at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) has in the past served as a blueprint for the Black masses. Even today, HBCU faculty scholarship continues to be an informative source to communicate accurate information regarding marginalized groups. This study examines h-index scores of 65 faculty members at five…

  1. Addressing Gender Issues in the Historically Black College and University Community: A Challenge and Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Florence B.

    2001-01-01

    Black women struggle for parity with men and white women in the U.S. academy. Examines gender issues at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), noting patterns of gender inequity and discrimination. These disparities are confounded by and in conflict with issues of race. Addresses the consequence of lack of attention to gender…

  2. Biotechnology education and training in North Carolina historically minority public universities: A five-year evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Eleanor Frances

    A five-year evaluation of the implementation of a special legislative initiative established by the North Carolina General Assembly is the focus of my study. The legislation was to improve and enhance biotechnology in the six historically minority public universities in North Carolina---five historically black and one historically Native American. Post secondary minority institutions traditionally enroll more minorities than non-minority ones, and they graduate more minority students who major in the sciences. Traditionally, minority institutions do not receive and therefore lack the funding and resources to prepare adequately students for jobs in biotechnology and related technologies. The legislation was a response to this problem. The program was a collaboration among the North Carolina government; the North Carolina Biotechnology Center, a private, non-profit organization; and the six institutions. Questionnaires, developed by the researcher were mailed to 55 science faculty and staff at the institutions. There was a 71% return rate. Major findings resulting from data analysis. (1) Individualized institutional problem identification and problem solving. (2) Appropriate equipment was purchased. (3) Enrollment tripled in biological and physical sciences. (4) Every school had at least one faculty member retrained in biotechnology. However, time for training in technological advances for more of the faculty is needed. (5) Bioscience courses were revised or developed to include biotechnology. Major results of the program. (1) In September 2001, the North Carolina General Assembly established a permanent appropriation for the program. It concluded that the universities accomplished the goals and objectives and the program was a success. (2) Dispelled was the illusion that minorities are not capable of being successful in the sciences. Major recommendations. (1) Preliminary data on job placement of students after the program is available. A longitudinal study is

  3. Sustaining a Collaborative Partnership Between an Historically Black and a Historically White University: Earth System Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite increases over the last few decades in the number of degrees awarded to students from underrepresented groups in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines advancing diversity and inclusion in these disciplines remains a challenge. This paper describes one strategic approach to this challenge-the initiation and long-term sustaining of a partnership between the historically black, Elizabeth City State University, and the historically white, University of New Hampshire. The partnerships which focuses on earth system science education and research, is a type of learning organization that enhances opportunities for underrepresented students to pursue careers in STEM, and advances faculty opportunities between and among all faculty. The paper describes the results of this 9-year partnership, the 7 grants that have been awarded over time that support the partnership, and the "6 principles of partnership" that ground how faculty work across institutional and disciplinary boundaries. Implications for how other universities can achieve such a long terma partnership are also discussed as are lessons learned from this collaborative.

  4. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology Consortium annual report draft, 1995--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The HBCU/MI ET Consortium was established in January 1990, through a memorandum of Understanding (MOU) among its member institutions. This group of research-oriented Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions (HBCUs/MIs) agreed to work together to initiate or revise educational programs, develop research partnerships with public and private sector organizations, and promote technology development and transfer to address the nation`s critical environmental problems. While the Consortium`s Research, Education and Technology Transfer (RETT) Plan is the cornerstone of its overall program efforts, the initial programmatic activities of the Consortium focused on environmental education at all levels with the objective of addressing the underrepresentation of minorities in the environmental professions. This 1996 Annual Report provides an update on the activities of the Consortium with a focus on environmental curriculum development for the Technical Qualifications Program (TQP) and Education for Sustainability.

  5. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptation of warrant price with Black Scholes model and historical volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Khairu Azlan Abd; Idris, Mohd Fazril Izhar Mohd; Saian, Rizauddin; Daud, Wan Suhana Wan

    2015-05-01

    This project discusses about pricing warrant in Malaysia. The Black Scholes model with non-dividend approach and linear interpolation technique was applied in pricing the call warrant. Three call warrants that are listed in Bursa Malaysia were selected randomly from UiTM's datastream. The finding claims that the volatility for each call warrants are different to each other. We have used the historical volatility which will describes the price movement by which an underlying share is expected to fluctuate within a period. The Black Scholes model price that was obtained by the model will be compared with the actual market price. Mispricing the call warrants will contribute to under or over valuation price. Other variables like interest rate, time to maturity date, exercise price and underlying stock price are involves in pricing call warrants as well as measuring the moneyness of call warrants.

  7. Exploring the Use of Little Cigars by Students at a Historically Black University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Jolly, DrPH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConsiderable evidence exists that little cigars are popular among African American adolescents and young adults who smoke. However, few studies have been published on the use of this tobacco product by young blacks in the United States. This research investigated little-cigar use among students at a historically black university in the southeastern United States.MethodsAs a follow-up to a survey on tobacco use among freshmen that revealed unexpectedly high rates of little-cigar use, 3 focus groups were conducted with current or former smokers of little cigars. Topics included preferred brands of little cigars, preference for little cigars over cigarettes, social contexts for smoking little cigars, perceived health risks of smoking little cigars relative to smoking cigarettes, and thoughts about quitting.ResultsFocus group participants preferred little cigars to cigarettes for various reasons, among them taste, smell, a better “buzz,” social purposes, status, and perceptions that smoking little cigars is less addictive and less harmful than smoking cigarettes. Opinions on health risks varied; some participants believed that health risks can be reduced by removing the inner liner of little cigars.ConclusionUse of little cigars should be addressed in tobacco research, use prevention, and use cessation efforts, targeting students at historically black colleges and perhaps other young African Americans. Results also suggest that clear distinctions should be made among cigarettes, little cigars, and cigars, and that tobacco use prevention and cessation programs should debunk myths that little cigars are a safe alternative to cigarettes. Study findings should be confirmed and elucidated through additional research.

  8. Federal Assistance to Public Black Colleges and Universities: Robin Hood Unleashed or Collusion on the Potomac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lewis L.

    Issues concerning federal assistance to public black colleges and universities are addressed. Attention is directed to the question of whether federal subsidies, given the role of state controlling agencies, automatically benefit black colleges in a meaningful, lasting manner. A second question is whether federal aid to black institutions, in its…

  9. The Handbook of Historically Black Colleges & Universities. Premiere Edition 1992-94. Comprehensive Profiles and Photos of Black Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge-Wright, Toni, Comp.

    This book contains vital statistics and other profile information concerning 106 historically black colleges and universities located in the United States and the Virgin Islands. Information includes: school selection and admissions processes; special programs; the minimum grade point average required for freshmen and when majors must be declared;…

  10. Reconciling Epidemiology and Social Justice in the Public Health Discourse Around the Sexual Networks of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D; Smith, Justin C; Brown, Andre L; Malebranche, David J

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have implicated the sexual networks of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) as facilitating disproportionally high rates of new HIV infections within this community. Although structural disparities place these networks at heightened risk for infection, HIV prevention science continues to describe networks as the cause for HIV disparities, rather than an effect of structures that pattern infection. We explore the historical relationship between public health and Black MSM, arguing that the current articulation of Black MSM networks is too often incomplete and counterproductive. Public health can offer a counternarrative that reconciles epidemiology with the social justice that informs our discipline, and that is required for an effective response to the epidemic among Black MSM.

  11. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  12. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  13. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  14. Postbaccalaureate Salaries of Psychology Majors from a Historically Black University: How Much Does a Master's Degree Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibulkin, Amy E.; Butler, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of predominantly African American psychology major baccalaureates from a historically Black university self-reported job types, salaries, and master's degree completion. For this pre-2009 recession sample, we found that (a) the rates of employment were quite high; (b) most jobs were related to health, mental health, social work, and…

  15. To "Bring the Race Along Rapidly": Sport, Student Culture, and Educational Mission at Historically Black Colleges during the Interwar Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and impact of college athletics at historically black colleges during the period between the two world wars. Maintains that sports became a source of pride and a vehicle for social change. Concludes, however, that there is substantial reason to be skeptical about the efficacy of sport to overcome racial prejudice. (CFR)

  16. Globalizing Historically Black Business Schools: A Case Study of the Application of Modern Pedagogical Theories of Internationalizing Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Ben L.; Clampit, Jack; Gaffney, Nolan

    2014-01-01

    The AACSB and AIB have each issued reports aimed at ensuring the internationalization of business schools. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)--as underresourced entities serving an underprivileged constituency--may need additional attention. Unfortunately, neither the AACSB nor AIB reports mention HBCUs. The broader literature is…

  17. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology Consortium annual report 1994--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The HBCU/MI ET Consortium was established in January 1990, through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) among its member institutions. This group of research oriented Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions (HBCU/MIs) agreed to work together to initiate or revise education programs, develop research partnerships with public and private sector organizations, and promote technology development to address the nation`s critical environmental contamination problems. The Consortium`s Research, Education and Technology Transfer (RETT) Plan became the working agenda. The Consortium is a resource for collaboration among the member institutions and with federal an state agencies, national and federal laboratories, industries, (including small businesses), majority universities, and two and four-year technical colleges. As a group of 17 institutions geographically located in the southern US, the Consortium is well positioned to reach a diverse group of women and minority populations of African Americans, Hispanics and American Indians. This Report provides a status update on activities and achievements in environmental curriculum development, outreach at the K--12 level, undergraduate and graduate education, research and development, and technology transfer.

  18. Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W.; Solano, Paul; Stotz, Lauren; McDuffie, Mary Joan

    2013-01-01

    This research clarifies the public support of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in terms of acceptance, content, timing, and effectiveness as it may inform practice in the United States. The historical context of public opinion, as well as a summary of the efficacy of abstinence only education (AOE) versus CSE in the scientific literature,…

  19. Enclosures Abound: Black Cultural Autonomy, Prison Regime and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Since slavery, attempted enclosures upon Black spaces of cultural production and autonomy (i.e. music, language, art) have manifested in various forms. In the context of the post-industrial terrain of urban southern California, the formation of the prison is the dominant model of forced enclosure in the lives of Black people. Moving beyond the…

  20. 75 FR 66316 - National Historical Publications and Records Commission Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... definitions section for consistency with other NARA regulations, and makes minor typographical changes for...-0001, 202-357-5306. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 7, 2010, NARA published a proposed rule (75 FR... also responding to one comment made on a public blog Web site regarding individual applicants...

  1. Public Library Provision for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities--Where Are We in 2009?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses developments in public library provision for Black and minority ethnic [BME] communities in the UK since the publication in 1969 of the results of research into the needs of "Indian and Pakistani communities". It includes a brief discussion of some major societal issues, and then sets public library services in this context.…

  2. 75 FR 78209 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced AGENCY: Forest...) has announced its meeting dates for 2011. These meetings are open to the public, and public comment is... meeting, limited to three (3) minutes per person for oral comments. Meeting dates are the third...

  3. 77 FR 9889 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced AGENCY: Forest...) has announced its meeting dates for 2012. These meetings are open to the public, and public comment is... meeting, limited to three (3) minutes per person for oral comments. Meeting dates are the third...

  4. Modelling the black death. A historical case study and implications for the epidemiology of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Monecke, Hannelore; Monecke, Jochen

    2009-12-01

    We analysed a plague outbreak in the mining town of Freiberg in Saxony which started in May 1613 and ended in February 1614. This epidemic was selected for study because of the high quality of contemporary sources. It was possible to identify 1400 individual victims meaning that more than 10% of the population of the city perished. The outbreak was modelled by 9 differential equations describing flea, rat, and human populations. This resulted in a close fit to the historical records of this outbreak. An interesting implication of the model is that the introduction of even a small number of immune rats into an otherwise unchanged setting results in an abortive outbreak with very few human victims. Hence, the percentage of immune rats directly influences the magnitude of a human epidemic by diverting search activities of the fleas. Thus, we conclude that the spread of Rattus norvegicus, which might acquire partial herd immunity by exposure to soil- or water-borne Yersinia species due to its preference for wet habitats, contributed to the disappearance of Black Death epidemics from Europe in the 18th century. In order to prove whether or not the parameter values obtained by fitting a given outbreak are also applicable to other cases, we modelled the plague outbreak in Bombay 1905/06 using the same parameter values except for the number of humans as well as of immune and susceptible rats.

  5. Educating the next generation of explorers at an historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S.; Rodriguez, W. J.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an innovative undergraduate research training model based at an Historically Black University in the USA that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic Earth Systems Science research. Educating those who will be the next generation of explorers of earth and space poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. Over a 5-year span, Norfolk State University has been developing a program that has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through partnerships with local K-12 school teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment). The successes and challenges of this program along with some innovative uses of technology to promote inquiry learning will be presented in this paper.

  6. Measuring alcohol-related consequences and motives among students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Bryan G; Tseng, Andy; Correia, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    College student drinkers have the propensity to engage in heavy alcohol consumption. These consumption patterns can be problematic given the well-established relationship between heavy drinking and negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Though the research on college student drinking is abundant, much of the work conducted has been with Caucasian samples and less so with African American samples or at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The current paper assessed the internal reliability and concurrent validity of two popular measures of alcohol related negative consequences (CAPS-r and YAACQ) and a measure of drinking motives (DMQ-R) within a HBCU sample. Total scores for the CAPS-r and YAACQ and all five subscales of the DMQ-R were internally reliable as determined by Cronbach's alpha. Correlations and regressions established concurrent validity for both measures of negative consequences as well as the subscales for the DMQ-R. Findings support the use of these measures in the assessment of negative consequences and motivations for alcohol consumption within a HBCU population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Science and Society: Public History in the Context of Historical Culture of the Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina P. Repina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century known as the „historical age”, a high degree of trust to history and social prestige of historical science relied on the entrenched in public consciousness the idea of continuity of historical development of a human civilization and, respectively, of the unique opportunities of the use of the past experience as a means to solve the problems of the present and to build „the bright future”. But the understanding of the dramatic experi-ence of the XX century undermined the belief in the “use of history”, and this situation has been greatly aggravated with intensification of the processes of globalization on the bor-der of XX and XXI centuries. The problems of interaction between “academic (professional history” and the wide public in the concrete societies and the changes in their relations in the context of deep social transformations proved to take place at the center of many re-searchers’ attention. Public history is purposefully overcoming the typical for historical science of the XX century alienation from „the uninitiated”; it strives to restore the interest of the consumer to the historians’ production, to propagate professional standards, histor-ical knowledge and proper understanding of the specific character of “historian’s craft” among the wide circles of the non-professionals.

  8. Public safety risk management at socio-economic and / or historic-cultural significant dam sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.

  9. “My Life, Cinema, Black-and-White Movie”: Film Documents as Historical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny F. Krinko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article serves as introduction and presents the materials of a special issue of “Russian Archive”: the verbatim report and the resolution of the round table on the topic “The Newsreel Footage as a Visible Memory of the Epoch”, theoretical and applied articles (by G.N. Lanskoy, G.E. Malysheva, A.A. Babkin, A.A. Paramonova, archival documents (publisher G.S. Chumachenko, and director’s memoires of L.P. Korshik. Along with newsreel, popular scientific, educational, institutional films, and amateur movies are considered as historical sources. The authors analyzed the issues of documentary publication principles, as well as the facts of improper use of newsreels.

  10. The essence and historical genesis of public-private partnership in the tourism sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajkova Anastasija Ivanovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In article historical stages of emergence and state-private partnership (SPP development as tool of the public relations are investigated, the main lines of process of its formation are revealed, potential subjects of business - "participants of SPP" in economic system "tourism" are considered.

  11. Marketing Booze to Blacks. A Report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, George A.; And Others

    Beer, wine, and liquor manufacturers aggressively seek to maximize sales of their products to blacks, despite public health and safety problems associated with those products. Rather than act to protect the public from the over-promotion of alcohol, government has set few effective constraints on the sales stratagems of alcoholic beverage…

  12. Weathering of the black limestone of historical monuments (Ljubljana, Slovenia): Oxygen and sulfur isotope composition of sulfate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.kramar@rescen.si [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Conservation Centre, Restoration Centre, Poljanska 40, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mirtic, Breda [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Askerceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knoeller, Kay [UFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Hydrology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Rogan-Smuc, Nastja [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Askerceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Weathering of the black limestone on historical monuments. > Oxygen and sulfur isotope composition of sulfate salts (outdoors and indoors). > A data exhibit more scattered {delta}{sup 34}S values with respect to {delta}{sup 18}O values. - Abstract: The black limestone widely used in Slovenian monuments, particularly in the baroque architecture, is deteriorating extensively due to salt crystallization. Samples of soluble salts from two important historical monuments (in Ljubljana, Slovenia) were investigated in terms of their mineral and isotopic (S and O) compositions. Results revealed the presence of gypsum and soluble salts of the MgSO{sub 4}.nH{sub 2}O series, such as starkeyite (MgSO{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O), pentahydrite (MgSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O) and hexahydrite (MgSO{sub 4}.6H{sub 2}O). Whereas black crusts and subflorescences consisted of gypsum, efflorescences appeared to be an assemblage of gypsum and MgSO{sub 4} hydrates. Sample {delta}{sup 18}O{sub sulfate} values varied from -1.9 per mille to +5.5 per mille vs. V-SMOW and {delta}{sup 34}S{sub sulfate} values from -19.8 per mille to +3.2 per mille vs. V-CDT. The respective isotopic composition of analysed outdoor and indoor monument samples indicated different sources of contamination.

  13. Land revenues, schools and literacy: a historical examination of public and private funding of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Latika

    2010-01-01

    Despite the centralised nature of the fiscal system in colonial India, public education expenditures varied dramatically across regions with the western and southern provinces spending three to four times as much as the eastern provinces. A significant portion of the inter-regional difference was due to historical differences in land taxes, an important source of provincial revenues in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The large differences in public spending, however, did not produce comparable differences in enrollment rates or literacy in the colonial period. Nonetheless, public investments influenced the direction of school development and perhaps the long run trajectory of rural literacy.

  14. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  15. Metabolic syndrome among students attending a historically black college: prevalence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topè Avinash M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU, which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA. We report the prevalence and gender differences in the components of MetS in a sample population from an HBCU campus. Methods Three hundred and seventy six (218 females and 158 males first year college students (average age 19.8 years, attending Kentucky State University, Frankfort with no prior diagnosis of illness participated in the cross sectional study. Anthropometric screenings included measurement of height, weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. The clinical screenings included measurement of blood pressure and determination of fasting lipid and glucose concentrations. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III and International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions for MetS were applied. Statistics: Analysis of variance (ANOVA scores on the Means procedure were used to examine differences between genders for all anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. Fisher’s exact chi-square tests were used to analyze the prevalence of MetS criteria per gender, the number of MetS criteria per BMI category and the prevalence of MetS criteria. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all tests. Results Prevalence rates for MetS criteria varied depending on the definition used. According to the NCEP ATP definition, 31.4% of the sample population had at least 1 criterion for MetS, while 20.7% had 2 criteria. When IDF definition was applied, 21.3% sample population had 1 criterion and 17.5% had at least two criteria. Prevalence was highest for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.3% and elevated fasting glucose (22.1%. On the basis of the NCEP ATP and IDF definitions, overall prevalence of MetS in the total sample was 12%, and 9

  16. Public policy of historical memory as a factor of ukrainian society consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Lutsyshyn

    2015-06-01

    It is stated that society’s attitude toward the events and figures of the past changes frequently. Communities often adjust their attitude in order to be able to rely on it in solving urgent current problems or implementing projects aimed at the future. Collective representation of key historical events serves as a basis of group identity and allows members of the group to distinguish themselves from the others. The shortcomings and prospects for improvement of public administration in this area are defined.

  17. Historical Evolution and Innovation of Supply of Rural Public Cultural Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ning; ZHANG Tao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of main body,decision making and financing mode concerning the supply of public cultural services in rural areas,we divide historical evolution of rural public cultural services in China into three periods:(i) The period from the founding of New China to the period before " Cultural Revolution" ;(ii) The period from " Cultural Revolution" to the period before the reform and opening-up;(iii) The period after the reform and opening-up.We analyze the defects in the supply of rural public cultural services in China:(i) Difference in the supply of public cultural services between urban and rural areas,caused by urban-rural " dual" structure;(ii) Insufficient supply of rural public cultural services,arising from unclear property rights and executive power of government at all levels;(iii) Structural imbalance in the supply of rural public cultural services,caused by top-down supply decision making mechanism;(iv) Single financing channels of rural public cultural services.From input,decision making,demand expression,financing and endogenous mechanism of supply of rural public cultural services,we put forward the recommendations for improving the supply of public cultural services in China.

  18. Renovation And Adaptation Of The Historic Olsztyn Purification House Bet Tahara Into A Public Utility Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Barbara Maria

    2015-09-01

    The historic Jewish Purification House Bet Tahara was erected in Olsztyn in 1913 on the basis of the debut design of Erich Mendelsohn, a world-famous architect born in Olsztyn. The most valuable element of the building is a self-supporting pyramid vault above a mourning hall. The paper presents the interesting structure of the building, its technical condition before renovation, as well as the scope of work involved in adapting it into a public utility building - MENDELSOHN HOUSE Intercultural Dialogue Centre. The undertaking was executed thanks to the commitment of the building's leaseholder - "Borussia" Cultural Community Association, which raised money for this goal from public funds.

  19. [Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

    2002-05-01

    The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country.

  20. Black Feminist Hip-Hop Rhetorics and the Digital Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthely, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Digital public discourse spaces like Twitter and blogs like The Crunk Feminist Collective allow for Black voices not only to be inserted in the mainstream media, but to transform those media to focus on their needs from their perspective. These digital counterdiscourses challenge the traditional boundaries between the academy and the community,…

  1. Exploring the (knot of relationship between lecturers and management at a historically Black university: The lecturer’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. May

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Within the new South African socio-political context this research focussed on lecturers’ at historically Black universities who were confronted with unresolved experiences in their relationship with management. The analysis of these experiences provided an in-depth understanding of systems psychodynamics in tertiary education.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of nine lecturers in a particular historically Black university (HBU, in order to analyse and interpret the conscious and unconscious dynamics operating in their relationship with management.Motivation for the study: The researchers were interested in the in-depth psychological experiences of lecturers at this HBU as a platform towards understanding present day South African lecturing experiences.Research design, approach and method: Qualitative, descriptive research was used. Hermeneutic phenomenology, using the systems psychodynamic perspective, allowed for the description and interpretation of the lecturers’ experiences of their relationship with management. In-depth interviews with nine lecturers were thematically analysed which resulted in five themes. Five working hypotheses were formulated and integrated into the research hypothesis.Main findings: Five themes manifested, namely, the (knot of performance, mutual disqualification and mistrust, White lecturers and Black management, power struggle and the (knot of relationship.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the importance of understanding the psychodynamics operating in the relationship between lecturers and management as a result of certain ineffective socio-technical aspects in the organisation.Contribution/value-add: The research contributed towards knowledge about inter-group relations between different role players in HBUs and how these dynamics impact on the performance of both lecturers and management.

  2. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...... and possibly spawned in the Black Sea. Loss of a locally-reproducing population would represent a decline in population richness, and an increase in species vulnerability to perturbations such as exploitation and environmental change. Here we identify the main genetic and phenotypic adaptations...

  3. Paradigms and public policies on drought in northeast Brazil: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José Nilson B

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum.

  4. Judgments of damage to public versus private property in Chinese children at different historical times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Huichang; Zhao, Siman

    2016-12-15

    This study examined children's judgments of damage to public versus private property in China at two historical times. Participants were two cohorts (1980 and 2012) of elementary school children at ages 7, 9, and 11 years. The children were administered paired stories that described a protagonist who damaged public or private property with a good or bad intention. The results showed that children in the 2012 cohort were less likely than their counterparts in the 1980 cohort to judge damage to public property as more culpable than damage to private property. The cohort differences were more evident in older children than in younger children. The results suggest that macro-level contexts may play an important role in shaping children's judgments.

  5. Historical aspects of meetings, publication series, and digital resources dedicated to echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ziegler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Half a century after the first scientific meeting dedicated to marine spiny-skinned animals (Deuterostomia: Echinodermata was held in Washington, DC, we take this opportunity to provide information on a number of historical aspects related to the echinoderm scientific community. Apart from shedding light on the historical origins of modern echinoderm conferences, the present contribution presents photographs taken during the first meeting of echinoderm researchers in 1963 as well as during the first installments of the International Echinoderm Conference and the European Conference on Echinoderms. Furthermore, we provide background information on publication series dedicated solely to the Echinodermata as well as descriptions of selected digital resources that focus on echinoderms. Finally, we present a number of echinoderm conference logos and flyers in addition to selected information about specific echinoderm meetings.

  6. The Misintegration of the Negro: A Historical Analysis of Black Male Habitus in Sport and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin P.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the lenses of critical race theory (CRT) and Pierre Bourdieu's notion of habitus, this article compares the Jackie Robinson story with the Brown versus Board of Education narrative. This juxtaposition illustrates the similarities of these narratives and how interests converged racially. By comparing these historical narratives, we…

  7. 76 FR 30323 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... sets forth the schedule and agenda of the meeting of the President's Board of Advisors on Historically.... Agenda The Board will receive updates from the Chairman of the President's Board of Advisors on HBCUs and... support of HBCUs in Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011, the budget outlook for federal support in Fiscal Year...

  8. 77 FR 54571 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ..., business, government, military, homeland- security, and education communities in a national dialogue...-54572] [FR Doc No: 2012-21853] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION President's Board of Advisors on Historically... Universities (Board), U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: This...

  9. The Evolution of Public Views of the Black Sea Province During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of public views of the Black Sea province during the First World War. The materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals of the Black Sea province became the main source of work. This article employs the records of personal origins. As a result of study, the authors come to the conclusion the First World War began for Russian society with massive patriotic speeches, but at the end of 1916 year for both in Russia in general and in the Black Sea province comes a complex social process that can be described as war weariness. To the reasons for war weariness the authors referred: the protracted war, and as a consequence – the complexity of an economic nature.

  10. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology and Waste Management Consortium annual report, 1990--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The HBCU/MI Environmental Technology and Waste Management Consortium was established in January 1990, through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) among the member institutions. This group of research-oriented Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions (HBCU/MI) agreed to work together to initiate research, technology development and education programs to address the nation`s critical environmental problems. As a group the HBCU/MI Consortium is uniquely positioned to reach women and the minority populations of African Americans, Hispanics and American Indians. As part of their initial work, they developed the Research, Education, and Technology Transfer (RETT) Plan to actualize the Consortium`s guiding principles. In addition to developing a comprehensive research agenda, four major programs were begun to meet these goals. This report summarizes the 1990--1991 progress.

  11. Official and Vernacular Public History: Historical Anniversaries and Commemorations in Newcastle, NSW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Eklund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The city of Newcastle commemorated two bicentenaries within the space of seven years. In 2004, the city marked 200 years since the permanent establishment of the settlement on 30 March 1804. But 2004 was not the city’s first bicentennial. In 1997, Newcastle celebrated the 1797 journey of Lieutenant John Shortland, who named and sketched the Hunter River and brought back samples of coal to Sydney. These anniversaries, and earlier ones such as Newcastle’s centennial in 1897 and its sesqui-centennial in 1947, were crucial moments of history making in the public sphere. History was evoked to celebrate progress, encourage civic loyalty and, more recently, to emphasise the city’s transition into a post-industrial era. This article will explore the way in which commemorative dates in Newcastle’s history were interpreted, utilised and presented to the general public. It will examine how history, heritage, politics and policy come together to use the past in a public way. Utilising US historian John Bodnar’s terms, the shift in the themes and tenor of public history in Newcastle over this period has been from an ‘official’ to a more ‘vernacular’ style. Official public history emphasised unitary notions of progress while vernacular styles presented more diverse and occasionally more critical versions of public history. By the time of the 2004 commemorative events there was more scope for active popular participation. Newcastle public history was being nourished by community groups often with conflicting notions of public history, generating a multivalent, multilayered sense of the past, though older themes persisted with remarkable durability. In a city where ‘history’ has such an ambivalent position, large-scale historical commemorations make for intriguing analysis. After a review of the principal themes in the Newcastle commemorations of 1897, 1947, and 1997, I consider the 2004 ‘Newcastle 200’ programme. In particular, I will

  12. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.

  13. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards: An Update for the 2013/14 School Year. REL 2017-254

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Education tightened the credit standards for Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS). Concerned about the possible effects of this change on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic's Historically Black Colleges and Universities College Completion…

  14. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards. REL 2015-082

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in financial aid and student enrollment at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) after the U.S. Department of Education increased the credit history requirements necessary to obtain Parental Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS). The study used institution-level data to examine…

  15. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-088

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in financial aid and student enrollment at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) after the U.S. Department of Education increased the credit history…

  16. College Readiness: The Evaluation of Students Participating in the Historically Black College and University Program in Pre-Calculus and the Calculus Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Angela Renee

    2011-01-01

    This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…

  17. College Readiness: The Evaluation of Students Participating in the Historically Black College and University Program in Pre-Calculus and the Calculus Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Angela Renee

    2011-01-01

    This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…

  18. A Link to the Future: A Pilot Study Look at How Historically Black Colleges and Universities with Journalism and Mass Communications Units Use the Internet in Recruiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jerry, II

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have had the ability to recruit African-American students since the 1860s by stressing a sense of inclusion and family through their mission statements and community outreach. There was little to no competition for African-American students from predominantly white institutions until integration…

  19. Owning the Journey: Using Collaborative Revisions of Little Red Riding Hood in Teaching Introduction to Literature at a Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Design and implementation of a collaborative course project, using Little Red Riding Hood (LRRH) to teach and discuss the concepts of orality, cultural legacy, archetypes, adaptation/appropriation, and social criticism in an Introduction to Literature course at Historically Black Alabama State University in Montgomery, Alabama. The student groups…

  20. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  1. Racial Identity Attitudes, Womanist Identity Attitudes, and Self-Esteem in African American College Women Attending Historically Black Single-Sex and Coeducational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Sherry Kay

    2006-01-01

    This study examines racial identity attitudes, womanist identity attitudes, and self-esteem of 111 African American college women attending two historically Black higher educational institutions, one coeducational and one single-sex. The major findings indicate that pre-encounter and encounter attitudes of racial and womanist identity are…

  2. Investigation Of The Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Along The Bulgarian Coast Of The Black Sea By Reconstructions Of Historical Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Bogatchev, Andrey; Tsenova, Boryana

    2015-01-01

    Information about the hydro-meteorological parameters during the extreme sea storms is of significant importance for the sustainable development in the context of flood risk for the coastal areas. Usually there is a lack of sufficiently long history of instrumental measurements of the extreme winds, waves and storm surges. Simulation of historical storms is an important tool to evaluate the potential coastal hazards. In the absence of measured data hindcasts can satisfy the need for historical data. The wave and storm-surge regional numerical simulations have been carried out for the ten most severe storms over the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea from the period 1972-2012. The ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalysis of wind at 10 m and mean sea level pressure have been downscaled with a high resolution atmospheric model ALADIN to the horizontal and time scales suitable for precise evaluation of hydro-meteorological parameters during the storms. The downscaled fields of wind and sea level pressure have been used as...

  3. Pregnancy Risk among Black, White, and Hispanic Teen Girls in New York City Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G.; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was c...

  4. “Nothing Better or Worse than Being Black, Gay, and in the Band”: A Qualitative Examination of Gay Undergraduates Participating in Historically Black College or University Marching Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bruce Allen

    2013-01-01

    This collective case study examined the experiences of four African American gay band students attending historically Black colleges or universities (HCBUs) in the southern United States. This study explored influences that shaped the participants' identities as they negotiated numerous complex sociocultural discourses pervasive and challenging to…

  5. Partnership Opportunities In Earth System Science Education Between Historically Black and Historically White Universities: Elizabeth City State University and the University of New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. E.; Hayden, L. B.; Wake, C. P.; Varner, R. K.; Graham, K.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Porter, W.; Blackmon, R.; Bryce, J. G.; Branch, B. D.; Johnson, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Federal efforts to promote the participation of underrepresented students in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines (STEM) in higher education have been in effect over several decades. The Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act of 1980 aimed to create equal opportunity in the STEM disciplines by promoting and broadening the participation of underrepresented talent in science and engineering. Since that time, federal agencies such as the National Science Foundation, NOAA and NASA, scientific organizations such as the American Geophysical Union, and other organizations such as the Educational Testing Service have created programs, diversity plans and cutting edge reports designed to further explicate the need to broaden the participation of underrepresented student talent in these disciplines. Despite increases in the degrees awarded to underrepresented students in the STEM disciplines, enhancing diversity in these disciplines continues to remain a significant challenge. This paper describes a strategic approach to this challenge via the development of a collaborative partnership model between two universities: the historically black Elizabeth City State University (ESCU) and the historically white University of New Hampshire (UNH). The alliance, built on a mutually-agreed upon set of partnership principles, strives to enhance opportunities for underrepresented students to pursue careers in STEM disciplines, specifically those in Earth system science and remote sensing. In examining the partnership, six promising practices that help advance its success come to the forefront. These practices include institutional commitment and faculty engagement, mutual respect and shared time commitment, identifying engaged leadership, engaging critical change agents, initiating difficult dialogues, and preparing for growth and evolution. Outcomes of the partnership to date include the successful submission and funding of four collaborative

  6. The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Jenks

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

  7. 76 FR 55368 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ..., military, homeland- security, and education communities in a national dialogue regarding new HBCU programs... members of the public interested in submitting written comments may do so by submitting them to the...-866-512- 1830; or in the Washington, DC, area at 202-512-0000. Dated: August 25, 2011. Martha...

  8. 77 FR 4289 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... in a national dialogue regarding new HBCU programs and initiatives; (iii) improving the ability of... speak. Those members of the public interested in submitting written comments may do so by submitting... in the Washington, DC, area at (202) 512-0000. Dated: January 24, 2012. Martha J. Kanter,...

  9. Historical Origins of Information Behavior Research by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using a quantitative method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS, this research tried to determine the historical roots of information behavior research. RPYS pave the way for determining the significant years and works in information behavior. Methodology: Using scientometric method, the initial data of this study, have been extracted from the Web of Science. Using RPYS software, the revised data were analyzed and visualized in Excel. Finding: The distribution of cited references in information behavior revealed three peaks within 19th century. Moreover, our analysis identified 6 peaks between 1900 to 1969 in the field of information behavior, respectively in 1948, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1965, and 1967 has occurred. Results: Based on the study findings, it seems that information behavior research has been shaped intellectually by fields such as Psychology, quantitative and qualitative methodologies, etc. Additionally, it has been influenced by some theories and theoretical works.

  10. "We can move forward": challenging historical inequity in public health research in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speare Richard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor countries, such as Solomon Islands, the research agenda on health is often dominated by researchers from resource-rich countries. New strategies are needed to empower local researchers to set directions for health research. This paper presents a process which seeks to enable a local and potentially more equitable research agenda at a remote hospital in Solomon Islands. Methods In preparation for a health research capacity-building workshop at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Malaita, Solomon Islands, a computer-based search was conducted of Solomon Islands public health literature. Using a levels-of-agreement approach publications were categorised as: a original research, b reviews, c program descriptions and d commentaries or discussion. Original research publications were further sub-categorised as: i measurement, ii descriptive research and iii intervention studies. Results were reviewed with Solomon Islander health professionals in a focus group discussion during the health research workshop. Focus group participants were invited to discuss reactions to literature search results and how results might assist current or future local researchers to identify gaps in the published research literature and possible research opportunities at the hospital and surrounding communities. Focus group data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Of the 218 publications meeting inclusion criteria, 144 (66% were categorised as 'original research', 42 (19% as 'commentaries/discussion', 28 (13% as 'descriptions of programs' and 4 (2% as 'reviews'. Agreement between three authors' (MRM, DM, AC independent categorisation was 'excellent' (0.8 κ. The 144 'original research' publications included 115 (80% 'descriptive studies' (κ = 0.82; 19 (13% 'intervention studies' (κ = 0.77; and 10 (7% 'measurement studies'(κ = 0.80. Key themes identified in the focus group discussion challenged historical inequities evident

  11. Building a More Diverse Biomedical Engineering Workforce: Biomedical Engineering at the University of the District of Columbia, a Historically Black College & University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lara A; Adebayo, A Segun; Zhang, Nian; Haghani, Sasan; Dowell, Kathleen; Shetty, Devdas; Thompson, Lara A; Adebayo, A Segun; Nian Zhang; Haghani, Sasan; Dowell, Kathleen; Shetty, Devdas; Adebayo, A Segun; Haghani, Sasan; Dowell, Kathleen; Thompson, Lara A; Shetty, Devdas; Zhang, Nian

    2016-08-01

    Biomedical Engineering (BME) is a new, multidisciplinary, and rapidly growing field, however, the BME Workforce suffers from limited ethnic and gender diversity. Despite the demand and growth of this new field due to its public health importance, only 4 out of the 107 Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) nationwide offers a Bachelor's of Science (B.S.) in Bio-Engineering related fields. In order to contribute to a growing BME Workforce, HBCUs need to react and offer more degree-programs relevant to BME. At the University of the District of Columbia (UDC), an HBCU and the District's only public institution for higher learning, we have recently established a new, degree program: Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering (B.S. in BME) full-board approved in Fall 2014, with program activities initiated in Fall 2015. The educational goal of this program is to enhance the quality and diversity of the BME Workforce via student professional development, new and relevant BME courses, and BME scholarly activities (e.g., guest lectures and journal club sessions), ultimately to increase the number of ethnic minorities pursuing careers and degrees in BME. Through our program activities, we are aiming to meet the nation's demand to contribute to a diverse BME workforce, directed towards solving problems in human health. A secondary, but related goal, is to increase the diversity of STEM-related fields. This paper summarizes our initial, but encouraging, BME activity-related findings. However, this study will be longitudinal (on a multiple year time period) to observe the true outcomes of our initiative.

  12. Attitudes and beliefs about smoking among African-American college students at historically black colleges and universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Cooper, Dexter L

    2007-04-01

    Smoking rates are lower among African Americans compared to Caucasians, but African Americans have higher lung cancer mortality. Guided by the Powe Fatalism Model, this descriptive study reports on attitudes and beliefs and predictors of lifetime cigarette smoking behaviors among students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Data were collected using the Attitudes and Beliefs about Perceived Consequences of Smoking Scale and a Demographic Data Questionnaire. The majority (N = 438) were female and single. More than 50% reported trying cigarettes in their lifetime and reported smoking a whole cigarette at age 15.5 years. Only 7.5% of the sample were lifetime smokers. The likelihood that a student would smoke was 15 times greater if their friends smoked and almost seven times greater if they were not members of a Greek organization compared to other students. Males associated smoking with self-confidence, endorsed the emotional benefits and influencing factors of smoking compared to females. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing the initiation of smoking as well as cessation efforts for students at HBCUs. Campus clubs and organizations can play a vital role in long-term changes in smoking behaviors for these students.

  13. HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scores and Perceptions of Risk Among African American Students Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y.; Hardnett, Felicia P.; Wright, Pierre; Wahi, Sagina; Pathak, Sonal; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective African American young adults are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and often unaware of their personal risk for HIV. Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) enroll 25% of college-educated African American young adults and can play an important role in HIV prevention. We examined HIV/AIDS knowledge of students at HBCUs to inform and strengthen our HIV prevention efforts at HBCUs. Methods African American undergraduate HBCU students completed online surveys assessing HIV/AIDS knowledge and behaviors, and we analyzed data to assess their knowledge and behaviors. Results A total of 1,051 of 1,230 surveys completed (85.4%) were analyzable. Eighty-two percent of students had average/high HIV knowledge scores. Seventy-nine percent of students surveyed perceived themselves to be at low risk for HIV infection; 64% of those who had at least two or more sex partners had not used a condom at last sex encounter. In the final model, significant independent effects were identified for average/high knowledge of HIV risk, including agreeing with assessing a potential partner's HIV risk by all of the five actions listed (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7, 4.3) and never using a needle to inject drugs (AOR=5.6, 95% CI 3.2, 9.7). Conclusions Educating students about effectively assessing sex partner risk will improve HIV knowledge and prevention efforts at HBCUs. PMID:21886325

  14. To Test or Not to Test: Barriers and Solutions to Testing African American College Students for HIV at a Historically Black College/University

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Naomi M.; Peterson, Jennifer; Johnson, Malynnda

    2014-01-01

    Young African Americans are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The purpose was to identify reasons that African American college students at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) identified as barriers to HIV testing, and how these barriers can be removed. Fifty-seven heterosexual-identified undergraduate students (ages 18–25) attending an HBCU in the southeastern US participated in a mixed method study. Latent content analytic techniques w...

  15. A Comparative Study of Black Dropouts and Black High School Graduates in an Urban Public School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Silvia Brooks

    1987-01-01

    Reports findings of a comparative study of Black high school dropouts and Black high school graduates in Houston, TX, in relation to five clusters of variables: demographic/personal characteristics; academic origin variables; family characteristics; feelings toward school; and feelings toward peers in school. The primary distinguishing…

  16. Pregnancy Risk among Black, White, and Hispanic Teen Girls in New York City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G.; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students. PMID:20383750

  17. "Racism still exists": a public health intervention using racism "countermarketing" outdoor advertising in a Black neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A

    2014-10-01

    The negative health effects of racism have been well documented, but how to intervene to redress these effects has been little studied. This study reports on RISE (Racism Still Exists), a high-risk, high-reward public health intervention that used outdoor advertising to disseminate a "countermarketing" campaign in New York City (NYC). Over 6 months, the campaign advertised stark facts about the persistence of racism in the USA. A probability sample of N = 144 participants from two predominantly Black NYC neighborhoods completed measures of health status, health behaviors, and social attitudes. Three months postintervention, statistically significant declines in psychological distress were seen among study participants who were exposed to the campaign compared to those who were not. There were no changes in other hypothesized outcomes. The campaign also generated significant public discourse, particularly in social media. The results suggest that racism countermarketing campaigns may have promise as a community-based intervention to address health inequalities.

  18. A.V. Vereshchagin’s Work «Travel Notes on the Black Sea Okrug» as a Historical Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes and analyses the source data on the history of the Black Sea Coast of the North-Western Caucasus after the Caucasian War, found in the work by A.V. Vereshchagin, issued in 1874, namely the statistics of population size, including ethnicity and confession, criticism of the findings by the commission, examining the Black Sea Region, historical and ethnographical data, concerning the remained mountain dwellers and their households, characteristics of migrants’ households and their problems analysis, description and criticism of the adopted system of the state-owned lands acquisition and sale and its implementation, data on the day-labour prices, review of the sea traffic prospects and the state of the road network in the region, analysis of the Black Sea Region state and commercial development, etc

  19. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  20. A public code for general relativistic, polarised radiative transfer around spinning black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Jason

    2016-10-01

    Ray tracing radiative transfer is a powerful method for comparing theoretical models of black hole accretion flows and jets with observations. We present a public code, GRTRANS, for carrying out such calculations in the Kerr metric, including the full treatment of polarised radiative transfer and parallel transport along geodesics. The code is written in FORTRAN 90 and efficiently parallelises with OPENMP, and the full code and several components have PYTHON interfaces. We describe several tests which are used for verifiying the code, and we compare the results for polarised thin accretion disc and semi-analytic jet problems with those from the literature as examples of its use. Along the way, we provide accurate fitting functions for polarised synchrotron emission and transfer coefficients from thermal and power-law distribution functions, and compare results from numerical integration and quadrature solutions of the polarised radiative transfer equations. We also show that all transfer coefficients can play an important role in predicted images and polarisation maps of the Galactic centre black hole, Sgr A*, at submillimetre wavelengths.

  1. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery was scanned from historic hard copy images and georeferenced to current imagery. This data is available via map service., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery...

  2. 75 FR 17638 - National Historical Publications and Records Commission; Proposal To Amend Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    .... Commission (see NHPRC). Coordinator means the coordinator of a State historical records advisory board. Cost..., museums, and historical societies. Indirect costs means costs incurred for common or joint objectives of.... Typically, indirect costs include items such as overhead for facilities maintenance and accounting...

  3. 75 FR 80526 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...Notice is hereby given that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission will be held at 9:30 a.m., on Friday, January 7, 2011, at C & O Canal National Historical Park, 1850 Dual Highway, Suite 100, Hagerstown, Maryland...

  4. May Madness! A Classroom Competition Merges Historical Research with Public Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Isaac Cosby, III

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how his school beats up the post-national examination blues by staging a "May Madness" competition. The competition is like a "tournament of historical figures" wherein students are asked to debate which historical figures were more significant until they have a "Final Four" and, eventually, a winner. The author…

  5. The Politics of Public Education in Black Chicago, 1910-1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that between 1910 and 1941 some changes occurred in the politics of black education in Chicago. The early reliance on the city's white elite faded in the wake of the mass migration during and after World War I and the larger black population gradually earned the black community political rewards which could influence school affairs.…

  6. U.S. and NATO Naval Engagement with Russia in the Black Sea: Historical Patterns and Current Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    sea, but along the large length of coastline of each Black Sea state.194 In defining the true meaning of maritime power as it relates to the...Black Sea itself, is quickly becoming a stage for possible flashpoints in NATO-Russian relations . Russia’s aggressive actions coupled with its...military units to an extent that has placed future U.S.–Russian and NATO–Russian relations into question. This thesis analyzes how Russia’s

  7. Gravity's Relentless Pull: An interactive, multimedia website about black holes for Education and Public Outreach

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Marel, R P; Kleijn, G V; Marel, Roeland P. van der; Schaller, David; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2006-01-01

    We have created a website, called "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull", which explains the physics and astronomy of black holes for a general audience. The site emphasizes user participation and is rich in animations and astronomical imagery. It won the top prize of the 2005 Pirelli INTERNETional Awards competition for the best communication of science and technology using the internet. This article provides a brief overview of the site. The site starts with an opening animation that introduces the basic concept of a black hole. The user is then invited to embark on a journey from a backyard view of the night sky to a personal encounter with a singularity. This journey proceeds through three modules, which allow the user to: find black holes in the night sky; travel to a black hole in an animated starship; and explore a black hole from up close. There are also five "experiments" that allow the user to: create a black hole; orbit around a black hole; weigh a black hole; drop a clock into a black hole; or f...

  8. Public-private partnerships as a strategy against HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the influence of historical legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunne, Viviane

    2009-09-01

    In the face of the extreme challenges posed by the South African HIV/AIDS epidemic, collaboration between public and private partners is often called for in an attempt to mobilise additional resources and generate synergies. This paper shows that the ability to successfully use public-private partnerships to address complex challenges, such as an HIV/AIDS epidemic, is influenced by the fabric of society, one important aspect being historical legacies. The first part of the article shows how South Africa's apartheid past affects the ability of public and private partners to collaborate in a response to HIV and AIDS today. It also takes into account how reconciliation and nation-building policies in the immediate post-transformation period have affected the ability to form and sustain partnerships concerning HIV/AIDS issues. The second part of the article analyses more recent developments regarding the information that these hold as to the feasibility of public-private partnerships and whether these continue to be affected by the legacies of the past. Two events with symbolic political value in South Africa, namely the 2010 FIFA World Cup soccer event and the recent changes in government, are systematically examined on the basis of three analytical queries, regarding: the impact of the event on nation-building and transcending cleavages in society; the event's impact on the ability to form public-private partnerships in general; and the role of HIV/AIDS in connection with the event. Conclusions are drawn a propos the influence of historic factors on the ability of South African society to effectively use public-private partnerships in the response to HIV and AIDS, and the continued dynamics and likely future directions of these partnerships.

  9. Mediated Debate, Historical Framing, and Public Art: The Juan de Onate Controversy in El Paso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Frank G.; Ortega, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    In 1988, the El Paso, Texas, city council accepted a proposal to build twelve statues of historically important individuals as part of a downtown revitalization initiative. Juan de Onate was selected as the centerpiece statue of the XII Travelers Memorial of the Southwest. The decision to honor the Spanish colonizer triggered a local controversy…

  10. 75 FR 41520 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ...Notice is hereby given that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission will be held at 9 a.m., on Friday, August 13, 2010, at the Brunswick City Hall, 1 West Potomac Street, Brunswick, Maryland...

  11. 75 FR 65376 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...Notice is hereby given that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission will be held at 9:30 a.m., on Friday, November 5, 2010, at Rockwood Manor Park, 11001 MacArthur Boulevard, Potomac, Maryland...

  12. 75 FR 4844 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ...Notice is hereby given that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission will be held at 9 a.m., on Friday, February 12, 2010, at the House of Sweden, 2900 K Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  13. Smoking-related behavior, beliefs, and social environment of young black women in subsidized public housing in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L; Warnecke, R; Buis, M

    1992-02-01

    Survey data indicate that young Black female smokers living in public housing are heavier smokers and have weaker motivation to quit, health beliefs and social environment less conducive to cessation, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit than other young Black female smokers in metropolitan Chicago. Compared with White women, the latter, other Black women smoke fewer cigarettes daily and have a stronger desire to quit and more concern about health reasons for quitting, but have a weaker belief in the risk of lung cancer from smoking, greater concern about quitting difficulties, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit. Low education, not race, is associated with higher smoking prevalence and less social pressure to quit or support for quitting.

  14. The influence of the meteorological forcing data on the reconstructions of historical storms in the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, Vasko; Kortcheva, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The present article is a study of the applicability of different sources of meteorological forcing for the coastal wave and storm surge models, which provide the operational marine forecasts for the coastal early warning systems (EWS) and are used for reconstructions of historical storms. The reconstruction of historical storms is one of the approaches to the natural coastal hazard vulnerability assessment. We evaluate the importance of the input meteorological information for the mentioned t...

  15. Opening the Black Box: The Experiences and Lessons From the Public Hospitals Autonomy Policy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Jafari, Mehdi; Takian, Amirhossein; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Policy formulation and adoption often happen in a black box. Implementation challenges affect and modify the nature of a policy. We analyzed hospitals' autonomy policy in Iran that was intended to reduce hospitals' financial burden on government and improve their efficiency. We followed a retrospective case-study methodology, involving inductive and deductive analyses of parliamentary proceedings, policy documents, gray literature, published papers and interview transcripts. We analyzed data to develop a policy map that included important dates and events leading to the policy process milestones. We identified four time-periods with distinctive features: 'moving toward the policy' (1989 - 1994), disorganized implementation' (1995 - 1997), 'continuing challenges and indecisiveness in hospitals financing' (1998 - 2003), and 'other structural and financial policies in public hospitals' (2004 to date). We found that stakeholders required different and conflicting objectives, which certainly resulted in an unsatisfactory implementation process. The policy led to long-lasting and often negative changes in the hospital sector and the entire Iranian health system. Hospital autonomy appeared to be an ill-advised policy to remedy the inefficiency problems in low socioeconomic areas of the country. The assumption that hospital autonomy reforms would necessarily result in a better health system, may be a false assumption as their success relies on many contextual, structural and policy implementation factors.

  16. Patterns in Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Reveal Historical and Recent Isolation in the Black-Tailed Godwit (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, K.B.; Doorenweerd, C.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, N.M.; de Knijff, P.; Piersma, T.; de Snoo, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies a

  17. Patterns in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveal historical and recent isolation in the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, Krijn B.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, Niko M.; Knijff, Peter de; Piersma, Theunis; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies a

  18. Patterns in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveal historical and recent isolation in the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, Krijn B.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, Niko M.; Knijff, Peter de; Piersma, Theunis; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies

  19. Patterns in Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Reveal Historical and Recent Isolation in the Black-Tailed Godwit (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, K.B.; Doorenweerd, C.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, N.M.; de Knijff, P.; Piersma, T.; de Snoo, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies

  20. Patterns in Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Reveal Historical and Recent Isolation in the Black-Tailed Godwit (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, K.B.; Doorenweerd, C.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, N.M.; de Knijff, P.; Piersma, T.; de Snoo, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies a

  1. Patterns in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveal historical and recent isolation in the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, Krijn B.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, Niko M.; Knijff, Peter de; Piersma, Theunis; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies a

  2. The schism between medical and public health education: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruis, A R; Golden, Robert N

    2008-12-01

    The separation of "medicine" and "public health" in academic institutions limits the potential synergies that an integrated educational model could offer. The roots of this separation are deeply imbedded in history. During the past two centuries, there have been repeated efforts to integrate public health education into the core training of physicians, usually in response to a perceived short-term crisis, and without widespread, lasting success. The cost of additional public health instruction and the "overcrowding" of the medical curriculum have been cited as obstacles for creating an integrated medical/public health curriculum for more than a century. Several thoughtful and prescient proposals for integration were developed at a conference convened by the Rockefeller Foundation in the early 20th century, but not all were implemented. Today, there is growing recognition of the considerable value afforded by the integration of medicine and public health education. Many schools have responded to a national call for a renewed relationship between medicine and public health by increasing the availability of MD/MPH programs and/or by incorporating one or more public health courses into the basic medical curriculum. A few schools have created more substantial and innovative changes. Review and consideration of the history and politics of past efforts may serve as a guide for the development of successful new approaches to creating a clinical workforce that incorporates the principles of both clinical medicine and public health.

  3. Gravity's Relentless Pull : An interactive, multimedia website about black holes for Education and Public Outreach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, R. P. van der; Schaller, D.; Kleijn, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We have created a website, called "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull", which explains the physics and astronomy of black holes for a general audience. The site emphasizes user participation and is rich in animations and astronomical imagery. It won the top prize of the 2005 Pirelli

  4. Gravity's Relentless Pull : An interactive, multimedia website about black holes for Education and Public Outreach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, R. P. van der; Schaller, D.; Kleijn, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We have created a website, called "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull", which explains the physics and astronomy of black holes for a general audience. The site emphasizes user participation and is rich in animations and astronomical imagery. It won the top prize of the 2005 Pirelli IN

  5. Black Child in Crisis. Final Report of the Public Forums and Symposia May-October, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, William E., Ed.

    The negative effects of poverty, alienation, and racism influence the lives of black children most heavily. This report covering Michigan presents information and recommendations concerning the continuing decline in the quality of life for black children. It is the culmination of a series of activities including forums, symposia, and conferences…

  6. The influence of the meteorological forcing data on the reconstructions of historical storms in the Black Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2013-01-01

    The present article is a study of the applicability of different sources of meteorological forcing for the coastal wave and storm surge models, which provide the operational marine forecasts for the coastal early warning systems (EWS) and are used for reconstructions of historical storms. The reconstruction of historical storms is one of the approaches to the natural coastal hazard vulnerability assessment. We evaluate the importance of the input meteorological information for the mentioned types of coastal models. For two well documented historical storms, that caused significant damages along the Bulgarian coast we simulate the significant wave heights and sea level change, using SWAN wave model and a storm surge model. The wind and mean sea level pressure fields, which are used in the present study, are extracted from the ERA Interim reanalysis of the European Center for Medium range Forecasts (ECMWF) and from the output of the high resolution limited area numerical weather prediction model ALADIN. The ove...

  7. Public health and English local government: historical perspectives on the impact of 'returning home'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue

    2014-12-01

    This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers' allusions to 'a long and proud history' and 'returning public health home' there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  8. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-07-12

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy.

  9. The Public Trust Doctrine and Liability for Historic Water Pollution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The public trust doctrine is now, in the post-constitutional era, part and parcel of South African natural resources law. However, the precise meaning and content remain, to some extent, unclear. This is particularly true in respect of the relationship between the public trust doctrine and the polluter pays principle and the extent to which liability for pollution and degradation of natural resources also lies within the realm of the public trust doctrine. This article sets out to explore the public trust doctrine in South African law and its potential for assigning liability in a natural resources law context. It does so in the context of South Africa’s challenges in dealing with acid mine drainage (AMD, a legacy from defunct mines, but a continuing by-product of existing mining. It revisits the traditional scope of the public trust doctrine and argues for an expansive view in line not only with the constitutional imperatives embodied in South Africa’s environmental right, but also by way of an analogy between the public trust doctrine and the common heritage of mankind principle as it presents itself in international environmental law. In doing so this article also explores the development of the doctrine in US law which in some respects has set the course for its application with respect to natural resources law.

  10. Developing an English-as-a-second-language program for foreign-born nursing students at an historically black university in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer F

    2008-04-01

    The nursing department at Norfolk State University (NSU), a historically Black university located in Norfolk, Virginia, designed a program to increase the retention and success of foreign-born students challenged with English as a Second Language (ESL). Through strategies designed to address language, social, academic, and personal challenges, the program has led to improvements in student satisfaction and performance. This article reviews the literature related to educating foreign-born nursing students in the United States, discusses unique considerations for these students within minority-serving institutions, describes key components of program development, and evaluates NSU's program. To increase the diversity of the nursing workforce, other institutions are encouraged to consider replicating NSU's model for ESL-student retention and success.

  11. “How It’s Done”: The Role of Mentoring and Advice in Preparing the Next Generation of Historically Black College and University Presidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felecia Commodore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The college and university presidency is one of the most coveted positions in academe. Due to the projected retirements of current Historically Black College and University (HBCU presidents, the researchers interviewed 21 current presidents, institutional board members, and presidential search firm personnel to explore what current HBCU leadership identifies as important mentoring/mentee practices, mentoring/mentee opportunities, and professional advice for HBCU presidential aspirants to consider. The findings, based on the coding and analysis of semi-structured qualitative interviews, revealed that self-awareness, focusing on the essential aspects of the job and not merely the perks, openness to being mentored and willingness to shadow a successful leader, experience in serving in various administrative capacities, participating in professional leadership development activities, earning of a terminal degree, displaying humility, understanding academic politics, and learning how to present oneself as an executive is important in the preparation of a leader of an HBCU.

  12. Civic participation and public spaces: a key factor for sustainable tourism in historic cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin van der Zwan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Attractive public spaces are crucial for tourism. After all, most tourists that visit a city, experience it by foot and increasingly by bicycle. Public spaces have to meet a few minimum requirements. If not, tourists will feel uncomfortable. For instance; a lot of rubbish and graffiti, worn out and damaged street furniture can cause a feeling of unsafety. Attractive public spaces are the ones that invite tourists to stay a bit longer than strictly necessary and sit down and relax. Some of these spaces are quit and green, others more vibrant, well dimensioned and furbished. In this paper I describe a method for defining and measuring the quality of public space and also for predicting the conclusion tourists may draw based on this; “will I revisit this place or not ?” In some cities inhabitants, local shop owners and local institutions voluntarily take the initiative to upgrade the quality of public spaces or even act as ‘city hosts’ to welcome visitors. These kinds of civic participation help to provide the unique experience many tourists are looking for.

  13. Demographical Differences in Perceptions of Leadership Practices for Department Chairs and Job Satisfaction of Faculty Members at a Historically Black University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Quinn Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the leadership practices (Kouzes and Posner, 2002 of the department chairs as perceived by the faculty and the job satisfaction (Spector, 2007 of faculty members at a historically black university located in the State of Mississippi. The role of the gender and ethnicity of faculty members’ perceived leadership practices of department chairs and job satisfaction is explored. A total of 100 faculty responded to the study. An ANOVA test found that there is a significant difference in leadership practices of department chairs by faculty members between ethnicity: modeling the way (F = 242.529, p = .001, inspiring a shared vision (F = 289.658, p = .001, challenging the process (F = 386.177, p = .001, enabling others to act (F = 272.504, p = .001, and encouraging the heart (F = 339.685, p = .001. There is a significant difference in subscales of job satisfaction for faculty members between ethnicity: promotion (F = 12.953, p = .00, supervision (F = 1.819, p = .00, contingent rewards (F = 25.379, p = .00, operating procedures (F = 34.334, p = .00, co-workers (F = 34.406, p = .00, nature of work (F = 3.020, p = .054, and communication (F = 46.118, p = .00. There was not a significant difference in Leadership Practices of department chairs and Job Satisfaction of faculty members based on gender. The implications of the study resulted in gender differences and ethnicity having a statistical impact on the perceptions of leadership practices of department chairs and job satisfaction of faculty member. Future studies might expand the study to include more historically black university to gain a broader perception.

  14. Denormalizing a Historical Problem: Teen Pregnancy, Policy, and Public Health Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Smith, Leonie C. R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the impact of teen-adult sexual relationships as a public health threat and the effectiveness of statutory rape laws in protecting adolescent children. Methods: A comprehensive review of current literature surrounding child abuse, teen pregnancy, and statutory rape was conducted. Results: Of one million teen girls who become…

  15. Tracing public values change: a historical study of civil service job advertisements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.R.; Beck Jørgensen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Long term changes in public values are not easily detected. One important reason is the limited availability of reliable empirical data. Job advertisements allow us to go back in history for some decades and job ads may present us with the values that are supposed to guide civil servant behavior. Th

  16. The Public Good. Historical and Political Roots of Municipal Preschools in Emilia Romagna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    According to the findings of a recent European study on competence requirement for the early childhood education and care workforce, competent systems that succeed in achieving high levels of professionalism are embedded in coherent public policies that build on consultation with key stakeholders, particularly at local level. In order to flourish,…

  17. Blurring the boundaries between public and private health care services as an alternative explanation for the emergence of black medicine: the Israeli case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filc, Dani; Cohen, Nissim

    2015-07-01

    Black medicine represents the most problematic configuration of informal payments for health care. According to the accepted economic explanations, we would not expect to find black medicine in a system with a developed private service. Using Israel as a case study, we suggest an alternative yet a complimentary explanation for the emergence of black medicine in public health care systems - even though citizens do have the formal option to use private channels. We claim that when regulation is weak and political culture is based on 'do it yourself' strategies, which meant to solve immediate problems, blurring the boundaries between public and private health care services may only reduce public trust and in turn, contribute to the emergence of black medicine. We used a combined quantitative and qualitative methodology to support our claim. Statistical analysis of the results suggested that the only variable significantly associated with the use of black medicine was trust in the health care system. The higher the respondents' level of trust in the health care system, the lower the rate of the use of black medicine. Qualitatively, interviewee emphasized the relation between the blurred boundaries between public and private health care and the use of black medicine.

  18. Public Nordic Cultural Policy - Historical preconditions, overriding objectives, significant developments, recent challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    policies in Norden also differ mutual in many aspects. The survey introduces and discusses major common public cultural policy elements in the five Nordic national states (Denmark, Island, Norway, Sweden and Finland), the autonomous and semi autonomous small nations (Greenland, The Faeroe Islands......Public Nordic cultural policy have, especially since the 1960s, in large part been characterised by convergence regarding major elements. In addition the Nordic countries, like other European national states are today confronted with and affected by fundamental late-modern processes: Globalisation......, migration, economic instrumentalisation, political colonisation, questions of the freedom of speech, issues on national identity vs. cosmopolitanism etc. By these and other reasons it is reasonable to speak of a pan-Nordic cultural policy model in 2016, while still highlighting the fact, that cultural...

  19. Industrial wastes and public health: some historical notes, Part I, 1876-1932.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, J A

    1985-09-01

    This article has focused on the relatively low priority accorded industrial wastes compared to human wastes by the public health community in the period from 1876 through 1932. The critical reason for this prioritization was the potential for acute health effects from human wastes as compared with the belief that industrial wastes had only indirect effects. State departments of health normally only responded to industrial wastes when they endangered the potable nature of water supplies or interfered with water and sewage treatment processes. Within the public health community, however, a relatively small group of interdisciplinary professionals argued for attention to the indirect health effects of industrial wastes and their impacts on the total stream environment. In conjunction with other groups interested in clean streams--such as sportsmen and manufacturers who required high quality process water--they pushed for a broader state legislative mandate in regard to pollution control. Some states created new bureaus or boards with responsibility for industrial wastes and the larger stream environment but the attack on industrial pollution remained limited in this period. The final significant development regarding industrial pollution and public health concerned the formulation by Streeter-Phelps of the Public Health Service of a theory of stream purification with a set of general quantitative indicators. This application was of particular importance in regard to the high-oxygen consuming nature of organic industrial wastes and the wide variety of effluents that existed. Industrial wastes constituted what Harvey Brooks, in his essay "Science Indicators and Science Priorities" calls a very "messy" research problem--one that does "not lend itself to elegant and widely applicable generalizations."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Historic and Legal Review on Passport Reform of 1974 and its Role in Strengthening of the USSR Public Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia N. Kirichenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of historical and legal material, where the facts linked to the passport system reforms in the Soviet Union in 1974 are revealed. The author features introduction of the new peculiarities of the passport system and its legal and social importance for the Soviet state. The organized passport system is characterized by organizational and legal activities of the passport services of the Soviet police in issuing new passports for all citizens of the USSR under 16 years of age, regardless of where they live and where they work. It was concluded that the reform in the USSR passport system in 1974 had a positive impact on: strengthening of public order; combating crime; organization of labor control mechanisms throughout the country.

  1. The public finance of medical and dental care in Newfoundland--some historical and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M C

    1981-04-01

    The article discusses the evolution of Newfoundland's health care system from the turn of the century to the present. During this time there were considerable changes in social conditions, political arrangements and the availability of public monies, all of which influenced the structure of the health care sector. In general terms, Newfoundland's health care system shifted from one involving low expenditures and many British type institutions to one involving high expenditures and American type institutions. The evidence suggests that the changes have been particularly beneficial for Newfoundland's merchant class, including the doctors and dentists, although some benefits have also accrued to patients and fishermen.

  2. Disparity in Academic Achievement Between Black and White Students in the Wake County Public School System of North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moore Watkins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the desegregation of public schools in the 1950s, studies have been conducted to determine why Blacks lag behind Whites academically. Efforts to understand the racial disparities in school performance continue, and some studies indicate this may be due to neighborhood differences. Although this is not a topic that has been researched in depth, this paper will examine the effects neighborhood of residence and neighborhood of school have on student performance. The data for over 22,000 students are examined.

  3. [The historical aspects of public health system development in the south Ural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiukov, Iu A; Tarasova, I S

    2010-01-01

    The first physician in the south Ural, the healer Knobloch, appeared in 1775. The next physician in this region was Vasili Grigorievich Jukovsky who worked during more than 50 years in Chelyabinsk. Aleksander Franzevich Beiwel, the physician and city mayor, left good memories too. The first hospital appeared in 1823 and in the beginning of XX century the city health care was represented by three hospitals with 175 beds in total and 5 pharmacies. The first dental surgery room appeared in 1905. In 1924 in Chelyabinsk worked 24 physicians, 9 feldshers, 36 nurses, 4 midwives. There were 355 hospital beds, 7 outpatient clinics, children counseling room, 2 day nurseries. The Chelyabinsk first polyclinic functions from 1925 and in 1927 the first stomatologic polyclinic was opened. Ivan Stepanovich Belostotsky was one of active participants of development of Soviet public health on the territory of Ural. In 1941 the foundation for development of base hospitals in Ural during the Great Patriotic war was made ready.

  4. The health and health system of South Africa: historical roots of current public health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, Hoosen; Jewkes, Rachel; Barron, Peter; Sanders, David; McIntyre, Diane

    2009-09-01

    The roots of a dysfunctional health system and the collision of the epidemics of communicable and non-communicable diseases in South Africa can be found in policies from periods of the country's history, from colonial subjugation, apartheid dispossession, to the post-apartheid period. Racial and gender discrimination, the migrant labour system, the destruction of family life, vast income inequalities, and extreme violence have all formed part of South Africa's troubled past, and all have inexorably affected health and health services. In 1994, when apartheid ended, the health system faced massive challenges, many of which still persist. Macroeconomic policies, fostering growth rather than redistribution, contributed to the persistence of economic disparities between races despite a large expansion in social grants. The public health system has been transformed into an integrated, comprehensive national service, but failures in leadership and stewardship and weak management have led to inadequate implementation of what are often good policies. Pivotal facets of primary health care are not in place and there is a substantial human resources crisis facing the health sector. The HIV epidemic has contributed to and accelerated these challenges. All of these factors need to be addressed by the new government if health is to be improved and the Millennium Development Goals achieved in South Africa.

  5. Use of Historical Measurements to Constrain a Black Carbon Emission Inventory of the United States from 1960s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Bond, T. C.; Liu, L.; Flanner, M.; Kirchstetter, T.; Jiao, C.; Preble, C.; Chang, W.

    2015-12-01

    We use historical coefficient of haze measurements in California and New Jersey to evaluate and constrain a black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the period 1960-2000. We estimate the relationship between emissions and ambient air concentrations of BC using the Community Atmosphere Model to create source-receptor that allow reconstruction of ambient, time-varying concentrations. We adjust this matrix to account for errors in modeled mixing height with observations. We also apply Heating Degree Days (HDD) data to estimate seasonal variation in emissions. However, HDDs do not fully explain the seasonal variation trend of the measurement. The emission inventory used in this work is based on U.S. Energy Information Administration fuel use data published in 2010. We calculate BC emissions with Speciated Pollutant Emissions Wizard (SPEW). Modifications to previous work include use of the SPEW-Trend vehicle fleet model to compute vehicle emissions, incorporating parameters of vehicle type, age, retirement rate, and the number of superemitters. Analyzing the discrepancy between reconstructed and measured BC concentrations of California and New Jersey identifies potential errors in historical emissions. Acknowledging the resolution difference between the reconstructed concentrations based on global model simulation and the urban measurements, we rely more on the discrepancies in trends than in absolute discrepancies. Although the observations decreased throughout this time period, the reconstructed concentrations peaked in the 1980s. Fuel use and emission factors for specific technologies and sectors in the BC emission inventory are analyzed to isolate those sectors most likely to cause the discrepancy. The modified emission inventory for the period 1960-2000 is presented.

  6. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology Consortium annual report, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The HBCU/MI Consortium was formed (1) to respond to national R and D, policy formulation and minority manpower needs in environmental technology, hazardous, solid and mixed waste materials management, environmental restoration, and environmental health; and (2) to address limited minority participation in the public, private and non-profit environmental industries; limited environmental awareness among minorities; minimal interaction between HBCUs/MIs and majority universities, industry and interest groups; limited institutional development in environmental education and research; and lack of minority technical businesses in the environmental industry. This report gives progress made for the 92--93 period.

  7. Patterns of condom use among students at historically Black colleges and universities: implications for HIV prevention efforts among college-age young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Sutton, Madeline Y; Hardnett, Felicia P; Jones, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Over 1.1 million Americans are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and African-American youth and young adults are disproportionately affected. Condoms are the most effective prevention tool, yet data regarding condom use patterns for African-American college youth are lacking. To inform and strengthen HIV prevention strategies with African-American college-age youth, we surveyed students attending 24 historically Black colleges and universities regarding condom use patterns. Students were administered anonymous questionnaires online to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to condom use during last sexual intercourse (LSI). Among 824 sexually active respondents (51.8% female, median age 20 years, 90.6% heterosexuals), 526 (63.8%) reported condom use during LSI. Students who used condoms for disease prevention, whose mothers completed high school or had some college education or completed college were more likely to have used a condom during LSI. Spontaneity of sexual encounters, not feeling at risk of HIV, and partner-related perceptions were associated with condom non-use during LSI (pcollege youth sample did not use a condom during LSI and may benefit from increased condom education efforts. These efforts should highlight condoms' effectiveness in protection from HIV. Future HIV education and prevention strategies with similar groups of young adults should explore the implications of maternal education, clarify perceptions of HIV risk, and consider strategies that increase consistent condom use to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV.

  8. Historical and Future Black Carbon Deposition on the Three Ice Caps: Ice Core Measurements and Model Simulations from 1850 to 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Bausch, Alexandra; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Xu, Baiqing; Edwards. Ross; Bisiaux, Marion; McConnell, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Ice core measurements in conjunction with climate model simulations are of tremendous value when examining anthropogenic and natural aerosol loads and their role in past and future climates. Refractory black carbon (BC) records from the Arctic, the Antarctic, and the Himalayas are analyzed using three transient climate simulations performed with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. Simulations differ in aerosol schemes (bulk aerosols vs. aerosol microphysics) and ocean couplings (fully coupled vs. prescribed ocean). Regional analyses for past (1850-2005) and future (2005-2100) carbonaceous aerosol simulations focus on the Antarctic, Greenland, and the Himalayas. Measurements from locations in the Antarctic show clean conditions with no detectable trend over the past 150 years. Historical atmospheric deposition of BC and sulfur in Greenland shows strong trends and is primarily influenced by emissions from early twentieth century agricultural and domestic practices. Models fail to reproduce observations of a sharp eightfold BC increase in Greenland at the beginning of the twentieth century that could be due to the only threefold increase in the North American emission inventory. BC deposition in Greenland is about 10 times greater than in Antarctica and 10 times less than in Tibet. The Himalayas show the most complicated transport patterns, due to the complex terrain and dynamical regimes of this region. Projections of future climate based on the four CMIP5 Representative Concentration Pathways indicate further dramatic advances of pollution to the Tibetan Plateau along with decreasing BC deposition fluxes in Greenland and the Antarctic.

  9. To Test or Not to Test: Barriers and Solutions to Testing African American College Students for HIV at a Historically Black College/University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Peterson, Jennifer; Johnson, Malynnda

    2014-01-01

    Young African Americans are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The purpose was to identify reasons that African American college students at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) identified as barriers to HIV testing, and how these barriers can be removed. Fifty-seven heterosexual-identified undergraduate students (ages 18-25) attending an HBCU in the southeastern US participated in a mixed method study. Latent content analytic techniques were used to code the transcripts for themes and categories, and representative quotations were used in the findings. Quantitative data indicates high levels of perceived knowledge about HIV transmission, low perception of risk and concern of contracting HIV, yet continued sexual risk behavior. Qualitative data indicates three main themes used to avoid testing and three themes to encourage testing. Students were forthcoming in discussing the themes around avoidance of HIV testing (being scared to know, preferring not to know, and lack of discussion about HIV) and encouraging testing (group testing, increasing basic knowledge, and showing the reality of HIV). It is important for college healthcare professionals, researchers, and officials to identify appropriate ways to encourage HIV testing, and promote testing as part of overall health.

  10. An Investigation of Faculty Relationships as a Source of Motivation for STEM Undergraduates at a Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Aquila

    2011-12-01

    The expansion of STEM education and career opportunities among underrepresented populations is a national priority. Therefore, more research is needed that examines the institutional, instructional and individual factors related to African American students' success in these fields. This dissertation study was drawn from a larger mixed-methods longitudinal study (Freeman and Winston, 2007). It utilized a concurrent embedded design of mixed methods (Creswell, 2009), to investigate faculty relationships as a source of motivation for STEM undergraduates at a HBCU. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory was the theoretical basis for this study. The following research questions were examined: (a) What is the nature of student-faculty relationships among STEM undergraduates attending an HBCU; (b) How does the nature of faculty student relationships vary by gender and STEM major; (c) How do student-faculty relationships influence students' persistence in STEM, self-concept of ability in mathematics and in science and grade point average; and (d) Does the influence of student-faculty relationships on self-concept of ability in mathematics and in science and grade point average vary by gender and STEM major? Freshman college students (N=167) who had a declared major in STEM fall 2009 were participants in this study. Students were predominately Black/African American (82%) and predominately female (71%). The Student-Professor Interaction Scale (SPIS) was used to measure various dimensions of student-faculty interactions (Cokley, Komarraju, Rosales, et al., 2006). The Experiences with Faculty Scale (Pace & Kuh, 1998) was used to measure the frequency of student's experiences with faculty. Self-Concept of Ability Scales in Mathematics and in Science (Marsh, 1999) was used to measure students' global perception of their abilities. An open-ended question was designed to expand and provide breadth to the quantitative results. Findings indicated that student

  11. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  12. Developing the Ideas of the Scientific School of L.S. Vygotsky: Scientific Publications of the Journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology” (2005—2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the development of the ideas of L.S. Vygotsky’s school using the example of the publications in the international scientific journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology” (for the period 2005 through 2016. Over the period from 2005 to the end of 2016, 595 articles of 524 authors from 32 countries have been published in the journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology.” The study of the subjects of the articles published in the journal was held within the framework of the following criteria: scientometric publication indicators; group of authors; themes of the publications; relevance of the articles for their readers. The research uses the following sources: Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI; repository data of the psychological editions of PsyJournals.ru; report data on the activities of the journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology.” The citation frequency of the journal’s publications peaks in 2007, 2009 and 2006. Empirical findings comprise major part of the publications. The most developed areas are the studies of speech and thinking, personality, and communication.

  13. Montessori Public School Pre-K Programs and the School Readiness of Low-Income Black and Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Within the United States, there are a variety of early education models and curricula aimed at promoting young children's pre-academic, social, and behavioral skills. This study, using data from the Miami School Readiness Project (MSRP; Winsler et al., 2008, 2012), examined the school readiness gains of low-income Latino (n = 7,045) and Black children (n = 6,700) enrolled in two different types of Title-1 public school pre-K programs: those in programs using the Montessori curricula and those in more conventional programs using the High/Scope curricula with a literacy supplement. Parents and teachers reported on children's socio-emotional and behavioral skills with the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA), while children's pre-academic skills (cognitive, motor, and language) were assessed directly with the Learning Accomplishment Profile Diagnostic (LAP-D) at the beginning and end of their four-year-old pre-K year. All children, regardless of curricula, demonstrated gains across pre-academic, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills throughout the pre-K year; however, all children did not benefit equally from Montessori programs. Latino children in Montessori programs began the year at most risk in pre-academic and behavioral skills, yet exhibited the greatest gains across these domains and ended the year scoring above national averages. Conversely, Black children exhibited healthy gains in Montessori, but demonstrated slightly greater gains when attending more conventional pre-K programs. Findings have implications for tailoring early childhood education programs for Latino and Black children from low-income communities.

  14. Black youth's personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue: does the public service announcement still work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Truman R; Morant, Kesha M; Stroman, Carolyn A

    2009-03-01

    Recent public service announcements (PSAs) directed toward Black youth utilize various formats and appeals to stimulate a motivated cognitive process that engenders personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by Petty and Cacioppo argues that engagement with messages that consist of substantive content causes the audience member to critically analyze the message, which can produce awareness and attitude change. An efficient way to add emphasis to the message and seize the attention of the target audience is to insert the message into an entertainment context. Our study attempted to analyze the impact of the peripheral cue, character appeal, on audience members' attitude change in response to analyzing high- and low-involvement message content. A2 x 4 factorial design was used, with message involvement (high/low) and character appeal (White/Black and celebrity/noncelebrity) as independent variables. The findings showed that celebrity status is the salient factor, with source perception inducing attitude change as a main effect or in an interaction effect with high- and low message content.

  15. The Historical Effect of Habermas in the Chinese Context:A Case Study of the Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Weidong

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this essay is not to give a full-scale and systematic exploration of the historical process concerning the acceptance of Habermas' works in the Chinesespoken world but to examine the historical effect of Habermas in the Chinese-spoken context and try to find a proper way to establish a good relationship between Habermas and the Chinese-spoken world by discussing the introduction,study,and application of Habermas'most famous work,The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere,by Chinese scholars in recent years.

  16. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides."

  17. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  18. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  19. DAMAGE AGAINST THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE AND THEIR NORMATIVE INSTRUMENTS OF PROTECTION: case study from a public civil action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Oliveira dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study on the environmental damage and the crimes against the urban heritage and cultural history in the city of Belém. This is a case study about a Class Action (Ação Civil Pública concerning the historic and commercial building known as “O Portuga”, which has been the target of damages to the urban environment in the historical and cultural heritage district of Batista Campos. This district houses a set of enduring historical buildings, whose architectural, artistic and decorative characteristics reveal the memory from a period of prominent historical importance of this city. The study focuses on the effective and possible damages to this historical landmark building, as well as the need to provide remedy for the environmental damage, as well as the duty to provide reparation for the collective damages. It also presents a prompt analysis of the Parquet’s role as the legitimate party to propose this Class Action in order to safeguard the collective right to the cultural environment. The main benchmark used here are environmental protection statutes and other legislations (Constitutional, Civil, Environmental, Criminal that aim to safeguard the transindividual, collective and homogeneous interests, in which the historic and cultural environment is embedded in.

  20. A pantheon of public values: an historical and conceptual approach to the normativity of facts and values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    The enormous diversity of possible public values seems to require a pantheon to house them, yet, even though this pantheon is a public temple, it is crowded with statutes of individual gods and goddesses. This paper deals with two intertwined issues concerning the nature of public values, both rely

  1. Public Relations Research is Not as New as Some Think”: An Historical Perspective on the Evolution of Public Relations Measurement and Evaluation Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Scott Cutlip’s ironic comment about the Publicity Bureau of Boston’s “The Barometer” media analysis card index of 1905-6 was that “public relations research is not as new as some think” (Cutlip, 1994, p. 21). It sets the scene for this investigation of the history of public relations measurement and evaluation. Cutlip identified that systematic measurement of public relations activity, which was practiced as press agentry and publicity, could be evidenced in the first decade of the twentieth ...

  2. Progress towards the use of publicly available data networks to conduct cross-scale historical reconstructions of carbon dynamics in US Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Landolt, K.; Emanuel, R. E.; Therrell, M. D.; Nagle, N.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Poulter, B.

    2016-12-01

    Emergent scale properties of water-limited or Dryland ecosystem's carbon flux are unknown at spatial scales from local to global and time scales of 10 - 1000 years or greater. The width of a tree ring is a metric of production that has been correlated with the amount of precipitation. This relationship has been used to reconstruct rainfall and fire histories in the Drylands of the southwestern US. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is globally measured by selected satellite sensors and is highly correlated with the fraction of solar radiation which is absorbed for photosynthesis by plants (FPAR), as well as with vegetation biomass, net primary productivity (NPP), and tree ring width. Publicly available web-based archives of free NDVI and tree ring data exist and have allowed historical temporal reconstructions of carbon dynamics for the past 300 to 500 years. Climate and tree ring databases have been used to spatially reconstruct drought dynamics for the last 500 years in the western US. In 2007, we hypothesized that NDVI and tree ring width could be used to spatially reconstruct carbon dynamics in US Drylands. In 2015, we succeeded with a 300-year historical spatial reconstruction of NPP in California using a Blue Oak tree ring chronology. Online eddy covariance flux tower measures of NPP are well correlated with satellite measures of NPP. This suggests that net ecosystem exchange (NEE = NPP - soil Respiration) could be historically reconstructed across Drylands. Ongoing research includes 1) scaling historical spatial reconstruction to US Drylands, 2) comparing the use of single versus multiple tree ring species (r2 = 68) and 3) use of the eddy flux tower network, remote sensing, and tree ring data to historically spatially reconstruct Dryland NEE.

  3. The teaching staff of the public education system in the period of the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907 years (on the materials of the Black Sea province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of archival documents examines the role of teaching staff of educational institutions of the Black Sea province during the First Russian revolution. The attention is paid to the participation of students of senior classes in the revolutionary movement. Among the materials are the archival documents of central and regional archives, namely the state archive of the Russian Federation, Russian state military historical archive, the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai, the center for documentation of contemporary history of Krasnodar Krai and the archive department of historical museum of city-resort Sochi. The authors come to the conclusion that on the territory of the Black Sea province, the activities of significant part of the teaching staff were aimed at destabilization of the political situation, contributing to the overthrow of the existing government. Rather than to protect the high schools students from the influence of political propaganda and to return students to the classrooms, some teachers have contributed to reverse the process, encouraging the study of the political programs of the parties and the desire to participate in the revolutionary movement. As a result, the schoolchildren, minors with unsettled teenage psychology participated in various revolutionary actions, which could lead to the tragic consequences.

  4. The Role of Religion in 21st-Century Public Schools: Historic Perspectives on God and Goodness in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven P.; Sheffield, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    No other educational issue hits a more sensitive nerve with the American public than the role of religion in the public schools. While the intentions and actions of the religious and non-religious parents and community members overlap a great deal as they conceive of the good people they want their children to become, there is no apparent…

  5. Evaluation of black crust formation and soiling process on historical buildings from the Bilbao metropolitan area (north of Spain) using SEM-EDS and Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calparsoro, Estefanía; Maguregui, Maite; Giakoumaki, Anastasia; Morillas, Héctor; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, several building materials suffering from black crusts and soiled surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The goal was to examine the elemental and molecular composition, the distribution on the samples, and the morphology of endogenous and exogenous compounds on those black crusts and soiled surfaces. The black crusts were deposited over different building materials such as limestone, sandstone, and brick that constitute a small construction called "malacate" as well as over a limestone substrate of a cemetery gate. Both constructions are dated back to the beginning of the twentieth century. The samples of soiling were taken from the façade of a building constructed in the 1980s. The analytical evaluation allowed in a first stage the determination of the composition and the observation of the morphology of soiling and black crusts. In addition, the evaluation of the compositions of the soiling and black crusts of different grade and formation allowed the assessment of the main weathering phenomena that the buildings have suffered, which were found to be sulfate impact, marine aerosol impact, depositions of metallic particles, crustal particulate matter depositions, carbonaceous particles, biodeterioration, and vandalism.

  6. 伊恩·麦克尤恩历史小说《黑犬》的新历史观%The New Historicism in Ian McEwan’s historical novel Black Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡慧勇

    2016-01-01

    新历史主义主张“文本的历史性和历史的文本性”,在承认历史的主观性,拒斥“宏大叙事”的同时,也认可了历史和文学在历史真实和艺术虚构上的相通性,让文学特别是历史小说获得了阐释历史人物和历史事件的应有空间。伊恩·麦克尤恩小说《黑犬》蕴含了丰富的新历史主义思想。小说通过不可靠叙述、视角转换与碎片化等手段客观地展现了主人公琼和伯纳德对遭遇黑犬和其他共同经历和见证的一些个人事件的不同记忆,说明历史和过去的不确定性和多维度性,以及它对“当下”个人的厚重影响。%The New Historicism is generally understood as the historicity of texts and the textuality of history. It acknowledges subjectivity of history and rejects“the grand narrative”, and in the meanwhile, it recognizes the close connection between history and literature in presenting historical truth and artistic crea-tion. Accordingly, the theory allows literature, historical novels in particular, to have enough space in its own right for characterizing historical figures and moulding historical events. Ian McEwan’s novel Black Dogs in many ways embodies the notion in this regard. The novel makes effective use of such narrative skills as unreliable narration, the shift in point of view and fragmentation to present objectively the different mem-ories of Joan and Bernard about their past. The memories mainly include the encounters of black dogs and other personal incidents they together witnessed and experienced. This shows the uncertainties and multi-dimensions of history and past, and their enormous influence on individuals of the“current” genera-tion.

  7. Historical development of radiation dose calculations for the public in the vicinity of nuclear sites in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettengill, H.L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Soldat, J.K.; Swinth, K.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Most Manhattan District (MD) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sites began environmental monitoring programs in the earliest years of their operation. The results were used to establish trends and to monitor for effluent releases that might be otherwise undetected. Very few data concerning radiation doses to the public in the vicinity of the sites were generated prior to 1960. Authoritative guidelines for controlling doses to the public were issued by national and international bodies beginning in the 1950s. In 1957, the Hanford Site began calculating and reporting maximum potential radiation doses to the public from several environmental pathways of exposure. Shortly thereafter, most AEC sites began programs aimed at either determining public doses, or ensuring that the doses were below the regulatory limits. Calculations of radiation doses to Maximally Exposed Individuals (MEI) at the Hanford Site have been recently completed by the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project. Collective doses for the public at Hanford were generated for this paper by utilizing the data developed by HEDR and approximate demographic data.

  8. Who's Playin' Whom? Overwhelming Influence of Hip-Hop Culture, Rap Music on Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Campuses Concerns Students; Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Pearl

    2004-01-01

    In December 2000, Dr. Thomas Earl Midgette had harsh words for the hip-hop movement that was sweeping his campus. When he was interviewed for an article in "Black Issues" titled "The Miseducation of Hip-Hop," Midgette didn't hold back: "You see students walking on campus reciting rap lyrics when they should be reciting…

  9. An Analysis of White Student Engagement at Public HBCUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Joelle Davis; Fountaine, Tiffany Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The steady increase of White undergraduates attending public Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) compels educators to better understand White students' collegiate experiences at HBCUs. One lens to assess these experiences is through examining their engagement on campus. Student engagement is defined as the amount of time and…

  10. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  11. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  12. TUESDAY: EPA Administrator to Discuss Historic Clean Power Plan to Cut U.S. Carbon Pollution and Protect Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - On Tuesday, August 11, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will be discussing the Clean Power Plan at the Resources for the Future (RFF) Leadership Forum. The Clean Power Plan will protect public health, spur clean energy investments and st

  13. Exploring the Governance of Polish Public Higher Education: Balancing Restored Historical Legacies with Europeanization and Market Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article places developments in Polish public higher education (HE) in the broader context of the literature on HE governance and, in particular, marketization. The Polish case stands out due to the parallel existence of prestigious large universities with long histories of scientific advancement and the largest number of private HE…

  14. Exploring the Governance of Polish Public Higher Education: Balancing Restored Historical Legacies with Europeanization and Market Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article places developments in Polish public higher education (HE) in the broader context of the literature on HE governance and, in particular, marketization. The Polish case stands out due to the parallel existence of prestigious large universities with long histories of scientific advancement and the largest number of private HE…

  15. Creating Historical Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassler, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes creating for the National Archives Public Education Department a historical drama, "Second in the Realm," based on the story of the Magna Carta. Demonstrates the effectiveness of historical drama as a teaching tool. Explains the difficulties of writing such dramas and provides guidelines for overcoming these problems. (NL)

  16. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  17. Empowering Rhetoric: Black Students Writing Black Panthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pough, Gwendolyn D.

    2002-01-01

    Examines Black student responses to Black Panther Party documents and how those documents moved the students toward change. Maintains that by allowing the classroom to function as a public space which students can discuss the issues that matter to them, teachers can help to foster and encourage student activism and ultimately their empowerment.…

  18. Experiencing the “refugee crisis” through the Intervention into the Public Discourse: Us as the Others in the Historical Perspective of Slovenian Emigration and Integration Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Milharčič Hladnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia the so called refugee crisis lasted from October 2015 to March 2016, when the Balkan route was closed. The public discourse in this time had the characteristic of moral panic; it abruptly started when the Hungarian government closed the border with Serbia and Croatia, forcing masses of migrants to take the route to “Germany” via Slovenia, and as abruptly ended with the closure of the Balkan route. The subjective experience with the period of intense public interest in migration is described through many interventions by the author, who happened to be one of the many experts who were asked to comment on the “refugee crisis”. Each intervention was intentionally the same, and addressed the same two clusters of public fears: first, the masses of migrants and refugees as a natural disaster that would destroy “everything”, and, second, the impossibility of integration of masses of migrants into European and Slovenian societies. Each intervention insisted, first, on the forgotten historical facts about the intense migrations that have been a crucial part of the formations of Europe’s ethnically, religiously, linguistically and culturally diverse and mixed populations and societies, and, second, on the forgotten facts about the recent successful integration practices that have evolved in Europe and Slovenia in the past fifty years and enabled them to become and remain economically and socially stable and safe.

  19. Graduate programs in Public Health in Argentina and Brazil: historical origins and recent trends in quality assessment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Alonso Hortale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the uniqueness of methodologies used in the quality assessment of graduate studies programs in Public Health in two Latin American countries: Argentina and Brazil. The authors conducted a search in websites that addressed themes such as "public health training and education" and "quality assessment methodologies", besides reexamining documents and bibliography on the theme. The analysis took the following dimensions into account: the Latin American political and economic context during the previous ten years (1994-2004, reforms in the educational systems (emphasizing graduate studies, and the quality assessment methodologies implemented. The authors found similarities in the evaluation systems in effect in both countries, as well as shortcomings in these processes, namely, evaluation driven by supervision and control rather than redirection and reorientation of teaching, and the mandatory adjustment of courses to a standard model defined by experts.

  20. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  1. History and public opinion: the historical profession and the French-Dutch rejection of the EU Constitutional Treaty. De Arena. Debat over Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wintle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘History and public opinion: the historical profession and the French-Dutch rejection of the EU Constitutional Treaty’In May-June 2005, the French and then the Dutch rejected the EU Constitutional Treaty. Were those events significant for the Dutch historical profession? Not very much: student demand for courses on Europe is booming and trade books on European history continue to sell well. However, the referenda do remind us of some opportunities for historians. This article argues that they should, more than ever, continue to lay bare the ‘historical’ nonsense that many politicians spout. In due course, historians will provide clear evidence about the reasons for the negative votes. They can also assist clarity of thinking by pointing out the anomaly of comparing the modern EU with nation states formed in the nineteenth century, and by insisting that there are many Europes, not just one. Historians should be sparing with declarations of what European identity is: Europe is, and always has been, in the eye of the beholder.

  2. Is the Black-White Achievement Gap a Public Sector Effect? An Examination of Student Achievement in the Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has suggested private school education in middle school and high school as a solution for the Black-White achievement gap. However, more recent research calls this solution into question. Additionally, research increasingly implicates third grade as being of preeminent importance in driving students' subsequent academic achievement.…

  3. Unemployment and Underemployment among Blacks, Hispanics, and Women. United States Commission on Civil Rights Clearinghouse Publication 74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Henry A.; And Others

    Blacks, Hispanics, and women are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed than white males, regardless of economic conditions. This conclusion was drawn from an analysis of data gathered from the March Current Population Survey for the years 1971 through 1980, the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, and state and local unemployment rates…

  4. The principle of Merit in the Law of Roman Administration. Historical-Comparative Reflections about Careers in Public Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trisciuoglio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article makes a comparison between the laws of the Roman authorities, particularly those of the late empire based on the constitutions of the emperors, and constitutional and Italian administrative law (including the most recent legislation on the issue of access and promotion in public administration. In the article it is observed how in both laws the principle of meritocracy emerges, and proposals are made, in the light of the Roman experience, on how such a principle, which we can all agree with, can be concretely implemented.

  5. Motivation in Second Language Learning: A Historical Overview and Its Relevance in a Public High School in Pasto, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guerrero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has a significant role in the process of language learning. It is important to understand its theoretical evolution in this field to be able to consider its relevance in the learning and teaching of a foreign language. Motivation is a term that is commonly used among language teachers and language learners but perhaps many are not aware of the different theories related to this topic and their teaching implications. This essay is an attempt to understand motivation over the past forty years in the different theories associated with language acquisition. Finally, there is a personal comment on motivation and its relevance at a public high school in Pasto, Colombia.

  6. OPPORTUNITY LOST: THE SUPREME COURT MISSES A HISTORIC CHANCE TO CONSIDER QUESTION OF PUBLIC INTEREST STANDING FOR ANIMAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sankoff

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Supreme Court of Canada recently denied leave to appeal in Reece v. Edmonton (City, a 2-1 decision of the Alberta Court of Appeal, which focused on the right of private parties to seek judicial intervention on behalf of animals. In this article, the author examines the implications of this "lost opportunity" to develop an important area of law relating to public interest standing, explores the important questions that were at stake in the appeal, and suggests why the Supreme Court should have decided otherwise. La Cour suprême du Canada a récemment rejeté la demande d’autorisation d’appel de l’affaire Reece v. Edmonton (Ville, – une décision (2 contre 1 de la Cour d’appel de l’Alberta – qui portait sur le droit de simples individus de demander une intervention judiciaire au nom des animaux. Dans le présent article, l’auteur examine les conséquences de cette [TRADUCTION] « occasion ratée » de développer un important domaine du droit relatif à l’intérêt public, et de traiter les questions sérieuses qui étaient soulevées dans l’appel; il tente d’expliquer pourquoi la Cour suprême aurait dû rendre une décision différente.

  7. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: A historic view (1953-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J Albertazzi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953 was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biología Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine, more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 417-421. Epub 2004 Dic 15.La diseminación del conocimiento depende de la disponibilidad de la información y aplicar dicha información para resolver una problema. Los modelos sirvan para explicar fenómenos determinados. En Biología los modelos son aceptados por la comunidad científica después de cierto tiempo si ha probado su validez y reconocido la evidencia para apoyar dicho modelo. El modelo estructural y función de la molécula de ADN propuesto por Watson y Crick (1953 no fue la excepción pues tardó varios años en ser completamente aceptado por la comunidad científica. En Costa Rica la primera publicación relacionada con la función del ADN fue en la Revista Biología Tropical fue en 1970, más de 15 años después de ser propuesta. La situación contraria se presenta cuando son innovaciones técnicas. Si la eficiencia es demostrada, rápidamente se incorpora dentro de la comunidad. Este fue el caso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, abreviado en inglés como

  8. Artificial interfaces ("AI") in surgery: historic development, current status and program implementation in the public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Donagh A; Murphy, Shane P; Burke, John P; Coffey, John C

    2013-06-01

    The past two decades have seen considerable advances in the application of artificial interfaces (AI) in surgery. Several have been developed including AESOP (Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning), Zeus and the Da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS). Whilst each has advantages DVSS is being used increasingly across multiple surgical specialities. These developments generate many challenges in an era where the emphasis is increasingly on safer and cost-effective surgery. Whilst the role of DVSS is firmly established in urologic and gynaecologic surgery, the role of DVSS in gastrointestinal surgery is evolving. Recent data indicate that it is at least as oncologically effective, whilst providing numerous benefits (e.g. reduced conversion and complication rates) over traditional laparoscopic approaches. The increasing adoption of AI/DVSS worldwide places institutes and health sectors under increasing pressure to adopt and develop such programs. This article provides (1) an update on the current status of AI in surgery in general and in colorectal surgery and (2) an appraisal of the cost implications of the establishment and implementation of AI/DVSS-based provisions in the public health sector. The numerous challenges faced generate many opportunities in the implementation of present and future surgical technologies.

  9. Public enterprises in Spain: historical cycles and privatizations Empresas públicas em Espanha: ciclos históricos e privatizações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Comín

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an historical account of the public enterprise in Spain, focusing on the recovery of public enterprise in the 20th century, its consolidation following the Second World War and the large-scale privatizations in the last decade of the century. It shows that Spanish public business sector was among the smallest in Europe. At the same time, the public sector in Spain was very much manufacturing-inclined due to the frailty of its public financial enterprises. For that reason, the scale of privatization was smaller in Spain than in the rest of Europe. However, Spain's privatizations were carried out more efficiently and more rapidly than in other European Union countries. Finally, the paper shows that in Spain the privatized companies preserved their command of the market.Este artigo apresenta a evolução histórica da empresa pública em Espanha, focando sobretudo o ressurgimento da empresa pública no século xx, a sua consolidação após a Segunda Guerra Mundial e o processo de privatização em larga escala na última década do século. Demonstra-se que no contexto europeu o sector público espanhol tinha um reduzido peso na economia. Em simultâneo, o sector público tinha uma forte orientação para a presença de empresas da indústria transformadora, devido à fragilidade das empresas financeiras estatais. Por isso, a escala da privatização em Espanha foi menor do que no resto da Europa. Contudo, as privatizações foram executadas com maior eficácia e rapidez do que nos outros países da União Europeia. Por último, o artigo demonstra que estas empresas, depois de privatizadas, mantiveram o seu domínio do mercado espanhol.

  10. Historical reconstruction of wastewater and land use impacts to groundwater used for public drinking water: exposure assessment using chemical data and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Christopher H; Rudel, Ruthann A; Kachajian, Jennifer R; Brody, Julia G

    2003-09-01

    Land use in geographic areas that replenish groundwater and surface water resources is increasingly recognized as an important factor affecting drinking water quality. Efforts to understand the implications for health, particularly outcomes with long latency or critical exposure windows, have been hampered by lack of historical exposure data for unregulated pollutants. This limitation has hindered studies of the possible links between breast cancer risk and drinking water impacted by endocrine disrupting compounds and mammary carcinogens, for example. This paper describes a methodology to assess potential historical exposure to a broad range of chemicals associated with wastewater and land use impacts to 132 groundwater wells and one surface water body supplying drinking water to 18 public distribution systems on Cape Cod, MA. We calculated annual measures of impact to each distribution system and used the measures as exposure estimates for the residential addresses of control women in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study (Cape Cod Study). Impact was assessed using (1) historical chemical measurements of nitrate at the water supply sources (performed as required by the Safe Water Drinking Act) and (2) a geographic information system analysis of land use within the zones of contribution (ZOCs) delineated for each well in a state-mandated wellhead protection program. The period for which these impact estimates were developed (1972-1995) was constrained by the availability of chemical measurements and land use data and consideration of time required for groundwater transport of contaminants to the water supply wells. Trends in these estimates for Cape Cod suggest increasing impact to drinking water quality for land use over the study period. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect on the distribution of controls' cumulative exposure estimates from (1) reducing the area of the ZOCs to reflect typical well operating conditions rather than

  11. An Analysis of the New Jersey Public School District School Bond Referendum Process: A Historical Case Study of the Egg Harbor Township School District Bond Referendum of 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a historical case study of the Egg Harbor Township School District bond referendum that passed with an exceptionally high 92 percent of votes in January 2005. The methodology used in this study resulted in both an examination of the components of the New Jersey Public School District bond referendum process as well as an…

  12. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  13. Whither Nordic Public Libraries? Towards a Cross-country Research Initiative on the Historical Heritage, Role, Selfperception, and Challenges of Public Libraries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden Whither Nordic Public Libraries? Towards a Cross-country Research Initiative on the Historical Heritage, Role, Selfperception, and Challenges of Public Libraries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kajberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In these years, the role and mission of the mainstream Western world public library are increasingly being questioned and challenged. Current discussion as it has unfolded during the last few years within the public library community, and among educators and researchers in the field, more and more point to the fact that public libraries are facing a need for reorientation and reconsideration of their role along with the services they provide to their users. Public library use, primarily the number of library loans, seems to be shrinking, but the function of the library as an informal meeting place and a social space in the local community seems to attract an increasing amount of interest professionally and academically. As a by-product of this interest, various scenarios for the development of the public library have been presented. The nature of challenges confronting public libraries - including those emerging from the web, from the dispersion of social software and changes in users' habits, tastes, preferences, etc. - are examined. Moreover, commoditisation of human life, a manifest phenomenon in the age of late modernity, has gradually led to a shift in emphasis from enlightenment to a short-term and customer-centred perspective. The discussion of emerging identities and roles for the public library can be seen as the starting point for a joint research initiative initiated by Library and Information Science (LIS schools in the Nordic countries. Detailed treatment is given to the efforts to get this research initiative, which aims to reflect strategically on the role of the public library in democracy and welfare state in Scandinavia, off the ground. In defining the contents and direction of the research initiative, a public library researchers' seminar was held in Uppsala, Sweden in May 2007. Finally, some critical observations are presented on the way in which current professional policy- making, LIS scholarship and theory building as

  14. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Status Report describes the design, development and implementation of the Minority On-Line Information Service (MOLIS) project by Federal Information Exchange, Inc. for the period of April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992. Summary information detailing developments prior to this reporting period will also be included to establish a comprehensive perspective of the project. The goal of the MOLIS project, was to develop, design, pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities and federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since April 29, 1991, the inauguration of its on-line service, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, pre-college and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from 8 participating federal agencies.

  15. Reconstructing historical changes in combustion patterns by means of black carbon and PAH evaluation in dated sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauad, Cristiane R.; Wagener, Angela de L. R.; Farias, Cassia de O.; Carreira, Renato S.; Godoy, Jose M.; Scofield, Arthur de L., E-mail: angela@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (LABMAM/PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Lab. de Estudos Marinhos e Ambientais; Ruiz, Naira M. S.; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Crisogono [Laboratory of Geomicrobiology, ETH/Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-15

    The accumulation history of combustion products from the metropolitan area around Guanabara Bay was evaluated using black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as indicators. BC concentration varied between 0.23 and 0.51%, with an increasing mass accumulation tendency over the last 118 years, whereas a decrease in the values of the ratio BC/organic carbon was observed in the upper sediment layers, probably reflecting the enhancement of bay's eutrophication process in the last 30 years. Higher concentrations of pyrolytic PAH were observed between 1925 and 1976, being consistent with the subsequent deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization that occurred in the Guanabara basin in the period. These PAHs were best characterized by the BFl/(BFl+BePy) diagnostic ratio. The data obtained allowed the characterization of the main events that influenced the combustion patterns in the region: burning of biomass and fossil fuel, economic crisis of 1970 and 1990 and the introduction of ethanol in the Brazilian energetic matrix. (author)

  16. A Brief History of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Neither the layman nor the specialist, in general, have any knowledge of the historical circumstances underlying the genesis of the idea of the Black Hole. Essentially, almost all and sundry simply take for granted the unsubstantiated allegations of some ostentatious minority of the relativists. Unfortunately, that minority has been rather careless with the truth and is quite averse to having its claims corrected, notwithstanding the documentary evidence on the historical record. Furthermore, not a few of that vainglorious and disingenuous coterie, particularly amongst those of some notoriety, attempt to dismiss the testimony of the literature with contempt, and even deliberate falsehoods, claiming that history is of no importance. The historical record clearly demonstrates that the Black Hole has been conjured up by combination of confusion, superstition and ineptitude, and is sustained by widespread suppression of facts, both physical and theoretical. The following essay provides a brief but accurate account of events, verifiable by reference to the original papers, by which the scandalous manipulation of both scientific and public opinion is revealed

  17. A Brief History of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Neither the layman nor the specialist, in general, have any knowledge of the historical circumstances underlying the genesis of the idea of the Black Hole. Essentially, almost all and sundry simply take for granted the unsubstantiated allegations of some ostentatious minority of the relativists. Unfortunately, that minority has been rather careless with the truth and is quite averse to having its claims corrected, notwithstanding the documentary evidence on the historical record. Furthermore, not a few of that vainglorious and disingenuous coterie, particularly amongst those of some notoriety, attempt to dismiss the testimony of the literature with contempt, and even deliberate falsehoods, claiming that history is of no importance. The historical record clearly demonstrates that the Black Hole has been conjured up by combination of confusion, superstition and ineptitude, and is sustained by widespread suppression of facts, both physical and theoretical. The following essay provides a brief but accurate account of events, verifiable by reference to the original papers, by which the scandalous manipulation of both scientific and public opinion is revealed.

  18. Resource Letter BH-1: Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Lists resources on black holes, including: (1) articles of historical interest; (2) books and journal articles on elementary expositions; (3) elementary and advanced textbooks; and (4) research articles on analytic structure of black holes, black hole dynamics, and astrophysical processes. (SK)

  19. Putting Barack Obama's Candidacy in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    Senator Barack Obama's historic candidacy for president of the United States has generated an intense and thoughtful national discussion within Black America. His campaign has brought several issues to the fore. Recently, the author spoke with five of the most preeminent Black scholars in the nation to search out some of their thoughts on five key…

  20. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904

  1. How black holes saved relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  2. Historical Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Black and white aerial photographs of Coffeyville, Emporia, Galena, Hays, Hutchinson, Iola, McPherson, Pittsburgh, Salina, and Wichita from various dates between the...

  3. Clio's New Clothes: Reinvigorating the History Classroom through Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gary R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses public interest in historical novels and television programs. Argues that well-researched historical novels can be used in history classes to promote a deeper understanding of the past. Analyzes various types of historical fiction (e.g., historical romances and "alternative-path" stories) in terms of their historical integrity…

  4. Historical Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Bostoen, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Linguists and archaeologists offer complementary viewpoints on human behaviour and culture in past African communities. While historical-comparative linguistics commonly deals with the immaterial traces of the past in Africa’s present-day languages, archaeology unearths the material vestiges of ancient cultures. Even if both sciences share similar core concepts, their methods, data and interpretive frameworks are profoundly different. Explaining some basic principles of historical-comparative...

  5. Where Are the Women? And Other Questions, Asked within an Historical Analysis of Sociology of Music Education Research Publications: Being a Self-Reflective Ethnographic Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analysis of one area of sociological literature in music education: Where are the women and "others"? Where do we raise concerns about social values? Institutional Ethnography provides the basis for the meta-analysis, presented in two historical periods, pre-1960 and 2007-2012. A short story of an actual…

  6. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  7. GC/MS in the study of deterioration process of historical monuments: characterization of the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville; GC/MS en el estudio del proceso de deterioro de monumentos historicos: caracterizacion de la costra negra presente en la Catedral de Sevilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, J. [Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico. Universidad Autonoma de Campeche. Av. Agustin Melgar s/n, Campeche (Mexico); Hermosin, B.; Saiz J, C. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla. Avenida de la Reina Mercedes 10. Sevilla, Espana (Spain)]. e-mail: javreyes@uacam.mx

    2006-07-01

    Here, we present an interesting application of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique which permitted to differentiate successfully between natural and anthropogenic compounds present in the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville. This building, considered as one of the most important historic and cultural European monuments suffers from intense blackening of its outside walls and sculptures due to the interaction with the urban environment. Fragment of black crusts were removed from the Cathedral walls and extraction process with organic solvents was carried out. The aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions were separated and analyzed using GC/MS. A complex organic composition of the black crusts indicated the accumulative character of the deposition process of atmospheric particles as a function of the time. The presence of high molecular weight n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and natural molecular markers identified during the study were indicative of current biogenic contributions. It was also found an important group of petrogenic molecular markers related with diesel soot emissions from motor engines. The diesel soot and molecular markers were entrapped within the black crust mineral matrix and contribute to the observed blackening of the Seville Cathedral. (Author)

  8. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  9. EDUCATION IN LITERATURE AND BLACK IDENTITIES BUILDING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ramos Campos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies identification between 3rd grade elementary school apprentices from a public school in Natal/RN-Brazil and fictional characters in black children’s literature reading. Investigates possibilities of practices with this kind of work for affirmative identities building, in a qualitative and interventional approach. Corpus centers in two individuals who experienced different identification processes: mirroring and deviation from the referent. During 13 reading sessions, 6 works of Brazilian and African black children's literature were read. The class teacher has been trained and acted as mediator in a scaffolding attitude. Results point to the potential diversity in apprentices’ response due to the complexity of the problem of ethnic identity, immersed in historical, social and psychological processes that update racism, which represents a challenge to mediators, who have in literature a promising field for its confrontation.

  10. Black+Brown: Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick D. Patterson Research Institute, UNCF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) represent a small percentage of all institutions in the U.S. but educate a large portion of all black and Latino students, many of whom are low-income and first-generation college attendees. Given the population growth of these students overall, both HSIs…

  11. 36 CFR 72.40 - Historic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic properties. 72.40 Section 72.40 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN... and Innovation § 72.40 Historic properties. Properties listed in or determined eligible for listing in...

  12. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  13. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  14. The Institutional Decimation of Black American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James B.; Scott, Joseph W.

    1978-01-01

    In 1970, there were 85 Black men for every 100 Black women in major American cities. Factors which produced this imbalance in the sex ratio of Blacks include educational, health care, public assistance, and penal correction systems, labor market mechanisms, and the military. (Author/MC)

  15. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  16. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  17. Open For Business? An Historical, Comparative Study of Public Access to Information about Two Controversial Coastal Developments in North-East Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper compares public access to information about two controversial coastal developments in North-east Scotland: the construction of a gas terminal by the British Gas Council and Total in the 1970s, and the current development of "the world's greatest golf course" by the tycoon Donald Trump. Method: Data has been…

  18. Public works as a way of overcoming of a food crisis: historical experience of the Orenburg region (1891–1892 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of food crisis of 1891-1892 in the Russian Empire, including the organization of public works by the government, has long history of studying. This problem gradually moved from the periphery to the center of attention of researchers. The Orenburg region in this context is the real terra incognito as its rich sources materials wasn't attracted at the solution of the matter at all though this region appeared among the most affected territories. Government campaign of the help to the population which was injured from a crop failure of 1891 included measures for regulation of the grain prices and railway tariffs, food aid in the form of grain loans and the labor help. Within the Orenburg region the main actions were the loan operation and the organization of public works. Unlike the loan operation introduction of public works in the Orenburg region in practice was inefficient – only 4% of the needing population used this type of the help. The reasons of so obvious failure of campaign for opening of public works consisted in the wrong approach to its organization: the untimely beginning (the majority of works opened in the spring of 1892 when crisis declined, and peasants were busy in their fields, the wrong choice of works (the majority of works were connected with construction and demanded special skills which peasants didn't possess.

  19. The First Female President of a Co-Educational Public Institution of Higher Education: An Historical Examination of the Presidential Tenure of Julia Ann Sears, 1872-1873.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengilly, Joan Forssmark

    This study examines the life and career of Julia Ann Sears, the first known female president of a public, coeducational institution of higher education in the United States. Sears, an educator from Massachusetts, served as president (principal) of the State Normal School at Mankato, Minnesota, from 1872-73 after teaching there for one year. At the…

  20. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  1. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  2. Recommendations to Public Speaking Instructors for the Negotiation of Code-Switching Practices among Black English-Speaking African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Deric M.; Walker, Felicia R.

    2004-01-01

    Six recommendations that instructors can employ to encourage effective classroom code-switching practices among Black English-speaking students in the basic communication course are discussed. These include reconsidering attitudes, communicating expectations, demonstrating model language behavior, affirming students' language, creating culturally…

  3. Race Consciousness and Collective Commitment among Black Students on White Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Walter R.

    1984-01-01

    Black students on White campuses seem to retain high levels of race consciousness and collective commitment. However, compared to a 1970 sample of Black students attending historically Black colleges, Black students on White campuses in 1981 are decidedly more moderate. These differences are partly attributable to institutional context effects.…

  4. Currencies, National Images and National Identities: Public Relations for and against Currencies – Historical Experiences from Germany, the Case of the Euro and the Role of Rating Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kunczik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available My thesis is that, in the “age of markets” in Europe the Euro is of central importance for creating (or destroying already established structures of European identity (at least in parts of Europe – with Great Britain taking a very remote position. I emphasize the theoretical aspects (Aftalion´s Psychological Theory of Exchange Rates; Simmel: Philosophie des Geldes to emphasize the importance of PR. I concentrate on historical cases – mainly German experiences – e.g. the campaign against the Rubel; the ideas of Ivy Lee; the PR-campaigns of the Nazi-government to fight inflation. The introduction of the German Mark (“die Deutsche Mark”, which became a central aspect of German national identity, and the campaign to give up this currency (“harte Währung” in order to introduce the “weak” Euro. In this context I discuss campaigns against the Euro (“only idiots want the Euro”. In the final remarks I refer to the role of rating agencies and trust in currencies and countries. It is my thesis that the analysts of the rating agencies live in a “world of literary images” and are acting in a completely irresponsible way (but even more incompetent are the politicians accepting the ratings without knowing anything about the problem of commensuration.

  5. Scientific critique of the paper “Climatic distribution of citrus black spot caused by Phyllosticta citricarpa. A historical analysis of disease spread in South Africa” by Martínez-Minaya et al. (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global potential distribution of Phyllosticta citricarpa, the causal organism of citrus black spot (CBS), is at the heart of an ongoing debate on the level of potential pest risk posed by P. citricarpa to citrus producing orchards within the European Union (EU). The EU currently regulates the i...

  6. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  7. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  8. 重新思考公民与公共生活基于儒家立场和中国历史经验%Citizenship and Public Life Revisited:Based on the Confucian Views and Chinese Historical Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚中秋

    2014-01-01

    Based on Chinese historic experience and Confucian ideas ,this paper reflects upon the concepts of public life and citizen , which originate from Western experience .In both Western histories and theories ,the basic carrier of public life was polis ,or city ,a small-scale political unit .China ,however , has been a super-scale civilization and political body since Emperor Yao and Emperor Shun ,about B .C .2000 .This has made the patterns of public life and citizenship in China different from its western counterparts .During Xia ,Shang and Zhou dynasties , three characteristics featured public life and citizenship :multi-centric units of public life;every person having varying degrees of publicity;and Junzi , as the most active citizen , owning multi-layered identities and acting throughout hierarchical political systems . In the post-classical period , Confucian adherents were devoted to cultivate a non-hierarchical Shi-Junzi ( scholar-Junzi) as the promoter ,organizer and leader of public life ,and build a series of effective institutions supporting public life . As a result ,we can observe a picture of multi-layered and multi-centric public life and citizenship:Every people lived in more than one public communities , and had more than one citizenship identity generally ,participating in public life on different levels;In every community , Shi-Junzi or gentlemen worked as active citizens , differentiated themselves from Xiaoren , the inactive mass;Shi-Junzi was the only group connected with all communities . This paper concludes that the conceptualization of public life and citizenship was situated in a Western context ,and calls for the development of a universal concept of the terms which can accommodate both the case of China and the West .%本文基于中国的历史经验和儒家理念,重新思考公共生活与公民概念。在西方,无论在历史中还是在理论中,公共生活的基本载体都是城邦,这是一个点状的政治共同体

  9. Historical Superbolides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamora, S.; Ocaña, F.; Tapia, C.; de Burgos, A.; Herráiz, G.; Petrova, M.

    2015-05-01

    The amount of impacts of 50 m -- 1 cm asteroid with the Earth is a typical issue of controversy. Explosions in upper atmosphere and lunar impacts suggest that could have more impacts than is currently accepted. A ``new'' information source data can be fireballs appeared in historical press. Some of these reports indicate the presence of pressure waves or damage that may help estimate the energy of the event. We analysed more than 50 years of the archive of the New York Times and found a number of abnormally clustered events that can not be explained by a Poisson distribution. We have found at least two big concentrations not associated to any major meteor shower. One around the actual 23rd of July and other on the 14th of February. This second major concentration it is really close to the Chelyabinsk event date, so it is probable that there they are related. The preliminary results were published in Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Zamora, S., et al. 2014, in Garzón Guerrero J. A., López Sánchez A. R., eds, Libro de Actas del XXI Congreso Estatal de Astronomía. Granada, Spain.

  10. Black Student Demand for Higher Education at Large State Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylenko, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    An econometric model is used to explain differences in the percentage of Blacks enrolled at the leading public university in each state. Actual Black enrollment percentages are compared with expected enrollment percentages. (Author/MLW)

  11. Historical and Legal Overview of Special Education Overrepresentation: Access and Equity Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donna Y.; Russo, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    The history of the denial of equal education opportunities to Black children is a long one, whether through racial segregation or overrepresentation in special education. No other group is as overreferred, overidentified, and overrepresented in special education as Black students, specifically Black males. The authors present an historical and…

  12. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  13. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  14. Einstein's enigma or black holes in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2006-01-01

    A funny rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein''s theory of general relativity and black-hole physics.

  15. Historical ecology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-11-01

    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term.

  16. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  17. Scientific and historical archive

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    : International Archives Day, 9 June, is an opportunity to discover a little-known CERN resource. Unlike libraries, archives tend to be hidden away. You can’t browse among the shelves, or borrow files to use in the workplace, but sometimes they contain just the information you need. CERN’s rich heritage has many parts: its scientific data, the black and white photos recently put online by the Library, the audio-visual collection, currently being digitized by the IT department, historic objects in the care of the IR-ECO group, and much more - not least the memory of its people. The CERN Archive exists in the background, supporting other endeavours and preserving our documentary heritage for future generations. About 1000 shelf metres of files filled with letters, notes, reports, rough drafts, memos such as this report, by Miss Steel, are preserved. You can browse more examples on our timeline. It is a place for information on all aspects of CERN’s history. Sometimes documents pro

  18. The Historical Transformation from Regional Public Management to Regional Governance%从区域公共管理到区域治理研究:历史的转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞莲; 杨爱平

    2012-01-01

    当代中国的区域公共管理研究发轫于十多年前,迄今已取得显著的进步。当前,我国的政治、经济和社会生态发生了新的积极的变化:一是公民参与领域向区域公共事务不断拓展;二是社会组织发展的放松管制有利于非营利组织参与区域性公共事务;三是区域一体化的全面推进重塑着传统的政府间关系;四是公私合作伙伴关系在区域公共物品生产中发挥着愈发重要作用。在此背景下,实践中的区域公共管理正历经向区域治理的“增量”嬗变。与此相适应,中国的区域公共管理研究也应主动调适,逐渐实现向区域治理研究的历史转型。我国未来的区域治理研究,不仅要有国际视野,能够与国际学界展开学术交流与学术对话;更应扎根于中国区域公共事务治理的现实场景,构建具有本土生命力的学术概念和理论体系。%China has made a significant progress in the field of regional public management research since ten years ago. At present, some new positive changes have been arising in China's political, economic and social ecology: First, the citizen participate in regional affairs being larger and larger; Secondly, the deregulation of social organization is conducive to nonprofit organizations in participating regional public affairs ; Thirdly, the overall advancing of regional integration is reshaping the traditional inter governmental relations; Fourthly, public private partnerships play increasingly important role in the production of regional public goods. In this context, the practice of regional public administration is going through a transmutation of the "incremental" to the regional governance. To meet this requirement, the regional public management research in China should take the initiative to adjust the progressive realization of the historical transformation to regional governance. The future of regional governance in

  19. The Training of Qualified Specialists in the Countries of the Black Sea Region in the Context of Globalization Education Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheludko Inna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the trends in higher education development in the countries of the Black Sea region, namely, historical, methodological, methodical and technological, which determine the objective and subjective connections and relationships that are common to the system of higher pedagogical education of the countries under study and define persistent pursuit of modernization and transformation of the nature, content, structure, functions, ways of management approaches to the education process, forms, methods, tools and techniques of teaching students. The trends in the public-authoritarian model of higher education have been revealed. It has been found out that the leading trend in Ukraine and other countries of the Black Sea is the governance and financing of future teachers with appropriate management functions and control that significantly affects the organizational structure of higher education. The features of a modern system of higher pedagogical education in the Black Sea region are the system of higher education institutions; main directions of modern reforms in higher education; functioning of leading universities that prepare teachers, their types, characteristics of structural units, students. According to the areas in development of higher pedagogical education in the Black Sea region, we have divided the trends into four groups: historical, methodological, methodical, technological, that are top priority for education systems.

  20. Rethinking historical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies. Annual status report, September 28, 1992--September 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    The goal of the MOLIS project was to develop, design, and pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities as well as federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since going on-line on April 29, 1991, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, precollege and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from participating federal agencies. Six federal agencies are currently participating in MOLIS, including: Agency for International Development; Department of Commerce; Department of Energy; Department of Housing and Urban Development; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation.

  2. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  3. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  4. Spiritual Weapons: Black Female Principals and Religio-Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Noelle; Taylor, Dianne L.

    2010-01-01

    The historic connection of religion and spirituality to women, education, advocacy, and leadership is prevalent in Black American histories in general and the role of the religion and spirit in promoting education and socialisation. Important in this history is the intersection of spirituality and leadership for Black American women. This research…

  5. Candomblé in pink, green and black: re-scripting the Afro-Brazilian religious heritage in the public sphere of Salvador, Bahia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van de Port

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the dispersion of candomblé imagery, practices and aesthetics in the public sphere of Salvador, Bahia. It shows that the spirit possession cult has become a trademark for the Bahian state and a major ‘symbol bank’ for groups as varied as the Bahian gay movement, environmental p

  6. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  7. The Black Rock Forest Consortium: A narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetto-More, Nicole Antoinette

    The Black Rock Forest is a 3,785-acre wilderness area whose richly forested landscape represents the splendor of the Hudson Valley Region of New York State. Although originally intended to become the home of wealthy banker James Stillman, it was his son Ernest whose love of conservation caused him to embrace the then new and revolutionary practice of sustainable forestry and establish Black Rock in 1928. Due to Ernest Stillman's foresight, the property was protected from development and bequeathed to Harvard University following his death for the establishment of an experimental forest. The modern environmental movement in America began when the Black Rock Forest was threatened with development by Consolidated Edison, and the people of the surrounding community banded together, battling tirelessly for over 17 years to stop the degradation of this historic forest. The outcome of this crusade marked a hallmark win for the environment leaving an illustrious and inveterate legacy. The campaign resulted in the watershed legislation the National Environmental Policy Act, the formation of several environmental advocacy groups, the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality of the Executive Office of the President, as well as set a precedent for communities to initiate and win cases against major corporations in order to safeguard natural resources. In the midst of the controversy it became apparent that alternative futures for the Forest needed to be explored. As a result of a committee report and one man's vision, the idea emerged to create a consortium that would purchase and steward the Forest. With a formation that took nearly fifteen years, the Black Rock Forest Consortium was formed, a unique amalgamation of K--12 public and private schools, colleges and universities, and science and cultural centers that successfully collaborate to enhance scientific research, environmental conservation, and education. The Consortium works to bridge the gaps between learners

  8. Razón de identidad histórica y posibilidades de expresión en el espacio público de Independencia. / Ratio of historical identity and possibilities of expression in the public space of Independence (Santiago de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Gutiérrez, Patricio

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga en los personajes y hechos históricos de la antigua Chimba, intentando algunas recomendaciones para su expresión en el espacio público de Independencia, comuna del pericentro histórico de Santiago./ The personalities and historical facts of the "Chimba" (as the sector of Santiago north of the river Mapocho was formerly known are researched, attempting recommendations for its expression in the public space of Independencia, now part of the historic inner city Santiago.

  9. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-01-01

    Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  10. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  11. Effects of Immigration on Selected Health Risk Behaviors of Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya, Sonjia; Brodsky, Mitchell; Divale, William; Allegrante, John P.; Fullilove, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    The authors administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to 1,219 college students who were attending a historically Black college located in New York City. They assessed the US-born Black students and Black students who emigrated to the United States for differences in risky sexual behaviors, risky dietary behaviors, and physical…

  12. The Myth That Preferential College Admissions Create High Black Student Dropout Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the impact of affirmative-action college-admission policies on black student dropout rates in the nation's top higher education institutions. Black student dropout rate comparative data are provided that show graduation rate percentages of Ivy League schools, less-selective state universities, and historically black colleges. (GLR)

  13. External Labor Markets and the Distribution of Black Scientists and Engineers in Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…

  14. Waiting for Black Superman: A Look at a Problematic Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Black male teachers make up less than 2% of the U.S. public school labor force. A prevalent discourse among educational stakeholders has suggested that Black male teachers are the key to helping students in urban schools develop skills to succeed in school by acting as role models. This assertion presents Black male teachers as a panacea to…

  15. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies. Annual status report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Annual Status Report describes the design, development and implementation of the Minority On-Line Information Service (MOLIS) project by Federal Information Exchange, Inc. for the period of April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992. Summary information detailing developments prior to this reporting period will also be included to establish a comprehensive perspective of the project. The goal of the MOLIS project, was to develop, design, pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities and federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since April 29, 1991, the inauguration of its on-line service, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, pre-college and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from 8 participating federal agencies.

  16. 美国公共图书馆发展的社会历史条件探析(1850-1900)——解读《民主文化的武器(Arsenals of A Democratic Culture)》%Analysis of the Development of American Public Library" Social and Historical Conditions ( 1850 - 1900)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海霞

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly talked about the social development conditions of the American public libraries from 1850 to 1900. It described social background of cultural, economic and political de- mocracy of the American public libraries from 1850 to 1900. The social and historical conditions for the development of American public library mainly were the establishment of library law, the support of the humanitarian spirit, philanthropic funding and other social and historical conditions. And the development of social and historical conditions of American public library is closely related to Ameri- can democracy society.%主要针对1850-1900年美国公共图书馆发展的社会历史条件做出了相关解析。阐述了1850-1900年美国公共图书馆发展的文化、经济以及政治民主的社会背景;认为美国公共图书馆发展的社会历史条件主要有图书馆法律的建立、人道主义精神的支持、慈善力量的资助及其他社会历史条件。并认为美国公共图书馆发展的社会历史条件与美国民主社会发展息息相关。

  17. “宝藏岩历史断面”公共艺术营造(浮萍.光影一线.大花咸丰草)%Creation of Public Art the "Historical Section of Treasure Hill"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一如

    2011-01-01

    宝藏岩所在位置是台北市唯一没有人工堤坊的水岸.本案地景艺术的呈现,从规划设计到施工完成维护管理,各阶段都有着有关部门、民众及规划团队的协调合作关系.笔者以文化保存的心态,将“宝藏岩历史断面”以完全不增减的方式,作了忠实的保留;以环境资源的角度,将宝藏岩的天、地、人累积而成独特的山城空间魅力以地景整地的手法,作了完整的铺陈;以连续大自然的理念,将宝藏岩的小观音山与临接的新店溪,以拆捕互见的工法,作了最直接有效的通连;又以艺术创作的概念,将宝藏岩的空间与时间,以灯光设计的形成,作了抒情的展演.宝藏岩历史断面与新店溪水岸的关系,在经过本工程巧妙地链接作业后,不仅让都市角落成长的累积“被看见”,也让台北市民,多了一处舒筋展骨、自由表演创作,可以观水赏绿、观星、悠游的好去处.%Treasure Hill is located at riverside, the only riverside without artificial embankment in Taipei. The artistic creation of the landscape case shows the coordinated cooperation relations among the government, the public and the planning team during the various stages from planning and design to construction and implementation. With cultural conservation in mind, the "historical section of Treasure Hill" is fully maintained without any adding or subtracting. From the perspective of environmental resources, the unique spatial charm of hilly city with accumulation of heaven, earth and human is fully displayed with landscape ground preparation techniques. With the concept of continuous nature, the Buddha Mountain of Treasure Hill and the nearby Shindian River are directly and effectively connected with the visual complementary method. And with the concept of artistic creation, the space and time of Treasure Hill is lyrically performed with successful light design. The clever link work of the project for the relations

  18. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-28

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States.

  19. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  20. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  1. Irreversible gravitational collapse: black stars or black holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the concept of black hole has been considered very fascinating by scientists even before the introduction of Einstein's general relativity. They should be the final result of an irreversible gravitational collapse of very massive bodies. However, an unsolved problem concerning such objects is the presence of a space-time singularity in their core. Such a problem was present starting by the first historical papers concerning black holes. It is a common opinion that this problem could be solved when a correct quantum gravity theory will be, finally, constructed. In this work we review a way to remove black hole singularities at a classical level i.e. without arguments of quantum gravity. By using a particular non-linear electrodynamics Lagrangian, an exact solution of Einstein field equations is shown. The solution prevents the collapsing object to reach the gravitational radius, thus the final result becomes a black star, i.e. an astrophysical object where both of singularities and event ...

  2. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether dem

  3. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether dem

  4. Building Collections. Historical Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    At least once a year, teachers generally request a historical fiction assignment. Bare facts make dry reading but historical fiction, set in an actual time period with plausible dialogue and credible characters, is more palatable to youngsters. This column discusses the most widely-requested historical periods of study for intermediate and upper…

  5. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  6. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  7. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-03-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  8. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Keun Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap. NCES 2015-018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrnstedt, G.; Kitmitto, S.; Ogut, B.; Sherman, D.; Chan, D.

    2015-01-01

    School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap explores public schools' demographic composition, in particular, the proportion of Black students enrolled in schools (also referred to "Black student density" in schools) and its relation to the Black-White achievement gap. This NCES study, the first of its kind, used the 2011 NAEP…

  10. Black Orpheus and Aesthetic Historicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers a novel approach for understanding the poetry of negritude and its role in the struggle for black liberation by appealing to Giambattista Vico’s insights on the historical, cultural, and myth-making function of poetry and of the mythopoetic imagination.  The essay begins with a discussion of Vico’s aesthetic historicism and of his ideas regarding the role of imagination, poetry, and myth-making and then brings these ideas to bear on the discussion of the function of negritude poetry, focusing primarily on the writings of Aimé Césaire and on Jean-Paul Sartre’s essay, Black Orpheus.

  11. Bohr-like black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The idea that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity is today an intuitive but general conviction. In this paper it will be shown that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture. In fact, we will discuss a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. The model is completely consistent with existing results in the literature, starting from the celebrated result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.

  12. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  13. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically...

  14. Making Connections with Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Kathy

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the value of historical fiction, using historical fiction to teach history and to teach literature, and activities using historical fiction. Offers a sample approach using the book "Underground to Canada," and notes cautions in using historical fiction. (SR)

  15. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  16. A Historical Chronology of the Plight of African Americans Gaining Recognition in Engineering and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith V.; Watson, Elwood D.

    2005-01-01

    The Black scientist in America is historically an anomaly and currently a statistical rarity. In 1984 Blacks accounted for only 2.3%, or 90,500, of the 3,995,000 employed scientists and engineers (Kusmer, 1991) Even now, in the 21st century, Blacks were 11.3% of the labor force, but only 4.2% of natural scientists, 7.6% of math and computer…

  17. Soil Black Carbon Loss and Sediment Black Carbon Accumulation in a Central Texas Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, E. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; White, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge is located along the eastern edge of the Edwards Plateau in Texas, and was established in 1992 for the purpose of conserving habitat for two endangered bird species. The landscape is composed of hilly, mesa-valley terrain, which is mostly covered by grasslands and woodlands dominated by juniper with intermingling of various oak species. Based on historical photo analysis and tree fire scar dendrochronology, the area has experienced major land use changes over the last century due to wildfire, logging, and drought affecting soil stability and woodland species composition. A previous study on soil black carbon showed that site-specific soil erosion potential and time since last fire may act as controls on soil black carbon concentrations. However, the black carbon transport flux, depositional fate, or the magnitude of soil erosion effects upon the black carbon budget are unconstrained at the watershed scale. To address this, we sampled the sediments accumulating in small ponds constructed during the 1950's for livestock watering. We are quantifying black carbon in sediments using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Preliminary data suggest that the pond sediments are a black carbon sink. Black carbon comprises 15 % - 25 %, of the sedimentary organic carbon, as substantial enrichment relative to soils within the watershed. We will present an early assessment of the black carbon erosion and sediment accumulation rates in first- and second-order watersheds.

  18. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  19. Dissonant Black Droplets and Black Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    A holographic field theory on a fixed black hole background has a gravitational dual represented by a black funnel or a black droplet. These states are "detuned" when the temperature of the field theory near the horizon does not match the temperature of the background black hole. In particular, the gravitational dual to the Boulware state must be a detuned solution. We construct detuned droplets and funnels dual to a Schwarzschild background and show that the Boulware phase is represented by a droplet. We also construct hairy black droplets associated to a low-temperature scalar condensation instability and show that they are thermodynamically preferred to their hairless counterparts.

  20. Galaxy bulges and their massive black holes: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alister W

    2015-01-01

    With references to both key and oft-forgotten pioneering works, this article starts by presenting a review into how we came to believe in the existence of massive black holes at the centres of galaxies. It then presents the historical development of the near-linear (black hole)-(host spheroid) mass relation, before explaining why this has recently been dramatically revised. Past disagreement over the slope of the (black hole)-(velocity dispersion) relation is also explained, and the discovery of sub-structure within the (black hole)-(velocity dispersion) diagram is discussed. As the search for the fundamental connection between massive black holes and their host galaxies continues, the competing array of additional black hole mass scaling relations for samples of predominantly inactive galaxies are presented.

  1. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  2. Not yet human: implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Phillip Atiba; Eberhardt, Jennifer L; Williams, Melissa J; Jackson, Matthew Christian

    2008-02-01

    Historical representations explicitly depicting Blacks as apelike have largely disappeared in the United States, yet a mental association between Blacks and apes remains. Here, the authors demonstrate that U.S. citizens implicitly associate Blacks and apes. In a series of laboratory studies, the authors reveal how this association influences study participants' basic cognitive processes and significantly alters their judgments in criminal justice contexts. Specifically, this Black-ape association alters visual perception and attention, and it increases endorsement of violence against Black suspects. In an archival study of actual criminal cases, the authors show that news articles written about Blacks who are convicted of capital crimes are more likely to contain ape-relevant language than news articles written about White convicts. Moreover, those who are implicitly portrayed as more apelike in these articles are more likely to be executed by the state than those who are not. The authors argue that examining the subtle persistence of specific historical representations such as these may not only enhance contemporary research on dehumanization, stereotyping, and implicit processes but also highlight common forms of discrimination that previously have gone unrecognized.

  3. The Weeding of a Historical Society Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Cindy Steinhoff

    1992-01-01

    Describes a major deaccessioning (weeding) project begun in 1985 at the library of the Nebraska State Historical Society, including a brief history of the Society and the events leading to the decision to weed. Public controversy over the handling of the project, benefits of the weeding, and new acquisitions policies are also discussed. (MES)

  4. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 910.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... significance because of both its ceremonial role in the life of the nation and its social and economic role in... the Corporation sets forth the adopted policy of the Corporation on historic preservation and...

  5. Historical Approaches in German Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heering, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Particularly in the second half of the 20th century, historical approaches became relevant in science education. This development can at least in part be explained with the growing awareness of the importance to address Nature of Science aspects in science education. In comparison to the international publications, some particularities can be…

  6. A Review of Our Roots: Blacks in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Candace S.; Baker, Tamara A.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Harden, J. Taylor; Whitfield, Keith; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Phillips, Karon L.; Washington, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The historical underpinnings in the field of gerontology rest on the contributions of scholars across a myriad of racial and ethnic backgrounds. With the increasing diversity of the adult population, there is a need to increase the number of researchers who study older adults from diverse racial and ethnic populations in general and Black elderly people in particular. Furthermore, it is important to document the participation of Black older adults in our earliest and continuing research efforts. Understanding the historical context and the foundational influence of Black scholars in this field is critical. To realize its humble beginnings, one must become aware of the contributions by Black scholars who have a vested interest in the aging process. With universal similarities and unique differences among older adults, there is a need to acknowledge the past and current scholarship of those who study the aging processes of Blacks while marveling over the future possibilities. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the legacy and current contributions, philosophies, and research of Black scholars in the field of gerontology. In addition, exploration of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks used to establish national and organizational initiatives is reviewed. The impetus in initiating and continuing this work requires a “knowledge of our roots” while moving into the future. It is important to learn the history and significance of Black scholars in gerontology, the contributions of older Blacks, and appreciate the resiliency and marveled life course of this unique population. PMID:24022695

  7. Initial Public Offering

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Thesis describes initial public offering on the stock markets. There are mentioned basic phases of this process. In this thesis is named pros & cons of this source of financing. Recommends also other ways how to gain capital for own company business acitivities. Thesis is interested about main conditions for successfull "going public". Initial Public Offering of bonds is described too. Practical part of this thesis is concern IPO in the Czech Republic -- historical data, IPO in the past on Pr...

  8. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  9. [The mentally ill artist--a historical retrospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdolt, K

    1995-07-01

    The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art.

  10. The Contested Terrain of Historical Memory in Contemporary Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Elizabeth WOODRUFF

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelque temps, des habitants du Mississippi, noirs et blancs, tentent d’affronter leur passé, et ce de diverses manières : en formant des coalitions interraciales dans des communautés qui ont été le cadre de crimes abominables ; en organisant des débats publics autour de symboles liés à l’esclavage, la guerre de Sécession et le mouvement des droits civiques ; en tentant de faire rouvrir des affaires de meurtres commis pendant le mouvement des droits civiques ; en oeuvrant pour modifier les programmes d’histoire dans les écoles publiques. Les conflits autour de l’histoire et de la mémoire du Mississippi reflètent des interprétations divergentes du passé, qui dépendent en grande partie de l’appartenance raciale. Dans le Mississippi, nombre des blancs qui souhaitent que soit reconnue l’histoire du mouvement des droits civiques ont encore du mal à établir le lien entre cette période et certaines interprétations de l’esclavage et de la guerre de Sécession. Il leur faut encore comprendre que la prise de conscience de l’histoire de la ségrégation et de la résistance blanche au mouvement des droits civiques appelle une lecture de l’esclavage et de la guerre de Sécession radicalement différente de celle qui prévaut encore.Recently, black and white Mississippians have sought to confront and redress their history by forming interracial coalitions in communities where horrendous crimes occurred; by holding public debates over historical symbols surrounding the Confederacy, slavery, and civil rights; by attempting to reopen old civil rights murder cases; and by working to change the history curriculum in the public schools. The contemporary struggles over memory and history in Mississippi reflect conflicting black and white interpretations of the past. Many white Mississippians interested in acknowledging the history of the civil rights movement have yet to link that history with interpretations of slavery

  11. Gravitational waves from binary black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bala R Iyer

    2011-07-01

    It is almost a century since Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves as one of the consequences of his general theory of relativity. A brief historical overview including Chandrasekhar’s contribution to the subject is first presented. The current status of the experimental search for gravitational waves and the attendant theoretical insights into the two-body problem in general relativity arising from computations of gravitational waves from binary black holes are then broadly reviewed.

  12. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  13. The angry black woman: the impact of pejorative stereotypes on psychotherapy with black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of slavery and the resulting social, economic, and political effects, Black women have become the victims of negative stereotyping in mainstream American culture. Such stereotypes include the myth of the angry Black woman that characterizes these women as aggressive, ill tempered, illogical, overbearing, hostile, and ignorant without provocation. Symptoms presented by Black women during mental health treatment may reinforce this myth. However, many of the negative characteristics of the angry Black woman developed in response to external stressors and historical factors. Black women also have a unique experience with and expressions of anger that shape the presenting symptoms interpreted by the mental health clinician. This myth and corresponding negative stereotypes significantly affect Black women intrapsychically, interpersonally, and are likely to influence the efficacy of mental health treatment. Understanding and treatment of Black women in a mental health context should be influenced by the cultural norms and sociopolitical dynamics affecting these clients. Successful mental health treatment requires cultural competence and clinicians who are well prepared to navigate the inherent complexities of culture with clients. Awareness of the angry Black woman mythology, including its genesis, manifestations, and the unique experiences of Black women, may raise the standards of cultural competence for clinicians and provide more successful treatment outcomes in working with this population. A case example illustrates the assiduity essential to practicing in a culturally competent manner. A client is presented from a traditional psychotherapeutic perspective and then viewed through a lens that integrates psychotherapeutic practice with conscious awareness of the mythology and stereotypes impacting Black women. Implications for culturally relevant practice are discussed.

  14. Black Grade 9 learners in historically white suburban schools and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    transition, creating a new responsiveness to alternative ways of thinking and behaving. .... In addition, the log-linear model was used to do more in-depth analysis of ... and assessment. ..... white learners to fit in with their group: "It's like they're ...

  15. Diversifying Kinesiology: Untapped Potential of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacinto, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the involvement of African Americans in the field of kinesiology has been an ever present issue. While many colleges and universities are making attempts to diversify their undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty, many are finding this a difficult task due to the lack of minority undergraduate kinesiology majors pursuing…

  16. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average reflecta......We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  17. The enduring impact of historical and structural racism on urban violence in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Dong, Beidi; Beard, Jessica H; Wiebe, Douglas J; Morrison, Christopher N

    2017-05-19

    Public health approaches to crime and injury prevention are increasingly focused on the physical places and environments where violence is concentrated. In this study, our aim is to explore the association between historic place-based racial discrimination captured in the 1937 Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) map of Philadelphia and present-day violent crime and firearm injuries. The creators of the 1937 HOLC map zoned Philadelphia based in a hierarchical system wherein first-grade and green color zones were used to indicate areas desirable for government-backed mortgage lending and economic development, a second-grade or blue zone for areas that were already developed and stable, a third-grade or yellow zone for areas with evidence of decline and influx of a "low grade population," and fourth-grade or red zone for areas with dilapidated or informal housing and an "undesirable population" of predominately Black residents. We conducted an empirical spatial analysis of the concentration of firearm assaults and violent crimes in 2013 through 2014 relative to zoning in the 1937 HOLC map. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors at the time the map was created from the 1940 Census, firearm injury rates are highest in historically red-zoned areas of Philadelphia. The relationship between HOLC map zones and general violent crime is not supported after adjusting for historical Census data. This analysis extends historic perspective to the relationship between emplaced structural racism and violence, and situates the socio-ecological context in which people live at the forefront of this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  19. Historical foundations of hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    The present paper provides an historical assessment of the concept of hormesis and its relationship to homeopathy and modern medicine. It is argued that the dose-response concept was profoundly influenced by the conflict between homeopathy and traditional medicine and that decisions on which dose-response model to adopt were not based on "science" but rater on historical antipathies. While the historical dispute between homeopathy and traditional medicine has long since subsided, their impact upon the field has been enduring and generally unappreciated, profoundly adversely affecting current drug development, therapeutic strategies and environmental risk assessment strategies and policies.

  20. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  1. Resisting the Status Quo: The Narratives of Black Homeschoolers in Metro-Atlanta and Metro-DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields-Smith, Cheryl; Kisura, Monica Wells

    2013-01-01

    Trends suggest that homeschooling continues to increase among black families. Yet, research on contemporary Black homeschooling remains scarce. Given black educational history, the phenomena of Black families choosing homeschooling over public and private schools in the post-Desegregation era is worthy of investigation. Further, documenting the…

  2. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  3. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  4. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  5. Historical Survey Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To preserve NEFSC historical data, images of biological and oceanographic data sheets (1948-1975) were scanned to digital format and can be queried through a portal...

  6. Database Publication Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, P.A.; DeWitt, D.; Heuer, A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems.......There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems....

  7. Econophysics: historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, G.; Sornette, D.

    2008-01-01

    Econophysics embodies the recent upsurge of interest by physicists into financial economics, driven by the availability of large amount of data, job shortage in physics and the possibility of applying many-body techniques developed in statistical and theoretical physics to the understanding of the self-organizing economy. This brief historical survey emphasizes that Econophysics has many historical precursors, and is in fact rooted in a continuous cross-fertilization between economics and phy...

  8. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per

    2011-01-01

    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  9. Black widow spider (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a black widow spider. Note the red "hour glass" on the abdomen. The bite of the black widow can produce severe symptoms but is seldom fatal, except in young children and older adults. (Image courtesy ...

  10. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  11. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  12. Counseling Black Adolescent Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn C.

    1974-01-01

    Black adolescent parents need counsel from social workers who are able to intervene with a discerning knowledge of concepts, such as neocolonialism, survival, and liberation, that are important to them and to the black community. (Author)

  13. Why blacks do not take part in HIV vaccine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsiakis, Demetrius L; Chin, P Nancy

    2007-03-01

    AIDS is still a major cause of death. To combat this disease, researchers are developing a vaccine. Although blacks account for most new infections in the United States, they account for a low percent of experimental vaccine recipients. This study, conducted in a mid-sized U.S. city where vaccine trials are held, seeks to learn why. We conducted 11 in-depth ethnographic interviews. Two groups were targeted: blacks who had not participated in HIV vaccine trials and blacks who had. Overall, three major causes of nonparticipation were identified: misinformation, fear/mistrust and stigma. Factors that favored participation included having close friends with HIV and being homosexual. HIV is considered by many blacks to be a gay, white disease. Steps to increase participation must include efforts to destigmatize the condition and disseminate accurate information. Efforts to address historical causes of mistrust through "education" alone are insufficient. Trust needs to be earned through long-term relationships with black communities.

  14. A History of Discrimination against Black Students in Chicago Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Philip T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the historical integration-segregation dilemma from the passage of the first Illinois school law in 1825 to the solidification of the segregation era in the 1930s. Discusses structural impediments to Black students' academic achievement and identifies forces which sought to establish a vocational education caste system for Blacks.…

  15. Along Freedom Road. Hyde County, North Carolina and the Fate of Black Schools in the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecelski, David S.

    The 1968-69 school boycott in Hyde County (North Carolina) was one of the most sustained and successful protests of the civil rights movement. For a year, the county's black citizens refused to send their children to school in protest of a desegregation plan that required closing two historically black schools in their remote coastal community.…

  16. Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M; Dalton, Desiré L

    2017-01-01

    The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This ...

  17. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  18. The Legacy of W. E. B. DuBois for Contemporary Black Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James B.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the writings and career of W.E.B. DuBois to reconstruct an historical exemplar for Black Studies. Emphasizes the diversity of the leader's thought and roles in relation to the various methodologies used in Black Studies. Argues that such "restoration" work is needed to facilitate further maturation of the discipline. (KH)

  19. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  20. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  1. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  2. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  3. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  4. Modeling Manhood: Reimagining Black Male Identities in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jarvis R.; Nasir, Na'ilah; ross, kihana; de Royston, Maxine McKinney

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which stereotypical mainstream representations of black males (as hard, as anti-school, and as disconnected from the domestic sphere) were reimagined in all-black, all-male manhood development classes for 9th graders in urban public high schools. Findings show that instructors debunked stereotypes and created new…

  5. [Creative work of Greene Vardiman Black].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Dragan V; Zagradjanin, Danica

    2011-01-01

    Over hundred years has elapsed since the publication of "Operative Dentistry" (1908), a book by the famous odontologist and scientist Greene Vardiman Black. Throughout all his life Black worked hard on education, research, lecturing, publishing and teaching others. The innovator in many fields of dental medicine, particularly conservative therapy, he patented numerous inventions, implemented the standardization of instruments and procedures, constructed stomatological drills, gnathodynamometer, material hardness testing moulds, micrometer and microtome. Black is the author of more than 500 articles and innovations, as well as several exceptional books that are considered as classic within the domain of the dental literature, and which many generations were educated on. One can certainly say that Black occupies the honorary position among the eminent personalities of dental scientist as one of the founders of contemporary stomatology. If we take into consideration Black as to his merits in operative dentistry and wider, it could be confirmed that the epoch of contemporary dentistry could be divided into the era before Black, when many dental procedures were performed without scientific foundation, the time during Black when many dilemmas were resolved in operative dentistry branches backed up by laboratory investigations, and finally the homage period of the 20th century when the application of his postulates, instruments and conclusions were gradually being abandoned giving way to modern doctrines and materials due to the rapid advancement of industry of dental materials and operative techniques in modern stomatology all of which should be credited to the development of basic sciences.

  6. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  7. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  8. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  9. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  10. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K

    2009-07-01

    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  11. Events Scheduled for Virginia Tech's Black History Month

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of lectures, discussions, performances and displays will be held during Virginia Tech's observance of Black History Month. Events begin Jan. 19 and run through Feb. 28 and are free an open to the public (except where noted).

  12. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  13. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  14. Biracial Identity Development: A Case of Black-Korean Biracial Individuals in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyein Amber

    2016-01-01

    This study examines two cases of Black-Korean biracial individuals and 4 Black-Korean biracial public figures who were playing influential roles in South Korea (Yoon Mi-Rae, Hines Ward, Insooni, and Moon Taejong). The purpose of this study was to understand how Black-Korean biracial individuals construct their identities, how they navigate various…

  15. Competition, Conflict, and Coalitions: Black-Latino/a Relations within Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literte, Patricia E.

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines Black-Latino/a relations at a public university in California, which has a 31% Black and 40% Latino/a student population. In-depth interviews with students and administrators indicate that Black and Latino/a students do recognize that they share similar educational and socioeconomic obstacles; however, there is little to…

  16. 'Black Athena' and Africa's contribution to global cultural history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Martin Bernal's 'Black Athena' has evoked three kinds of reaction: scholarly evaluation of the historical evidence for Bernal's claims, both of Ancient Europe's indebtedness to West Asia and Northeast Africa, and of the construction in recent centuries of the Greek miracle as a Eurocentric, racialis

  17. Race, the Black Male, and Heterogeneous Racisms in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Ray, Nichole; Lasker-Scott, Tennille

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the effects of historical and current racism on the educational experiences of American Black males. The authors use critical race theory to illustrate how assumptions about culture and gender have subverted the egalitarian ideals of adult education. Teachers and students are urged to use critical reflection and open…

  18. The Origin of Black Smock and White Collar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesapcioglu, Muhsin; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined…

  19. Elementary particles under the lens of the black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Matsas, George Emanuel Avraam [UNESP

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the historical development and CLASSICAL properties of the BLACK HOLES, we discuss how our present knowledge of some of their QUANTUM properties shed light on the very concept of ELEMENTARY PARTICLE. As an illustration, we discuss in this context the decay of accelerated protons, which may be also relevant to astrophysics.

  20. Walking Through History. The Seaports of Black Rock and Southport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilvitch, Charles

    This document is a tour guide to the historical features of the seaports of Black Rock and Southport in the town of Fairfield, Connecticut. It is designed to acquaint visitors and residents with the stages of development that shaped both ports and the way that Fairfield has evolved through wars, depressions, and periods of prosperity over the…

  1. Race, the Black Male, and Heterogeneous Racisms in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Ray, Nichole; Lasker-Scott, Tennille

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the effects of historical and current racism on the educational experiences of American Black males. The authors use critical race theory to illustrate how assumptions about culture and gender have subverted the egalitarian ideals of adult education. Teachers and students are urged to use critical reflection and open…

  2. What's in Small Talk? Revolutionary Communication in Black Children's Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Alene; Asante, Molefi

    A number of the historical and contemporary games of black children reflect an attitude of resistance and assertion on the part of the players. Older game songs, dating from the days of slavery, express a recreative anger against slave masters or a contempt for the theater image of the jolly plantation slave, Jim Crow. Post-Civil War songs and…

  3. 公共管理研究中的“价值”与“价值中立”——公共管理价值回归的历史叙事与继往开来%Value and Value Neutrality in Public Management Research--A Historical Narrative and Forge Ahead to the Future for the Return of Public Management Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莹

    2012-01-01

    Since 1970s, the theory and practice of public management has begun. To date, as a principle, public management is increasingly becoming sophisticated. As the theoretical basis of public management when it created, the debate between "value" and "value -freed" has become a heatedly debated focus since then in public management field. From the perspective of multiple principles, this research will review and reflect the longstanding and complex debates between "values" and "value -freed" in the historical galaxy of public management, trying to integrate both the "value" and "value -freed" into the paradigm of public management. Towards the way of keeping the past and exploring the future of the public management, public management as a new principle, it is a continuing mission to combine values and value - freed, theoretical and empirical research, and qualitative and quantitative research methodology together effectively.%20世纪70年代,公共管理的理论和实践开始兴起,今天,公共管理学作为一门学科正逐渐走向成熟。而作为公共管理诞生之时的时代理论地平,"价值"与"价值中立"之争也自那时起就一直是其研究领域中激烈争论的焦点。从多学科的研究视角出发,本文对公共管理发展之历史银河中"价值"与"价值中立"之间错综复杂的漫长争论历程进行回眸与反思,尝试将"价值"与"价值中立"共同融合于公共管理研究范式之中。而在公共管理价值回归的继往开来道路上,公共管理作为一门成长中的新兴学科,其将价值与价值中立、理论研究与应用研究、定性研究和定量研究方法等有效地结合起来是其不断追求的历史使命。

  4. Essence of Black Colleges in Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Assistance Consortium To Improve Coll. Services, Washington, DC.

    The response of black colleges and universities in the area of community development are discussed in relation to management and organization development, telecommunication, human resource development, educational innovations, and environmental services. Management and organization development encompasses small business development, public service…

  5. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  6. Database Publication Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, P.A.; DeWitt, D.; Heuer, A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems....

  7. Scanning and georeferencing historical USGS quadrangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Davis, Larry R.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the Historical Topographic Map Collection in 2011, is to provide access to a digital repository of USGS topographic maps that is available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of traditional topographic maps, and, prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic process. The next generation of topographic maps, US Topo, is being released by the USGS in digital form, and newer technologies make it possible to also deliver historical maps in the same electronic format that is more publicly accessible.

  8. Estudos comparados, projeto histórico e análise de políticas públicas: entrevista com Hugo Zemelman Compared studies, historical project and a public policies analysis: an interview with Hugo Zemelman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rut Krawczyk

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Conhecido pelo seu vasto conhecimento e experiência nas áreas da epistemologia e das políticas sociais, o professor Hugo Zemelmam aborda nesta entrevista os problemas metodológicos envolvidos nas análises políticas que trabalham com a noção de comparação nos processos históricos. Salienta o desafio da construção de um conhecimento sobre a realidade latino-americana que incorpore a historicidade dos diferentes processos nacionais, isto é, a complexidade dos fenômenos políticos, sociais, culturais e/ou econômicos no momento em que eles são abordados, e que não se restrinja à comparação de indicadores ou à elaboração de analogias, tentação, a seu ver, enganadora, na qual teriam caído muitos estudos comparados produzidos nos últimos anos.Renowned for his huge knowledge and experience in the fields of epistemology and social policies, professor Hugo Zemelmam tackles the methodological problems involved in the political analyses that compare historical processes. As for the Latin American reality, he highlights how challenging it is to build knowledge that takes in consideration the historicity of the different national processes, that is, the complexity of the political, social, cultural and/or economical phenomena of the moment they are dealt with. Such knowledge should not limit to comparing indicators or elaborating analogies, a temptation he considers as deceiving and that spoils many compared studies produced lately.

  9. Politics, public sphere and new ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Costa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The miscegenation discourse, in which the image of a tolerant nation is consolidated- the nation capable of assimilating all demands for recognition of peculiarities and cultural differences – prevailed during several decades as an hegemonic way of self representation of Brazil. However, recently, a variety of social actors (descendants of refugee slaves – quilombolas - , Unified Black Movement, indigenous organizations have been questioning such a discourse, denouncing the historical injustices and the increasing prejudice they have been victims of. The relationship among these actors and the politics and the national public space is ambivalent. On one hand, they depend on the domestic politics as a context for the articulation of their differences and for the fight for the concretizing of their demands. On the other hand, the construction of their protest identity implies denouncing the nation that has conceded them a subordinated place and in searching transnational alliances which support their initiatives. The paper discusses, in a general way, such movements, going deeper in the studies of the new mobilizations of Afrob-Brazilians. It be showed how some political achievments (implementation of compensatory policies, cultural recognition can only be properly understood when you take into account the relation of interdependence between the insertion of such actors in the national public space and their links to transnational political networks.

  10. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  11. Leisure Role of Public Libraries: User Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Emma; Morris, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This is the second of two articles examining the leisure role of public libraries. The first article examined the leisure role of public libraries in the UK from a historical perspective. This examines the value of the public library service in providing leisure opportunities from a user point of view. The results demonstrate that public libraries…

  12. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    abstractDigitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possib

  13. Feasts of Historical Luoyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FLORA CHANG

    1997-01-01

    FROM famous chefs of long ago to the kitchens of modern China, historical Luoyang has brought culture and taste to dinner tables throughout China. With its long history, Luoyang’s chefs have been cooking up a storm for centuries. Legend has it that Yi Yin, forefather of Chinese chefs during the Tang reign of the Shang Dynasty.

  14. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  15. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that hav...

  16. Historicity in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyra, Maria C. D. P.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Human development entails the establishment, widening, and abbreviation of new behavioural and psychological phenomena. This leads to the central role of historicity in developmental science—a look at presently happening events in terms of their constructive borrowing from the past and anticipati...

  17. Funding Melbourne's hospitals: some historical moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 the Victorian Government introduced casemix funding as part of its restructure of the public hospital system. Casemix funding provides a new basis for government funding according to outcomes. At the same time, restructure of hospitals allows for a reconsideration of who is eligible to use them. Historical research into the growth of the public hospital system in Melbourne shows that attempts to reform the hospital system are as old as the system itself. This paper argues that the views of hospitals in funding crises and the solutions that are recommended have more to do with the politics of the day than the economics of running hospitals.

  18. Harnessing Digital Workflows for Conserving Historic Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Quintero, M.

    2017-05-01

    Recording the physical characteristics of historic structures and landscapes is a cornerstone of preventive maintenance, monitoring and conservation. The information produced by such work assists the decision-making process for property owners, site managers, public officials, and conservators. Rigorous documentation may also serve a broader purpose: over time, it becomes the primary means by which scholars and the public apprehend a site that has since changed radically or disappeared. These records also serve as posterity and monitoring records in the event of catastrophic or gradual loss of the heritage resource.

  19. Two regimes of HIV/AIDS: The MMWR and the socio-political construction of HIV/AIDS as a 'black disease'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseby, Kevin M

    2017-09-01

    Over the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, black Americans have become a central target of US public health prevention efforts. And today, HIV/AIDS is understood to disproportionately affect black Americans. This markedly contrasts with knowledge about the disease and efforts to prevent it in the first decade of the epidemic in the US, when expert and lay understandings and responses centred on white gay males. This article demonstrates that explaining these historical reversals as purely reflective of epidemiological data - or best knowledge available - is insufficient. Drawing on the concept disease regimes and utilising a discursive analysis of epidemiological results and editorial commentary published from 1981 to 1994 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWR), this article argues for a socio-political explanation for the changing colour of HIV/AIDS. That is, it scrutinises institutional and discursive practices that within the HIV/AIDS prevention field and disease discourse constituted a 'regime of black American exclusion' (1981-1992) and a 'regime of black American inclusion (1993-present day). © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  20. Public Anthropology as Public Pedagogy: An Autobiographical Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This autobiographical account provides a historical map of landmarks in the author's personal and professional life that led him to his present understanding of public anthropology as public pedagogy and vice versa. He indicates that his experiences led him to study sociocultural anthropology to investigate learning from experience, a foundational…

  1. Public Anthropology as Public Pedagogy: An Autobiographical Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This autobiographical account provides a historical map of landmarks in the author's personal and professional life that led him to his present understanding of public anthropology as public pedagogy and vice versa. He indicates that his experiences led him to study sociocultural anthropology to investigate learning from experience, a foundational…

  2. Braneworld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Whisker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate black holes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario. We begin with an overview of extra-dimensional physics, from the original proposal of Kaluza and Klein up to the modern braneworld picture of extra dimensions. A detailed description of braneworld gravity is given, with particular emphasis on its compatibility with experimental tests of gravity. We then move on to a discussion of static, spherically symmetric braneworld black hole solutions. Assuming an equation of state for the ``Weyl term'', which encodes the effects of the extra dimension, we are able to classify the general behaviour of these solutions. We then use the strong field limit approach to investigate the gravitational lensing properties of some candidate braneworld black hole solutions. It is found that braneworld black holes could have significantly different observational signatures to the Schwarzschild black hole of standard general relativity. Rotating braneworld black hole solutions are also discussed, an...

  3. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  4. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  5. Research on the Historical Evolution and Development Trends of Public Hospitals'Cost Accounting in China%我国公立医院成本核算的历史演进与发展趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑大喜

    2011-01-01

    介绍科室成本核算、项目成本核算、病种成本核算等方法,指出其适应范围和存在的问题,提出公立医院成本核算的发展趋势是与政府财政补偿、医疗服务支付制度改革、绩效评价体系相结合,以便体现公益性质.%The article introduces several cost accounting methods of public hospitals, such as department cost accounting, item cost accounting and disease cost accounting, and discusses the application and issues of all the methods.The trends of cost accounting are the integration between govemment finance compensation, medical service payment system reform and payment system based on public welfare.

  6. To Address Suffering That the Majority Can't See: Lessons from Black Women's Leadership in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how both historically and in contemporary times of escalating violence against our bodies, minds, and spirits worldwide, Black women lead, love, and live within contexts of suffering.

  7. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  8. Physics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Kip S.

    1982-01-01

    The activity at the galactic center might be fuelled by energy release near a large black hole. In this talk I describe some relativistic effects which may be relevant to this process. I use Newtonian language so far as possible and illustrate the effects with simple  analogies. Specifically, I describe the gravitational field near a black hole, Lens‐Thirring and geodetic precession, electro‐magnetic energy extraction of the spin energy of a black hole and the structure of accretion tori arou...

  9. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  10. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  11. On the commitment of school Physical Education with social inclusion of the black students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gomes de Castro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of black population’s historical demand for social inclusion, as well as the commitment of school physical education classes with this demand. In the background, one perspective shows the exclusion of black people in the Brazilian society, resulting from the slavery regime and their struggle to change this scenery of social marginalization. Another perspective approaches the very historical and epistemological bases of school physical education in the country, which initially corroborated the social exclusion of black students (by rejecting the black body, promoting the European aesthetics and propagating hygienist and eugenic ideas, but after some time started to defend a critical perspective, committed with social inclusion and diversity. Thus, the concept of social inclusion is introduced and the demand of the black population for social inclusion is discussed considering the Law 10.639/2003 and highlighting the commitment of school physical education with this inclusion.

  12. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  13. Food, publics, science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Gwendolyn

    2010-03-01

    This paper draws attention to food as a site around which a historically particular form of public engagement has emerged. In the past decade, some of the most lively debates and policy actions for science and publics have focused on food related issues: first with BSE and subsequently with genetically modified organisms. Even though much of the literature surrounding publics and science acknowledges that the very definition of "publics" is shifting, little attention has been paid to food as a significant arena in which publics are engaging in politically motivated challenges to techno-scientific practices, policies and institutions. Taking food seriously means contextualizing publics as well as extending discursive models of democratic engagement to embrace consumer practices.

  14. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  15. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  16. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  17. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  18. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  19. [The black widow spider--its appearance and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeka, Nediljko; Plenković, Jasminka

    2003-03-01

    Between 1995 and 2002, a massive appearance of black widow (Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus, Rossi 1790) was recorded along the Croatia coast. This paper gives a historical review of latrodectism and observations from Istria and Dalmatia, paying particular attention to the spider's habitat. There are several reasons for the black widow to appear in a new habitat such as the introduction of leguminous plants, watermelons and melons where crops were grown earlier. Black widow can also be found near buildings and gardens. Human contacts with the spider are usually without consequences for humans, thanks to education and a relatively good visibility of the spider. The authors describe their experience in fighting black widow and emphasise the importance of education in preventing lactrodectism.

  20. "A Tradition in Ceaseless Motion": Critical Race Theory and Black British Intellectual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In the USA, where Critical Race Theory (CRT) first emerged, black public intellectuals are a longstanding, if embattled, feature of national life. However, while often marginalized in public debate, the UK has its own robust tradition of black intellectual creation. The field of education, both as a site of intellectual production and as the site…

  1. Australia: historical earthquake studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McCue

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of earthquakes in Australia using information dating back to 1788 have been comprehensive, if not exhaustive. Newspapers have been the main source of historical earthquake studies. A brief review is given here with an introduction to the pre-European aboriginal dreamtime information. Some of the anecdotal information of the last two centuries has been compiled as isoseismal maps. Relationships between isoseismal radii and magnitude have been established using post-instrumental data allowing magnitudes to be assigned to the pre-instrumental data, which can then be incorporated into the national earthquake database. The studies have contributed to hazard analyses for the building codes and stimulated research into microzonation and paleo-seismology.

  2. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  3. Historical Evolution of the Relation between Kenyan Government and Public Universities%肯尼亚政府与公立大学关系的历史演进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱生

    2015-01-01

    Kenya established an authoritarian government since independent and thus controlled firmly the public universities. In the 21 century,Kenyan took the constitutional reform and established the popular sovereignty and other thought and principle. Affected by this change,the government of Kenyan reshaped the relationship be_tween the government and the public universities,forming the check and balance relationship among the govern_ment,universities and the education commission of university. Because of the specialty of Kenya government,the new relationship is unstable. The rational framework of the transformed public universities of Kenya provides refer_ences for the reform of universities in China.%肯尼亚独立后建立起了威权政体,政府全面控制公立大学。进入21世纪后,肯尼亚进行了宪法体制改革,确立了主权在民等思想和原则。受此影响,肯尼亚政府与公立大学的关系进行了重塑,形成了政府、大学与大学教育委员会分权制衡的关系。由于肯尼亚政权的特殊性,这种新型关系具有不确定性。肯尼亚公立大学转型后的理性架构,对于中国大学的改革具有借鉴意义。

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Wormholes & Time Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, Steven H.

    2000-05-01

    Black Holes Wormholes & Time Machines is a welcome addition to the collection of books written with the purpose of explaining interesting aspects of 20th century physics to a general audience. Throughout the book it is clear that the author, Jim Al-Khalili, must be a wonderful public lecturer. His style, informal yet precise, is just what is needed to convey these difficult concepts to an audience of non-specialists. As the title might suggest, the author has chosen to specifically address certain topics that have been introduced into the public imagination through the mass media (primarily movies and television). He does an admirable job, both of connecting to these media-generated perceptions (with frequent references, for example, to Star Trek) and of correcting them (or at least placing them in the proper context) insofar as the current knowledge of physics is concerned. What emerges is a well thought-out journey through the theories of special and general relativity as well as appropriate aspects of cosmology. The book eschews the standard, historical approach, which would introduce special relativity, followed by general relativity, and finally some cosmology. Rather, it begins with the promise and the paradoxes of time travel (exemplified in the movie The Terminator) and then winds its way carefully through all of the physics relevant to the possible existence of a time machine. Along the way, the reader is introduced to aspects of special and general relativity, including higher dimensional space-times and geometries. The astrophysical and cosmological journey visits the Big Bang, open and closed universes, and black holes. By meticulously piecing together the puzzle of time (and along the way meeting such oddities as parallel universes and wormholes) the author comes to the climactic chapter entitled `How to Build a Time Machine'. There may be readers who are disappointed that this ultimate question is unraveled, not so much like an instruction manual (as

  5. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  6. Philosophical Perspectives on the Social Contract Theory: Hobbes, Kant and Buchanan Revisited A Comparison of Historical thought Surrounding the Philosophical Consequences of the Social Contract and Modern Public Choice Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias ROYCE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is a prevalent social order that is constructed upon the freedom of the individual impacted by decisions taken in the domain of positive economics? How does the Hobbesian reductionist view of the state of nature correlate to the Kantian view of selfruled individualism expressed through rationality and autonomy? Applying Hobbesian thought in a democratic-economic context explains established and customary behaviour patterns of political economy in a reduced environmental setting. In precisely such setting individuals remain individuals on the basis of their ability to freely enter into contracts and any political means are attached to these individuals governed through an artificially constructed social contract. In thevalue-based and moral understanding of the social contract in its Kantian interpretation, the individual demands dignity and respect. This consequently justifies the individual as an end, rather than only a mean. How does Hobbesian and Kantian philosophy measure-up to Buchanan’s public choice theory and to what degree does the inclusion of morals in public choice lead to a normative diffusion of the social contract theory?

  7. Intermediate Genre Study. Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan; Lasky, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    Students can learn to appreciate history as readers and writers of historical fiction. This section presents an introduction to historical fiction, a display idea, a mystery history game, discussion of character-building, charts for students to fill in with information on historical characters, suggestions for customizing writing centers and for…

  8. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  9. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  10. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  11. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  12. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  13. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  14. Fifty shades of black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-11-01

    Creating dark materials that prevent reflections has become hot competition recently, with Guinness World Records having to keep revising the darkest substance yet created. But depending on who's asking, the best black may not be the blackest black, as Jon Cartwright discovers.

  15. Developing and Reflecting on a Black Disability Studies Pedagogy: Work from the National Black Disability Coalition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Dunhamn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This collection of writing has grown from the work of the National Black Disability Coalition, led by Jane Dunhamn and Leroy Moore. The Coalition met on June 7, 2013, in the historic Shiloh Baptist Church in Trenton, New Jersey to discuss the future of Black Disability Studies (BDS. Since that time, members of the Coalition have written an outline for a BDS course, presented at conferences, and developed strategies to incorporate BDS into the disciplines of Black Studies and Disability Studies. We have also reflected deeply on what the introduction of BDS will mean, both for Black Studies and for disability studies. Our writings in this collection are intended to mark the work of the National Black Disability Coalition thus far, but also to provide a platform from which further work in BDS can grow. By underscoring the development and potential of BDS, this article articulates the need for BDS within mainstream disability studies, and advocates for BDS not to be taken as a marginalized special-topic course, but rather to be engaged in every and at the heart of Disability Studies courses and pedagogies. Although we believe that BDS should be integrated into every Disability Studies course, we recognize that, like disability itself, it cannot simply be “added and stirred”; rather, the inclusion of BDS is a paradigm-shifting change. The pieces included in this collection are enactments of an ongoing conversation--a conversation that we hope the readers of Disability Studies Quarterly will join thoughtfully. The sections comprise statements from the leaders of the National Black Disability Coalition, Jane Dunhamn and Leroy Moore; reflective writings from three instructors and two students of Black Disability Studies; and a copy of the course outline.

  16. 'I Know That Face' Murundak: Songs of Freedom and the Black Arm Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Gillett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘This black armband view of our history’ was a phrase used by Prime Minister John Howard in a 1996 Sir Robert Menzies Lecture. Howard used the phrase, first coined by historian Geoffrey Blainey, to counter the arguments of opponents who were insisting that the post-contact treatment of the Aboriginal people must be recognised and included in Australian historical discourse and public forms of remembrance. The musical ensemble that is the subject of Natasha Gadd and Rhys Graham’s documentary film, Murundak: Songs of Freedom (2011 developed its name and its intention in protest against Howard’s dismissive rhetoric. This article examines the ways in which the film extends the platform for the Black Arm Band’s performances of cultural-political intervention begun in their highly successful murundak concerts. We argue that the film constructs an alternative Australian history through strategies that authorise the personal memories disclosed by the Aboriginal band members – the film’s protagonists – and enable them to be gathered into a form of collective, social memory. Songs and song-writing provide the focal point for this work of remembrance, and the unifying thread that weaves a regenerative narrative through three major stages of Aboriginal history: the struggle to survive; the process of healing; and reconnection with kin, country and language.

  17. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  18. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  19. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  20. 公立医院改革--历史演进、制度困境与路径选择%Public hospital reform:Historical evolution, institutional dilemma and the paths selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍凤兰; 申勇

    2016-01-01

    From the Government’s fully guarantee stage to the stage of independent organization of medicine, then to the market-oriented reforms and the new health care reform exploration stages, the public hospitals reform fol-lows different institutional logics, but the institutional dilemma have emerged at all stages including the little coupling between the institutional arrangements and environment, the public welfare and benefit wandering, the management system instability, and the breakdown of the financial investment and control costs mechanisms. The Government should elaborate conditions for the spontaneous public hospitals reform on the institutional environment in order to em-bed intrinsic motivation of the induced institutional change into the imposed institutional change. There should be positive interaction between the government and the market in order to form a reasonable and orderly competitive land-scape to the market of medical services. Payment should be reformed which has significant influence on internal medi-cal service system incentives.%从政府全面保障阶段到自主化办医阶段,再到市场化改革阶段与新医改探索阶段,公立医院改革遵循不一样的制度逻辑,但都出现了制度困境:制度安排与制度环境耦合性弱,公益性与效益性徘徊,管理体制失衡,财政投入机制与控费机制错位失位等。建议在制度环境上为公立医院的自发改革创造条件,使诱致性制度变迁的内在动力嵌入强制性变迁中;政府与市场良性互动,形成医疗服务市场合理有序的竞争格局;改革对医疗服务体系内部激励有重要影响的支付方式等将是公立医院改革的可选路径。

  1. GPS: Public Utility or Software Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    media.terry.uga.edu/documents/exec_ed/bonbright/ principles_of_public_utility_rates.pdf, 3; John Black, ed., Oxford Dictionary of Economics (New York: Oxford...Coordination Office, “Control Segment;” ASD(NII), Global Positioning System Standard, 3. 234 Black, Oxford Dictionary of Economics , 380; Geddes, “Public...Tool .............................................. 11 2. GPS is an Element of American Foreign Policy, National Defense, and Economic Policy

  2. Crossing Boundaries: Exploring Black Middle and Upper Class Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in High Poverty Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea D.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to explore the perceptions of Black middle and upper class preservice teachers as they relate to teaching and learning in high poverty urban schools. Participants included 11 senior early childhood education preservice teachers at a historically Black college in the southeast region of the United States. The study was…

  3. Recovering from "Yo Mama Is so Stupid": (En)gendering a Critical Paradigm on Black Feminist Theory and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the dozens using Black feminist theory. The dozens are a ritualized verbal game of insults that historically have used sexual offenses against Black women as the vehicle for insults. Rather than simply viewing the dozens as a cultural phenomenon, the article draws a connection between its occurrence in West…

  4. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  5. The Black Charter School Effect: Black Students in American Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Monica R.

    2012-01-01

    This literature analysis examines the experiences of Black students in public charter schools in the United States by analyzing the current literature and enrollment data in this domain. Through the investigation of multiple empirical studies that examine the effects of charter schools on the academic achievement and enrollment trends of Black…

  6. Characterization and sonochemical synthesis of black phosphorus from red phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldave, Sandra H.; Yogeesh, Maruthi N.; Zhu, Weinan; Kim, Joonseok; Sonde, Sushant S.; Nayak, Avinash P.; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorene is a new two-dimensional material which is commonly prepared by exfoliation from black phosphorus bulk crystals that historically have been synthesized from white phosphorus under high-pressure conditions. The few layers of phosphorene have a direct band gap in the range of 0.3-2 eV and high mobility at room temperature comparable to epitaxial graphene. These characteristics can be used for the design of high speed digital circuits, radio frequency circuits, flexible and printed systems, and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we synthesized black phosphorus from red phosphorus, which is a safer solid precursor, using sonochemistry. Furthermore, via a variety of microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we report characterization results of the sonochemically synthesized black phosphorus in addition to the commercial black phosphorus. Finally, we describe the air stability of black phosphors and the crystalline structure of the synthesized material. This is the first result of sonochemical or solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus based on readily available low-cost red phosphorus. This solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus is suitable for printable applications of nanomaterial.

  7. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  8. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  9. Spaces of collaboration: The poetics of place and historical consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna R. McLean

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of engaging students in the negotiation of their place in historical landscapes is vitalized through the development of historical consciousness as a pedagogical tool for instruction in social studies. This study uses student reflection collected from a graduate course to examine how historical consciousness is understood and expressed through experiential interaction with historical sites and the role of people, places, and historical events in the creation of social history. The participants in the study reflected on how public memory is constructed and individualized within grand and personal narratives of their chosen area of commemoration. The study’s participants showed an eagerness to incorporate interactive technology to express their understanding of historical events, further highlighting technology’s role in democratizing information through digital historical narratives. The student-participants also internalized and articulated their experiences with history through artistic means, which permitted a free expression across multiple media. As prospective educators, the participants negotiated the role of historical consciousness in the development and extension of curricular practices, including the critical examination of official narratives in favour of a socialized history.

  10. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  11. HISTORICAL-CRITICAL PEDAGOGY AND HISTORICAL-CULTURALPSYCHOLOGY: INFERENCES IN TEACHERSTRAININGAND WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Ramos Haddad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the historical-critical pedagogy and historical-cultural psychology, also rehearses to make inferences for teacher training in Brazil. Therefore, was sought to theoretical base in authors such as Dermeval Saviani, Newton Duarte, Vygotsky, Leontiev, Ligia Marcia Martins, Marilda Facci, Marta Sforni. The historical-critical pedagogy postulates that the educational actis characterized by intentionality, aiming as objective the appropriation of knowledge systematized by the student. In the same sense, the historical- cultural psychology understands that the learning of knowledge scholarship is critical for the development of higher psychological functions. The good teaching in this perspective is the one that promotes the development of the individual that is always asocial and historical development. These approaches are confronting and overcoming the pedagogies of learning to learn that find their foundation in constructivism and who claim that more important than teaching or learning is to take the student to find ways to learn how to learn. The teacher’s job, according to these pedagogies, is of a learning facilitator, which has led to an undermining of their function and causing serious consequences for the teaching learning process of students in the classroom. Finally, this article points according to the marxist perspective the omnilateral defense of teachers training as an indispensable element for the progress toward the consolidation of a quality public education.

  12. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  13. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  14. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  15. Black Carbon Measurement and Modeling in the Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawad, Faisal Al; Khoder, Mamdouh; Almazroui, Mansour; Alghamdi, Mansour; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvarinen, Antti; Henriksson, Svante

    2017-04-01

    Black carbon is an important atmospheric aerosol as an effective factor in public health, changing the global and regional climate, and reducing visibility. Black carbon absorbs light, warms the atmosphere, and modifies cloud droplets and the amount of precipitation. In spite of this significance, knowledge of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula is hard to find in literature until recently. The total mass of black carbon and wind direction and speeds were measured continuously at Hada Al-Sham, Saudi Arabia for the year 2013. In addition, a state of the art global aerosol - climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) was used to determine black carbon climatology over the Arabian Peninsula. Simulation of the model was carried out for the years eight years (2004 - 2011). The daily mean values of the concentrations of black carbon had a minimum of 15.0 ng/m3 and a maximum of 6372 ng/m3 with a mean of at 1899 ng/m3. The diurnal pattern of black carbon showed higher values overnight, and steady low values during daytimes caused by sea and land breezes. Seasons of black carbon vary over the Arabian Peninsula, and the longest is in the Northern Region where it lasts from July to October. High concentrations of black carbon at Hada Al-Sham was observed with a mean of 1.9 µm/m3, and seasons of black carbon vary widely across the Arabian Peninsula. Assessment of the effects of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula on the global radiation balance. Initiating a black carbon monitoring network is highly recommended to assess its impacts on health, environment, and climate.

  16. Unscreening scalarons with a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Andrei V.; Gálvez Ghersi, José T.; Zucca, Alex

    2017-05-01

    It is typically believed that the additional degrees of freedom in any modification of gravity are completely suppressed by the large energy densities coexisting with an astrophysical black hole. In this paper, we find that this might not always be the case. This belief holds for black holes formed via gravitational collapse in very dense environments, whereas the black holes with sufficiently low accretion rates that have low matter densities inside innermost stable circular orbit will generally unscreen chameleons. We develop a novel technique to study the dynamics of accretion of a scalar field onto a Schwarzschild-like black hole which is accurate on both short and long time scales. In particular, we study the behavior of the extra scalar degree of freedom in the Starobinsky and Hu-Sawicki f (R ) theories, for the symmetron model, and for the Ratra-Peebles model. Aside from calculating nontrivial static field profiles outside the black hole, we provide the tools to study the (in)stability and evolution towards the equilibrium solution for any generic well behaved set of parameters and initial conditions. Our code is made publicly available for further research and modifications to study other models.

  17. [Public policy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future.

  18. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF HISTORICAL DIKE FAILURE MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. NAGY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical evaluation of historical dike failure mechanism The failure mechanism of flood protection dikes includes physical (geotechnical, seepage processes leading to a dike breach. An awareness of the failure mechanism is required directly in dike stability calculations and indirectly for risk calculations. Statistics of historical data indicate among others the distribution and frequency of failure mechanisms associated with dikes. These data may be used in estimations of the expected likelihood of occurrence of non-quantifiable failure mechanisms. In addition to a comparative evaluation of statistics collected in several countries, this publication also presents data for the Carpathian Basin. One of the most important conclusions drawn from statistical information suggests that most dike breaches develop as a consequence of poor safety strategy

  19. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  20. Detecting Spammers via Aggregated Historical Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    Menahem, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    The battle between email service providers and senders of mass unsolicited emails (Spam) continues to gain traction. Vast numbers of Spam emails are sent mainly from automatic botnets distributed over the world. One method for mitigating Spam in a computationally efficient manner is fast and accurate blacklisting of the senders. In this work we propose a new sender reputation mechanism that is based on an aggregated historical data-set which encodes the behavior of mail transfer agents over time. A historical data-set is created from labeled logs of received emails. We use machine learning algorithms to build a model that predicts the \\emph{spammingness} of mail transfer agents in the near future. The proposed mechanism is targeted mainly at large enterprises and email service providers and can be used for updating both the black and the white lists. We evaluate the proposed mechanism using 9.5M anonymized log entries obtained from the biggest Internet service provider in Europe. Experiments show that propose...

  1. "A terror to their neighbors": beliefs about mental disorder and violence in historical and cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, J

    1992-01-01

    This tribute to the enduring legacy of Bernard Diamond explores public perceptions of a link between mental disorder and violent behavior. Research on contemporary American beliefs is summarized and compared both to historical accounts of public perceptions in Western cultures and to anthropological investigations of public perceptions in non-Western cultures. The conclusion of these reviews is that the belief that mental disorder bears some moderate association with violent behavior is both historically invariant and culturally universal.

  2. Masculine ideology, norms, and HIV prevention among young Black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Applewhite, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included.

  3. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  4. Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    MacGibbon, Jane H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Stump, D; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are of interest in many cosmological contexts. PBHs lighter than about 1012 kg are predicted to be directly detectable by their Hawking radiation. This radiation should produce both a diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background from the cosmologically-averaged distribution of PBHs and gamma-ray burst signals from individual light black holes. The Fermi, Milagro, Veritas, HESS and HAWC observatories, in combination with new burst recognition methodologies, offer the greatest sensitivity for the detection of such black holes or placing limits on their existence.

  5. Black Hole Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mitra

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S^{BH}$ (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy $S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho})$ (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (...

  6. Black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S^{BH} (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho}) (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (i.e. its independence of the number and properties of the fields which might contribute to S^{SM}) is given.

  7. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  8. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  9. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  10. “FEATRON OR HISTORICAL SHAME” W. STRATEMANA – MEMO BOOK CYRILLIC PRINTING: HISTORICAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Ю. Соколов

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author offers a historical and bibliographic analysis Cyrillic edition works of the German Protestant Bishop William Stratemanna "Featron or historical Shame" (SPb.: typography Alexander Nevsky Monastery, 1724 against the background of the Russian literary culture, historical thought and publishing the first quarter of XVIII c. The study revealed that the publication of secular books, in particular, historical themes, in Russia during this period was the state character and largely depended on the reform efforts of Peter I, who initiated the civil publishing, publishing repertoire, organization of translation and the formation of a secular book culture in general. It was found that the main goal of a secular publishing was the dissemination of ideas of education, science and education, the formation of readers' needs, in particular with regard to the book of historical subjects. Stated that the theme of historical publications in the study period was determined by socio-political factors, public policy, as well as increased attention to the achievements of Western historical thought. The article defines the main directions of development of Russian historical thought, as well as the thematic repertoire of publications on the history of the industry in the context of the formation of printing. The characteristic features of the development of Western Protestant and Catholic historiography XVI-XVII centuries. The analysis found that due to the socio-economic and cultural reforms, with the development of education and science, the need for a secular book, in particular historical themes have evolved relatively slowly. The demand for scientific, educational, industrial and secular book as a whole lagged behind the proposal, which is artificially supported by the state. Study of sources and scientific material allowed to disclose the value of the product W. Stratemanna - as the first Russian edition of the textbook on world

  11. Teacher Education and Black Male Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Richard Milner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teacher education programs in the United States (U.S. struggle to prepare teachers to meet the complex needs of elementary and secondary students in public schools - especially those of color, those living in poverty, and those whose first language is not English. In this article, we argue for focused attention on preparing educators to teach African American male students as these students face particular institutional challenges in successfully navigating the U.S. public school system. Drawing from the significant body of research on teacher education and teacher learning for equity and social justice, four Black teacher educators discuss challenges they have faced in classes designed to prepare teachers to teach Black male students. Through an analysis of commonalities in their experiences, they propose means for teacher educators to foster greater understandings of the heterogeneity found among Black male students so that teachers can craft more responsive and responsible educational experiences for Black males.

  12. A New Way to See Inside Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcomb, Kielan; Overduin, James; Conn Henry, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Black holes exert great fascination on the public, and are also widely misunderstood in many ways. Some of these misunderstandings result from the coordinate systems that are usually used to illustrate the internal structure of black holes. Any choice of coordinates necessarily produces a distorted view, just as the choice of projection distorts a map of the Earth. The truest way to depict the properties of a black hole is through quantities that are coordinate-invariant. We have computed and plotted the independent curvature invariants of rotating, charged black holes for the first time, revealing a deep interior “landscape” that is much more beautiful and complex than usually thought. The resulting images are useful for public outreach, especially in the centennial year of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity.

  13. O emprego de auxiliares de saúde em áreas em desenvolvimento: breve histórico Use of auxiliary public health personnel in developing areas: a brief historical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tornero

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de auxiliares de saúde como uma medida que pode melhorar a cobertura sanitária principalmente dos países ditos em desenvolvimento, foi analisada sob o ponto de vista histórico, com a finalidade de mostrar que as razões pelas quais os auxiliares de saúde são introduzidos nos diversos países são diferentes e não direcionados pelos mesmos propósitos. Procurou-se discutir, sucintamente, alguns exemplos ilustrativos. Na URSS os auxiliares de saúde ("feldshers" existem como parte integrante da atenção sanitária, desde o século XVIII; hostilizados inicialmente pela Revolução Socialista, foram considerados a seguir como o alicerce do sistema sanitário. Na África e Ásia foram julgados como um dos produtos do colonialismo europeu. Na China - experiência recente em grande escala - acompanharam as mudanças radicais ocorridas naquele país. Se o emprego dos auxiliares é recomendado principalmente para os países em desenvolvimento, o que se verificou é que na prática 83,1% das escolas de nível secundário catalogadas estão em países desenvolvidos, detendo o maior número de alunos.A study of the use of auxiliary public health personnel in some developing countries areas of the world concludes that the factors which prescribe this practice vary according to the politics dominant at the time.

  14. The University, Democracy and the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmwood, John

    2017-01-01

    This article takes a historical approach to the rise and fall of the public university, relating its fate to specific developments in public policy. Particular attention will be paid to the United Kingdom since it has developed an explicit drive towards the marketization of higher education in the context of an earlier commitment to public higher…

  15. Black holes, cosmology and extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, Kirill A

    2013-01-01

    Assuming foundational knowledge of special and general relativity, this book guides the reader on issues surrounding black holes, wormholes, cosmology, and extra dimensions. Its first part is devoted to local strong field configurations (black holes and wormholes) in general relativity and the most relevant of alternative theories: scalar-tensor, f(R) and multidimensional theories. The second part is on cosmology, including inflation and a unified description of the whole evolution of the universe. The third part concerns multidimensional theories of gravity and contains a number of original results obtained by the authors. Expository work is conducted for a mechanism of symmetries and fundamental constants formation, while the original approach to nonlinear multidimensional gravity that is able to construct a unique perspective describing different phenomena is highlighted. Much of the content is new in book publications, because it was previously found only in journal publications, e.g. regarding regular bl...

  16. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  17. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  18. Trade and the Future of China's Black Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, G.; Oppenheimer, M.; Naik, V.

    2016-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon aerosols in China have increased by over 200% during the last 50 years, with negative implications both for human health and for regional and global climate. The Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) emissions scenarios all assume that China's future black carbon emissions will decrease. However, this decline partially depends on the assumption that the evolution of future pollutant emissions in developing nations will match the observed historical relationship between air quality and income in developed nations. Recent research has demonstrated that a substantial portion of China's current black carbon emissions are driven by the production of goods exported for consumption elsewhere. This constitutes an external demand for black carbon-emitting activity in China that is much smaller in the developed nations on which the historical air quality/income relationship is based. We here show using integrated assessment model output, general circulation modeling, and emissions and economic data that (1) China must achieve a faster technological and regulatory evolution than did developed countries in order achieve the same air quality/income trajectory; (2) China's uniquely large share of export-related black carbon-emitting activities and their potential growth are a plausible explanation for this disparity; and (3) the climate and health implications of these export-related black carbon emissions, if unmitigated, are of interest from a policy perspective. Together these results indicate that the production of goods for export will steepen the mitigation curve for China relative to developed nations, if China is to achieve the future black carbon emissions reductions assumed in the RCPs.

  19. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  20. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loretta I. Winters; Paul C. Winters

    2012-01-01

    .... No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy...