WorldWideScience

Sample records for public health students

  1. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health.

  2. Learning strategies of public health nursing students: conquering operational space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjälmhult, Esther

    2009-11-01

    To develop understanding of how public health nursing students learn in clinical practice and explore the main concern for the students and how they acted to resolve this main concern. How professionals perform their work directly affects individuals, but knowledge is lacking in understanding how learning is connected to clinical practice in public health nursing and in other professions. Grounded theory. Grounded theory was used in gathering and analysing data from 55 interviews and 108 weekly reports. The participants were 21 registered nurses who were public health nursing students. The grounded theory of conquering operational space explains how the students work to resolve their main concern. A social process with three identified phases, positioning, involving and integrating, was generated from analysing the data. Their subcategories and dimensions are related to the student role, relations with a supervisor, student activity and the consequences of each phase. Public health nursing students had to work towards gaining independence, often working against 'the system' and managing the tension by taking a risk. Many of them lost, changed and expanded their professional identity during practical placements. Public health nursing students' learning processes in clinical training are complex and dynamic and the theory of 'Conquering operational space' can assist supervisors in further developing their role in relation to guiding students in practice. Relationships are one key to opening or closing access to situations of learning and directly affect the students' achievement of mastering. The findings are pertinent to supervisors and educators as they prepare students for practice. Good relationships are elementary and supervisors can support students in conquering the field by letting students obtain operational space and gain independence. This may create a dialectical process that drives learning forward.

  3. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  4. Five reasons for the lack of nursing students' motivation to learn public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasushi; Hayashi, Sachiko; Yoshimura, Emiko; Tsunoda, Masashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shibuya, Akitaka; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2013-11-01

    Prevention is better than cure. Public health plays an important role in promoting prevent medicine. To obtain the abilities to provide appropriate nursing services, learning public health is necessary for students who want to become registered nurses. When teachers teach public health to nursing students, it is important to motivate them to learn it. Therefore, we investigated the reasons for the lack of motivation to learn public health by conducting a questionnaire survey. The subjects were female nursing students in 29 vocational schools in Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures of Japan that allow graduation after a 3-year study period. We asked the students whether or not they had completed the subject of public health and analyzed those students who answered affirmatively. We analyzed 1,553 respondents whose average age was 22.6 ± 5.2 years (range, 18 to 45). Using factor analysis, we discovered the 5 reasons that lead to the lack of nursing students' motivation to learn public health: "Difficulties acquiring knowledge of public health," "Inappropriate attitudes of public health teachers," "Thinking lightly about the national examination in the field of public health," "Lack of understanding the importance of learning public health," and "Future plans that do not specialize in public health." Using multiple linear regression analysis, these 5 reasons were significant predictors for the lack of students' motivation. Older students also had significantly less motivation to learn public health than did younger students. When teachers instruct their students, they should teach public health better with the present knowledge.

  5. Canadian medical students' perceptions of public health education in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Ingrid V; Hau, Monica; Buxton, Jane A; Elliott, Lawrence J; Harvey, Bart J; Hockin, James C; Mowat, David L

    2009-09-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes of Canadian medical students toward their undergraduate medical public health curriculum and to identify student suggestions and priorities for curriculum change. Five focus groups of 11 or 12 medical students from all years of medical school were recruited at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, and University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine between February and April 2006. A professional facilitator was hired to conduct the focus groups using a unique, computer-based facilitation system. Questions in both the focus group and an accompanying survey sought to determine medical students' understanding and exposure to public health and how this impacted their attitudes and choices toward careers in the public health medical specialty of community medicine. The transcripts were independently reviewed and analyzed by each of the authors to identify themes. Four major themes related to students' desired curriculum change were identified: (1) poor educational experiences in public health courses, (2) lack of positive role models, especially exposure to community medicine specialists, (3) emphasis on statistics and epidemiology, and (4) negative attitudes toward public health topics. Students are disillusioned, disengaged, and disappointed with the public health curriculum currently being provided at the Canadian medical schools studied. Many medical students would prefer a public health curriculum that is more challenging and has more applied field experience and exposure to public health physician role models.

  6. Educating Masters of Public Health Students on Tobacco Control and Prevention: An Integrated Curriculum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…

  7. Increasing medical students' engagement in public health: case studies illustrating the potential role of online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheringham, J; Lyon, A; Jones, A; Strobl, J; Barratt, H

    2016-09-01

    The value of e-learning in medical education is widely recognized but there is little evidence of its value in teaching medical students about public health. Such evidence is needed because medical students' engagement with public health has been low. We present three recent case studies from UK medical schools to illustrate diverse ways in which online approaches can increase medical students' engagement with learning public health. A comparative case study approach was used applying quantitative and qualitative data to examine engagement in terms of uptake/use amongst eligible students, acceptability and perceived effectiveness using an analytic framework based on Seven Principles of Effective Teaching. Across the three case studies, most (67-85%) eligible students accessed online materials, and rated them more favourably than live lectures. Students particularly valued opportunities to use e-learning flexibly in terms of time and place. Online technologies offered new ways to consolidate learning of key public health concepts. Although students found contributing to online discussions challenging, it provided opportunities for students to explore concepts in depth and enabled students that were uncomfortable speaking in face-to-face discussions to participate. E-learning can be applied in diverse ways that increase medical student engagement with public health teaching. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Required Online Course with a Public Health Focus for Third Professional Year Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Amber E; Egras, Amy M

    2015-06-25

    To design, deliver, and evaluate the impact of a required course on student knowledge acquisition and ability to evaluate contemporary public health issues. A 2-credit course was implemented using asynchronous, online delivery. Learning activities included literature retrieval and assessment, analytic writing, quizzes, and creation of a group wiki evaluating a current public health issue. Course topics included health care reform, social determinants of health, health disparities, evidence-based medicine, end-of-life care, patient safety, and research ethics. Strong student performance on assessments indicated an ability to use higher-order cognitive domains. Online delivery provided students with the flexibility to complete assignments at their convenience, allowed participation by all students, and encouraged self-directed learning. Completion of a required, online, asynchronous course with a public health focus allowed pharmacy students to increase their knowledge of and ability to evaluate contemporary ethical, social, cultural, and governmental issues affecting pharmacy practice.

  9. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  10. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ratanasiripong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  11. Fueling the public health workforce pipeline through student surge capacity response teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, J A; Davis, M K; Ricchetti-Masterson, K L; MacDonald, P D M

    2014-02-01

    In January 2003, the University of North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness established Team Epi-Aid to match graduate student volunteers with state and local health departments to assist with outbreaks and other applied public health projects. This study assessed whether Team Epi-Aid participation by full-time graduate students impacted post-graduation employment, particularly by influencing students to work in governmental public health upon graduation. In September 2010, 223 program alumni were contacted for an online survey and 10 selected for follow-up interviews. Eighty-three Team Epi-Aid alumni answered the survey (response rate = 37 %). Forty-one (49 %) reported participating in at least one activity, with 12/41 (29 %) indicating participation in Team Epi-Aid influenced their job choice following graduation. In 6 months prior to enrolling at UNC, 30 (36 %) reported employment in public health, with 16/30 (53 %) employed in governmental public health. In 6 months following graduation, 34 (41 %) reported employment in public health, with 27 (80 %) employed in governmental public health. Eight alumni completed telephone interviews (response rate = 80 %). Five credited Team Epi-Aid with influencing their post-graduation career. Experience in applied public health through a group such as Team Epi-Aid may influence job choice for public health graduates.

  12. School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices of Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Hendershot, Candace; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Background: From January through June 2009, 6.1 million children were uninsured in the United States. On average, students with health insurance are healthier and as a result are more likely to be academically successful. Some schools help students obtain health insurance with the help of school nurses. Methods: This study assessed public school…

  13. Mental health and behaviour of students of public health and their correlation with social support: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bíró Éva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Future public health professionals are especially important among students partly because their credibility in light of their professional messages and activities will be tested daily by their clients; and partly because health professionals' own lifestyle habits influence their attitudes and professional activities. A better understanding of public health students' health and its determinants is necessary for improving counselling services and tailoring them to demand. Our aim was to survey public health students' health status and behaviour with a focus on mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among public health students at 1-5-years (N = 194 with a self-administered questionnaire that included standardized items on demographic data, mental wellbeing characterized by sense of coherence (SoC and psychological morbidity, as well as health behaviour and social support. Correlations between social support and the variables for mental health, health status and health behaviour were characterized by pairwise correlation. Results The response rate was 75% and represented students by study year, sex and age in the Faculty. Nearly half of the students were non-smokers, more than one quarter smoked daily. Almost one-fifth of the students suffered from notable psychological distress. The proportion of these students decreased from year 1 to 5. The mean score for SoC was 60.1 and showed an increasing trend during the academic years. 29% of the students lacked social support from their student peers. Significant positive correlation was revealed between social support and variables for mental health. Psychological distress was greater among female public health students than in the same age female group of the general population; whereas the lack of social support was a more prevalent problem among male students. Conclusions Health status and behaviour of public health students is similar to their non-students

  14. Factors Affecting Mental Health Service Utilization Among California Public College and University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Woodbridge, Michelle W; Mendelsohn, Joshua; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Osilla, Karen Chan; Jaycox, Lisa H; Eberhart, Nicole K; Burnam, Audrey M; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-08-01

    Unmet need for mental health treatment among college students is a significant public health issue. Despite having access to campus mental health providers and insurance to cover services, many college students do not receive necessary services. This study examined factors influencing college students' use of mental health services. Online survey data for 33,943 students and 14,018 staff and faculty at 39 college campuses in California were analyzed by using logistic regressions examining the association between students' use of mental health services and student characteristics, campus environment, and the presence of a formal network of campus mental health clinics. Nineteen percent of students reported current serious psychological distress in the past 30 days, and 11% reported significant mental health-related academic impairment in the past year. Twenty percent reported using mental health services while at their current college, 10% by using campus services and 10% off-campus services. Students on campuses with a formal network of mental health clinics were more likely than students at community colleges to receive mental health services (odds ratio [OR] range=1.68-1.69), particularly campus services (OR=3.47-5.72). Students on campuses that are supportive of mental health issues were more likely to receive mental health services (OR=1.22), particularly on campus (OR=1.65). Students with active (versus low) coping skills were consistently more likely to use mental health services. Establishing more campus mental health clinics, fostering supportive campus environments, and increasing students' coping skills may reduce unmet need for mental health services among college students.

  15. School superintendents' perceptions of schools assisting students in obtaining public health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L; Price, James H; Telljohann, Susan K; Dake, Joseph A; Fink, Brian N

    2011-12-01

    Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between health and learning, and specific school system practices for assisting students were also examined. A 4-page questionnaire was sent to a national random sample of public school superintendents using a 4-wave postal mailing. Only 19% of school districts assessed the health insurance status of students. School districts' assistance in helping enroll students in health insurance was assessed using Stages of Change theory; 36% of superintendents' school districts were in the action or maintenance stages. The schools most often made health insurance materials available to parents (53%). The perceived benefits identified by more than 80% of superintendents were to keep students healthier, reduce the number of students with untreated health problems, reduce school absenteeism, and improvement of students' attention/concentration during school. The 2 most common perceived barriers identified by at least 50% of superintendents were not having enough staff or financial resources. Most superintendents believed schools should play a role in helping students obtain health insurance, but the specific role was unclear. Three fourths of superintendents indicated overwhelmingly positive beliefs regarding the effects of health insurance status on students' health and academic outcomes. School personnel and public policy makers can use the results to support collaboration in getting students enrolled in health insurance. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  16. Values and learning styles of postgraduate public health students in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Hernández, Bruma; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Magaña-Valladares, Laura

    This study identifies learning values and styles of students at the National Institute of Public Health in Mexico (2009-2011). The values described by Allport-Vernon-Lindser and the Learning Style Inventory were used to classify the students. Assimilating learning was identified as more frequent among students, without differences noted in either type of program. As regards values, the theoretical value was well above other values in research-oriented programs, while students of programs focusing on professional development mainly expressed a social value. A significant difference in the social value of accepted and rejected students was found, with the highest levels in the first group. The assimilator learning style was frequent among public health students. The most significant values in each type of program are consistent with the educational areas of focus and the type of work to be developed after graduating from the courses.

  17. Importance of public health nurses precepting students in clinical practice: a qualitative study.

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    Hjälmhult, Esther; Haaland, Gerd Unstad; Litland, Astrid Synnøve

    2013-04-01

    Preceptors' working environment, support and competence affect how they perform the preceptor role, are therefore important for developing students and can influence students' roles as students and future professionals. Previous research has focused on precepting student nurses and not so much on public health nurses or other postgraduate students. Knowledge in this field is therefore lacking. The article aims to present a grounded theory of the role of public health nurses as student preceptors in Norway. We conducted 20 interviews with public health nurses in addition to a focus group with four participants. We used classical grounded theory method to gather and analyze data. The preceptors were strongly concerned about invisibility and lack of recognition of the preceptor role. This main concern was resolved by the strategy of being obligated and included three patterns: optimistic, ambivalent and reluctant performance, all with differing motivation for being obligated. All stakeholders involved in clinical practice seem to contribute to making the preceptors' role invisible and thereby contribute to the lack of recognition, support and reward, which again seem to self-reinforce invisibility. The study highlights the obligation of public health nurses in precepting students and increases the understanding of the challenges of this role. Ensuring education of a high academic standard requires paying more attention to developing effective support for the people involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with the choice of public health service among nursing students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengdee, Krisada; Pudpong, Nareerut; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Putthasri, Weerasak; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that public and private nursing schools have contributed significantly to the Thai health system, it is not clear whether and to what extent there was difference in job preferences between types of training institutions. This study aimed to examine attitudes towards rural practice, intention to work in public service after graduation, and factors affecting workplace selection among nursing students in both public and private institutions. A descriptive comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3349 students from 36 nursing schools (26 public and 10 private) during February-March 2012, using a questionnaire to assess the association between training institution characteristics and students' attitudes, job choices, and intention to work in the public sector upon graduation. Comparisons between school types were done using ANOVA, and Bonferroni-adjusted multiple comparisons tests. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to construct a composite rural attitude index ( 14 questions). Cronbach's alpha was used to examine the internal consistency of the scales, and ANOVA was then used to determine the differences. These relationships were further investigated through multiple regression. A higher proportion of public nursing students (86.4% from the Ministry of Public Health and 74.1% from the Ministry of Education) preferred working in the public sector, compared to 32.4% of students from the private sector ( p  = public nursing schools were less motivated by financial incentive regarding workplace choices relative to students trained by private institutions. To increase nursing workforce in the public sector, the following policy options should be promoted: 1) recruiting more students with a rural upbringing, 2) nurturing good attitudes towards working in rural areas through appropriate training at schools, 3) providing government scholarships for private students in exchange for compulsory work in rural areas, and 4) providing a

  19. Public health education for midwives and midwifery students: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Jenny; Doran, Jackie; Lynn, Fiona; Anderson, Gail; Alderdice, Fiona

    2012-12-07

    Current national and international maternity policy supports the importance of addressing public health goals and investing in early years. Health care providers for women during the reproductive and early postnatal period have the opportunity to encourage women to make choices that will impact positively on maternal and fetal health. Midwives are in a unique position, given the emphasis of the philosophy of midwifery care on building relationships and incorporating a holistic approach, to support women to make healthy choices with the aim of promoting health and preventing ill health. However, exploration of the educational preparation of midwives to facilitate public health interventions has been relatively limited. The aim of the study was to identify the scope of current midwifery pre registration educational provision in relation to public health and to explore the perspectives of midwives and midwifery students about the public health role of the midwife. This was a mixed methods study incorporating a survey of Higher Educational Institutions providing pre registration midwifery education across the UK and focus groups with midwifery students and registered midwives. Twenty nine institutions (53% response) participated in the survey and nine focus groups were conducted (59 participants). Public health education was generally integrated into pre registration midwifery curricula as opposed to taught as a discrete subject. There was considerable variation in the provision of public health topics within midwifery curricula and the hours of teaching allocated to them. Focus group data indicated that it was consistently difficult for both midwifery students and midwives to articulate clearly their understanding and definition of public health in relation to midwifery. There is a unique opportunity to impact on maternal and infant health throughout the reproductive period; however the current approach to public health within midwifery education should be reviewed to

  20. Violence in public schools and health promotion: reports and dialogues with students and teachers

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    Kátia Ovídia José de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze perceptions about the interaction between health and environment, from the reports and conversations with teenagers and teachers from two public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on violence and health promotion. Methods: Descriptive and qualitative study, conducted from February to June 2009, involving 153 students of two public schools in Rio de Janeiro and 17 teachers. Data collection among students was carried out by means of participant observation with notes in a field diary, a semi-structured questionnaire and focus groups. Among teachers, participant observation with notes in a field diary and study groupwere adopted. A thematic analysis was performed, seeking to establish units of meaning. Results: The reports of the students presented discussions on three forms of violence: urban, school and sexual violence within the family. About urban violence, the students highlighted the issue of lack of public safety, especially in their entertainment area. School violence has been characterized as: a violence in school (physical and psychological violenceamong students, bullying and against school property; b violence of the school (through derogatory comments of teachers on students; c violence against the school (devaluation of the teacher and the outcomes of school violence on teacher’s health. Students alsocommented on sexual violence within the family, the teenager as a victim or the perpetrator towards a family member. Conclusions: Violence coping strategies should be established as a health promotion measure for students, teachers and families.

  1. Student experiences with an international public health exchange project.

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    Critchley, Kim A; Richardson, Eileen; Aarts, Clara; Campbell, Barbara; Hemmingway, Ann; Koskinen, Liisa; Mitchell, Maureen P; Nordstrom, Pam

    2009-01-01

    With growing interconnectivity of healthcare systems worldwide and increased immigration, inappropriate cultural and role assumptions are often seen when cultures clash within a country or when there is practice across country boundaries in times of disaster and during international travel. To increase students' multicultural awareness and work experiences abroad, the authors describe a 7-school, 5-country international student exchange project. The authors also share the students' evaluations of their experiences as they are challenged to erase boundaries and embrace nursing across countries. Participating faculty describe the process, challenges, and keys to success found in creating and living this international project. Students involved in the exchange process evaluate the learning opportunities and challenges and the joy of coming together as newfound colleagues and friends.

  2. Training the Next Generation: Developing Health Education Skills in Undergraduate Public Health Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mincey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the looming workforce crisis, undergraduate public health students could be an important link in filling this demand. As public health continues to face challenges in the future, it is important that the future workforce is not only diverse but also trained in a manner that exposes them to real-world experiences that give them an opportunity to apply coursework to solve problems. This article outlines how a health program planning course was taught at a Historically Black College and University using assignments that promote active learning. Students were assessed on their ability to plan and implement a health activity based on a developed metric. Student and instructor reflections were collected from final assessments of the health programs by both groups. All elements of the course are discussed from course design, structure, assignments, and outcomes along with student and instructor reflections and lessons learned. Results suggest that including assignments focused on active learning are beneficial to helping students learn course material. As public health continues to change, more work needs to focus on teaching pedagogies that better prepare students to address future public health issues.

  3. Student learning outcomes associated with video vs. paper cases in a public health dentistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Pickrell, Jacqueline E; Riedy, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Educational technologies such as video cases can improve health professions student learning outcomes, but few studies in dentistry have evaluated video-based technologies. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes associated with video and paper cases used in an introductory public health dentistry course. This was a retrospective cohort study with a historical control group. Based on dual coding theory, the authors tested the hypotheses that dental students who received a video case (n=37) would report better affective, cognitive, and overall learning outcomes than students who received a paper case (n=75). One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses across ten cognitive, two affective, and one general assessment measures (α=0.05). Students in the video group reported a significantly higher overall mean effectiveness score than students in the paper group (4.2 and 3.3, respectively; p<0.001). Video cases were also associated with significantly higher mean scores across the remaining twelve measures and were effective in helping students achieve cognitive (e.g., facilitating good discussions, identifying public health problems, realizing how health disparities might impact their future role as dentists) and affective (e.g., empathizing with vulnerable individuals, appreciating how health disparities impact real people) goals. Compared to paper cases, video cases significantly improved cognitive, affective, and overall learning outcomes for dental students.

  4. Assessment of physical activity in medical and public health students

    OpenAIRE

    Rejali, Mehri; Mostajeran, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reduced level of physical activity, as an important problem of urbanization and industrial development, has a considerable impact on the population morbidity and mortality. The rate of inactivity has been reported to be 60?85% in adults worldwide. Considering the importance of physical activity among youth, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity among university students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study physical activity was assessed in 39...

  5. From primary care to public health: using Problem-based Learning and the ecological model to teach public health to first year medical students.

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    Hoover, Cora R; Wong, Candice C; Azzam, Amin

    2012-06-01

    We investigated whether a public health-oriented Problem-Based Learning case presented to first-year medical students conveyed 12 "Population Health Competencies for Medical Students," as recommended by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Regional Medicine-Public Health Education Centers. A public health-oriented Problem-Based Learning case guided by the ecological model paradigm was developed and implemented among two groups of 8 students at the University of California, Berkeley-UCSF Joint Medical Program, in the Fall of 2010. Using directed content analysis, student-generated written reports were coded for the presence of the 12 population health content areas. Students generated a total of 29 reports, of which 20 (69%) contained information relevant to at least one of the 12 population health competencies. Each of the 12 content areas was addressed by at least one report. As physicians-in-training prepare to confront the challenges of integrating prevention and population health with clinical practice, Problem-Based Learning is a promising tool to enhance medical students' engagement with public health.

  6. Wanted: interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and knowledge translation and exchange training for students of public health.

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    Mishra, Lipi; Banerjee, Ananya T; MacLennan, Mary E; Gorczynski, Paul F; Zinszer, Kate A

    2011-01-01

    Students vocalized their concern with public health training programs in Canada at the 2010 CPHA Centennial Conference. Given these concerns, we reviewed the objectives and curricula of public health graduate (master's) programs in Canada. Our objective was to understand to what extent public and population health graduate programs in Canada support interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) training. This was achieved through a review of all public and population health master's programs in Canada identified from the public health graduate programs listed on the Public Health Agency of Canada website (n = 33) plus an additional four programs that were not originally captured on the list. Of the 37 programs reviewed, 28 (76%) stated that interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary or cross-disciplinary training opportunities are of value to their program, with 12 programs (32%) providing multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary training opportunities in their curriculum. Only 14 (38%) of the 37 programs provided value statements of KTE activities in their program goals or course objectives, with 10 (27%) programs offering KTE training in their curriculum. This review provides a glimpse into how public health programs in Canada value and support interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration as well as KTE activities.

  7. U.S.-Based Short-Term Public Health Cultural Immersion Experience for Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Dorothy Lewis; Biederman, Donna J.

    2017-01-01

    A U.S. and Chinese university developed a short-term student exchange program in public/community health. The program--which consisted of lectures, seminars, field trips, cross-cultural experiences, and a synthesis excursion--resulted in high levels of program satisfaction, increased intrapersonal awareness, and skill acquisition. Program content…

  8. A "Light Bulb Moment" in Understanding Public Health for Undergraduate Students: Evaluation of the Experiential "This Is Public Health" Photo Essay Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Kate Joanne; Hansen, Vibeke; Outram, Suzanne; James, Erica L

    2017-01-01

    A lack of understanding of the importance of public health both within the community and in the tertiary education setting is a significant impediment to improvement in population health. The international campaign "This is Public Health" (TIPH) has been promoted widely as a strategy to increase community awareness and attract and inspire the next generation of public health professionals. This paper describes and evaluates student perceptions of a TIPH photo essay and reflective task in order to explore the pedagogical and learning outcomes related to undergraduate students' public health knowledge. The aim of the analysis was to understand (1) if the task led to increased awareness of public health, and if so, the process of how an understanding of public health develops, and (2) how the interactive nature of the experiential TIPH task leads to depth of understanding. This study was undertaken at the University of Newcastle (UON), NSW, Australia. A qualitative study design using a descriptive case study methodology was employed. One-hundred and thirty-nine undergraduate students taking part in a semester-long, introductory public health course provided informed consent and completed a TIPH photo essay and reflective task as a compulsory assessment. Analysis of the student reflections was performed using a general inductive approach to qualitative thematic analysis. Analysis of the reflections indicated that completion of the photo essay and reflective task revealed two strong thematic clusters each with a number of subthemes. The most important findings were the six strong data clusters around students' new and deeper understanding of Public Health. Additionally, four separate data clusters around the pedagogy of the task were revealed. The task also impacted beyond knowledge improvement and academic performance. Students alluded to an increased appreciation of their own health, a new recognition of the importance of preventative health measures, and an improved

  9. Assessment of graduate public health education in Nepal and perceived needs of faculty and students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the large body of evidence suggesting that effective public health infrastructure is vital to improving the health status of populations, many universities in developing countries offer minimal opportunities for graduate training in public health. In Nepal, for example, only two institutions currently offer a graduate public health degree. Both institutions confer only a general Masters in Public Health (MPH), and together produce 30 graduates per year. The objective of this assessment was to identify challenges in graduate public health education in Nepal, and explore ways to address these challenges. Methods The assessment included in-person school visits and data collection through semi-structured in-depth interviews with primary stakeholders of Nepal’s public health academic sector. The 72 participants included faculty, students, alumni, and leaders of institutions that offered MPH programs, and the leadership of one government-funded institution that is currently developing an MPH program. Data were analyzed through content analysis to identify major themes. Results Six themes characterizing the challenges of expanding and improving graduate public health training were identified: 1) a shortage of trained public health faculty, with consequent reliance on the internet to compensate for inadequate teaching resources; 2) teaching/learning cultures and bureaucratic traditions that are not optimal for graduate education; 3) within-institution dominance of clinical medicine over public health; 4) a desire for practice–oriented, contextually relevant training opportunities; 5) a demand for degree options in public health specialties (for example, epidemiology); and 6) a strong interest in international academic collaboration. Conclusion Despite an enormous need for trained public health professionals, Nepal’s educational institutions face barriers to developing effective graduate programs. Overcoming these barriers will require: 1

  10. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  11. Personal Reflection: Reflections on a Family Health History Assignment for Undergraduate Public Health and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Ronica N.; Ford, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    This personal reflection describes our experiences with incorporating the scholarship of teaching and learning and problem-based techniques to facilitate undergraduate student learning and their professional development in the health sciences. We created a family health history assignment to discuss key concepts in our courses, such as health…

  12. Teaching Undergraduate Students to Visualize and Communicate Public Health Data with Infographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Shanks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which an infographic assignment facilitated student learning around health science issues, as well as the ways in which the assignment was an effective teaching tool. The objectives of the assignment were to (1 understand the purposes of and potential uses for infographics, (2 cultivate creative visual communication skills, and (3 disseminate a complex health topic to diverse audiences. The infographic assignment was developed at Montana State University and piloted at Portland State University. Students were assigned to small groups of three or four to create an infographic focused on a health science issue. The assignment was divided into four steps: brainstorming, developing, designing, and finalizing. Focus groups were conducted to assess how learning occurred throughout the assignment and identify any opportunities for modification of the assignment. This study was conducted with freshman students enrolled at Portland State University, a public university located in downtown Portland, OR, USA. Thirty four students completed the assignment and 31 students participated in one of three focus groups. Four themes emerged from focus groups: (1 Communicating Science-Related Topics to Non-experts, (2 Developing Professional Skills, (3 Understanding Health Issues, and (4 Overall Experience. This article outlines the assignment, discusses focus group results, and presents assignment modifications. It is clear that the infographic assignment facilitated learning about accessing and translating data. This assignment is ideally suited for use with diverse college-age audiences in health education and health promotion fields.

  13. Teaching Undergraduate Students to Visualize and Communicate Public Health Data with Infographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Justin D; Izumi, Betty; Sun, Christina; Martin, Allea; Byker Shanks, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which an infographic assignment facilitated student learning around health science issues, as well as the ways in which the assignment was an effective teaching tool. The objectives of the assignment were to (1) understand the purposes of and potential uses for infographics, (2) cultivate creative visual communication skills, and (3) disseminate a complex health topic to diverse audiences. The infographic assignment was developed at Montana State University and piloted at Portland State University. Students were assigned to small groups of three or four to create an infographic focused on a health science issue. The assignment was divided into four steps: brainstorming, developing, designing, and finalizing. Focus groups were conducted to assess how learning occurred throughout the assignment and identify any opportunities for modification of the assignment. This study was conducted with freshman students enrolled at Portland State University, a public university located in downtown Portland, OR, USA. Thirty four students completed the assignment and 31 students participated in one of three focus groups. Four themes emerged from focus groups: (1) Communicating Science-Related Topics to Non-experts, (2) Developing Professional Skills, (3) Understanding Health Issues, and (4) Overall Experience. This article outlines the assignment, discusses focus group results, and presents assignment modifications. It is clear that the infographic assignment facilitated learning about accessing and translating data. This assignment is ideally suited for use with diverse college-age audiences in health education and health promotion fields.

  14. Ethnic Differences for Public Health Knowledge, Health Advocacy Skills, and Health Information Seeking Among High School Students: Community Agents of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Rao, Satya; Marquez, Ruben

    2018-03-06

    Although adult health advocacy programs have been examined in communities, little is known about integrated adolescent health advocacy programs in high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the health advocacy program impact and ethnic differences among high school students. Using a cross-sectional study, high school students participating in the school-based program completed evaluation surveys. The program domains included upstream causes of health, community assets, and public health advocacy. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine ethnic differences for public health knowledge, health advocacy skills, and health information seeking behaviors. Using thematic analysis, open-ended survey item responses were coded to identify themes for students' perceptions of community health. Non-Hispanic (n = 72) and Hispanic high school students (n = 182) in ten classes reported owning smartphones (95%) and laptops (76%). Most students (72%) reported seeking online health information. Non-Hispanic students reported significantly higher health advocacy skills for speaking with the class about health issues, identifying community services, or creating health awareness at school than Hispanic students. Non-Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from fathers and television than Hispanic students. Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from hospital or clinic staff than non-Hispanic students. Emergent themes included health advocacy skills, community awareness, and individual and community health changes. High schools benefit from integrating health advocacy programs into the core curriculum. Adolescents gain important skills to improve their individual health and engage in changing community health.

  15. Publication ethics from the perspective of PhD students of health sciences: a limited experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Berna

    2012-06-01

    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This article is devoted to the presentation of opinions of PhD candidate students in health sciences in Ankara concerning publication ethics. The data obtained from 143 PhD students from the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary reveal limited but unique experiences. It also shows that plagiarism is one of the worst issues in the publication ethics from the perspective of these young academics.

  16. Understanding student early departure from a Master of Public Health programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dlungwane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Student departure from university without completing a qualification is a major concern in higher education. Higher Education South Africa reported that in undergraduate studies, 35% of students depart after the first year and only 15% of students who enrol complete their degree within the minimum permissible time. At postgraduate level, the departure from Masters programmes in South Africa (SA ranged from 30% to 67% in 2010. Early departure refers to students who leave an academic programme within the first semester of commencing their studies. At one SA university, there were a total of 109 first-time Master of Public Health (MPH student registrations in 2013 and 2014. By the end of the first semester in the respective years, a total of 27 students actively deregistered from the programme and 11 students did not sit the first-semester examinations, representing an aggregate 35% rate of early departure. The factors associated with early departure at the University of KwaZulu-Natal are not well understood. Objective. To understand factors associated with early departure in the MPH programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Method. A mixed-methods design was implemented. Students who departed within the first semester of commencing the MPH programme in 2013/2014 were followed up. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results. Failure to balance work and academic obligations with poor time management, stress and academic demands related to the programme, and insufficient academic progress were found to be associated with student early departure from the MPH programme. Conclusion. Student early departure from the MPH programme was influenced by multifaceted factors. Senior students can mentor new students as early as possible in their programme. The orientation block should include development activities such as time management, stress management and effective study skills to assist

  17. Children's Health Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  18. Employers' perspectives of students in a master of public health (nutrition) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ann; Emrich, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to support workforce development led to the launch of a new master of public health program aimed at improving access to graduate studies for practising nutrition professionals. The first cohort of students identified employer support as a key determinant of their success. In order to identify ways of addressing both student and employer needs, we explored the perspectives of students' employers. Seventeen in-depth, semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with employers. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were organized using NVivo software and coded thematically. All employers indicated support for employee education and development in principle, but most faced practical challenges related to limited staffing during education leaves. Organizational policies varied considerably across employer groups. Collective agreements that guided education policy were seen to ensure consistent support for employees, but also to limit creative approaches to education support in some situations. Employers highly valued graduate student projects that were directly related to the workplace; these projects presented opportunities for collaboration among the university, students, and employers. Universities need to work with employers and other stakeholders to identify ways of overcoming barriers to public health nutrition graduate education and workforce development.

  19. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  20. A public health certificate for all medical students: concepts and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow Velarde, L; Kaufman, A; Wiese, W; Wallerstein, N

    2007-05-01

    The goal of integrating a Public Health Certificate (PHC) into the medical school curriculum is meant to provide basic public health skills and knowledge to all future physicians, ultimately broadening the health workforce's capacity to address community health needs. The faculty at the University of New Mexico's (UNM) School of Medicine (SOM), in collaboration with multiple community stakeholders, created a PHC equivalent to 15 graduate level units. The PHC will be required of all medical students matriculating in 2010. The authors, community leaders, university administrators, faculty, staff, and students met to address the many tasks required of such broad curricular and policy change. The tasks required piloting innovations in curriculum design and implementation, working within the bureaucratic structure, fostering collaboration, nurturing leadership skills, marketing the new ideas, and designing credible evaluation strategies. We have engaged the stakeholders; surveyed our resources; produced and implemented ongoing evaluation; examined implementation strategies; developed, implemented and pilot tested the PHC courses; and engaged faculty from the Department of Family & Community Medicine in faculty development seminars. Introduction of a PHC for all students is feasible with planning tools such as the Logic Model.

  1. Attitudes and values expected of public health nursing students at graduation: A delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mika; Takizawa, Hiroko

    2018-06-01

    The skills and knowledge of the competencies expected of public health nursing (PHN) students at graduation have been clarified; however, the attitudes and values have not yet been studied in Japan. The objective of this study was to identify and reach a consensus among experts on the attitudes and values expected of PHN students at graduation. This survey was conducted as a two-stage Delphi study. We selected the following experts: 248 teachers in the faculty of public health nursing at a university as academic experts, and 250 public health nurses who were also experienced clinical instructors as clinical experts. The round 1 mailed survey was conducted using a questionnaire about the necessity and importance of attitudes and values, and 211 experts responded (42.4%, clinical; n = 124, academic; n = 87). In the Round 2 survey, the experts consisted of 60.2% of the round 1 participants (clinical; n = 73, academic; n = 54). Descriptive statistics were used for multiple imputation. We identified a total of 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, and reached ≥90% consensus for most items (except for one). Regarding the expected achievement level at graduation, there was no difference between clinical and academic experts except for one item. Consensus was clearly achieved for 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, as well as importance and expected achievement level at graduation. In the future, it is important to examine strategies that can effectively develop these attitudes and values through basic and continuous education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time: Are Nigerian health professional students complying with public health guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale L Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Understanding patterns of physical activity and sedentary time is important to effective population-wide primary prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. This study examined the patterns of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and the prevalence of compliance with physical activity guidelines according to different public health recommendations in a sub-population of health professional students in Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 102 health professional students (age = 19-34 years old, 43.1% women of the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Participants wore Actigraph accelerometers on their waist for minimum of 5 days/week to objectively measure intensity and duration of physical activity and sedentary time. Prevalence and demographic patterns of physical activity and sedentary time were examined using descriptive and inferential statistics.The students spent most time in sedentary activity (458.6 ± minutes/day, about 61% of daily time and the least in vigorous-intensity activity (2.1 ± 4.4 minutes/day, about 0.3% of daily time. Sedentary time was higher among older than younger students (P<0.038 and among medical laboratory science students than physiotherapy and nursing students (P = 0.046. Total physical activity was higher among nursing and medical students than medical laboratory science students (P = 0.041. Although, 85.3% of the students engaged in 150 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, only 2.9% met the guideline of 75 minutes/week of vigorous intensity activity.Prevalence of sedentary time was high while that of vigorous-intensity activity was very low among health professional students in Nigeria. Compliance with physical activity guidelines was mainly through accumulation of moderate intensity activity. The results suggest that age and academic programme may influence physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of health professional students in Nigeria

  3. Gun Violence: Two Medical Students' Hometown Connection to This Public Health Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Nicholas O; Lieberman, Monica P

    2018-05-02

    The school shooting in Parkland, Florida in February 2018 left 17 people dead and countless other children and teachers with physical and psychological trauma that will require decades of healing. As Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School alumni and current medical students, the authors of this Invited Commentary contend that they are in a unique position to advocate on behalf of their neighbors, classmates, and future patients. Since the authors began medical school in 2015, there have been 19 mass shootings in the United States resulting in 253 deaths. During this same time period, there have been nearly 100,000 gun-related deaths in the United States. While 60.7% of those gun deaths were suicides, the public must not, and should not, attribute all gun violence to the spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses. Several studies have shown that increased access to firearms directly increases the rate of one of the United States' most pressing public health issues--gun violence. Despite this fact, and as the result of misguided health policies like the Dickey Amendment, the funding for research on gun violence pales in comparison to that for other leading causes of death. Consequently, the health care community has long been without adequate data to engage in evidence-based gun violence prevention and education efforts. As two students on the cusp of beginning their medical careers, the authors argue that they and other health care providers can no longer sit idly on the sidelines as this public health crisis continues to impact the United States.

  4. Online Public Health Education for Low and Middle-Income Countries: Factors Influencing Successful Student Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keir Elmslie James Philip

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Affordable, online public health education could assist health and development in low and middle-income countries. The Peoples-uni (www.Peoples-uni.org aims to provide this through a fully accredited, low cost, online Masters in Public Health. Although literature exists relating to online learners in general, we lack research regarding the characteristics of successful learners in this new student group. This study assessed which readily available information on learners could predict success in course modules. Methods: A descriptive survey method was used to assess correlations between pass rates with students’ personal characteristics (gender, nationality etc and indicators of course engagement (discussion contributions, online profile etc. We sampled all students starting modules between September 2009 and March 2010 (n=218. Results: All indicators of engagement correlated strongly with pass rates, particularly online presence (photo/personal information on profile. Paying for modules correlated with higher pass rates than not. Interestingly, waiving fees correlated with lower pass rates than those who had not paid. Personal characteristics were not related to pass rates. Conclusion: Engagement is important for success, and indicators of which can predict pass rates, the personal characteristics investigated were not related to success. Further research is required to understand the nature of associations this study highlights.

  5. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18–23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  6. Infographic Development by Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing Students: An Innovative Technology-Based Approach to Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nancy L

    Health communications and baccalaureate nursing education are increasingly impacted by new technological tools. This article describes how an Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing program incorporates an infographic assignment into a graduate-level online health information and technology course. Students create colorful, engaging infographics using words and visuals to communicate public health information. The assignment, which incorporates the use of data and evidence, provides students the opportunity to acquire new research and technology skills while gaining confidence creating and innovating. The finished products may be disseminated, serving as vehicles to influence public health and well-being.

  7. Mental Health Services, Free Appropriate Public Education, and Students with Disabilities: Legal Considerations in Identifying, Evaluating, and Providing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell; Smith, Carl; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey

    2018-01-01

    In the past few years, the provision of mental health services in public schools has received considerable attention. When students with disabilities are eligible for special education and related services under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mental health services are required if such services are needed to provide…

  8. Involving students in real-world research: a pilot study for teaching public health and research skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that medical students consider population health issues less important than other domains in the health sciences and attitudes to this field may become more negative as training progresses. A need to improve research skills among medical students has also been suggested. Therefore we piloted an integrative teaching exercise that combined teaching of research skills and public health, with real-world research. Methods Third year medical students at the University of Otago (Dunedin, New Zealand filled in a questionnaire on their housing conditions and health. The students were given the results of the survey to discuss in a subsequent class. Student response to this teaching exercise was assessed using a Course Evaluation Questionnaire. Results Of the 210 students in the class, 136 completed the Course Evaluation Questionnaire (65%. A majority of those who responded (77% greatly supported or supported the use of the survey and seminar discussion for future third year classes. Most (70% thought that the session had made them more aware and concerned about societal problems, and 72% felt that they now had an improved understanding of the environmental determinants of health. Students liked the relevance and interaction of the session, but thought it could be improved by the inclusion of small group discussion. The findings of the students' housing and health were considered by the tutors to be of sufficient value to submit to a scientific journal and are now contributing to community action to improve student housing in the city. Conclusion In this pilot study it was feasible to integrate medical student teaching with real-world research. A large majority of the students responded favourably to the teaching exercise and this was generally successful in raising the profile of public health and research. This approach to integrated teaching/research should be considered further in health sciences training and

  9. SCHIP Directors' Perception of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Rickard, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health insurance coverage increases access to health care. There has been an erosion of employer-based health insurance and a concomitant rise in children covered by public health insurance programs, yet more than 8 million children are still without health insurance coverage. Methods: This study was a national survey to assess the…

  10. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Fink, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between…

  11. A “Light Bulb Moment” in Understanding Public Health for Undergraduate Students: Evaluation of the Experiential “This Is Public Health” Photo Essay Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Joanne Dundas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of understanding of the importance of public health both within the community and in the tertiary education setting is a significant impediment to improvement in population health. The international campaign “This is Public Health” (TIPH has been promoted widely as a strategy to increase community awareness and attract and inspire the next generation of public health professionals. This paper describes and evaluates student perceptions of a TIPH photo essay and reflective task in order to explore the pedagogical and learning outcomes related to undergraduate students’ public health knowledge. The aim of the analysis was to understand (1 if the task led to increased awareness of public health, and if so, the process of how an understanding of public health develops, and (2 how the interactive nature of the experiential TIPH task leads to depth of understanding.MethodsThis study was undertaken at the University of Newcastle (UON, NSW, Australia. A qualitative study design using a descriptive case study methodology was employed. One-hundred and thirty-nine undergraduate students taking part in a semester-long, introductory public health course provided informed consent and completed a TIPH photo essay and reflective task as a compulsory assessment. Analysis of the student reflections was performed using a general inductive approach to qualitative thematic analysis.Results and discussionAnalysis of the reflections indicated that completion of the photo essay and reflective task revealed two strong thematic clusters each with a number of subthemes. The most important findings were the six strong data clusters around students’ new and deeper understanding of Public Health. Additionally, four separate data clusters around the pedagogy of the task were revealed. The task also impacted beyond knowledge improvement and academic performance. Students alluded to an increased appreciation of their own health, a new recognition of the

  12. [Similarities and differences in the social background of female medical, nursing and public health visiting students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feith, Helga Judit; Soósné Kiss, Zsuzsanna; Kovácsné Tóth, Agnes; Balázs, Péter

    2008-06-15

    According to our knowledge, there has never been a comprehensive research in Hungary dealing with healthcare university or college students' social background. The main objectives of our cross-section research were to analyze differences in the social background of female students who decided to become doctors, professional nurses and health visitors. This research was conducted among female medical and nursing college students at the Semmelweis University. There were 295 students invited to participate, the response rate was 68,08% (N = 201). Data analysis was performed by SPSS software by using descriptive methods of statistics. We found a decisive difference among medical, nursing and health visitor students while analyzing a number of socio-demographic characteristics. Most medical students came from families where the parents had college or university degrees, but we can state that there is a minimal likelihood in the case of college students that they are descendants of parents with higher educational degrees. We did not find statistical differences in the three student sample groups regarding their marital status, but fewer nursing college students lived in marriage or household partnership. We found a significant difference in the social background of nursing college and medical students. The social disadvantages of nursing and health visitor students are more considerable than those of medical students.

  13. Implementation of a competency-based medical education approach in public health and epidemiology training of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dankner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing agreement among medical educators regarding the importance of improving the integration between public health and clinical education, understanding and implementation of epidemiological methods, and the ability to critically appraise medical literature. The Sackler School of Medicine at Tel-Aviv University revised its public health and preventive medicine curriculum, during 2013–2014, according to the competency-based medical education (CBME approach in training medical students. We describe the revised curriculum, which aimed to strengthen competencies in quantitative research methods, epidemiology, public health and preventive medicine, and health service organization and delivery. Methods We report the process undertaken to establish a relevant 6-year longitudinal curriculum and describe its contents, implementation, and continuous assessment and evaluation. Results Central competencies included: epidemiology and statistics for appraisal of the literature and implementation of research; the application of health promotion principles and health education strategies in disease prevention; the use of an evidence-based approach in clinical and public health decision making; the examination and analysis of disease trends at the population level; and knowledge of the structure of health systems and the role of the physician in these systems. Two new courses, in health promotion, and in public health, were added to the curriculum, and the courses in statistics and epidemiology were joined. Annual evaluation of each course results in continuous revisions of the syllabi as needed, while we continue to monitor the whole curriculum. Conclusions The described revision in a 6 year-medical school training curriculum addresses the currently identified needs in public health. Ongoing feedback from students, and re-evaluation of syllabus by courses teams are held annually. Analysis of student’s written feedbacks

  14. Public Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ian health ministry, and the Canadian. International ... Tanzanian and Canadian researchers began work on ... information on the major causes of death ... The effects have been dramatic. Accord- ... destroy mosquito breeding grounds, such.

  15. Self-perceived competency among postgraduate students of public health dentistry in India: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Khanagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The professional profile of the public health dentist is made up of a number of competencies. Evaluation of the student′s performance in relation to the specified competencies is an important task for purposes of student evaluation and for assessing the curriculum and making necessary revisions. Aim: The aim was to assess the level of self-perceived competency in dental public health among postgraduate (PG students in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among the PG students in the specialty of public health dentistry in India. Their competency was assessed by a questionnaire sent through E-mail. Students assessed their competence in these dental public health functions using a 3 point ordinal scale, 0 indicating "not at all competent," 1 as "competent," and 2 as "very competent." Chi-square has been used for categorical variables. Results: One-hundred and twenty-four PG students responded to the questionnaire. Comparison was made for gender and academic year. Males were significantly competent to comply infection control policies and procedures (P < 0.040FNx01. Third year PG students were significantly competent to comply infection control policies and procedures (P < 0.017 and to adapt their dental practice to the existing laws and regulations (P < 0.45. Conclusion: In the present study, the PG students considered themselves more competent to elaborate the socioeconomic-cultural diagnosis of the community, to participate in epidemiological surveillance system and less competent to adopt ethical principles in all aspects of community oral health activities, to take up initiatives in advocacy issues for health policy and using media effectively.

  16. Prevalence of depression among successful and unsuccessful students of Public Health and Nursing-Midwifery schools of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Baghiani Moghaddam

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion: Public Health and Nursing- Midwifery students in Yazd had a high prevalence of depression. Therefore planning is required to support advisory services to control and prevent depression among students.

  17. Public Health Departments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — State and Local Public Health Departments in the United States Governmental public health departments are responsible for creating and maintaining conditions that...

  18. ACADEMIC STRESS IN STUDENTS FROM HEALTH DEPARTMENTS IN A PUBLIC UNIVERSITY OF CARTAGENA-COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo-Prieto Amparo; Blanco-Blanco Katerin; Cantillo-Martínez Neyi; Castro-González Yuldor; Downs-Bryan Agatha; Romero-Villadiego Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: stress is a factor that influences in the quality of life and performance of the individual. It appears when a person identifies dangerous situations that exceeds its own resources and endanger its own being-well. Objective: to describe the stress level in university students from health departments in Cartagena-Colombia. Methods: a descriptive study was carried out in 266 female students chosen by random probabilistic sampling from departments of Nursing, Dent...

  19. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3 rd year, 4 th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0-21), neutral attitude (score 22-44), and positive attitude (score 45-64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P attitude toward selecting public health dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it.

  20. Promoting Health Through Policy and Systems Change: Public Health Students and Mentors on the Value of Policy Advocacy Experience in Academic Internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Daniela; Pell, Dylan; Forster-Cox, Sue; Garcia, Evelyn; Ornelas, Sophia; Bandstra, Brenna; Mata, Holly

    2017-05-01

    Emerging professionals and new Certified Health Education Specialists often lack academic training in and actual experience in National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Area of Responsibility VII: Communicate, Promote, and Advocate for Health, Health Education/Promotion, and the Profession. For undergraduate and graduate students who have an opportunity to complete an internship or practicum experience, gaining experience in Competencies 7.2: Engage in advocacy for health and health education/promotion and 7.3: Influence policy and/or systems change to promote health and health education can have a profound impact on their career development and their ability to advocate for policies that promote health and health equity. Compelling evidence suggests that interventions that address social determinants of health such as poverty and education and those that change the context through improved policy or healthier environments have the greatest impact on public health, making it vital for emerging public health professionals to gain experience in policy advocacy and systems change. In this commentary, students and faculty from two large universities in the U.S.-Mexico border region reflect on the value of policy advocacy in academic internship/fieldwork experiences. Based on their experiences, they highly recommend that students seek out internship opportunities where they can participate in policy advocacy, and they encourage university faculty and practicum preceptors to provide more opportunities for policy advocacy in both classroom and fieldwork settings.

  1. Effects of a blended learning approach on student outcomes in a graduate-level public health course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-03-11

    Blended learning approaches, in which in-person and online course components are combined in a single course, are rapidly increasing in health sciences education. Evidence for the relative effectiveness of blended learning versus more traditional course approaches is mixed. The impact of a blended learning approach on student learning in a graduate-level public health course was examined using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Exam scores and course point total data from a baseline, "traditional" approach semester (n = 28) was compared to that from a semester utilizing a blended learning approach (n = 38). In addition, student evaluations of the blended learning approach were evaluated. There was a statistically significant increase in student performance under the blended learning approach (final course point total d = 0.57; a medium effect size), even after accounting for previous academic performance. Moreover, student evaluations of the blended approach were very positive and the majority of students (83%) preferred the blended learning approach. Blended learning approaches may be an effective means of optimizing student learning and improving student performance in health sciences courses.

  2. Effects of a blended learning approach on student outcomes in a graduate-level public health course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Blended learning approaches, in which in-person and online course components are combined in a single course, are rapidly increasing in health sciences education. Evidence for the relative effectiveness of blended learning versus more traditional course approaches is mixed. Method The impact of a blended learning approach on student learning in a graduate-level public health course was examined using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Exam scores and course point total data from a baseline, “traditional” approach semester (n = 28) was compared to that from a semester utilizing a blended learning approach (n = 38). In addition, student evaluations of the blended learning approach were evaluated. Results There was a statistically significant increase in student performance under the blended learning approach (final course point total d = 0.57; a medium effect size), even after accounting for previous academic performance. Moreover, student evaluations of the blended approach were very positive and the majority of students (83%) preferred the blended learning approach. Conclusions Blended learning approaches may be an effective means of optimizing student learning and improving student performance in health sciences courses. PMID:24612923

  3. Levels and Patterns of Objectively Assessed Physical Activity and Compliance with Different Public Health Guidelines in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Palencia, Natalia María; Solera-Martínez, Monserrat; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Silva, Pedro; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Cañete-García-Prieto, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with health enhancement. The aim of this study was to assess: 1) levels and patterns of PA in university students by using accelerometers; and 2) the percentage of fulfilment of PA recommendations for adults, according to different public health guidelines. Methods Observational cross-sectional study (Cuenca’s Adults Study) involving 296 (206 women) healthy Spanish university students aged 18–25 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Total PA, steps and time spent in sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed, and the prevalence of sufficient PA was calculated according to various public health guidelines. Results No sex differences in total PA were found. University students were more sedentary during weekend days than weekdays (pstudents met the recommendation of 150 min/week of MVPA or 75 min/week of vigorous PA, in PA bouts of at least 10 min. using the same definition, but on five or more days a week, only 0.5% students were found to meet the recommendation. In addition, only 0.5% of students met the recommendation of 30 min/day of MVPA, at least five days a week and in bouts of at least 10 min. Finally, 28.1% of the students met the recommendation of 10,000 steps/day. Conclusions Our study shows a high incidence of sedentary time in university students. The number of students meeting PA recommendations significantly differed depending on the recommendation proposed. Specific strategies to promote PA in this population are necessary as well as an agreement as to which PA guidelines should be used. PMID:26536605

  4. Is there a crack epidemic among students in Brazil?: comments on media and public health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappo, Solange Aparecida; Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Luciana Abeid

    2012-09-01

    In the past year, the Brazilian Federal Government and society have reported and acted on a crack use epidemic, which has been exacerbated by the media. This study hypothesized that crack use has not increased at the rate suggested by the Brazilian media. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 using a multistage probabilistic representative sample of Brazilian middle and high school students in the country's 27 state capitals. A total of 50,890 valid questionnaires were weighted, analyzed and results compared to the 2004 national school survey dataset. Considering lifetime and past year crack use, no change in consumption was found between 2004 and 2010. Official data in Brazil on middle and high school students does not support the assertion of a crack epidemic widely publicized by the media. Government measures to treat and prevent crack use are encouraged; however, the term epidemic has been inappropriately used to represent the static prevalence of crack consumption among students.

  5. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  6. Essential Public Health Competencies for Medical Students: Establishing a Consensus in Family Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Christopher P; Rosas, Scott R; Mishori, Ranit; Jordan, William; Jarris, Yumi Shitama; Competencies Work Group, Family Medicine/Public Health; Prunuske, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: The integration of public health (PH) competency training into medical education, and further integration of PH and primary care, has been urged by the U.S. Institute of Medicine. However, PH competencies are numerous, and no consensus exists over which competencies are most important for adoption by current trainees. Our objective was to conduct a group concept mapping exercise with stakeholders identifying the most important and feasible PH skills to incorporate in medical and residency curricula. We utilized a group concept mapping technique via the Concept System Global Max ( http://www.conceptsystems.com ), where family medicine educators and PH professionals completed the phrase, "A key Public Health competency for physicians-in-training to learn is …" with 1-10 statements. The statement list was edited for duplication and other issues; stakeholders then sorted the statements and rated them for importance and feasibility of integration. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to create a two-dimensional point map of domains of PH training, allowing visual comparison of groupings of related ideas and relative importance of these ideas. There were 116 nonduplicative statements (225 total) suggested by 120 participants. Three metacategories of competencies emerged: Clinic, Community & Culture, Health System Understanding, and Population Health Science & Data. Insights: We identified and organized a set of topics that serve as a foundation for the integration of family medicine and PH education. Incorporating these topics into medical education is viewed as important and feasible by family medicine educators and PH professions.

  7. The Effectiveness of a Cohort Model as a Predictor of Grade Point Average and Graduation Status of Pre-Health Sciences Students in a Public Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Elvis Nash

    2017-01-01

    There is a college completion crisis in the United States. In today's competitive job market, health sciences students cannot afford to fail in their educational attainment. The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in the cohort model is a predictor of the success of public community college pre-health sciences students.…

  8. Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behavior among public secondary school students in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-12-28

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  9. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about public health nutrition among students of the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Hyska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the

  10. A Web-Based Course on Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response: Survey Among Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Greta; Liu, Sida

    2018-01-01

    Background Web-based public health courses are becoming increasingly popular. “Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response” is a unique Web-based course in Hong Kong. This course aimed to fill a public health training gap by reaching out to postgraduates who are unable to access face-to-face learning. Objective The aim of this paper was to use a structured framework to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based course according to Greenhalgh et al’s quality framework and the Donabedian model to make recommendations for program improvement. Methods An interim evaluation of the first cohort of students in 2014 was conducted according to the Donabedian model and a quality framework by Greenhalgh et al using objective and self-reported data. Results Students who registered for the first cohort (n=1152) from June 16, 2014 to December 15, 2014 (6 months) were surveyed. Two tutors and the course director were interviewed. The Web-based course was effective in using technology to deliver suitable course materials and assessment and to enhance student communication, support, and learning. Of the total number of students registered, 59.00% (680/1152) were nonlocal, originating from 6 continents, and 72.50% (835/1152) possessed a bachelor’s or postgraduate degree. The completion rate was 20.00% (230/1152). The chi-square test comparing students who completed the course with dropouts showed no significant difference in gender (P=.40), age (P=.98), occupation (P=.43), or qualification (P=.17). The cost (HK $272 per student) was lower than that of conducting a face-to-face course (HK $4000 per student). Conclusions The Web-based course was effective in using technology to deliver a suitable course and reaching an intended audience. It had a higher completion rate than other Web-based courses. However, sustainable sources of funding may be needed to maintain the free Web-based course. PMID:29374007

  11. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768

  12. Innovation in values based public health nursing student selection: A qualitative evaluation of candidate and selection panel member perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Caroline; Abbott, Stephen; Brook, Judy

    2018-02-19

    Values based recruitment emerges from the premise that a high degree of value congruence, or the extent to which an individual's values are similar to those of the health organization in which they work, leads to organizational effectiveness. The aim of this evaluation was to explore how candidates and selection panel members experienced and perceived innovative methods of values based public health nursing student selection. The evaluation was framed by a qualitative exploratory design involving semi-structured interviews and a group exercise. Data were thematically analyzed. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with selection panel members. Twenty-two successful candidates took part in a group exercise. The use of photo elicitation interviews and situational judgment questions in the context of selection to a university-run public health nursing educational program was explored. While candidates were ambivalent about the use of photo elicitation interviews, with some misunderstanding the task, selection panel members saw the benefits for improving candidate expression and reducing gaming and deception. Situational interview questions were endorsed by candidates and selection panel members due to their fidelity to real-life problems and the ability of panel members to discern value congruence from candidates' responses. Both techniques offered innovative solutions to candidate selection for entry to the public health nursing education program. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  14. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  15. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  16. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  17. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  18. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  19. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3rd year, 4th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0–21), neutral attitude (score 22–44), and positive attitude (score 45–64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Conclusion: Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it. PMID:28182073

  20. Environmental Public Health Tracking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast series, CDC scientists address frequently asked questions about the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, including using and applying data, running queries, and much more.

  1. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    "Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...

  2. A public health perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    EDITORIAL. Enabling local health departments to save more lives: A public ... promoting health through the organized efforts of society” (1) ... and synergistic with achieving the sustainable development goals because its furtherance brings a ...

  3. Street-level bureaucracy and policy implementation in community public health nursing: a qualitative study of the experiences of student and novice health visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alison; Condon, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Aim To explore the experiences of student and novice health visitors in implementing health visiting policy reform pre- and post-qualification. In England, public health nursing has been subject to major policy reform. The Health Visitor Implementation Plan (2011) set out a plan to recruit increasing numbers of nurses and midwives to the profession to deliver an expanded and refocussed health visiting service. Exploring this policy change from the viewpoint of those new to health visiting offers a unique perspective into how a specific policy vision is translated into nursing practice. A descriptive qualitative study in which participants were enrolled on a one-year post-graduate health visiting course at a University in South West of England. Qualitative data were collected pre- and post-qualification. A total of 16 interviews and a focus group were conducted with nine participants between September 2012 and March 2013. Findings Descriptive data were interpreted using Lipsky's theoretical framework of street-level bureaucracy. Three themes emerged which relate to this 'bottom-up' perspective on policy implementation; readiness to operationalise policy, challenges in delivering the service vision; and using discretion in delivering the vision. Community public health nurses operate as street-level bureaucrats in negotiating the demands of policy and practice, and by this means, attempt to reconcile professional values with institutional constraints. Barriers to policy implementation at a local level mediate the effects of policy reform, ultimately impacting upon outcomes for children and families.

  4. Physical education Teachers' and public health Nurses' perception of Norwegian high school Students' participation in physical education - a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Omfjord, Christina S; Rohde, Gudrun

    2015-12-24

    High quality physical education programs in high schools may facilitate adoption of sustainable healthy living among adolescents. Public health nurses often meet students who avoid taking part in physical education programs. We aimed to explore physical education teachers' and public health nurses' perceptions of high school students' attitudes towards physical education, and to explore physical education teachers' thoughts about how to facilitate and promote students' participation in class. Prior to an initiative from physical education teachers, introducing a new physical education model in two high schools in the South of Norway, we conducted focus groups with 6 physical education teachers and 8 public health nurses. After implementation of the new model, we conducted two additional focus group interviews with 10 physical education teachers. In analyses we used Systematic Text Condensation and an editing analysis style. In general, the students were experienced as engaged and appreciating physical education lessons. Those who seldom attended often strived with other subjects in school as well, had mental health problems, or were characterized as outsiders in several arenas. Some students were reported to be reluctant to expose their bodies in showers after class, and students who seldom attended physical education class frequently visited the school health services. Although the majority of students were engaged in class, several of the students lacked knowledge about physical fitness and motoric skills to be able to master daily activities. The participants related the students' competence and attitude towards participation in physical education class to previous experiences in junior high school, to the competence of physical education teachers, and to possibility for students to influence the content of physical education programs. The participants suggested that high school students' attitudes towards participation in physical education is heterogeneous

  5. Public health and Plowshare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, Jr, J G [Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, U.S. PubIic Health Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  6. Public health and Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, J.G. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  7. Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health: evaluation of competencies and needs among Polish and Lithuanian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Kregzdyte, Rima; Krikstaponyte, Zita; Ziomkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Foreign languages are becoming an essential prerequisite for a successful carrier among all professions including public health professionals in many countries. The expanding role of English as a mode of communication allows for university graduates to project and to seek their career in English-speaking countries. The present study was carried out in the framework of EU Leonardo da Vinci project "Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health." The study aimed to get a deeper insight how the English language is perceived as a foreign language, by Polish and Lithuanian public health students, what is level of their language competence, which level of English proficiency they expect to use in future. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 246 respondents completed the special questionnaires in autumn semester in 2005. A questionnaire form was developed by the international project team. For evaluation of English competences, the Language Passport (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages of Council of Europe) was applied. RESULTS. Current self-rated proficiency of the English language was at the same level for Lithuanian (3.47+/-1.14) and Polish (3.31+/-0.83) respondents (P>0.05). Majority of respondents (88.6% of Lithuanian and 87.8% of Polish) reported using the English language for their current studies. Respondents reported a significant increase in necessity for higher level of English proficiency in future: mean scores provided by respondents changed from B1 level to B2 level. Respondents gave priority to less formal and practice-based interactive English teaching methods (going abroad, contacts with native speakers) in comparison with theory-oriented methods of learning (self-studying, Internet courses). CONCLUSIONS. Similar levels of English language in all five areas of language skills were established in Polish and Lithuanian university students. Respondents gave more priorities to less formal and practice-based interactive

  8. Violence in public schools and health promotion: reports and dialogues with students and teachers - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Ovídia José de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze perceptions about the interaction between health and environment, from the reports and conversations with teenagers and teachers from two public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on violence and health promotion. Methods: Descriptive and qualitative study, conducted from February to June 2009, involving 153 students of two public schools in Rio de Janeiro and 17 teachers. Data collection among students was carried out by means of participant observation with notes in a field diary, a semi-structured questionnaire and focus groups. Among teachers, participant observation with notes in a field diary and study group were adopted. A thematic analysis was performed, seeking to establish units of meaning. Results: The reports of the students presented discussions on three forms of violence: urban, school and sexual violence within the family. About urban violence, the students highlighted the issue of lack of public safety, especially in their entertainment area. School violence has been characterized as: a violence in school (physical and psychological violence among students, bullying and against school property; b violence of the school (through derogatory comments of teachers on students; c violence against the school (devaluation of the teacher and the outcomes of school violence on teacher’s health. Students also commented on sexual violence within the family, the teenager as a victim or the perpetrator towards a family member. Conclusions: Violence coping strategies should be established as a health promotion measure for students, teachers and families.

  9. A cross-sectional study to explore postgraduate students? understanding of and beliefs about sexual and reproductive health in a public university, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Soleymani, Shahla; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Lekhraj, Rampal; Mohd Zulkefli, Nor Afiah; Matinnia, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background The main sexual and reproductive health issues among young people are premarital sexual intercourse, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health among Malaysian postgraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among postgraduate students by systematic random sampli...

  10. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  11. Attitudes toward Shock Advertising of Western-European and Serbian University Students With Regard To Public Health Context (Anti-Smoking and Anti-HIV/AIDS Campaigns)

    OpenAIRE

    Krstic, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to examine attitudes toward shock advertising of western-European and Serbian university students with regard to public health context (anti-smoking and anti-HIV/AIDS campaigns). Although the use of shock advertising is widely adopted in practice, there has not been extensive research with regard to this topic. Public health context is of special interest in this dissertation as there is an urge for social marketing on Serbian market. The results of ...

  12. Issues in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sim, Fiona; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    ..., there is increasing understanding of the inevitable limits of individual health care and of the need to complement such services with effective public health strategies. Major improvements in people's health will come from controlling communicable diseases, eradicating environmental hazards, improving people's diets and enhancing the availability ...

  13. Public health and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  14. Influencing public health without authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present processes, products and needs of post-graduate public health education for the health programming, implementation and oversight responsibilities at field level and suggests some solutions for the institutes to adopt or adapt for improving the quality of their scholars. Large number of institutions has cropped up in India in the recent years to meet the growing demand of public health specialists/practitioners in various national health projects, international development partners, national and international NGOs. Throwing open MPH courses to multi-disciplinary graduate's is a new phenomenon in India and may be a two edged sword. On one hand it is advantageous to produce multi-faceted Public health postgraduates to meet the multi tasking required, on the other hand getting all of them to a common basic understanding, demystifying technical teaching and churning out products that are acceptable to the traditional health system. These Institutions can and must influence public health in the country through producing professionals of MPH/ MD degree with right attitude and skill-mix. Engaging learners in experimentation, experience sharing projects, stepping into health professionals' roles and similar activities lead to development of relatively clear and permanent neural traces in the brain. The MPH institutes may not have all efficient faculties, for which they should try to achieve this by inviting veterans in public health and professionals from corporate health industry for interface with students on a regular basis. The corporate and public health stalwarts have the capacities to transmit the winning skills and knowledge and also inspire them to adopt or adapt in order to achieve the desired goals.

  15. Evaluation of a Behavioral Self-Care Intervention for Public Health Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marney A.; Mayer, Margaret; Vanderlind, W. Michael; Allswede, Dana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Postgraduate education is recognized as a time of intense stress. Rates of anxiety and depression are elevated among graduate students, and longitudinal studies have documented increases in clinical symptoms over the course of training. Purpose: The current study was to evaluate whether an academically sponsored self-care intervention…

  16. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  17. Regular and negative self-rated health in students from a public university fromNortheastern,Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira de Sousa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is a major health indicator and has been widely used in epidemiologic surveys. Current study analyzes the factors associated to regular and negative self-rated health in Brazilian college students. Current investigation is a segment of the 2010 MONISA study carried out in a Brazilian public university with 5,461 students. Estimated sample comprised 1,232 university students and results showed self-rated regular and negative health. Multinomial logistic regression estimated Odds Ratio (OR. The factors associated to regular health self-evaluation negative assessment of relationship with professors (OR: 1.85; CI95%: 1.20-2.87; inactivity in leisure (OR: 2.34; CI95%: 1.73-3.16; insufficient consumption of vegetables; almost daily consumption of soft drinks; assessment of intermediate and negative stress (OR: 3.34; CI95%: 2.11-5.28. Students inactive in leisure (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.09-5.13, students with self-evaluated negative stress (OR: 10.1; 95%CI: 3.23-31.8 and obese students (OR: 4.52; 95%CI: 1.36-15.0 were associated to the negative health self-assessment. It has been verified that health behavior is rather associated to the regular self-assessment of health, whereas perceptive and biological indicators were more associated to negative health self-assessment.

  18. Prevention and health promotion from theory to practice: The interprofessional MeMPE Summer University for students of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idler, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During the 2015 summer semester of Munich’s Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU medical school, the pilot project “MeMPE Summer University – An Interprofessional Seminar on Prevention and Health Promotion” was implemented as a compulsory elective subject. In 90 teaching units of 45 minutes each, 20 students from the degree programs of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Master of Science Epidemiology (MeMPE completed modules in theoretical introduction, scientific project work as well as practical assignments and conference attendance.Methods: The project was evaluated by students using pre- and post-project questionnaires (26 and 57 items, evaluated on a Five-level Likert scale of 1=“fully agree” to 5=“fully disagree”. The evaluation interviews of the instruction participants were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to Mayring’s qualitative content analysis.Results: Questionnaire response rate was 100 %. In pre/post comparison, the students reported an improvement in factual knowledge (pre median=3.0; post median=2.0; p<0.0001, in scientific work (pre median=3.0; post median=1.0; p<0.0001 and in interprofessional work (pre median=2.0; post median=1.0; p=0.024. In 18 interviews, the instructors largely expressed their motivation to participate in the project again.Conclusion: The MeMPE Summer University can serve as an example of best practice for interprofessional communication of prevention and health-promotion topics in theory and practice. The evaluation results show that the project enjoyed a high level of acceptance among students and instructors, and that it should be conducted in a revised version again in 2016.

  19. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, mul...

  20. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. The Part-Time Student Role: Implications for the Emotional Experience of Managing Multiple Roles amongst Hong Kong Public Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ann Tak-Ying

    1999-01-01

    Nine public-health nurses studying part time and 11 other nurses sampled their mood states randomly over seven days. The part-time student role created additional strain for nurses with children. The stress of managing multiple roles was greatest when both work and nonwork role responsibilities were heavy. (SK)

  2. Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, Jan D; Patterson, Davis G

    2003-05-01

    To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.

  3. Building the pipeline: programs to introduce middle school, high school, medical, and veterinary students to careers in epidemiology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Ralph L; Cordeira, Kelly L; Cohen, Laurence P; Bensyl, Diana M

    2017-11-01

    This report describes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention programs that expose students to epidemiology and public health sciences (EPHS). The Science Ambassador workshop targets middle and high school teachers and promotes teaching EPHS in the classroom. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event is an extracurricular science competition for middle and high school students based on investigations of outbreaks and other public health problems. The Epidemiology Elective Program provides experiential learning activities for veterinary and medical students. As of 2016, 234 teachers from 37 states and territories and three other countries participated in SA workshops. Several are teaching units or entire courses in EPHS. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event exposed approximately 15,000 middle and high school students to EPHS during the 2015-2016 school year. The Epidemiology Elective Program has exposed 1,795 veterinary and medical students to EPHS. Students can master fundamental concepts of EPHS as early as middle school and educators are finding ways to introduce this material into their classrooms. Programs to introduce veterinary and medical students to EPHS can help fill the gap in exposing older students to the field. Professional organizations can assist by making their members aware of these programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders

    2015-01-01

    in the theoretical as well as the practical potential of the public health professional. Thus, he and she must be able to perform, what WHO Europe has developed as Essential Public Health Operations (EPHOs).3 This, in turn, implies that the public health professional possesses the set of intellectual (knowledge...... endorsed by WHO Europe’s member states as the basis for the public health education in Europe.5 The sections of the lists include: Public health methods; Population health and: Its social and economic determinants, and: Its material environmental determinants; Man-made interventions and systems, namely...... Health policy, health economics, organizational theory, health legislation, and public health leadership and management; Health promotion—health education, health protection, disease prevention; public health ethics. This should form the central part of the basis for all public health professionals...

  5. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  6. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  7. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  8. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  9. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  10. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eYeatts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an experience trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they cover key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.

  11. Contributions of Public Health to nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Method: Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Final considerations: Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care.

  12. Bioethics and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Penchaszadeh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the evolution of bioethics a discipline from its initial focus, concerned with issues of personal autonomy and the conflicts around the use of complex technology in medicine, to where it is now; focused on major population issues in public health, with a focus on equality, justice and the right to health. As part of this it considers the 18 guiding principles and issues in bioethics contained in the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights of UNESCO.

  13. Facebook and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey about the perceptions and practices of social media managers and experts in the area of public health. We have collected Facebook data from 153 public health care organizations and conducted a survey on them. 12% of organizations responded to the questionnaire....... The survey results were combined with the findings from our previous work of applying clustering and supervised learning algorithms on big social data from the official Facebook walls of these organizations. In earlier research, we showed that the most successful strategy that leads to higher post engagement...... is visual content. In this paper, we investigated if organisations pursue this strategy or some other strategy that was successful and has not been uncovered by the machine learning algorithms. Performance of each organisation on Facebook is based on the number of posts (volume share) and the number...

  14. Geomatics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, R; Jhonson, C P

    2006-01-01

    Geomatics technology has tremendous potential to address public health issues particularly under the present circumstances of global climate change and climate or technology induced human migration, which result in an increase in the geographical extent and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases. The authors present an overview of the science of geomatics, describe the potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases and review the applications of remote sensing for disease vector surveillance.

  15. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  16. A cross-sectional study to explore postgraduate students' understanding of and beliefs about sexual and reproductive health in a public university, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Shahla; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Lekhraj, Rampal; Mohd Zulkefli, Nor Afiah; Matinnia, Nasrin

    2015-08-29

    The main sexual and reproductive health issues among young people are premarital sexual intercourse, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health among Malaysian postgraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out among postgraduate students by systematic random sampling technique. A pre-tested self administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Out of 434 respondents, the majority of students were female (78.6 %) and single (78.3 %). The overall mean age of respondents was 27.0 ranging from 20 to 46 years of age. The main sources of information for sexual and reproductive health awareness were the internet (78.6 %) and newspaper (61.8 %). The majority (97.9 %) of the students knew that AIDS is a sexually transmitted disease. Most of them believed that the spread of sexually transmitted diseases was through shaking hands (92.1 %). Use of condoms was perceived to be the best way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (88.4 %). Sexual and reproductive health knowledge was significantly associated with the students' age, marital status and faculty. The socio-demographic factors and current educational status accounted for a significant 9 % of the variability in sexual and reproductive health knowledge, f (7, 426) = 11, p knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was not satisfactory. Sexual and reproductive health knowledge was associated with the students' marital status and faculty. Intervention programs related to sexual and reproductive health are recommended.

  17. Tracking Master of Public Health graduates: Linking higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Master of Public Health (MPH) students come from a wide range of health professional backgrounds. Graduate programmes in public health should equip alumni with knowledge and skills to analyse and integrate health research findings, and have a practical approach to current public health issues. In South ...

  18. The new frontier of public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, David; Gretsinger, Kathryn; Ellis, Ursula

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to describe the experience and educational benefits of a course that has several unique educational design features. Design/methodology/approach This includes narrative description of faculty and student experience from participants in a flipped-instructional-design inter-professional education course. Findings "Improving Public Health - An Interprofessional Approach to Designing and Implementing Effective Interventions" is an undergraduate public health course open to students regardless of background. Its student activities mirror the real-life tasks and challenges of working in a public health agency, including team-building and leadership; problem and project definition and prioritization; evidence-finding and critical appraisal; written and oral presentation; and press interviews. Students successfully developed project proposals to address real problems in a wide range of communities and settings and refined those proposals through interaction with professionals from population and public health, journalism and library sciences. Practical implications Undergraduate public health education is a relatively new endeavor, and experience with this new approach may be of value to other educators. Originality/value Students in this course, journalism graduate students who conducted mock interviews with them and instructors who oversaw the course all describe unique aspects and related personal benefit from this novel approach.

  19. Training public health superheroes: five talents for public health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Matthew; Shickle, Darren; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leaders have been criticized for their policy stances, relationships with governments and failure to train the next generation. New approaches to the identification and training of public health leaders may be required. To inform these, lessons can be drawn from public health 'superheroes'; public health leaders perceived to be the most admired and effective by their peers. Members and Fellows of the UK Faculty of Public Health were contacted via e-newsletter and magazine and asked to nominate their 'Public Health Superhero'. Twenty-six responses were received, nominating 40 different people. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis, based on 'grounded theory', was conducted. Five leadership 'talents' for public health were identified: mentoring-nurturing, shaping-organizing, networking-connecting, knowing-interpreting and advocating-impacting. Talent-based approaches have been effective for leadership development in other sectors. These talents are the first specific to the practice of public health and align with some aspects of existing frameworks. An increased focus on identifying and developing talents during public health training, as opposed to 'competency'-based approaches, may be effective in strengthening public health leadership. Further research to understand the combination and intensity of talents across a larger sample of public health leaders is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A global public health imperative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    Actions towards closing the health equity gap: A global public health imperative. Tewabech ... global health development. With only two ... of himself and of his family; including food, clothing .... impact on health equity and in the end issued the.

  1. Nanotechnology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Tanır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new revolution in technology; being used in different parts of life such as self-cleaning paints, dirt repellent fabrics, the destruction of cancer cells without harming the person, biosensors that can detect even a single bacterium, odorless socks due to the destruction of bacteria, germ-free refrigerators, disinfection etc. In this article, we consider in the perspective of public health the possible risks of this new technology, which is starting to appear in all areas of our daily lives. 

  2. Advances in dental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R D

    2001-07-01

    Dental public health has been defined as 'the science and art of preventing oral diseases, promoting oral health and improving the quality of life through the organised efforts of society'. Dental practitioners most often have the oral health of individual patients as their primary focus but the aim of public health is to benefit populations. Early developments in dental public health were concerned largely with demonstrating levels of disease and with treatment services. With greater appreciation of the nature of oral health and disease, and of their determinants has come recognition of the need for wider public health action if the effects of prevention and oral health promotion are to be maximized.

  3. A comparison of classroom and online asynchronous problem-based learning for students undertaking statistics training as part of a Public Health Masters degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N; Verstegen, D M L; Tan, F E S; O'Connor, S J

    2013-05-01

    This case-study compared traditional, face-to-face classroom-based teaching with asynchronous online learning and teaching methods in two sets of students undertaking a problem-based learning module in the multilevel and exploratory factor analysis of longitudinal data as part of a Masters degree in Public Health at Maastricht University. Students were allocated to one of the two study variants on the basis of their enrolment status as full-time or part-time students. Full-time students (n = 11) followed the classroom-based variant and part-time students (n = 12) followed the online asynchronous variant which included video recorded lectures and a series of asynchronous online group or individual SPSS activities with synchronous tutor feedback. A validated student motivation questionnaire was administered to both groups of students at the start of the study and a second questionnaire was administered at the end of the module. This elicited data about student satisfaction with the module content, teaching and learning methods, and tutor feedback. The module coordinator and problem-based learning tutor were also interviewed about their experience of delivering the experimental online variant and asked to evaluate its success in relation to student attainment of the module's learning outcomes. Student examination results were also compared between the two groups. Asynchronous online teaching and learning methods proved to be an acceptable alternative to classroom-based teaching for both students and staff. Educational outcomes were similar for both groups, but importantly, there was no evidence that the asynchronous online delivery of module content disadvantaged part-time students in comparison to their full-time counterparts.

  4. [Oral health in 12 year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimaraes Bahia; Gonçalves, Michele Martins; Balbo, Patrícia Lima; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    To compare 12-year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, in terms of the prevalence of caries, periodontal conditions, dentofacial anomalies, and fluorosis. In 2003, the 2002-2003 Oral Health Conditions in the Brazilian Population project (SB Brasil) was expanded to Goiânia as a cross-sectional study, as described in the present article. The sample included 1 947 students from urban schools: 1 790 (91.9%) attended public schools and 157 (8.1%) attended private schools. Data on the following oral conditions were collected through clinical examination: dental caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth index, DMFT), periodontal condition (Community Periodontal Index, CPI), dentofacial anomaly (Dental Aesthetics Index, DAI), and dental fluorosis (Dean index). The groups were compared using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were differences between the public and private schools for all the variables. DMFT, CPI, and DAI indexes were higher in children from public schools (P schools (P school was associated with the oral health condition of the children in this sample. Investments in actions and services to mitigate this inequality and its effects should be made as part of the policies to promote oral health.

  5. Profile of Public Health Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ruth Gaskins; Greer, Annette; Clay, Maria; McFadden, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Public health leaders play pivotal roles in ensuring the population health for our nation. Since 2000, the number of schools of public health has almost doubled. The scholarly credentials for leaders of public health in academic and practice are important, as they make decisions that shape the future public health workforce and important public health policies. This research brief describes the educational degrees of deans of schools of public health and state health directors, as well as their demographic profiles, providing important information for future public health leadership planning. Data were extracted from a database containing information obtained from multiple Web sites including academic institution Web sites and state government Web sites. Variables describe 2 sets of public health leaders: academic deans of schools of public health and state health directors. Deans of schools of public health were 73% males and 27% females; the PhD degree was held by 40% deans, and the MD degree by 33% deans. Seventy percent of deans obtained their terminal degree more than 35 years ago. State health directors were 60% males and 40% females. Sixty percent of state health directors had an MD degree, 4% a PhD degree, and 26% no terminal degree at all. Sixty-four percent of state health directors received their terminal degree more than 25 years ago. In addition to terminal degrees, 56% of deans and 40% of state health directors held MPH degrees. The findings call into question competencies needed by future public health professionals and leadership and the need to clarify further the level of public health training and degree type that should be required for leadership qualifications in public health.

  6. Public Health Nursing: Public Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , Alaska 99752 Phone: 442-7144 Fax: 442-7292 e-mail: Josephine Oke, Program Manager [back to top] North Phone: 852-0270 Fax: 852-2855 email: Andrey Boskhomdzhiev [back to top] Municipality of Anchorage P.O

  7. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  8. Critical perspectives in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Judith; Labonte, Ronald N

    2008-01-01

    ... the contemporary roles of 'critical voices' in public health research and practice from a range of disciplines and contexts. The book covers many of the pressing concerns for public health practitioners and researchers, including: * * * * * the implications of new genetic technologies for public health; the impact of globalisation on local practice...

  9. Oral Health Longitudinal Evaluation of students from a public school after guidance and implementaion of preventitive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Rêgo, Heleine Maria Chagas; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesaquita Filho" Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos Aluna doutorado do departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Barcellos, Daphne Camara; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesaquita Filho" Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos Aluna doutorado do departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Perote, Letícia Carvalho Coutinho Costa; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesaquita Filho" Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos Aluna doutorado do departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Cavalheiro, Karina; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesaquita Filho" Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos Aluna de graduação do departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Huhtala, Maria Filomêna Rocha Lima; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesaquita Filho" Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos Professora do departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Gonçalves, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesaquita Filho" Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos Professor do departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesaquita Filho" Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos Professor do departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess longitudinally the DMFT, plaque and gingival rates of children and teenagers from a public school in São José dos Campos, Brazil, after performing a preventive and motivational program through the University Extension program of School of Dentistry of Institute of Science and Technology of São José dos Campos – UNESP. Materials and Methods: 300 students were randomly selected and divided into three groups, Group 1: 100 children from 2nd to 5th grade of elementary school, ...

  10. Bridging Public Health and Education: Results of a School-Based Physical Activity Program to Increase Student Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Williams, Shannon L; Franks, Padra; Kay, Christi; Meyer, Adria; Cornett, Kelly; Mosier, Brian

    Power Up for 30 (PU30) is a schoolwide intervention that encourages schools to provide an additional 30 minutes of physical activity during the school day, beyond physical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of PU30 on Georgia public elementary schools and their students. A total of 719 of 1320 public elementary schools in Georgia that were sent a baseline survey about school physical activity during October 2013 to September 2014 completed the survey, 160 of which were asked to complete a second survey. In the interim (March to June 2015), half (80) of these schools implemented the PU30 program. The interim surveys, which were completed during March to June 2015, assessed opportunities for student physical activity and staff member professional development focused on student physical activity. Compared with schools that had not implemented the program, more schools using the PU30 program reported offering before- and after-school physical activity programs. Forty-four of 78 (57%) PU30 schools compared with 20 of 53 (38%) non-PU30 schools offered before-school physical activity programs. Likewise, more PU30 schools than non-PU30 schools offered after-school physical activity programs (35% vs 16%), and a greater proportion of students at PU30 schools compared with non-PU30 schools met fitness benchmarks: recess 5 days per week (91% [288 of 323] vs 80% [273 of 341]), offering ≥11 minutes per day of classroom-based physical activity (39% [53 of 136] vs 25% [47 of 189] for kindergarten through second grade; 20% [37 of 187] vs 6% [9 of 152] for grades 3 through 5), and receiving physical activity-related professional development time (42% [136 of 323] vs 14% [48 of 341]). The surveys provided a statewide picture of the physical activity opportunities offered to students and staff members in Georgia elementary schools and demonstrated the effective use of a comprehensive, multicomponent program to offer more school-based physical activity

  11. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  12. Publication ethics in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Elger, Bernice S

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we describe and analyse three issues in publication ethics that are raised when conducting research in emergencies and disasters. These include reluctance to share data and samples because of concerns about publications, loss of individual authorship in high high-profile multi-entity publications, and the deaths of authors during dangerous research projects. An emergency research pledge may be useful in avoiding some of these issues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  14. Neuroeconomics and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

      Objective: To identify and describe the parameters of the Frontal Power of Concentration (C). Method: Systematic review of EEG- and fMRI-studies from a neuroeconomic point of view. Results: C is a quadripartite executive integrator depending on: 1) Limbic system (L) generates emotions and cogni...... + εI → 1   Discussion:  How to reinforce volitional flexibility (c)? Firstly, cognitive predictions are improved by open-mindedness. Secondly, emotional control is best maintaining an appropriate level of physical fitness. Thirdly, our imagination is directly facilitated by in...... predicts that well-organized stress-management integrating LowTech-interventions as exercise (L↓ and c↑), in-depth-relaxation (c↓) and diet (integrating L, R and c) tailored to the individual would improve public health (national life expectancy) significantly...

  15. Awareness of disaster reduction frameworks and risk perception of natural disaster: a questionnaire survey among Philippine and Indonesian health care personnel and public health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuzawa, Motoki; O Telan, Elizabeth; Kawano, Razel; S Dizon, Carmela; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Ashino, Yugo; Egawa, Shinichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Izumi, Takako; Ono, Yuichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction). In both countries, more than 50% responders were aware of human security, but only 2 to 12% were aware of the latter two. The survey also contained questions about the preferred subjects in prospective educational program, and risk perception on disaster and disaster-related infections. In the Philippines, significant disasters were geophysical (31.0%), hydrological (33.3%), or meteorological (24.8%), whereas in Indonesia, geophysical (63.0%) and hydrological (25.3%) were significant. Moreover, in the Philippines, leptospirosis (27.1%), dengue (18.6%), diarrhea (15.3%), and cholera (10.2%) were recognized common disaster-related infections. In Indonesia, diarrhea (22.0%) and respiratory infection (20.3%) are major disaster-related infections. Water-related infections were the major ones in both countries, but the profiles of risk perception were different (Pearson's chi-square test, p = 1.469e-05). The responders tended to overestimate the risk of low probability and high consequence such as geophysical disaster. These results are helpful for the development of a postgraduate course for disaster medicine in Asia Pacific countries.

  16. The pedagogical value of a student-run community-based experiential learning project: The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine Public Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Tay, Clifton M; Lee, Jeannette J M; Koh, Gerald C H

    2010-09-01

    We assessed the pedagogical value of a student-led community-based experiential learning project called the Public Health Screening (PHS) run by medical and nursing students of the National University of Singapore's Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (NUS YLLSoM). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered anonymised questionnaire on medical and nursing students who participated in PHS using the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) Survey Instrument. Participants also gave an overall score for their learning experience at the PHS. The participation rate was 93.1% (576/619) for medical students and 100% (37/37) for nursing students. All participants gave the PHS learning experience a high rating (median = 8 out of maximum of 10, inter-quartile range, 7 to 9). A majority of participants felt that PHS had helped them to improve across all domains surveyed. For medical students, those in preclinical years and females were independently more likely to feel that PHS had helped them to improve in communication skills, teamwork, ability to identify social issues, taking action, and gaining and applying their knowledge than those in clinical years and males. Improved ability to interact with patients (β=1.64, 95%CI, 1.01-2.27), appreciation of challenges to healthcare faced by Singaporeans from lower income groups (β=0.93, 95%CI, 0.49-1.37), thinking of others (β=0.70, 95%CI, 0.04-1.37) and tolerance of different people (β =0.63, 95%CI, 0.17-1.10) were strongly associated with the overall rating score. PHS was a positive learning experience in a wide range of domains for all students involved. This suggests that student-organised community-based experiential learning projects have potential educational value for both medical and nursing students.

  17. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  18. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  19. Conventional and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, G

    2009-09-01

    This paper suggests that current models of public health are no longer sufficient as a means for understanding the health challenges of the anthropogenic age, and argues for an alternative based upon an ecological model. The roots of this perspective originated within the Victorian era, although it found only limited expression at that time. Ecological thinking in public health has only been revived relatively recently. Derived from an analysis of obesity, this paper proposes the development of an approach to ecological public health based on four dimensions of existence: the material, the physiological, the social and the cultural-cognitive. The implications for public policy are considered.

  20. Climate Change and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    It is clear that the public health community is concerned about the human health impacts of climate change, but are we inadvertently underestimating the scope of the problem and obfuscating potentially useful interventions by using a narrow intellectual frame in our discussions with policy makers? If we take a more holistic approach, we see that the public health impacts of climate change are only one subset of the enormous public health impacts of fossil fuel burning. This broader perspective can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment that is more useful for decision making in public policy settings.

  1. Collaboration, Competencies and the Classroom: A Public Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lauren E.; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program is a professional degree program that seeks to prepare graduates to meet complex public health needs by developing their proficiency in the 36 public health core competencies. Provision of experiential learning opportunities, such as a semester-long practicum, is part of student development.…

  2. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a variety of comprehensive classroom and curriculum resources. Framing The Future Faculty Resources Educational Models and Reports ... research, and regulate health systems to achieve these goals. Its reach is global. The public health field ...

  3. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Deborah; Sentell, Tetine; Albright, Cheryl; Lansidell, Doug; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Seto, Todd; Stevens, Joel Mark

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Blood pressure reduction and control are associated with reduced risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. To achieve optimal reduction and control, reliable and valid methods for blood pressure measurement are needed. Office based measurements can result in ‘white coat’ hypertension, which is when a patient's blood pressure in a clinical setting is higher than in other settings, or ‘masked’ hypertension, which occurs when a patient's blood pressure is normal in a clinical setting, but elevated outside the clinical setting. In 2015, the US Preventative Services Task Force recommended Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) as the “best method” for measuring blood pressure, endorsing its use both for confirming the diagnosis of hypertension and for excluding ‘white coat’ hypertension. ABPM is a safe, painless and non-invasive test wherein patients wear a small digital blood pressure machine attached to a belt around their body and connected to a cuff around their upper arm that enables multiple automated blood pressure measurements at designated intervals (typically every 15 to 30 minutes) throughout the day and night for a specified period (eg, 24 hours). Patients can go about their typical daily activities wearing the device as much as possible, except when they are bathing, showering, or engaging in heavy exercise. Given the importance of blood pressure monitoring and control to population public health, this article provides details on the relevance and challenges of blood pressure measurement broadly then describes ABPM generally and specifically in the Hawai‘i context. PMID:29164016

  4. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Factors influencing health professions students' use of computers for data analysis at three Ugandan public medical schools: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munabi, Ian G; Buwembo, William; Bajunirwe, Francis; Kitara, David Lagoro; Joseph, Ruberwa; Peter, Kawungezi; Obua, Celestino; Quinn, John; Mwaka, Erisa S

    2015-02-25

    Effective utilization of computers and their applications in medical education and research is of paramount importance to students. The objective of this study was to determine the association between owning a computer and use of computers for research data analysis and the other factors influencing health professions students' computer use for data analysis. We conducted a cross sectional study among undergraduate health professions students at three public universities in Uganda using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of questions on participant demographics, students' participation in research, computer ownership, and use of computers for data analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics (uni-variable and multi- level logistic regression analysis) were used to analyse data. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Six hundred (600) of 668 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 89.8%). A majority of respondents were male (68.8%) and 75.3% reported owning computers. Overall, 63.7% of respondents reported that they had ever done computer based data analysis. The following factors were significant predictors of having ever done computer based data analysis: ownership of a computer (adj. OR 1.80, p = 0.02), recently completed course in statistics (Adj. OR 1.48, p =0.04), and participation in research (Adj. OR 2.64, p <0.01). Owning a computer, participation in research and undertaking courses in research methods influence undergraduate students' use of computers for research data analysis. Students are increasingly participating in research, and thus need to have competencies for the successful conduct of research. Medical training institutions should encourage both curricular and extra-curricular efforts to enhance research capacity in line with the modern theories of adult learning.

  6. Mental health in schools and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.

  7. Public Relations and Publicity: Tools and Techniques for Student Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Carol Jean

    Based on the idea that to be successful, a student organization must have a sound public relations and publicity program, this handbook considers techniques of internal communication that establish good public relations with various special groups: the student body, the administration, the faculty, and the staff. The handbook states that…

  8. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  9. Social media in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  10. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH) at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA). Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then...

  11. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  12. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  13. GIS and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cromley, Ellen K; McLafferty, Sara

    2012-01-01

    ...s. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy...

  14. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like Saba are about three to four times… https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/13/health/colombia- ... often be overlooked as a cause of death": https://insideclimatenews.… Environmental health matters: https://www.theatlantic.com/ ...

  15. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students: effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Yvonne T M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van de Goor, Ien A M; Rots-de Vries, Carin M C; Feron, Frans J M

    2016-10-21

    Students' health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary education. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of this intervention on students' medical absenteeism, compared to "medical absenteeism policy as usual". A quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (493 students) and a control group (445 students) was applied. Multilevel analysis was used to study differences in the development of the level of a student's medical absence over time (after 3 and 12 months). In the intervention group, the level of absenteeism decreased from 8.5 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 5.7 days after 3 months, and to 4.9 days after 12 months. The number of absence periods fell from 3.9 in 12 school weeks to 2.5 after 3 months, and to 2.2 after 12 months. In the control group, the absence days initially decreased from 9.9 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 8.4 days after 3 months, after which an increase to 8.9 days was measured. The number of absence periods initially decreased from 4.5 in 12 school weeks to 3.5, after which an increase to 3.7 was measured. The number of absence days per period remained about the same in both groups. The study provides first indications for the intervention to be effective for Dutch pre-vocational secondary students with increased medical absence rates. The intervention, which consists of personalised management of medical absenteeism by systematic identification of students with extensive medical absenteeism and consistent referral to youth health care physicians, appears to reduce the absence rates more effectively than "medical absenteeism policy as usual". The effectiveness of the intervention is shown primarily by a decrease in the number of periods reported sick.

  16. Journalling and Public Health Education: Thinking about Reflecting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Marguerite C.; Domocol, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to understand reflective journalling in a first year Public Health practice unit. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses pure phenomenography to interpret students' descriptions of reflective journalling. Data were collected from 32 students enrolled in PUB215 Public Health Practice in the School…

  17. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...... disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession...

  18. Service-learning: an integral part of undergraduate public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Suzanne B; Seifer, Sarena D

    2008-09-01

    In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) described public health as "an essential part of the training of citizens," a body of knowledge needed to achieve a public health literate citizenry. To achieve that end, the IOM recommended that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health." Service-learning, a type of experiential learning, is an effective and appropriate vehicle for teaching public health and developing public health literacy. While relatively new to public health, service-learning has its historical roots in undergraduate education and has been shown to enhance students' understanding of course relevance, change student and faculty attitudes, encourage support for community initiatives, and increase student and faculty volunteerism. Grounded in collaborative relationships, service-learning grows from authentic partnerships between communities and educational institutions. Through emphasizing reciprocal learning and reflective practice, service-learning helps students develop skills needed to be effective in working with communities and ultimately achieve social change. With public health's enduring focus on social justice, introducing undergraduate students to public health through the vehicle of service-learning as part of introductory public health core courses or public health electives will help ensure that our young people are able to contribute to developing healthy communities, thus achieving the IOM's vision.

  19. [Health services research for the public health service (PHS) and the public health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Wildner, M

    2015-03-01

    There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Why feminism in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A

    1999-12-01

    The issues raised in this editorial and exemplified within a number of the studies reported in this issue indicate new directions for public health, directions which take feminist scholarship, both outside and within the medical framework, into account. The changing potential of feminist public health, as derived from the articles in this issue, can be summarised within the following issues: new research areas, positioning women as actors, development of theoretical frameworks, reflexive theory of science, interplay between sex and gender, gender-sensitive methods, diversities among women/men, pro-feminist research on men's health and using the results for change. Thus, feminist public health represents a shift towards the new public health, with holistic and multidisciplinary activities, based on theoretical pluralism, multiple perspectives and collective actions with the aim of improving the health of gender-subordinated groups.

  1. Bioethics in Public Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Peguero

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioethics study method concerns the duties and values that must be fulfilled for respect for life. The aim of this article is to provide a reflection on bioethics in public health actions. It is a review article that includes authors with different positions. Bioethics, despite its apparent individual focus, is vital to fulfil essential functions in public health, and to guarantee the right to health and respect for human dignity.

  2. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  3. Division of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontier Learn what marijuana means for Alaska and you It's your health - Teen Health Autism: Learn the Outbreak of Life-threatening Coagulopathy Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoids Use Friday, May 25, 2018 Impacts of Climate Change in Alaska PDF Monday, January 8, 2018 Breastfeeding mothers reporting marijuana

  4. Opportunities for Public Relations Research in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Considers how communication researchers have developed a solid body of knowledge in the health field but know little about the activities of public relations practitioners in public health bodies. Suggests that public relations scholarship and practice have much to offer the field of public health in helping public health bodies meet their…

  5. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    .... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...

  6. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  7. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  8. Public health leadership education in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Hideo; Zakariasen,Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadershi...

  9. National Library of Medicine Web Resources for Student Health Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womble, R.

    2010-04-02

    Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.

  10. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs.

  11. Public Policy and Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine

    2018-04-05

    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  13. Personalism for public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  14. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  15. Hawaii's public mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVoort, Debra J

    2005-03-01

    The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.

  16. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.

  17. Digital government and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  18. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  19. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  2. Ozone (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor ...

  3. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor ...

  4. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Crowdsourcing applications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Daren C; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kirchner, Thomas R; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-02-01

    Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed, problem-solving, and production model that uses the collective intelligence of networked communities for specific purposes. Although its use has benefited many sectors of society, it has yet to be fully realized as a method for improving public health. This paper defines the core components of crowdsourcing and proposes a framework for understanding the potential utility of crowdsourcing in the domain of public health. Four discrete crowdsourcing approaches are described (knowledge discovery and management; distributed human intelligence tasking; broadcast search; and peer-vetted creative production types) and a number of potential applications for crowdsourcing for public health science and practice are enumerated. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  6. Public health financial management competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Costich, Julia F

    2009-01-01

    The absence of appropriate financial management competencies has impeded progress in advancing the field of public health finance. It also inhibits the ability to professionalize this sector of the workforce. Financial managers should play a critical role by providing information relevant to decision making. The lack of fundamental financial management knowledge and skills is a barrier to fulfilling this role. A national expert committee was convened to examine this issue. The committee reviewed standards related to financial and business management practices within public health and closely related areas. Alignments were made with national standards such as those established for government chief financial officers. On the basis of this analysis, a comprehensive set of public health financial management competencies was identified and examined further by a review panel. At a minimum, the competencies can be used to define job descriptions, assess job performance, identify critical gaps in financial analysis, create career paths, and design educational programs.

  7. Causal inference in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.

  8. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  9. Digital Government and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agencys readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, manage...

  10. The public health leadership certificate: a public health and primary care interprofessional training opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia.

  11. A qualitative study of college student responses to conflicting messages in advertising: anti-binge drinking public service announcements versus wine promotion health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho-Young; Wu, Lei; Kelly, Stephanie; Haley, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students deal with conflicting health messages in advertising regarding binge drinking and wine promotion. Phenomenological in-depth long interviews were conducted beyond the point of redundancy (N = 16). The results of this study indicated that students' meaning making regarding the conflicting messages relied greatly upon how consistent either message was with their prior beliefs about alcohol. Additionally, not all students perceived the messages to be contradictory; these students saw the messages as being constructed for different purposes and as such incomparable. Overall, students who perceived conflict responded to the topic with apathy fueled by advertising skepticism. Employing qualitative methodology to understand how college students respond to conflicting messages will assist health promotion practitioners develop more effective alcohol abuse prevention messages and provide suggestions for researchers for studying this phenomenon from other perspectives in the future. Implications are further discussed within.

  12. Planning and Implementing a Public Health Professional Distance Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Leppke, Allison M.; Robinson, Kara B.; Mettler, Erik P.; Miner, Kathleen R.; Smith, Iris

    2005-01-01

    Training of public health professionals through web-based technology is rapidly increasing. This article describes one school of public health's effort to establish an online Master's program that serves students nationally and internationally. It examines the critical components in the design and implementation of distance education, including…

  13. Nuclear power and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has always emphasized the health and safety aspects of the various stages of power production. Nevertheless, the question of public acceptance is becoming increasingly important in the expansion of nuclear power programmes. Objections may arise partly from the tendency to accept familiar hazards but to react violently to unfamiliar ones such as radiation, which is not obvious to the senses and may result in delayed adverse effects, sometimes manifested only in the descendants of the individuals subjected to the radiation. The public health authorities therefore have an important role in educating the public to overcome these fears. However, they also have the duty to reassure the public and convince it that proper care has been taken to protect man and his environment. This duty can be fulfilled by means of independent evaluation and control to ensure that safe nuclear facilities are built, care is taken with their siting, they are operated safely, and the effects of possible accidents are minimized. The selection and development of a nuclear power facility should be carried out with a sound understanding of the factors involved. WHO has collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the preparation of a booklet summarizing the available information on the subject. It deals with the role of atomic energy in meeting future power needs, radiation protection standards, the safe handling of radioactive materials, disturbances of the environment arising from plant construction and ancillary operations, and the public health implications

  14. Nuclear power and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has always emphasized the health and safety aspects of the various stages of power production. Nevertheless, the question of public acceptance is becoming increasingly important in the expansion of nuclear power programmes. Objections may arise partly from the tendency to accept familiar hazards but to react violently to unfamiliar ones such as radiation, which is not obvious to the senses and may result in delayed adverse effects, sometimes manifested only in the descendants of the individuals subjected to the radiation. The public health authorities therefore have an important role in educating the public to overcome these fears. However, they also have the duty to reassure the public and convince it that proper care has been taken to protect man and his environment. This duty can be fulfilled by means of independent evaluation and control to ensure that safe nuclear facilities are built, care is taken with their siting, they are operated safely, and the effects of possible accidents are minimized. The selection and development of a nuclear power facility should be carried out with a sound understanding of the factors involved. WHO has collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the preparation of a booklet summarizing the available information on the subject. It deals with the role of atomic energy in meeting future power needs, radiation protection standards, the safe handling of radioactive materials, disturbances of the environment arising from plant construction and ancillary operations, and the public health implications.

  15. Collaboration, Competencies and the Classroom: A Public Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Wallar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program is a professional degree program that seeks to prepare graduates to meet complex public health needs by developing their proficiency in the 36 public health core competencies. Provision of experiential learning opportunities, such as a semester-long practicum, is part of student development. In the Fall 2013 semester, a new opportunity was introduced in which small groups of students were paired with local public health professionals to complete a capstone business plan assignment that addressed a current public health issue. However, the impact of this external collaboration on the student learning experience was unknown. To address this, quantitative and qualitative information about students’ perceived proficiency in the core competencies and their learning experiences was collected using a pre/post survey and focus groups, respectively. A post-assignment survey was also administered to participating local public health professionals in which they assessed their group’s proficiency in the core competencies, and provided additional feedback. The results of this study showed that students had unique learning experiences with enhanced proficiency in different areas including policy and program planning, implementation and evaluation, assessment and analysis, and partnerships, collaboration and advocacy. Managing and communicating expectations was important throughout the learning experience. By using realistic community-based assignments, graduate public health programs can enrich students’ learning experiences by creating an environment for students to apply their classroom knowledge and gain practical knowledge and skills.

  16. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students : Effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Van de Goor, L.A.M.; Rots – de Vries, C.M.; Feron, F.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Students’ health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational

  17. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander public health: online and integrated into core Master of Public Health subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnell Angus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Master of Public Health (MPH is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project.

  18. Policy, politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  20. Surgery, public health, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Syed Nabeel; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Surgical healthcare is rapidly gaining recognition as a major public health issue. Surgical disparities are large, with poorest populations receiving the least amount of emergency and essential surgical care. In light of recent evidence, developing countries, such as Pakistan, must acknowledge surgical disease as a major public health issue and prioritize research and intervention accordingly. We review information from various sources and describe the current situation of surgical health care in Pakistan and highlight areas of neglect. Pakistan suffers an annual deficit of 17 million surgeries. Surgical disease kills more people than infectious diseases inclusive of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal disease, and childhood infections. The incidence of trauma and maternal mortality ratio are staggeringly high. There is a severe dearth of surgical and anesthesia-related epidemiological data. Important information that would help to drive policy and planning is not available. Corruption and neglect have led to a dilapidated health care infrastructure. Surgical care is largely inaccessible to the poor, especially those living in rural areas. The country faces a dearth of healthcare professionals, especially paramedics, anesthetists, and surgeons. Unsafe surgery and anesthesia poses a significant risk to patients. There is no national policy on surgical illness and the preventive aspects of surgery are nonexistent. Consistent with other underdeveloped countries, surgical care in Pakistan is dismal. Neglecting surgery and safe anesthesia has led to countless deaths and disability. Physicians, researchers, policy makers, and the government health care system must engage and commit to provide access to emergency, essential, and safe surgical care.

  1. Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Malho, André; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Popa, Daniela; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-04-17

    Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009-2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N = 51 were contacted and N = 33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P = 0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with "staff" preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P leadership.

  2. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  3. Public health has no place in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A

    1994-12-01

    It is time to review the reasons for including public health in medical education. Undergraduate medical students are interested above all in the diagnosis and treatment of individual cases of disease; population-based health care means little to most students, and is seldom regarded as important. Should public health teachers concentrate their efforts in other areas, where students are more receptive? This paper presents arguments for and against the proposition that public health has no place in the undergraduate medical course. In favour of the proposition, it is argued that the clinical imperative is so firmly entrenched in the minds of students and in the cultures of medical schools that public health will always be diminished and elbowed to one side in medical curricula. Moreover, the major gains in the health of populations will be won in other arenas. Therefore public health should rupture the links with medical schools that were formed in another age and, in any event, are now weakening as public health strikes a new identity. The effort that currently goes into teaching unwilling medical students would have better returns if it was invested elsewhere. Against the proposition, it is argued that the health of populations will not be improved without participation of all groups with an interest in and an influence on health care. No group is more influential in the organization and delivery of health services than the medical profession, so it would be foolish for public health to withdraw from medical education. Moreover, effective medical practice requires an ability to think in terms of populations as well as individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  5. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  6. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  7. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Public health practice course using Google Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Sung, Tien-Wen

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, mobile device-assisted clinical education has become popular among nursing school students. The introduction of mobile devices saves manpower and reduces errors while enhancing nursing students' professional knowledge and skills. To respond to the demands of various learning strategies and to maintain existing systems of education, the concept of Cloud Learning is gradually being introduced to instructional environments. Cloud computing facilitates learning that is personalized, diverse, and virtual. This study involved assessing the advantages of mobile devices and Cloud Learning in a public health practice course, in which Google+ was used as the learning platform, integrating various application tools. Users could save and access data by using any wireless Internet device. The platform was student centered and based on resource sharing and collaborative learning. With the assistance of highly flexible and convenient technology, certain obstacles in traditional practice training can be resolved. Our findings showed that the students who adopted Google+ were learned more effectively compared with those who were limited to traditional learning systems. Most students and the nurse educator expressed a positive attitude toward and were satisfied with the innovative learning method.

  9. Surfing the net for public health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C; Hemingway, A; Hartwell, H

    2011-08-01

    To identify public health open educational resources (OER) available online, map the identified OER to The Public Health Skills and Career Framework (PHSCF), and triangulate these findings with public health practitioners. Systematic online search for public health OER. An online search was undertaken using a pre-defined set of search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Public health OER were then mapped against the UK PHSCF. The findings of the search were discussed with public health specialists to determine whether or not they used these resources. A number of public health OER were identified, located on 42 websites from around the world. Mapping against the UK PHSCF demonstrated a lack of coverage in some areas of public health education. It was noted that many of the OER websites identified were not those generally used in practice, and those sites preferred by public health specialists were not identified by the online search. Public health OER are available from a number of providers, frequently universities and government organizations. However, these reflect a relatively small pool of original OER providers. Tagging of websites does not always identify their public health content. In addition, users of public health OER may not use search engines to identify resources but locate them using other means. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Public health and demographic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, C.H.; Loebl, A.S.; Miller, F.L.; Ritchey, P.N. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  11. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-06-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fi elds of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  12. Columbia Public Health Core Curriculum: Short-Term Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Melissa D; Fried, Linda P; Glover, Jim W; Delva, Marlyn; Wiggin, Maggie; Hooper, Leah; Saxena, Roheeni; de Pinho, Helen; Slomin, Emily; Walker, Julia R; Galea, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated a transformed core curriculum for the Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health (New York, New York) master of public health (MPH) degree. The curriculum, launched in 2012, aims to teach public health as it is practiced: in interdisciplinary teams, drawing on expertise from multiple domains to address complex health challenges. We collected evaluation data starting when the first class of students entered the program and ending with their graduation in May 2014. Students reported being very satisfied with and challenged by the rigorous curriculum and felt prepared to integrate concepts across varied domains and disciplines to solve public health problems. This novel interdisciplinary program could serve as a prototype for other schools that wish to reinvigorate MPH training.

  13. Success of the Undergraduate Public Health Program At Tulane University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luann Ellis White

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (SPHTM launched the Bachelors of Science in Public Health (BSPH in 2005. The BSPH has steadily grown and comprises one third of the total enrollment in the school. A review of the organizational structure demonstrates that direct responsibility for undergraduate education by a school of public health is advantageous to the success of the program. The competency and skills-based curriculum attracts students. Outcome measures show the enrollment is steadily increasing. The majority of the BSPH graduates continue onto competitive graduate and professional degree programs. Those who seek jobs find employment related to their public health education, but outside of the traditional governmental public health agencies. The combined BSPH/MPH degree is a pipeline for students to pursue a MPH and increases the likelihood students will pursue careers in public health. The range and depth of study in the bachelors program is continually examined. Topics once within the purview of graduate education are now being incorporated into undergraduate courses. Undergraduate public health is one of a number of factors that is influencing changes in the MPH degree.

  14. East African Journal of Public Health: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines; » Copyright Notice; » Privacy Statement ... and noncommunicable diseases, health leadership and management issues. ... current scientific and policy debates, including methodological issues in public health research.

  15. The public health system in England

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, David J; Marks, Linda; Smith, Katherine E

    2010-01-01

    .... The Public Health System in England offers a wide-ranging, provocative and accessible assessment of challenges confronting a public health system, exploring how its parameters have shifted over time...

  16. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  17. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  18. Health literacy among Danish university students enrolled in health-related study programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsborg, Lea; Krossdal, Fie; Kayser, Lars

    2017-12-01

    It is important to address people's health literacy when providing health care. Health professionals should be aware of, and have insight into, people's health literacy when they provide health services. Health professionals need to be health literate themselves. We examined the level of health literacy in students in Denmark attending one of four full university programmes related to health and investigated how their health literacy was associated with their sociodemographic background. The health literacy level of the students was measured using the multi-dimensional Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) supplemented with sociodemographic questions. The questionnaire was administrated through the students' Facebook groups. The students were enrolled in courses on health informatics, medicine, molecular biomedicine or public health. Out of a total of 7663 students, 630 responded to the questionnaire. No sex difference was found although female students scored higher than male students in domain 4 (social support for health). Students attending the public health programme tended to score higher and those attending molecular biomedicine tended to score lower in the HLQ. There was a positive correlation between HLQ scores and the educational level of the students' parents. If one of their parents was employed in the health care sector, the HLQ score tended to be higher in domains 1 and 4. Students who had been hospitalized also tended to score higher in domains 1, 5 and 6. Students' health literacy relates to their personal background and educational path. This may be of importance when planning curricula and educational activities, including cross-disciplinary courses.

  19. The case for transforming governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen; Gursky, Elin A

    2006-01-01

    Changing threats to the public's health necessitate a profound transformation of the public health enterprise. Despite recent attention to the biodefense role of public health, policymakers have not developed a clear, realistic vision for the structure and functionality of the governmental public health system. Lack of leadership and organizational disconnects across levels of government have prevented strategic alignment of resources and undermined momentum for meaningful change. A transformed public health system is needed to address the demands of emergency preparedness and health protection. Such transformation should include focused, risk-based resource allocation; regional planning; technological upgrades; workforce restructuring; improved integration of private-sector assets; and better performance monitoring.

  20. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  1. The pull of public health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Braine, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Public health has burgeoned over the past 100 years, from the study of tropical diseases in the 19th century to national public health systems after World War One and, more recently, to include international public health. Education has kept up with these trends, and today there are hundreds of schools around the world, many flourishing in developing countries.

  2. [Public health services between "new public health" and "new public management"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppen, M

    1996-04-01

    Today, a substantial reorientation of the Public Health services in the Federal Republic of Germany is broadly seen necessary. Patterns of functional and organisational restructuring of Public Health services on the regional and the communal level are closely linked with concepts of prevention and health promotion. Hence, a number of agencies have already adopted new tasks and functions like comprehensive and transorganizational planning, coordination and evaluation as well as the establishment of new reporting systems. Presently, the transformation process from the bureaucratic mode of administering matters of health to a new Public Health orientation receives new impacts from the international "New Public Management" movement. Comparatively late, with the beginning of the 1990s, a growing number of German municipalities has introduced new concepts of administration. Local government administrations, of which the Public Health services are a part, follow the model of modern service organizations producing services in a more efficient, professionalized and consumer-oriented way. Specific elements of economising modernisation programmes like re-distribution of tasks, de-centralisation, extension of managerial capacities, setting of stimulating working conditions that provide employees with greater independence of action as well as career opportunities, are at the same time prerequisites for innovative strategies of health protection and coordination policies of Public Health services.

  3. Waterborne Disease Case Investigation: Public Health Nursing Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gina K; Canclini, Sharon B; Fripp, Jon; Fripp, William

    2017-01-01

    The lack of safe drinking water is a significant public health threat worldwide. Registered nurses assess the physical environment, including the quality of the water supply, and apply environmental health knowledge to reduce environmental exposures. The purpose of this research brief is to describe a waterborne disease simulation for students enrolled in a public health nursing (PHN) course. A total of 157 undergraduate students completed the simulation in teams, using the SBAR (Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation) reporting tool. Simulation evaluation consisted of content analysis of the SBAR tools and debriefing notes. Student teams completed the simulation and articulated the implications for PHN practice. Student teams discussed assessment findings and primarily recommended four nursing interventions: health teaching focused on water, sanitation, and hygiene; community organizing; collaboration; and advocacy to ensure a safe water supply. With advanced planning and collaboration with partners, waterborne disease simulation may enhance PHN education. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(1):39-42.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  5. Poster project to emphasize public health in the pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsch, Michael P; Werremeyer, Amy B

    2011-02-10

    To implement and assess a required public health poster project in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Third-year PharmD students collaborated in pairs to research a public health topic relating to pharmacy practice. Each student group prepared an informational poster, while receiving feedback from a faculty mentor at each stage of the project. The students presented their completed posters at a statewide pharmacy conference. Faculty members evaluated the posters with a grading rubric, and students completed a survey instrument that assessed the overall experience. In general, faculty members rated the class highly across all domains of the grading rubric. The class generally agreed that the poster project increased their awareness of public health issues related to pharmacy practice, overall knowledge of public health, and presentation skills. The implementation of a poster project was well received by students and faculty members as an effective method for enhancing public health instruction in the PharmD program at North Dakota State University.

  6. Mental Health: A Case for Spiritual Education in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Dixie L.; Dennis, Brent G.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests a unique mental health prevention strategy that focuses on spiritual education in public schools, defining spirituality, describing the spirituality-mental health connection, highlighting educators' responsibility toward spiritual education, and offering specific activities and strategies for enhancing students' spirituality suitable for…

  7. Public health practitioner incubation plight: following the money trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L J; McFarlane, D R

    1996-01-01

    Schools of public health have a proud history of educating personnel for leadership roles in the field of practice. Such personnel have played key roles in developing public health. Over the years, however, the missions of the schools of public health have become blurred. To a significant degree, a focus on health care has displaced public health as schools have followed the money trail. Often research takes precedence over teaching, so that, ironically, research findings are not disseminated to those who will practice public health. Educating personnel for practitioner leadership roles in environmental health and protection is inadequate. These and other trends have serious, long-term ramifications for public health practice. This article offers suggestions for improving the situation, including making use of practitioners in schools of public health, encouraging partnerships between practitioners and academics for research and funding support, developing paid student practica, developing a market for MPH graduates, and changing the accreditation requirements of the Council on Education for Public Health.

  8. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  9. East African Journal of Public Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Journal of Public Health is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing scientific research work from a range of public health related disciplines including community medicine, epidemiology, nutrition, behavioural sciences, health promotion, health education, communicable and non-communicable disease.

  10. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of a...

  11. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  12. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  13. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  14. Faculty Tort Liability for Libelous Student Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, George E.

    1976-01-01

    Examines recent court cases to determine whether a school administrator or faculty advisor may be legally responsible for defamation in a student publication. Concludes that the legal position of faculty members is unclear and recommends application of the U.S. Supreme Court's guidelines in Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc. (JG)

  15. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  16. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Orvik, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutio...

  17. Teaching seven principles for public health ethics: towards a curriculum for a short course on ethics in public health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Duncan, Peter; Sherlaw, William; Brall, Caroline; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-10-07

    Teaching ethics in public health programmes is not routine everywhere - at least not in most schools of public health in the European region. Yet empirical evidence shows that schools of public health are more and more interested in the integration of ethics in their curricula, since public health professionals often have to face difficult ethical decisions. The authors have developed and practiced an approach to how ethics can be taught even in crowded curricula, requiring five to eight hours of teaching and learning contact time. In this way, if programme curricula do not allow more time for ethics, students of public health can at least be sensitised to ethics and ethical argumentation. This approach - focusing on the application of seven mid-level principles to cases (non-maleficence, beneficence, health maximisation, efficiency, respect for autonomy, justice, proportionality) - is presented in this paper. Easy to use 'tools' applying ethics to public health are presented. The crowded nature of the public health curriculum, and the nature of students participating in it, required us to devise and develop a short course, and to use techniques that were likely to provide a relatively efficient introduction to the processes, content and methods involved in the field of ethics.

  18. Climate change and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Benny

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.

  19. Utility and justice in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Kathryn

    2017-12-11

    Many public health practitioners and organizations view themselves as engaged in the promotion or achievement of equity. However, discussions around public health frequently assume that practitioners and policy-makers take a utilitarian approach to this work. I argue that public health is better understood as a social justice endeavor. I begin by presenting the utility view of public health and then discuss the equity view. This is a theoretical argument, which should help public health to justify interventions for communicable and non-communicable diseases equally, and which contributes to breaking down the 'old/new' public health divide. This argument captures practitioners' views of the work they are engaged in and allows for the moral and policy justification of important interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases. Systemic interventions are necessary to remedy high rates of disease among certain groups and, generally, to improve the health of entire populations. By viewing diseases as partly the result of failures of health protective systems in society, public health may justify interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases equally. Public health holds a duty to improve the health of the worst-off in society; by prioritizing this group, the health of the whole community may improve. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Methodological innovations in public health education: transdisciplinary problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Edward F; Kreuter, Matthew W; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Anne K; McBride, Timothy D

    2015-03-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis designed a Master of Public Health program centered on transdisciplinary problem solving in public health. We have described the rationale for our approach, guiding principles and pedagogy for the program, and specific transdisciplinary competencies students acquire. We have explained how transdisciplinary content has been organized and delivered, how the program is being evaluated, and how we have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for a Master of Public Health degree.

  1. Developing an evidence-based public health informatics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinyu; Xie, Yue; Pan, Xuequn; Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Whipple, Jessica; Azadbakht, Elena

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed the need to develop a public health informatics (PHI) introductory course and determine contents of such a course. Community assessments employing focus group interviews and an online survey were utilized to determine course need and content. Results revealed a need to provide PHI training to graduate public health students and suggested broad course content requirements. Results indicated lack of awareness of libraries and librarians as sources of public health information. A graduate PHI course was developed and delivered. Additionally, implementation of a subject guide increased the library's profile.

  2. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  3. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  4. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention

  5. Public Health's Falling Share of US Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-01-01

    We examined trends in US public health expenditures by analyzing historical and projected National Health Expenditure Accounts data. Per-capita public health spending (inflation-adjusted) rose from $39 in 1960 to $281 in 2008, and has fallen by 9.3% since then. Public health's share of total health expenditures rose from 1.36% in 1960 to 3.18% in 2002, then fell to 2.65% in 2014; it is projected to fall to 2.40% in 2023. Public health spending has declined, potentially undermining prevention and weakening responses to health inequalities and new health threats.

  6. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  7. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  8. Access to Medication Abortion Among California's Public University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Cartwright, Alice F; Johns, Nicole E

    2018-06-09

    A proposed California law will require student health centers at public universities to provide medication abortion. To understand its potential impact, we sought to describe current travel time, costs, and wait times to access care at the nearest abortion facilities. We projected total medication abortion use based on campus enrollment figures and age- and state-adjusted abortion rates. We calculated distance and public transit time from campuses to the nearest abortion facility. We contacted existing abortion-providing facilities to determine costs, insurance acceptance, and wait times. We estimate 322 to 519 California public university students seek medication abortions each month. As many as 62% of students at these universities were more than 30 minutes from the closest abortion facility via public transportation. Average cost of medication abortion was $604, and average wait time to the first available appointment was one week. College students face cost, scheduling, and travel barriers to abortion care. Offering medication abortion on campus could reduce these barriers. Copyright © 2018 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  10. The State Public Health Laboratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Stanley L; Astles, J Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M; Wilcke, Burton W; White, Vanessa A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the goal of which is to promote public-private collaboration to assure quality laboratory services and public health surveillance. To enhance the realization of the NLS, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) launched in 2004 a State Public Health Laboratory System Improvement Program. In the same year, APHL developed a Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey, a tool to measure improvement through the decade to assure that essential PHL services are provided.

  11. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  12. E-mentoring in public health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louise C; Devaney, Susan W; Kelly, Glenda L; Kuehn, Alice F

    2008-09-01

    Attrition in the public health nursing work force combined with a lack of faculty to teach public health prompted development of a "long-distance" learning project. Practicing associate degree nurses enrolled in an online course in population-based practice worked with experienced public health nurse "e-mentors." Student-mentor pairs worked through course assignments, shared public health nursing experiences, and problem-solved real-time public health issues. Nursing faculty served as coordinators for student learning and mentor support. Over 3 years, 38 student-mentor pairs participated in the project. Students reported they valued the expertise and guidance of their mentors. Likewise, mentors gained confidence in their practice and abilities to mentor. Issues related to distance learning and e-mentoring centered around use of technology and adequate time to communicate with one another. E-mentoring is a viable strategy to connect nurses to a learning, sharing environment while crossing the barriers of distance, agency isolation, and busy schedules.

  13. [Postgraduate studies in public health: the problem of efficiency evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkowski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The satisfaction of customer is the main measure and the most important, generally recognized criterion for evaluating the quality of products and services. In the case of education and training, the quality is frequently understood as effectiveness, i.e., the degree to what educational objectives of a training institution are met; the objectives previously formulated on the basis of analyzed and defined demands and expectations of customers (clients). In the first part of the paper: (1) the problems related to the question who in fact is the customer in the context of an institution providing education in public health are discussed; (2) a proposal for resolving these problems is presented; and (3) the main directions of evaluation activities, which should be undertaken under monitoring and effectiveness assessment of postgraduate training in public health are pointed out. In the years 1998-2002, the students' assessment data on educational programs, curriculum contents and subject teachers in the field of postgraduate studies in the School of Public Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, were collected with the help of specially-designed evaluation questionnaires. The data on the students' self-assessment of gained professional competencies were also collected. All students who completed the School of Public Health in these years were subjected to the evaluation inquiries. The data collected were analyzed. Due to the analysis it was possible to define: the quality of the curriculum contents, as well as the professional and didactic skills of the teaching staff as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular curriculum in public health contributed to the increase in professional competence as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular teaching subjects influenced the students' knowledge of and skills in Public Health. The results obtained provided information very useful in the teaching process, designing of

  14. What makes health public?: a critical evaluation of moral, legal, and political claims in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggon, John

    2012-01-01

    .... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--

  15. Creating training opportunities for public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D; Healton, C; Hamburg, M; Rosenfield, A; Cagan, E; Van Wie, W; Haviland, M L

    1999-04-01

    In response to several reports issued by the federal government and private foundations on the under-training of public health practitioners, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University (SPH) and the New York City Department of Health (NYC DOH) initiated the Public Health Scholars program (SPH-PHS) to make degree-level public health training available to NYC DOH employees. Public Health Scholars receive a 50% tuition scholarship and enroll part-time while working full-time at NYC DOH. Sixteen scholars have enrolled during the past three years. The SPH-PHS program is considered a success by both SPH and NYC DOH. This article details the history of the collaboration between the two agencies and the structure of the program and provides a critical analysis of the SPH-PHS program based on interviews with 16 scholars. It also examines the cost and benefit to other schools of public health of implementing such a program.

  16. Public health legal preparedness in Indian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ralph T; Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-04-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health-related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities.

  17. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Creating a brand image for public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kathleen A; Lyons, Roberta L; Issel, L Michele

    2011-01-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) have declined as a proportion of both the nursing and the public health workforces in the past 2 decades. This decline comes as 30 states report public health nursing as the sector most affected in the overall public health shortage. Taken together, these data point to a need for renewed recruitment efforts. However, the current public images of nurses are primarily those of professionals employed in hospital settings. Therefore, this paper describes the development of a marketable image aimed at increasing the visibility and public awareness of PHNs and their work. Such a brand image was seen as a precursor to increasing applications for PHN positions. A multimethod qualitative sequential approach guided the branding endeavor. From the thoughts of public health nursing students, faculty, and practitioners came artists' renditions of four award-winning posters. These posters portray public health nursing-incorporating its image, location of practice, and levels of protection afforded the community. Since their initial unveiling, these posters have been distributed by request throughout the United States and Canada. The overwhelming response serves to underline the previous void of current professional images of public health nursing and the need for brand images to aid with recruitment. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Staff Report to the Senior Department Official on Recognition Compliance Issues. Recommendation Page: Council on Education for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Between 1945-1973, the American Public Health Association (APHA), a membership organization for public professionals, accredited graduate programs in public health. In 1974, the APHA and the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH), a national association representing deans, faculty, and students of accredited schools of public health,…

  20. Museums as a venue for public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-12-01

    Big Food: Health, Culture, and the Evolution of Eating broke numerous records for museum attendance, highlighting the public's appetite for public health. During its 10-month run at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, more than 120 000 visitors attended Big Food, including 25 000 students through the museum's public education program, an increase of 30% more than the average student attendance in the past decade. Big Food cost approximately $100 000 to build, comprising printed panels and objects, installation displays (e.g., custom-built cases to house such objects as sugar-sweetened beverages and healthy and diseased organs), temporary walls, video monitors, food products, and more. At less than $1 per visitor, this provided extraordinary public health value.

  1. Comparing Dental and Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions on Public Health and Preventive Health Care Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604

  2. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  3. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  4. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.

  5. The new genetics and the public's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunton, Robin; Petersen, Alan R., Ph. D

    2002-01-01

    ...; discusses the role of the media in framing debate about genetics, health and medicine. The New Genetics and the Public's Health addresses the emerging social and political consequences of the new genetics and provides a stimulating critique of current research and practice in public health. Alan Petersen is Professor in Sociolo...

  6. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  7. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  8. Health, sustainability and student travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill; Morris, Jenny; Wade, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 246 pre-registration nursing students in a University in the South West of England was carried out to explore the impact of course related travel on the student experience. Results from the survey indicated that students' main mode of transport to practice placements was by car which reflects the rural nature of the South West and the relative paucity of public transport. Long distances that many students travel to their study centre and to placements, and the concurrent financial strain that this creates, impacted negatively on the student experience. Students recognised the need to travel to a place of study and clinical placements and suggestions of minimising the negative impact of travel were offered. These included the increased use of electronic delivery of lectures, attendance at local university premises, the provision of shared transport to placements and placements closer to the student's home. Few students, however, considered the environmental impact of travel. Higher Education Institutions need to address issues of sustainability through promoting student wellbeing and taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore important that student awareness of sustainability related issues is increased as well as focusing on reducing the environmental impact through organisational change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  10. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-12-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  11. REFLECTIONS ABOUT NURSES WORK IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alves Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This research is a part of CIPESC (Classification of Nursing Practice in Public Health project, with national coordination by ABEn (Brazilian Nursing Association witch purpose was to elaborate an inventory of activities developed by Public Health Nurses. It sough to analyze the contribution of the nurses in public health in the South Sanitary District in the city of Goiânia (GO – Brazil, and to identify the meaning of nurses work contribution at Public Health Services, by users and managers. The study was developed by a descriptive-analytical investigation in a qualitative approach. The subjects were managers and users of the Public Health System. Data was collected by individual semi-structured interview directed to the managers and controlling and the Technique of Focal Group. The results had been grouped in three categories: "Performance of the professional", "Education Perspective of Nurses Work”, and "Health-care attendance". As conclusion was found that the nurses give great contribution in the implantation and maintenance of the health politics; that it has concern with the professional formation, that many times is responsible for the incompatibility between the service and the expected potential; it is stand out performance of the nurse as health education professional in the inserted activities in the public health, being intense its contact with the community. KEY WORDS: Public Health; Nursing; Public Health Nursing.

  12. Population health intervention research training: the value of public health internships and mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Paradis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Better alignment between academia and public health practice and policies are critical to improve public health actions. Training of future researchers to address complex issues and to conduct transdisciplinary and collaborative research will help improve this alignment. In this paper, we describe the role of internship placements and mentorship for trainees' skills development in population health intervention research and the benefits of embedding research trainees within public health organizations. This qualitative descriptive study assessed the perceptions of the role and benefits of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research training among former doctoral and postdoctoral students, public health mentors, and senior public health managers who participated in the 4P Program, a research training program which bridges academic training and the public health system in Quebec, Canada. Two types of interviews were conducted: telephone semi-structured interviews by an external evaluator and face-to-face trainee "exit" interviews by the Program co-director. Semi-annual evaluation reports from each trainee were also reviewed. Qualitative data were subjected to a thematic analysis. Internships provided trainees with a working knowledge of the public health system and the context in which decisions and public health interventions are implemented. It was an opportunity for trainees to interact with knowledge-user partners and assess the gap between research and practice. Effective mentorship was key to help trainees interpret the public health reality and develop population health intervention research skills. Trainees learned to ask the "how" questions that are critical for in-depth understanding of complex interventions and the conditions under which they can be best implemented. Conditions of success of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research included the alignment of the interests between the trainee, the

  13. [Survey on public health nursing education-in the comparison of nursing education courses, universities, advanced courses for public health nurse with junior nursing colleges, and public health nursing school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Kayoko; Ikeda, Nobuko; Kanagawa, Katuko; Shiomi, Sigeki; Suzuki, Akira; Hirayama, Tomoko; Furuya, Akie; Ymazaki, Kyoko; Yasumura, Seiji

    2005-08-01

    Changes in public health nursing education have been consideration. Theses changes include a dramatic increase in the number of public health nurses (PHNs) who have enrolled for nursing courses at university. This study was conducted to assess the current status and future of public health nursing education as perceived by teachers and students at three types of schools: universities offering nursing courses, advanced courses for PHNs with junior nursing colleges, and public health nursing schools. Questionnaires were distributed to teachers and students by mail. The questions that were sent to teachers asked which subjects were required to become a certified PHN, which lecture methods were employed to teach public health-particularly community health assessment methods, and what was the level of awareness of the activities of PHNs. Students were asked about their motivation to be a PHN, their understanding of public health, their views of public health activities and their images of PHNs. Responses were analyzed and differences between questionnaires from different schools were noted. These included the number of subjects and the total number of hours spent doing practical training and field experience in universities and the other types of schools, and the number of teachers. Differences also were noted among students at three types of schools about their age, methods of public health activities, knowledge about activities undertaken by PHNs, and their images of PHNs. No differences were observed among the schools with respect to the students' conceptual understanding of public health. Student age, practical training and field experience were found to contribute to their level of understanding of public health and public health nursing. It is thus necessary to consider the teaching methods employed by universities that administer nursing courses and the effectiveness of courses offered by graduate schools.

  14. Public health challenges in sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Melody J; Weinstock, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens are a popular choice for protection from ultraviolet radiation, and hence, important components in the public health campaign to reduce the burden of skin cancer. Public health messages in skin cancer prevention have been used effectively in educational campaigns. The benefits of sunscreen extend beyond skin cancer prevention into other aspects of health and disease prevention: sunscreen decreases the risk for sunburn during physical activity outdoors and seems not to increase the risk for osteoporosis. Public health efforts have laid a solid foundation on which to face the continuing challenge of promoting and developing effective public health campaigns and health policies that encourage sunscreen use, sun protection, and the primary prevention of skin cancer. In this article, the controversies, concerns, and challenges of sunscreen use as it relates to public health are discussed.

  15. Public health emergencies in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Prasad Acharya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergencies in urban India can be caused by natural or man-made disasters. Occurrence of a public health emergency adds to the already stretched health system. This paper looks into the public health emergency conditions in urban India, and our preparedness to tackle them. To address this composite threat to nation’s health and development, a concerted public health response is needed, that can ensure efficient delivery in emergency situations Public health emergency is an occurrence or eminent threat of an illness or health condition caused by bio-terrorism, epidemic or pandemic disease, or novel and highly fatal infectious agent or biological toxin, that possess a substantial risk of a significant number of human facilities or incidents or permanent or long–term disability (1. It is a condition that requires the government to declare a state of public health emergency. The declaration of a state of public health emergency permits the government to suspend state regulations,and change the functions of state agencies (2. Term “Urban” refers to perplexing variety of environments.  Health circumstances of small cities and town differ in many ways from larger cities and metros. Within cities, change in lifestyle of residents is observed. The urban system is often present with full array of health providers ranging from traditional healer, street drug seller to highly –trained surgeons (3.

  16. Genetics, health care, and public policy: an introduction to public health genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Alison

    2007-01-01

    ... initiative About this book Further reading and resources Principles of public health The emergence of public health genetics The human genome project and 'genomic medicine' Community genetics Current developments in public health genetics Genomics and global health 2 Genetic science and technology Basic molecular genetics Genes and the geno...

  17. Florida Public Health Training Center: Evidence-Based Online Mentor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Kathryn A.; Alsac-Seitz, Biray; Mescia, Nadine; Brown, Lisa M.; Hyer, Kathy; Liburd, Desiree; Rogoff, David P.; Troutman, Adewale

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an Online Mentor Program (OMP) designed to support and facilitate mentorships among and between Florida Department of Health (FDOH) employees and USF College of Public Health students using a Web-based portal. The Florida Public Health Training Center (FPHTC) at the University of South Florida (USF) College of Public Health…

  18. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  19. Bureau of Radiological Health publications index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    The Key Word in Context (KWIC) index to the publications of the Bureau of Radiological Health was prepared to aid in the retrieval and identification of publications originated or authored by Bureau staff or published by the Bureau. These publications include journal articles, government publications and technical reports, selected staff papers, and Bureau news releases issued by HEW. For convenience, the document is divided into four sections, KWIC Index, Author Index, Bibliography Index, and BRH Publications Subject Index

  20. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  1. International public health strategies in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbase, A.C.; Roman, G.; Zemouri, C.; Rangel Bonamigo, R.; Torres Dornelles, S.I.

    2018-01-01

    Structured strategies to tackle skin diseases and related infections provide a framework and direct actions against their burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) develops, updates, advocates, and disseminates international public health strategies and implementation tools including guidelines.

  2. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    ... human health and well-being. The author covers a wealth of topics including foundations, the joint history of public health and urban planning, transportation and land use, infrastructure and natural disasters, assessment tools...

  3. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    "This text combines an examination of how the physical environment affects our health with a description of how public health and urban planning can work together to create environments that improve...

  4. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  5. Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaal, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the role of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic in radiation protection in the Slovak Republic. Public Health Authority is budgetary organization, which depends on the funding of the Ministry of Health. As the state administration authority performs execution of state regulatory activities in the field of health protection in Slovak republic and radiation protection as well. Radiation Protection Supervision is performed according to the act on public health protection. Organization scheme of radiation protection in the Slovak Republic is presented

  6. 'Only connect': the case for public health humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Lise

    2014-12-01

    Humanities in health has until now been primarily understood to mean humanities in medicine and has generally failed to include public health. I will argue in this paper that the common justifications for the former--including increased empathy among practitioners--are at least as applicable, if not more, to the latter. Growing emphasis on the social determinants of health and cultural competency in public health require public health students and professionals to develop a nuanced understanding of the influence of social context on health behaviour and to empathise with people in difficult circumstances. Literary fiction has been demonstrated to have an impact on skills related to empathy and social intelligence. Further, translating epidemiological evidence into public policy is a core task of public health and there is a growing body of research to indicate that statistical evidence is more persuasive when combined with narrative evidence. In this article I explore similarities and differences between proposed humanities in public health and programmes in humanities in medicine and highlight research gaps and possible implications of a more expansive view of humanities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. [Community health course--student's evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juresa, Vesna; Musil, Vera; Sosić, Zvonko; Majer, Marjeta; Pavleković, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    Since 1952, Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, has provided a community health course, based on the medical education approach that the main fields of physicians' action are human settlements and not only consulting rooms and clinics. The aim of the study was to compare community health course students' evaluations immediately after attending the course at the 4th and 6th study years. The survey included 224 4th year medical students attending the community course during the academic year 2007-2008 and 192 same-generation 6th year students (85.7%) during the academic year 2009-2010. Students were required to fill out an evaluation questionnaire about the activities during the community health course using grades from 1-poor to 5-excellent, and to write personal remarks and essay. The academic year 2007-2008 students (n=224) were very satisfied (grades 5 and 4) with preparatory seminar (98% of students), final seminar (97%), course organization (90%) and course contents (89%). The same grades were allocated by 98% of students to public health field research, 94% to work in community nurse service, 93% to work in family practice and health promotion in school and kindergarten, and 87% to water sampling. Satisfaction with the community health course was very emotionally described in final essays: "... work with community nurse service in the poorest part of Croatia has changed my life. I have learned in only few hours to wish less and to give more. Every physician should experience it, because that is real life". Results of the same-generation students (n=192) in the academic year 2009-2010, now at 6th study year, showed them to be still very satisfied (grades 5 and 4) with the activities in the community health course: 94% with health promotion, 92% with work in the community nurse service and family medicine, 86% with course contents, 82% with course organization, 78% with final seminar, 64% with preparatory seminar

  8. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  9. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  10. Developing a comprehensive curriculum for public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Ayelet; Jernigan, David H

    2012-11-01

    There is a substantial gap in public health school curricula regarding advocacy. Development of such a curriculum faces three challenges: faculty lack advocacy skills and experience; the public health literature on effective advocacy is limited; and yet a successful curriculum must be scalable to meet the needs of approximately 9,000 public health students graduating each year. To meet these challenges, we propose a 100-hour interactive online curriculum in five sections: campaigning and organizing, policy making and lobbying, campaign communications, new media, and fund-raising. We outline the content for individual modules in each of these sections, describe how the curriculum would build on existing interactive learning and social media technologies, and provide readers the opportunity to "test-drive" excerpts of a module on "grasstops" organizing. Developing advocacy skills and expertise is critical to meeting the challenges of public health today, and we provide a blueprint for how such training might be brought to scale in the field.

  11. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda.

  12. Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

  13. Tailoring a Web-Based Weight Maintenance Intervention for Northern Plains American Indian Public University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingson, Kaitlyn; Lucchesi, Roxanne; Droke, Elizabeth; Kattelmann, Kendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High levels of obesity-related health disparities are common among US American Indian (AI) populations. AI public university students often face unique challenges that may contribute to weight gain and related consequences. Few weight maintenance interventions have been developed that meet the needs of AI public university students. The…

  14. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  15. Obesity stigma: important considerations for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2010-06-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health.

  16. Computer-Assisted Management of Instruction in Veterinary Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Elsbeth; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reviews a course in Food Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in which students are sequenced through a series of computer-based lessons or autotutorial slide-tape lessons, the computer also being used to route, test, and keep records. Since grades indicated mastery of the subject, the course will…

  17. Migration: a core public health ethics issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, V; Dawson, A

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we outline the link between migration, public health and ethics. Discussing relevant arguments about migration from the perspective of public health and public health ethics. Critical review of theories and frameworks, case-based analysis and systematic identification and discussion of challenges. Migration is a core issue of public health ethics and must take a case-based approach: seeking to identify the specific ethical dimensions and vulnerabilities in each particular context. Public health as a practice, built upon the core value of justice, requires the protection and promotion of migrants' well-being (even if this produces tension with immigration services). Ethical analysis should take all phases of migration into account: before, during and after transit. We argue that migration policies, at least as they relate to migrants' well-being, should be founded upon a shared humanity, respect for human rights and on the idea that effective public health cannot and should not be confined within the borders and to the citizens of any host country. We make the case for migration to be seen as a core issue of public health ethics. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  19. Routledge handbook of global public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Richard G; Sommer, Marni

    2011-01-01

    ... processes such as the growth of inequalities between the rich and the poor in countries around the world, the globalisation of trade and commerce, new patterns of travel and migration, as well as a reduction in resources for the development and sustainability of public health infrastructures. The Routledge Handbook of Global Public Health explores ...

  20. Public health and the Australian Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C

    1995-06-01

    The powers vested in the Commonwealth Government by the Constitution contain the basis of much public health law in Australia. Yet this is not often recognised; public health law is generally, and historically, seen as the states' responsibility. This article surveys the broad range of constitutional powers that the Commonwealth Government can rely upon to make public health laws. It considers areas of power specified in the Constitution, such as those with respect to external affairs and corporations. Decisions of the High Court have interpreted the various heads of power very broadly and have significantly enhanced the potential of the Commonwealth to pass detailed and far-reaching public health law. To this fact must be added the taxation arrangements in Australia and, with these, the very extensive control that the Commonwealth can exercise through its monopoly of major taxation sources. Its power to make financial arrangements can tie dependent states into specific policies (including public health policies) as a condition of the grants made to them. However, these broad powers may be limited in some important respects: the High Court is increasingly identifying rights and freedoms in the Constitution that may increasingly bring both state and Commonwealth public health law under challenge. Despite this possibility, the Commonwealth may prove to be our most significant source of public health law, and public health policy makers should recognise the full potential of its power to make such laws.

  1. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  3. Mental health in prisons: A public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A

    2009-01-01

    Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.

  4. Public health systems under attack in Canada: Evidence on public health system performance challenges arbitrary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Ak'ingabe; Perreault, Robert

    2016-10-20

    Public health is currently being weakened in several Canadian jurisdictions. Unprecedented and arbitrary cuts to the public health budget in Quebec in 2015 were a striking example of this. In order to support public health leaders and citizens in their capacity to advocate for evidence-informed public health reforms, we propose a knowledge synthesis of elements of public health systems that are significantly associated with improved performance. Research consistently and significantly associates four elements of public health systems with improved productivity: 1) increased financial resources, 2) increased staffing per capita, 3) population size between 50,000 and 500,000, and 4) specific evidence-based organizational and administrative features. Furthermore, increased financial resources and increased staffing per capita are significantly associated with improved population health outcomes. We contend that any effort at optimization of public health systems should at least be guided by these four evidence-informed factors. Canada already has existing capacity in carrying out public health systems and services research. Further advancement of our academic and professional expertise on public health systems will allow Canadian public health jurisdictions to be inspired by the best public health models and become stronger advocates for public health's resources, interventions and outcomes when they need to be celebrated or defended.

  5. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  6. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  7. Mental Health of Muslim Nursing Students in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the mental health and well-being of Muslim nursing students in Thailand. Specifically, the study investigated the factors that impact anxiety and depression among Muslim nursing students. This cross-sectional research was conducted with a half sampling method of Muslim undergraduate students who were studying at a public nursing college in Thailand. From the 220 self-identified Muslim nursing students, 110 were sampled for this study, representing 1...

  8. Payoffs for California College Students and Taxpayers from Investing in Student Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwood, J. Scott; Stein, Bradley D.; Briscombe, Brian; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Woodbridge, Michelle W.; May, Elizabeth; Seelam, Rachana; Burnam, M. Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Reports results of a survey to assess the impact of CalMHSA's investments in mental health programs at California public colleges and estimates the return on investment in terms of student use of treatment, graduation rates, and lifetime earnings.

  9. Payoffs for California College Students and Taxpayers from Investing in Student Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, J Scott; Stein, Bradley D; Briscombe, Brian; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Woodbridge, Michelle W; May, Elizabeth; Seelam, Rachana; Burnam, M Audrey

    2016-05-09

    Reports results of a survey to assess the impact of CalMHSA's investments in mental health programs at California public colleges and estimates the return on investment in terms of student use of treatment, graduation rates, and lifetime earnings.

  10. Scaring the Public: Fear Appeal Arguments in Public Health Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cummings

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of threat and fear appeal arguments has given rise to a sizeable literature. Even within a public health context, much is now known about how these arguments work to gain the public’s compliance with health recommendations. Notwithstanding this level of interest in, and examination of, these arguments, there is one aspect of these arguments that still remains unexplored. That aspect concerns the heuristic function of these arguments within our thinking about public health problems. Specifically, it is argued that threat and fear appeal arguments serve as valuable shortcuts in our reasoning, particularly when that reasoning is subject to biases that are likely to diminish the effectiveness of public health messages. To this extent, they are rationally warranted argument forms rather than fallacies, as has been their dominant characterization in logic.

  11. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  12. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  13. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  14. Environmental policy and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Barry L. (Barry Lee)

    2007-01-01

    ... or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission ...

  15. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...... as the disintegration of such values. Possible implications for public health management and leadership include four different forms. The application of the conceptual model can potentially draw attention to value conflicts and help to clarify contradictory, institutional logics. It can also potentially support health...... workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...

  16. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  17. Role of the Public Health Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R T [Bureau of Radiological Health, RockviIle, MD (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)

  18. Role of the Public Health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.T.

    1969-01-01

    The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)

  19. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  20. Public engagement on global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emma R M; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-05-20

    Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  1. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [Learning outcomes in public health education in Poland according to international settlements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    The essential functions of the Polish public health system have never been officially defined and some approaches are visible. In the article existing foreign catalogues of essential public health functions (services) and core competences for public health professionals and students are presented. They were confronted with students' final skills in public health field of study, described in formal Polish educational standards. It was claimed that graduates' competencies in Poland do not cover the full range of public health functions and skills defined in different countries. In the 2nd cycle of study an emphasis is put down on education for the managers of health care. An urgent need of change of educational standards for public health field of study was underlined. This is closely related to the need of national debate on public health functions.

  3. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  4. Pharmacy Students as Health Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick P Trombetta, Pharm.D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the main contributor to both health care costs and mortality in the United States, with medication non-adherence and lifestyle modifications being leading causes. To motivate patients with several co-morbidities, the longitudinal care class was used to educate on maintaining adherence to prescribed regimens. Twenty pharmacy students were trained in health coaching and motivational interviewing methods. Specifically, students were to provide patients with education sheets, apply the teach-back method, and motivate the patient to develop and reach SMART goals made with the pharmacy student over a course of one academic school year. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Note

  5. PUBLIC HEALTH Health problems flow freely across borders ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 oct. 2010 ... For four decades, IDRC has supported research across the developing world that has saved lives and reduced illness by tackling threats to public health such as infections diseases, tobacco, dilapidated health systems, and degraded environments.

  6. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  7. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  8. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  9. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.

  11. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  12. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  13. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  14. Bioterrorism, public health, and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

    2002-01-01

    The controversy over the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act has underscored the enduring tension in public health between guarding the common welfare and respecting individual liberty. The current version of the act, crafted in response to extensive public commentary, attempts to strike a balance between these values but has failed to allay the concerns of many civil libertarians and privacy advocates. Although the debates over the model act have been triggered by the threat of bioterrorism, they illustrate broader philosophical differences, with profound implications for all realms of public health policy.

  15. Using a digital storytelling assignment to teach public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Levesque, Salem

    2018-03-01

    The need and expectation for advocacy is central to public health nursing practice. Advocacy efforts that effectively call attention to population health threats and promote the well-being of communities rely on strategies that deliver influential messaging. The digital story is a lay method to capture meaningful, impactful stories that can be used to advocate for public health concerns. Readily available, user-friendly digital technologies allow engagement in digital media production to create digital stories. This paper describes how digital story making can be utilized as an academic assignment to teach public health advocacy within an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Providing nursing students this artistic outlet can facilitate meeting academic learning goals, while also equipping them with creative skills that can be applied in future professional practice. Nursing educators can take advantage of institutional resources and campus culture to support the use of novel digital media assignments that facilitate application of advocacy concepts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Public health workforce employment in US public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Virginia C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the number and distribution of 26 administrative, professional, and technical public health occupations across the array of US governmental and nongovernmental industries. This study used data from the Occupational Employment Statistics program of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. For each occupation of interest, the investigator determined the number of persons employed in 2006 in five industries and industry groups: government, nonprofit agencies, education, healthcare, and all other industries. Industry-specific employment profiles varied from one occupation to another. However, about three-fourths of all those engaged in these occupations worked in the private healthcare industry. Relatively few worked in nonprofit or educational settings, and less than 10 percent were employed in government agencies. The industry-specific distribution of public health personnel, particularly the proportion employed in the public sector, merits close monitoring. This study also highlights the need for a better understanding of the work performed by public health occupations in nongovernmental work settings. Finally, the Occupational Employment Statistics program has the potential to serve as an ongoing, national data collection system for public health workforce information. If this potential was realized, future workforce enumerations would not require primary data collection but rather could be accomplished using secondary data.

  17. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  18. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  19. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  20. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  1. Nutrition and public health in medical education in the UK: reflections and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Jonathan; Wallace, Megan

    2018-04-30

    Doctors play an important role in the identification of nutritional disorders and as advocates for a healthy diet, and although the key tenets of good nutrition education for medical students have been discussed, reports on implementation are sparse. The present commentary responds to a gap in UK medical students' understanding of nutrition and public health and suggests ways to improve it. We review literature about nutrition education in medical schools and discuss a 6-week elective in public health nutrition for medical students. We discuss suggested competencies in nutrition and compare means of students' confidence and knowledge before and after. A nutrition and public health elective in a UK medical school, discussing advocacy, motivational interviewing, supplements, nutritional deficits, parenteral nutrition, obesity services. We utilised multidisciplinary teaching approaches including dietitians, managers and pharmacists, and students implemented a public health activity in a local school. Fifteen final-year medical students were enrolled; sixty school pupils participated in the public health activity. The students were not confident in nutrition competencies before and were taught less than European counterparts. Students enjoyed the course, had improved knowledge, and felt more confident in interviewing and prescribing supplements. Feedback from the local school was positive. Students in our UK medical school were not confident in their required competencies within the confines of the current educational programme. An elective course can improve medical students' knowledge. Similar courses could be implemented in other medical schools to improve nutrition and public health knowledge and practice in future doctors.

  2. [Public health, genetics and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow, Miguel H

    2002-10-01

    Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics.

  3. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  4. Federal Public Health Service: In Retrospect and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2016-10-01

    In this article, I offer a retrospective case study about my early, short-term work within the U.S. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and then my later, longer-term work within the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where I endeavored for two decades largely to help our nation's schools improve health and associated education outcomes. First, for context, I briefly portray the nature of our related political and public health systems. I then frame this retrospective by illustrating how my serial employment within other public health system organizations led to, and then resulted from, my work within these two federal public health agencies. To represent the many talented individuals in each organization with whom I had the good fortune to work, I name only one in each organization. I then characterize how these individuals and organizations progressively shaped my work and career. I conclude by speculating about prospects for academic institutions to more purposefully prepare students and faculty to work within federal government public health agencies. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE... topic's public health importance, existing challenges, and opportunities for action to decrease the...

  6. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  7. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical ... Historical events were described from its first record in Ethiopia in 1905. ... information on patterns of distribution and relation of transmission to seasons and ...

  8. Public health informatics and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Magnuson, J A

    2013-01-01

    In a revised edition, this book covers all aspects of public health informatics, and discusses the creation and management of an information technology infrastructure that is essential in linking state and local organizations in their efforts to gather data.

  9. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  10. Advancing Public Health in Cancer - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is the leading cause of death from disease among Americans under 85. Learn how NCI advances public health by conducting research to improve the delivery of quality cancer prevention, screening, and treatment to all Americans.

  11. VT - Environmental Public Health Tracking Data Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — What is Environmental Public Health Tracking?Tracking is an ongoing national effort to better understand how environmental hazards can contribute to certain...

  12. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  13. Innovation and motivation in public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Maroto, Andrés; Rubalcaba, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Innovations in public health services promote increases in the health status of the population. Therefore, it is a major concern for health policy makers to understand the drivers of innovation processes. This paper focuses on the differences in behaviour of managers and front-line employees in the pro-innovative provision of public health services. We utilize a survey conducted on front-line employees and managers in public health institutions across six European countries. The survey covers topics related to satisfaction, or attitude towards innovation or their institution. We undertake principal components analysis and analysis of variance, and estimate a multinomial ordered probit model to analyse the existence of different behaviour in managers and front-line employees with respect to innovation. Perception of innovation is different for managers and front-line employees in public health institutions. While front-line employees' attitude depends mostly on the overall performance of the institution, managers feel more involved and motivated, and their behaviour depends more on individual and organisational innovative profiles. It becomes crucial to make both managers and front-line employees at public health institutions feel participative and motivated in order to maximise the benefits of technical or organisational innovative process in the health services provision.

  14. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  15. Public health communications for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, E

    1994-03-30

    Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences.

  16. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  17. Political Economy of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  18. Natural radioactivity and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The radioactivity have been existing everywhere in the nature for the night of times. The most radioactive places such Guarapari in Brazil or Ramsar in Iran or springs of Bad Gastein in Austria do not reveal more cancers linked to radioactivity than everywhere else. Only the important radiation doses over 100 MSv received in one time are dangerous for health. (N.C.)

  19. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K

    2000-09-01

    There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have particular relevance. Globalization, in turn, can be defined as a process that is changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres and along at least three dimensions. Understanding public health and globalization in these ways suggests the urgent need for research to better understand the linkages between the two, and effective policy responses by a range of public health institutions, including the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine. The paper is based on a review of secondary literature on globalization that led to the development of a conceptual framework for understanding potential impacts on the determinants of health and public health. The paper then discusses major areas of public health in relation to these potential impacts. It concludes with recommendations on how the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine might contribute to addressing these impacts through its various activities. Although there is growing attention to the importance of globalization to public health, there has been limited research and policy development in the United Kingdom. The UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine needs to play an active role in bringing relevant issues to the attention of policy makers, and encourage its members to take up research, teaching and policy initiatives. The potential impacts of globalization support a broader understanding and practice of public health that embraces a wide range of health determinants.

  20. Informing Instruction of Students with Autism in Public School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The number of applied behavior analysis (ABA) classrooms for students with autism is increasing in K-12 public schools. To inform instruction of students with autism in public school settings, this study examined the relation between performance on mastery learning assessments and standardized achievement tests for students with autism spectrum…

  1. Comparative Study Of Private And Public Schools Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student perceptions of school engagement (i.e., sense of connection to school, teachers and peers), motivation to learn, self-esteem, and student safety are part of a range of public accountability indicators. This study examined differences between two groups of Senior Secondary three (SS III) students from public school ...

  2. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  3. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  4. Sepsis is a preventable public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Jordan A; Wang, Henry E; Martin, Greg S

    2018-05-06

    There is a paradigm shift happening for sepsis. Sepsis is no longer solely conceptualized as problem of individual patients treated in emergency departments and intensive care units but also as one that is addressed as public health issue with population- and systems-based solutions. We offer a conceptual framework for sepsis as a public health problem by adapting the traditional model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

  5. Music and Public Health - An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Theorell, Töres

    2018-01-01

    Introduction to Music and Public Health as a new research field. The history of the field in the Nordic countries is presented, and the 13 contributions to the book are briefly reviewed.......Introduction to Music and Public Health as a new research field. The history of the field in the Nordic countries is presented, and the 13 contributions to the book are briefly reviewed....

  6. Five Classic Articles in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Borak, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In this brief review, Dr. Jonathan Borak comments on five seminal papers that helped shape the fields of epidemiology and public health. These papers include Hill?s criteria for inferring causality; the first proof of the multistage theory of cancer; the first evidence that subclinical lead exposures can cause neurobehavioral impairment in children; a simple yet robust study that had a major influence on setting current air pollution policies; and a landmark review of the general public?s per...

  7. Ecological public health and climate change policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, George P

    2010-01-01

    The fact that health and disease are products of a complex interaction of factors has long been recognized in public health circles. More recently, the term 'ecological public health' has been used to characterize an era underpinned by the paradigm that, when it comes to health and well-being, 'everything matters'. The challenge for policy makers is one of navigating this complexity to deliver better health and greater equality in health. Recent work in Scotland has been concerned to develop a strategic approach to environment and health. This seeks to embrace complexity within that agenda and recognize a more subtle relationship between health and place but remain practical and relevant to a more traditional hazard-focused environmental health approach. The Good Places, Better Health initiative is underpinned by a new problem-framing approach using a conceptual model developed for that purpose. This requires consideration of a wider social, behavioural etc, context. The approach is also used to configure the core systems of the strategy which gather relevant intelligence, subject it to a process of evaluation and direct its outputs to a broad policy constituency extending beyond health and environment. This paper highlights that an approach, conceived and developed to deliver better health and greater equality in health through action on physical environment, also speaks to a wider public health agenda. Specifically it offers a way to help bridge a gap between paradigm and policy in public health. The author considers that with development, a systems-based approach with close attention to problem-framing/situational modelling may prove useful in orchestrating what is a necessarily complex policy response to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

  8. Big social data analytics for public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Hansen, Kjeld; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, social media has offered new opportunities for interaction and distribution of public health information within and across organisations. In this paper, we analysed data from Facebook walls of 153 public organisations using unsupervised machine learning techniques to understand...

  9. Mental health among students of pedagogical universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinauskas R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.

  10. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding public health inspections of restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Grimm, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Foodborne diseases cause 76 million illnesses in the U.S. each year, and almost half of all money spent on food is spent in restaurants. Restaurant inspections are a critical public health intervention for the prevention of foodborne disease. A telephone survey of randomly selected Tennessee residents aged > or =18 was performed. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and expectations regarding restaurant inspections. Of 2000 respondents, 97% were aware that restaurants are inspected regularly by the health department. More than half of the respondents believed that inspections should be performed at least 12 times per year; only one third were aware that inspections currently occur only twice per year in Tennessee. More than one third of the respondents considered an inspection score of > or =90 acceptable for a restaurant at which they would eat; the mean score in Tennessee is 82. When presented with a variety of scenarios, an overwhelming number of respondents felt that public health responses to safety violations should be far more draconian than they actually are. Survey answers did not differ consistently based on respondents' race, gender, or history of having worked in a restaurant. This study identified a number of public misconceptions and unrealistically high expectations of the public health restaurant-inspection system. It is important to improve consumers' understanding of inspection scores and the limitations of regulatory inspections, as well as the role of such inspections in disease prevention.

  11. History and Content of Public Health Specialization Training and Employment Policies in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health was accepted as a specialty in the mid-19th century in United Kingdom and Germany and, the beginning of 20th century in USA and Russia. In Turkey, public health specialization training started at Refik Saydam Hifzissihha Institute in 1958, at Hacettepe University in 1965 and at Ataturk University in 1967. While sanitation, communicable diseases and immunization subjects had priority in public health specialization training programs in the 1800s, health care management and epidemiology were customary curriculum in the second half of the 1900s. International Health Organizations, health planning and health economics subjects were included in curriculum during European Public Health School Directors meeting in 1966. Later on, public health has become a multidisciplinary field and psychology, sociology, anthropology, health economics and surveillance techniques were added to training programs. There are 520 public health specialists and 286 public health specialization students in Turkey in 2013. Specialization training programmes are offered in 57 departments. Half of the public health specialists work for the Ministry of Health (51%, while 47% of public health specialists work for universities. While 17% of public health specialists in the Ministry of Health worked in managerial positions, this ratio is increased to 25% in 2010. The Ministry of Health does not require public health specialization when assigning health managers. Authors strongly recommend that only the public health specialists should be assigned in managerial positions in the Provincial Directorate of Public Health and Community Health Centers. In addition, number of public health specialists working in central organization of Turkish Public Health Institution should be increased. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 495-504

  12. Why Do People Work in Public Health? Exploring Recruitment and Retention Among Public Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Wisniewski, Janna M; Amos, Kathleen; Bialek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The public health workforce is critical to the functioning of the public health system and protection of the population's health. Ensuring a sufficient workforce depends on effectively recruiting and retaining workers. This study examines factors influencing decisions to take and remain in jobs within public health, particularly for workers employed in governmental public health. This cross-sectional study employed a secondary data set from a 2010 national survey of US public health workers. Survey respondents were included in this study if they responded to at least 1 survey item related to recruitment and retention. A total of 10 859 survey responses fit this criterion. Data examined demographics of public health workers and factors that influenced decisions to take jobs in and remain in public health. Job security (β = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.56) and competitive benefits (β = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70) were significantly and positively associated with governmental employees' decisions to take positions with their current employers compared with public health workers employed by other types of organizations. The same finding held with regard to retention: job security (β = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.57) and competitive benefits (β = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.24-0.83). Two personal factors, personal commitment to public service (β = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42) and wanted a job in the public health field (β = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-0.69), were significantly and positively related to governmental employees deciding to remain with their current employers. It is important to recognize the value of competitive benefits for both current and potential employees. Public health agencies should maintain these if possible and make the value of these benefits known to policy makers or other agencies setting these benefit policies. Job security associated with governmental public health jobs also appears to offer public health an advantage in recruiting and retaining employees.

  13. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the microbiological origin. The impressive progress in understanding the nexus between soil and health has been achieved by experimentation with preserved soil microbial systems functioning along with the metagenomic characterization. The objective of this work is to present an overview of some recent onsets. In the food safety arena, survival of human pathogens in soils has been related to the degree of soil eutrophication and/or related structure of soil microbial communities. Soil microbial systems affect the affinity of plants to internalizing pathogenic organisms. Pharmaceutical arsenals benefit from using field soil environment for developing antibiotics. Enzyme production by soil bacteria is used as the signal source for drug activation. Sanitary functions of sols are dependent on soil microbial system workings. The healthy living can be enhanced by the human immune system training received from direct contact with soils. The hygiene hypothesis considers the microbial input due to exposure to soil as the essential ecosystem service. The invisible links between soil and public health result in large-scale consequences. Examples of concurrent degradation of soil and public health are worth scrutinizing. Public health records can provide valuable sources of 'soil-public health' interactions. It may be worthwhile to examine current assessments of soil health from the public health standpoint. Soil management can be an efficient instrument of public health control.

  14. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernick, M S

    1997-11-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well.

  15. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  16. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  17. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... eliminating annual and lifetime dollar limits would result in dramatic premium hikes for student plans and.... Industry and university commenters noted that student health insurance coverage benefits typically... duplication of benefits and makes student plans more affordable. Industry commenters noted that student health...

  18. Recruiting Nonresident Students and the Privatization of Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael S.; Smith, Marybeth

    2016-01-01

    As state appropriations for higher education decrease, public universities rely increasingly on student tuition to meet their operating expenses. Many public universities depend on tuition paid by out-of-state students. Institutions maximize revenue-enhancing opportunities resulting from a supportive public policy and cultural environment.…

  19. Identification of Students with Dyslexia in California Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futterman, Kathy R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the key problems facing public education today is the need for early and accurate identification of students with dyslexia. Students with dyslexia in public schools have historically been largely ignored or under-identified. California public school educators and administrators need to understand what dyslexia is and how to accurately…

  20. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  1. Saúde Pública é...: permanências e modernidades nas representações de universitários Public Health is...: permanences and modernities in university students' representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Julia Marques Lopes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute os resultados de uma pesquisa sobre as formas com que indivíduos e grupos entendem e representam a saúde pública como espaço de intervenção e assistência na área da saúde. Discute-se como estudantes universitários da área de saúde representam essas práticas, considerando que as representações são processos sócio-cognitivos, dependentes do sujeito, mas influenciados pelas condições sociais nas quais se elaboram e se transmitem. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, que se estendeu por oito semestres com oito turmas de estudantes de graduação em enfermagem, totalizando, aproximadamente, 350 alunos. Durante quatro anos (2000-2004, utilizamos a técnica de associação livre de palavras e expressões para desencadear, em sala de aula, a discussão temática ou "problemática" da saúde pública como campo de estudo e prática. Foram produzidos oito cartazes associativos categorizando o material por turmas de estudantes. A saúde pública configura-se em palco de representações com significados, predominantemente negativos para diferentes sujeitos. Predominou a idéia de que a saúde pública "serve para quem não tem escolha" ao lado de uma idealização do seu potencial transformador configurado no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS.This article presents and discusses results of a study that investigated the ways in which subjects and groups understand and represent public health as a space of intervention and care in the health field. The discussion is about how university students in the health area represent such practices, considering that the representations are social and cognitive processes that depend on the subject but which are influenced by the social conditions in which they are elaborated and transmitted. It is a qualitative study conducted along 8 semesters with 8 groups of undergraduate students of the Nursing School, totaling 350 students approximately. During 4 years (2000/2004, we

  2. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  3. Radiological protection and public health: crossbreeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, Patrick; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper summarizes the scope of activities, ongoing experience and current results of the Expert Group on the Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection (EGPH) of the Committee of Radiological Protection and Public Health, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. While the prime and general task of the EGPH group is looking at how the public health and radiation protection can better take an advantage of their respective perspectives, the following four areas have been explored in detail: a) Exposure to radon; b) Justification of medical exposures; c) Public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence; and d) Management of individual differences. In most of these areas, a targeted telephone survey on public policies in selected countries was used for collecting information from stake holders (public, consumers groups, public health and radiation protection regulators, governmental bodies, medical practitioners, patients, scientific communities, NGOs, etc.). The presented paper also highlights key issues of collected information and summarises existing approaches and policies. The case study on exposure to radon collects national information on approaches to the management of domestic radon risks, focusing on the integration of radiation protection and public health aspects (quality of dwellings, overall quality of indoor air, perception of radon levels, position of radon risk in the pool of other risks). In the case of justification of medical exposures, the Group studies the applications of the justification principle in opportunistic screenings (responsibilities, management of the situation, risk assessment). The precautionary principle and its impact on policy judgement in the light of significant scientific uncertainties can have a large influence on radiological-protection decision making. The case study on public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence is exploring how these uncertainties and

  4. [Teaching performance assessment in Public Health employing three different strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Adrián; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Ponce-Rosas, Efrén Raúl; Martínez-Franco, Adrián Israel; Urrutia-Aguilar, María Esther

    2011-01-01

    The educational system depends upon the quality and performance of their faculty and should therefore be process of continuous improvement. To assess the teaching performance of the Public Health professors, at the Faculty of Medicine, UNAM through three strategies. Justification study. The evaluation was conducted under a mediational model through three strategies: students' opinion assessment, self-assessment and students' academic achievement. We applied descriptive statistics, Student t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Twenty professors were evaluated from the Public Health department, representing 57% of all them who teach the subject. The professor's performance was highly valued self-assessment compared with assessment of student opinion, was confirmed by statistical analysis the difference was significant. The difference amongst the three evaluation strategies became more evident between self-assessment and the scores obtained by students in their academic achievement. The integration of these three strategies offers a more complete view of the teacher's performance quality. Academic achievement appears to be a more objective strategy for teaching performance assessment than students' opinion and self-assessment.

  5. Public Health Education: Teaching Epidemiology in High School Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emily

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiology instruction has expanded at the undergraduate level in part because it increases student critical thinking and scientific literacy, promotes students' perception of public health as both practical and relevant, and empowers students as independent, lifelong learners. Why then are more high schools not adopting epidemiology as a course requirement for students? Although prior iterations of high school epidemiology courses are noteworthy for incorporating active and participatory learning, embedding them into existing and continually shifting curricula is challenging and time-consuming, especially for teachers not trained in the field. It also may be argued that currently available epidemiology teaching resources emphasize content rather than thinking skills and therefore do not optimally promote students' personal engagement with, and in-depth understanding of, the mission and goals of public health. I propose a new framework for high school epidemiology that draws from progressive education ideology, including three critical elements: empowerment, authenticity, and transfer. I provide multiple examples to show how this framework has been used across a wide array of settings to hone epidemiology thinking skills in high school students.

  6. Public Health Service Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, J R [Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  7. Public Health Service Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  8. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  9. Public health as a catalyst for interprofessional education on a health sciences campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden-Holman, Tanya M; Curry, Susan J; Benz, Loretta; Aquilino, Mary Lober

    2015-03-01

    Although interprofessional education (IPE) has existed in various formats for several decades, the need for IPE recently has taken on renewed interest and momentum. Public health has a critical role to play in furthering IPE, yet schools of public health are often underrepresented in IPE initiatives. The University of Iowa College of Public Health is serving as a catalyst for IPE activities on our health sciences campus, which includes colleges of dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and public health. IPE-related activities have included campus visit by IPE leaders, administration of the Survey of Critical Elements for Implementing IPE, administration of the Interprofessional Learning Opportunities Inventory survey, the development of a comprehensive strategic plan, and the pilot of an IPE course for all first-year prelicensure students and Master of Health Administration students. Although more work is needed to more fully integrate IPE into the curriculum, success to date of the University of Iowa IPE initiative demonstrates that public health can play a critical role as a convener and catalyst for IPE curricular innovations on a health sciences campus.

  10. Public Swimming Pools | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illness Disease Reporting and Surveillance Bureau of Public Health Laboratories Environmental Health Air Air Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Indoor Air Quality Mold Radon Water Aquatic Toxins Beach Water Quality purification, testing, treatment, and disinfection procedures. To ensure that the pool technicians are

  11. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  12. Cities and the health of the public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2006-01-01

    ... and urban renewal on health, and the challenges facing cities in the developing world. It also examines conditions such as infectious diseases, violence and disasters, and mental illness. Nicholas Freudenberg is Distinguished Professor of Public Health and Social Psychology, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York. Sandro G...

  13. EDITORIAL PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE HEALTH PROFESSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DSB

    and comedians, there is a lot of serious introspection by health professionals and where possible remedial corrective measures are ... The public perception of health professionals is heavily influenced by greatly skewed media reporting. ... because of the resulting intense itch and could hardly sleep at night. The tourist ...

  14. Ethical issues in public health promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... Health promotion has three main ethical issues: (i) what are the ultimate goals for public .... construction of new norms, the shaping of existing norms, the .... despite the fact that we know they are bad for people's health. There.

  15. Essays on Academic Achievement and Student Behavior in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Wael Soheil

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the student academic achievement through various mechanisms, put in place by the public school district, classroom student behavior, and negative external shocks to the students' living environment. I examine the impacts of various treatments on student short and long run academic outcomes such as math and English test…

  16. Developing primary health care and public health competencies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephen E Knight

    community-based programme within the undergraduate medical curriculum, which aims to develop primary ... educational imperatives, namely improving medical students' ... Selectives is an innovative longitudinal, ... assessments of students in the Selectives module is the collective .... health and well-being of individuals,.

  17. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-05

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  18. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  19. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  20. Big Data's Role in Precision Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Precision public health is an emerging practice to more granularly predict and understand public health risks and customize treatments for more specific and homogeneous subpopulations, often using new data, technologies, and methods. Big data is one element that has consistently helped to achieve these goals, through its ability to deliver to practitioners a volume and variety of structured or unstructured data not previously possible. Big data has enabled more widespread and specific research and trials of stratifying and segmenting populations at risk for a variety of health problems. Examples of success using big data are surveyed in surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease. Using novel big data or big data approaches has risks that remain to be resolved. The continued growth in volume and variety of available data, decreased costs of data capture, and emerging computational methods mean big data success will likely be a required pillar of precision public health into the future. This review article aims to identify the precision public health use cases where big data has added value, identify classes of value that big data may bring, and outline the risks inherent in using big data in precision public health efforts.

  1. Academic dental public health diplomates: their distribution and recommendations concerning the predoctoral dental public health faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.

  2. The Effects of Education on Spirituality through Virtual Social Media on the Spiritual Well-Being of the Public Health Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hasanshahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role and effects of people’s spiritual well-being have received more attention in recent years. Knowing the factors related to spiritual well-being, especially in students as the educated class and future builders of society, is too important. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of education on spirituality through social media in the spirituality well-being of public health students of Isfahan University of medical science. Methods: A semi-experimental, pre-test, post-test study was conducted on 50 under- graduate public health students (3 men, 47 women; age range 18-30 years of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences through convenience and purposive sampling. The educational content of spirituality education was used to promote and improve spiritual well-being, being sent by using one of the mobile phone applications. Using spiritual well-being questionnaire, the level of the individuals’ spiritual well-being before and after the educational was evaluated. To analyze the data in this study, descriptive statistics and t-test were use SPSS software was used to analyze the data and the significance level was considered lower than 0.05%. Result: In total, 50 students including 3 men and 47women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 22.02±3.78. About 68% of the students were single and the remaining were married. The score of the participants’ spiritual well-being was 96.5 before the intervention and it promoted to 103.3 after the intervention. The result of the analysis by t-test on the two groups showed that spirituality education can cause a significant increase in peoples’ spiritual well-being (P<0.001. Conclusion: After the educational intervention, the level of people’s spiritual well-being increased significantly. As a result, spirituality education causes conditions to improve the peoples’ spiritual well-being.

  3. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  4. Sexual Violence Screening Practices of Student Health Centers Located on Universities in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Valerie; Williams, Jessica R.; Gattamorta, Karina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe current sexual violence screening practices of student health centers located on universities in Florida. Participants: Institutional level data was collected from 33 student health centers from November 2015 through January 2016. The student health centers were located on public or private…

  5. Our health and theirs: forced migration, othering, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Natalie J; Zwi, Anthony B

    2006-04-01

    This paper uses 'othering' theory to explore how forced migrants are received in developed countries and considers the implications of this for public health. It identifies a variety of mechanisms by which refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants are positioned as 'the other' and are defined and treated as separate, distant and disconnected from the host communities in receiving countries. The paper examines how this process has the potential to affect health outcomes both for individuals and communities and concludes that public health must engage with and challenge this othering discourse. It argues that public health practitioners have a critical role to play in reframing thinking about health services and health policies for forced migrants, by promoting inclusion and by helping shape a narrative which integrates and values the experiences of this population.

  6. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  8. Ophthalmic public health; the way ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, F; Rahimi, A; Gharebaghi, R

    2012-01-01

    Visual sciences have been progressing quickly in recent decades through globalization phenomenon. An enormous change has taken place in ocular health issues, however, there are various problems facing ophthalmic public health worldwide. In the previous years, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eradicate avoidable blindness by the year 2020, VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has concentrated on the prevention of blindness disability and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. In view of challenges ahead of visual sciences, close collaboration between international agencies at the global level to implement new strategies and monitor the progress will be mandatory. In these circumstances non-governmental organizations should not be neglected. World Sight Day 2012 would be a great opportunity to be a focus on importance of visual impairment as an important public health issue and discovering new challenges ahead.

  9. Student-Created Public Relations for Gifted Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Amy

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of student participation in a gifted public relations campaign, including creating public support for gifted programming and developing leadership skills. Steps for developing a formal unit of instruction on public relations are described, along with ideas for public relations activities. (Contains references.)…

  10. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  12. Factors influencing publication of scientific articles derived from masters theses in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Malen; Borrell, Carme; Garin, Olatz; Fernández, Esteve; Alonso, Jordi

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate theses of a Masters program in Public Health (MPH), in terms of the students' and theses' characteristics that influence publication of the thesis as a scientific article. Longitudinal study of students who successfully completed the MPH at Universitat Pompeu Fabra and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain) from 2006 to 2010. Participants completed an electronic survey and additional data were gathered from university files. 162 students participated in the study (83 % response rate). 60.5 % had already published an article derived from their thesis at the time of the study or were in process of publishing it. The likelihood of publishing in a peer-reviewed journal was greater among women (aRR = 1.41), among those who had a bachelor's degree in sciences other than health (aRR = 1.40), had completed the MPH on time (aRR = 2.10), had enrolled in a doctoral program after the MPH (aRR = 1.44) or had a masters thesis score of ≥7 (aRR = 1.61). The majority of MPH students published their thesis in a peer-reviewed journal. The strongest predictors of successful publication were related to academic performance.

  13. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomberg, John P.; Haimson, Oliver L.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant’s likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74

  14. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  15. Energy policy and the public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, B.

    1979-01-01

    The various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and its effect on public health are described. For the U.K., it is shown that the maximum doses to an individual of the general public are well below the ICRP standards. For nuclear workers, the standard mortality ratio rate for UKAEA and BNFL workers is less than the national average and considerably less than that for miners, quarrymen and other industrial employees. The radiological risk to the general public from nuclear plant accidents is very small compared to the general hazards of life. In conclusion, the hazards involved in nuclear technology are no different in kind or in scale to those of existing technologies and indeed the radiological effects on health are better understood than the health risks associated with other technologies. (U.K.)

  16. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  17. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D

    2000-04-01

    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new

  18. The genesis of public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L

    2004-11-01

    As bioethics emerged in the 1960s and 1970s and began to have enormous impacts on the practice of medicine and research--fuelled, by broad socio-political changes that gave rise to the struggles of women, African Americans, gay men and lesbians, and the antiauthoritarianism impulse that characterised the New Left in democratic capitalist societies--little attention was given to the question of the ethics of public health. This was all the more striking since the core values and practices of public health, often entailing the subordination of the individual for the common good, seemed opposed to the ideological impulses of bioethics. Of what relevance is autonomy-focused bioethics for public health, with its mix of justifications including those that are either implicitly or explicitly paternalistic or that seek to impose strictures on individuals and communities in the name of collective welfare? To examine the deep divide between the central commitments of bioethics and the values that animate the practice of public health, we focus on a series of controversies implicating the concepts of privacy, liberty, and paternalism. Recognising the role of moral values in decision-making was a signal contribution of bioethics in its formative period. Over the past three decades a broad array of perspectives emerged under the rubric of bioethics but individualism remains central. As we commence the process of shaping an ethics of public health, it is clear that bioethics is the wrong place to start when thinking about the balances required in defence of the public's health.

  19. [Adolescent pregnancy, a public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel Vicuna, B

    1986-01-01

    Throughout Western civilization the fundamental unit of society is the family. The union of a couple guarantees their responsibility to future children. Prior to the renaissance, when life expectancy was very low, the preservation of the human species required reproduction at a young age. Since the beginning of the 19th century, life expectancy has increased greatly. The extremes of reproductive age have been noted to be times when pregnancy carries increase risks, and the risks of grand multiparity have been noted. The sexual revolution has resulted in the loss of previous principles of conduct. Youth are incited by pornography in the media, and without the controlling influence of the traditional family, become sexually active at a younger age. In Chile, as elsewhere, there have always been out of wedlock births, but in 1970 these reached 18.5% of all births. By 1980, it had reached 27.6% of all births and 45.7% of births to mothers under age 20. Since the family is the basic unit of society, this number of illegitimate births indicates a grave social problem. This also represents a public health risk due to the increased risks of young mothers. Illegitimate children of adolescent mothers have the added problem that the fathers are usually also young, so both parents are still in school and cannot assume full responsibility for the child. These babies have a much higher infant mortality than those of older mothers. The only solution is education, and legislation requiring paternal responsibility. School teachers often have an inadequate knowledge of reproduction and sexuality, and can not serve as sources of information to the students. Without supportive education and legislation requiring both parents to be responsible for their children, we will not be able to solve this situation.

  20. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH IN LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled "Public expenditure on health in local budgets" aims analysing and deepening major spending categories that public authorities finance at local level, namely health expenditure. In the first part of the article we have specified the content and role of this category of expenditure in local budgets and also made some feedback on decentralization in health. In the second part of the work, based on data available in Statistical Yearbook of Romania, we have carried out an analysis of the dynamics of health spending from local budgets to emphasize their place and role in the health care expenses. The research carried out follows that the evolution and structure of health expenditure financed from local budgets is determined, along with the legislative framework in the field, by several variables that differ from one territorial administrative unit to another: the existence of sanitary units, their type, the involving of local public authorities in their development and modernization, the number and the social structure of the population. The research shows that over the period 1993-2015, the dynamics of the share of health spending in total expenditures of local budgets is sinusoidal, with a minimum threshold in 2000 of only 0.3%.

  1. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies (electronic resource)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Stoto, Michael A; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Dausey, David J; Meade, Barbara; Diamond, Alexis; Molander, Roger C

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  2. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dausey, David J

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  3. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  4. The dancing plague: a public health conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L J; Cavanagh, J; Rankin, J

    1997-07-01

    The phenomenon of mass, frenzied dancing affected large populations in various parts of Europe from the thirteenth century and lasted, on and off, for three centuries. The exact aetiology of the Dancing Plague (or Dancing Mania) is still unclear. Retrospective historical review of this public health problem reveals claims for causative factors including demonic possession, epilepsy, the bite of a tarantula, ergot poisoning and social adversity. It seems unlikely that Dancing Mania resulted from a single cause but rather resulted from multiple factors combining with a predisposing cultural background and triggered by adverse social circumstances. Dancing Mania remains one of the unresolved mysteries of public health.

  5. Statistical causal inferences and their applications in public health research

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Pan; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles and presents new developments in statistical causal inference. The accompanying data and computer programs are publicly available so readers may replicate the model development and data analysis presented in each chapter. In this way, methodology is taught so that readers may implement it directly. The book brings together experts engaged in causal inference research to present and discuss recent issues in causal inference methodological development. This is also a timely look at causal inference applied to scenarios that range from clinical trials to mediation and public health research more broadly. In an academic setting, this book will serve as a reference and guide to a course in causal inference at the graduate level (Master's or Doctorate). It is particularly relevant for students pursuing degrees in Statistics, Biostatistics and Computational Biology. Researchers and data analysts in public health and biomedical research will also find this book to be an important reference.

  6. Review the Proportion of university seats with body dimensions of students at the School of Public Health of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 1388

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safaryvaryani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Educating of students that have the ability to solve society problems, is considered as the most important task of universities. This important issue is achieved through effective education in a safe and stress free environment. Proper design of classroom seats proportional to anthropometric characteristics of students not only can improve academic quality but also prevent musculoskeletal disorders. In addition it may encourage students to practice correct sitting habits. This study was conducted to check the correlation of physical dimensions of students and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder with educational chair dimensions that provided by companies.   Methods   This descriptive - analytical study was performed on 115 students of 18 to 27 years. 15 anthropometric parameters correlated with sitting on the chair were measured by anthropometry page and anthropometric caliper gauge. Dimensions of two Types of seats provided in the classrooms were compared with the standard seat dimensions.   Results   comparison of dimensions confirmed that seat dimension and students dimensions correspond with one another only in elbow length parameter and other parameters were not correspondent with each other. T-Test showed that there are significant  differences between girl and boy parameters.  conclusion   Comparison of the results of measurement of  physical dimensions and chair dimensions with results of emotional dissatisfaction questionnaire and body map chart showed that plastic chair is better than wooden type in term of comfort, chair kind and slope of back rest, and in using plastic chairs students do not have to change their sitting postures; however,  due to incorrect design of foot rest and high effective depth of sea,،  discomfort and pain in lower limbs is higher in plastic chairs when compared with wooden chairs.

  7. Teaching nutrition in an International Master of Public Health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elliot M; Fatunmbi, Bayo S; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan

    2002-01-01

    The health of populations is related to the norms and characteristics of society and its socio-economic organization. The causes of food-related ill health are located at the national and international levels and the cure must be sought in good governance. Thus, it is obvious that a Master's Degree in International Public Health must include a thorough overview of the "food chain" from "plough to plate" within the political, economical, socio-economic changes, environmental, industrial, scientific, and health contexts. Nutritional deficiencies are addressed by a variety of measures, including food supply and utilization programs, specific supplementation for high-risk groups, and food fortification to reach a general population. All are part of a wide-based public health nutrition approach, applicable in developed, redeveloping, and newly developing countries. This article is based on experience in teaching Public Health Nutrition to a mixed group of foreign students from different countries. Our goal is to prepare students for a variety of public health careers related to nutrition and health. The aim of this course is to introduce current roles and aspects of food and nutrition policy, focusing on food and nutrition security, human rights for food and nutrition, and the complex interactions among local and global systems. Students are introduced to nutrition screening, assessment, and research skills, and nutrition in emergency situations and in disaster relief. During the course the students learn about the design and the evaluation of nutrition interventions at the individual, community, and national level. The course gives a broad-based examination of major themes related to development and underdevelopment, poverty and wealth, equality and inequality. It also introduces program planning from the perspective of international organisations such as the World Food Program and the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation of the United

  8. Nursing students' attitudes about home health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestia, Mindy; Murphy, Susan; Yoder, Marian

    2008-09-01

    In an effort to address the home care nursing shortage, this pilot study was designed to measure nursing students' attitudes toward home health nursing and to test the Home Health Attitude Questionnaire developed specifically for this study based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Senior undergraduate nursing students and registered nursing to bachelor of science in nursing students completed the questionnaire.

  9. MENTAL HEALTH AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Woodgate, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.

  10. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  11. Survey on awareness and attitudes of secondary school students regarding plastic pollution: implications for environmental education and public health in Sharjah city, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mohammad Bakri Alaa; Mohammed, Eman Qasem; Hashem, Anas Mohammad; Al-Khafaji, Mina Amer; Alqahtani, Fatima; Alzaabi, Shaikha; Dash, Nihar

    2017-09-01

    Since the industrial revolution in the 1800s, plastic pollution is becoming a global reality. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude about plastic pollution among secondary school students in Sharjah city, United Arab Emirates. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 students in 6 different secondary schools in Sharjah city. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through probability stratified random sampling method between February and April 2016. Majority of the population understands how harmful plastic wastes are to the environment (85.5%). However, the students' mean knowledge score was 53%, with females (P < 0.01), grades 11 and 12 (P = 0.024), and students whose mothers were more educated (P = 0.014) being more knowledgeable and inclined towards pro-environmental behavior. Yet, all students showed tendency to be involved in the fighting against this dilemma. Strategies which address deficiencies, provide incentives for change, and assure governmental support along with environmental education are needed to bridge the information gap and enhance opportunities to adopt pro-environmental behaviors.

  12. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  13. Obesity, stigma and public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lynne; Edwards, Nancy; Garrard, Michael; Sims-Jones, Nicki; Clinton, Kathryn; Ashley, Lisa

    2009-03-01

    Given the rise in obesity rates in North America, concerns about obesity-related costs to the health care system are being stressed in both the popular media and the scientific literature. With such constant calls to action, care must be taken not to increase stigmatization of obese people, particularly of children. While there is much written about stigma and how it is exacerbated, there are few guidelines for public health managers and practitioners who are attempting to design and implement obesity prevention programs that minimize stigma. We examine stigmatization of obese people and the consequences of this social process, and discuss how stigma is manifest in health service provision. We give suggestions for designing non-stigmatizing obesity prevention public health programs. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  14. What does social justice require for the public's health? Public health ethics and policy imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Powers, Madison

    2006-01-01

    Justice is so central to the mission of public health that it has been described as the field's core value. This account of justice stresses the fair disbursement of common advantages and the sharing of common burdens. It captures the twin moral impulses that animate public health: to advance human well-being by improving health and to do so particularly by focusing on the needs of the most disadvantaged. This Commentary explores how social justice sheds light on major ongoing controversies in the field, and it provides examples of the kinds of policies that public health agencies, guided by a robust conception of justice, would adopt.

  15. [Economic problems in military public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A

    2000-03-01

    There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.

  16. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Osipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role of sociology in the scientific management of society — namely — the social construction aimed at the prevention of adverse events and the creation of social realities desirable for the individual and society. One of the areas of social reality, as well as the most important sphere of social life which are subject to social construction is public health. Public health is considered as an integrated expression of the dynamics of individual levels of the health of all members of society. The author emphasizes that the public health of the people is formed by the interaction of two groups of factors — endogenous (sex, biological age, race, body type, heredity and type of the human nervous system and exogenous (natural and social factors. The last are created by people themselves in the course of their ability to live and are operated, that is socially designed. The author analyzes the negative processes related to public health, the most important of which is a complex situation in the health system, lack of faith in the possibility of human medicine. An equally important role belongs to the deterioration of environmental significant share of people’s living conditions and social stress. If earlier scientists did not specify, in what degree of threat of infringement of global ecosystems are connected with a state of health and features of diseases of the population now it is established that various forms of irreversible change of environment are directly dangerous to public health. From an antiquity the effect of discrepancy of the wished (abstractly and actually arising future wished (abstractly — effect of human activity is known: people wish one, however actually all terminates differently, practically, on the contrary. And these characteristics of a public sincere, mental condition can be extremely inconsistent in relation to knowledge. They are the basis of so-called “involuntary behaviors

  17. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for ...

  18. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A wall of information? Exploring the public health component of maternity care in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Julia; Hunter, Billie; Warren, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    midwives have traditionally had an important role in providing public health messages to women. The range and diversity of the public health remit within maternity services has expanded rapidly over the past decade and maternity support workers as well as midwives are now engaged in public health work in many areas. Given these changes a review of current practice was indicated. to identify student midwives׳, midwives׳ and midwifery support workers׳ current knowledge of and involvement in the public health agenda in England. descriptive qualitative study using online discussion forums. England, United Kingdom undergraduate student midwives, midwives and maternity support workers employed by the National Health Service in England and University employed Leads for Midwifery Education. key themes identified were: the scope of the midwives׳ public health role, training and support for public health role, barriers and facilitators, specific client groups, specialist referral services. Student midwives, midwives and maternity support workers view engagement with, and delivery of, public health initiatives as an integral component of their roles, but are on occasions frustrated by constraints of time, training and public engagement. the National Health Service in England aims to engage pregnant women and new mothers in a diverse range of population based and individualised, public health initiatives. Currently, there are high levels of involvement in the public health agenda from the maternity workforce across a wide range of activities. However, midwives and maternity support workers are restricted by barriers of time, training and resources. These barriers will need addressing for optimal maternity care engagement in public health to be realised. policy makers, commissioners and National Health Service providers need to provide clear guidance on the expectations of the public health remit of midwives and maternity support workers and ensure that such expectations

  20. Climate Services to Improve Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Máñez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers. PMID:24776719

  1. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  2. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Lister

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  3. Linking public health nursing competencies and service-learning in a global setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia L

    2017-09-01

    Nurse educators in baccalaureate programs are charged with addressing student competence in public health nursing practice. These educators are also responsible for creating nursing student opportunities for civic engagement and development of critical thinking skills. The IOM report (2010) on the Future of Nursing emphasizes the nurse educator's role in promoting collaborative partnerships that incorporate interdisciplinary and intraprofessional efforts to promote health. The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative approach to address public health nursing competencies and to improve the health and well-being of indigenous populations in a global setting through promotion of collaboration and service- learning principles. As part of a hybrid elective course, baccalaureate nursing students from various nursing tracks participated in a 2 week immersion experience in Belize that included preimmersion preparation. These students were to collaborate among themselves and with Belizean communities to address identified health knowledge deficits and health-related needs for school-aged children and adult populations. Students successfully collaborated in order to meet health-related needs and to engage in health promotion activities in the Toledo district of Belize. They also gained practice in developing public health nursing competencies for entry-level nursing practice. Implementation of service-learning principles provided students with opportunities for civic engagement and self-reflection. Some challenges existed from the students', faculty, and global community's perspectives. Lack of culturally appropriate and country specific health education materials was difficult for students and the community. Faculty encountered challenges in communicating and collaborating with the Belizean partners. Commonalities exist between entry-level public health nursing competencies and service-learning principles. Using service-learning principles in the development of

  4. Freedom of Speech and Adolescent Public School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Murad

    2008-01-01

    Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.

  5. 86th Annual Georgia Public Health Association Meeting & Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina A; Abbott, Regina; Sims, Christy

    2015-01-01

    The 86 th annual meeting of the Georgia Public Health Association (GPHA) and joint conference with the Southern Health Association was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on April 13-14, 2015, with pre-conference (April 12 th ) and post-conference (April 14 th ) Executive Board meetings. As Georgia's leading forum for public health researchers, practitioners, and students, the annual meeting of the GPHA brings together participants from across the state to explore recent developments in the field and to exchange techniques, tools, and experiences. Historically, the GPHA conference has been held in Savannah (n=24); Jekyll Island (n=20); Atlanta (n=16); Augusta (n=4); and Gainesville (n=1). There was no annual meeting during the early years (1929-1936); during World War II (1941-1943 and 1945); and for four years during the 1980s. Between 2006 and 2010, GPHA held one-day annual meetings and business sessions with educational workshops. Several new initiatives were highlighted as part of this year's conference. These included a "move and groove" physical activity lounge, registration scholarships for students with a dedicated meet-and-greet reception, an expanded exhibit hall, presentation and approval of three resolutions (related to healthy foods at official activities and events; weapons at official activities and events; and memorials), and approval of the 2015 legislative policy positions and amended association bylaws. The theme for the conference was Advocacy in Action for Public Health . Specifically, the program addressed ensuring access to care; protecting funding for core programs, services, and infrastructure; eliminating health disparities; and addressing key public health issues important to the state of Georgia. One hundred and nine (109) abstracts were submitted for peer review; 36 were accepted for poster and 40 for workshop presentations. Four plenary sessions with keynote speakers covered the intersection between advocacy and policy, Georgia's response to the

  6. Contextualizing Asian American College Student Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Liu, Jessica; Nguyen, David; Song, Ge

    2017-01-01

    With attention to race, culture, and gender, this chapter contextualizes the help-seeking behaviors and psychological aspects of health facing Asian American college students. Recommendations are provided to student affairs professionals and counselors.

  7. ONCHOCERCIASIS – A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic disease with a wide range of cutaneous and ocular manifestations. It is caused by the tissue nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, and it is transmitted by the bite of a female black fly, Simulium damnosum. Onchocerciasis is a serious public health and socio-economic problem with 95% of all ...

  8. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used

  9. Getting public health ethics into practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maeckelberghe, Els

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethics is the philosophical discipline that advises on decision making criteria when difficult choices are to be made. Research has shown over the last years that public health researchers and practitioners ‘must confront numerous ethical choices' but they ‘often feel ill-prepared to make

  10. Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  11. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  12. The public health impact of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the

  13. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  14. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the m...

  15. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  16. Discrete Choice Experiments in Public Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.

    2015-01-01

    One approach to improve public health is to implement preventive programs that have been proven effective and cost-effective. For any preventive program to be successful, it is of paramount importance that a large majority of the target population participates. Unfortunately, it is not self-evident

  17. Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications of Tuberculosis Among Nomadic Pastoralists in Three Local Governments of Plateau State, North ... Bovine and human tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, and apart from meat inspection at the abattoir, which is not very effective, no control measures are ...

  18. Health security as a public health concept: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldis, William

    2008-11-01

    There is growing acceptance of the concept of health security. However, there are various and incompatible definitions, incomplete elaboration of the concept of health security in public health operational terms, and insufficient reconciliation of the health security concept with community-based primary health care. More important, there are major differences in understanding and use of the concept in different settings. Policymakers in industrialized countries emphasize protection of their populations especially against external threats, for example terrorism and pandemics; while health workers and policymakers in developing countries and within the United Nations system understand the term in a broader public health context. Indeed, the concept is used inconsistently within the UN agencies themselves, for example the World Health Organization's restrictive use of the term 'global health security'. Divergent understandings of 'health security' by WHO's member states, coupled with fears of hidden national security agendas, are leading to a breakdown of mechanisms for global cooperation such as the International Health Regulations. Some developing countries are beginning to doubt that internationally shared health surveillance data is used in their best interests. Resolution of these incompatible understandings is a global priority.

  19. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  20. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalid BOUTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....

  1. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  2. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  3. Public health educational comprehensiveness: The strategic rationale in establishing networks among schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Robert; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Foldspang, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention. The size of schools and university departments of public health varies, and smaller entities may run into problems if seeking to meet the comprehensive curriculum challenge entirely by use of in-house resources. This commentary discusses the relevance and strength of establishing comprehensive curriculum development networks between schools and university departments of public health, as one means to meet the comprehensiveness challenge. This commentary attempts to consider a two-stage strategy to develop complete curricula at the bachelor and master's as well as PhD levels.

  4. Sexual and Gender Minority Health Curricula and Institutional Support Services at U.S. Schools of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, Ali J; Drake, Carolyn B; Glick, Jennifer L; Claiborn, Camilla Scott; Seal, David

    2017-01-01

    Limited research has examined the ways in which public health training programs equip students to address health disparities affecting the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and other sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. This study outlines the availability of public health curricula on SGM health topics, and the prevalence of LGBT and SGM-inclusive institutional support services across CEPH-accredited U.S. schools of public health. Content analysis of all course offerings related to gender and sexuality revealed a limited focus on sexual and gender minority health: just 4.7% of courses contained keywords indicating that LGBT or SGM health topics were covered. Similar analysis of institutional support services available at U.S. schools of public health found that only 25% of schools had LGBT student organizations, and just 19% had an office of diversity that specifically advertised LGBT or SGM-inclusive programming or services on the institution's Web site. Finally, only two of 52 schools offered an educational certificate centered on LGBT health. These findings illustrate a significant need for enhanced curricular content and institutional support services that equip public health students to address SGM health disparities. Improvement in this area may encourage future health care professionals to work to reduce these disparities, to improve SGM persons' experiences in health care settings, and to generate further research in this area.

  5. Assessing the public health impact of using poison center data for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Lyons, Rebecca; Choudhary, Ekta; Wolkin, Amy; Schier, Joshua

    2017-12-13

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.

  6. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.

  7. Should public health be exempt from ethical regulations? Intricacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Literature review of published papers regarding ethical regulations in public health practice. Results: There is a current criticism of public health ethics as hindering rather than facilitating public health research. There is also an existing dilemma as to which Public health activities constitute research and are ...

  8. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the Federal...

  9. Epigenetics: relevance and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozek, Laura S; Dolinoy, Dana C; Sartor, Maureen A; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of the multilayer regulation of the human genome has led to a greater appreciation of environmental, nutritional, and epigenetic risk factors for human disease. Chromatin remodeling, histone tail modifications, and DNA methylation are dynamic epigenetic changes responsive to external stimuli. Careful interpretation can provide insights for actionable public health through collaboration between population and basic scientists and through integration of multiple data sources. We review key findings in environmental epigenetics both in human population studies and in animal models, and discuss the implications of these results for risk assessment and public health protection. To ultimately succeed in identifying epigenetic mechanisms leading to complex phenotypes and disease, researchers must integrate the various animal models, human clinical approaches, and human population approaches while paying attention to life-stage sensitivity, to generate effective prescriptions for human health evaluation and disease prevention.

  10. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  11. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  12. Big Social Data in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kjeld S.; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the notion of "Socially Shared Health Information" (SSHI) referring to the phenomena of users and health organizations explicitly sharing health related information on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. In order to investigate the phenomena of SSHI, in this paper, we...... present a multi-method case study of the organizational strategies for and user engagement with the Facebook page of the official portal for the public Danish Healthcare Services (Sundheds.dk). We analysed qualitative data in the form of a semi-structured interview with the social media editor of Sundhed.......dk and netnographic observations, and quantitative data from the full historic fetch of the official Facebook wall. Our results show a good alignment between the organizational and social media strategies of the public Danish Healthcare Services but point out the lack of domain-specific metrics to measure its...

  13. The next public health revolution: public health information fusion and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ali S; Fleischauer, Aaron; Casani, Julie; Groseclose, Samuel L

    2010-07-01

    Social, political, and economic disruptions caused by natural and human-caused public health emergencies have catalyzed public health efforts to expand the scope of biosurveillance and increase the timeliness, quality, and comprehensiveness of disease detection, alerting, response, and prediction. Unfortunately, efforts to acquire, render, and visualize the diversity of health intelligence information are hindered by its wide distribution across disparate fields, multiple levels of government, and the complex interagency environment. Achieving this new level of situation awareness within public health will require a fundamental cultural shift in methods of acquiring, analyzing, and disseminating information. The notion of information "fusion" may provide opportunities to expand data access, analysis, and information exchange to better inform public health action.

  14. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  15. [Blind alleys and misconceptions in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H E

    1995-07-01

    The concept of hygiene was created in the 19th century although Hippocrates had already conceived an influence of atmosphere, soil and water on human health. The concept of a public health organisation, however, is a fairly recent one. Environmental and social hygiene were the two poles of the new discipline that focussed on public health. However, the ideologies of capitalism, communism and socialism as well as of social darwinism and "survival of the elite" discredited social hygiene. The decline of totalitarianism was associated with a "loss of face" of state-controlled medicine, including social hygiene. Both the post-World War II German constitution and the previous German statutory health insurance ordinance had blocked it, and hence, no Federal bill on public health was carried. The consequences of this disregard of public health are poor protection by vaccination, a gap in compulsory notification and in epidemics control and high rates of nosocomial infections. Absolutely no development of the science of epidemiology was possible whereas that of medical microbiology is choked by the system now in existence. There is a great misconception within individual hygiene by identifying it merely with cleanliness. Hygiene became a synonym for cleanliness, although that had evolved during a long cultural sociological process centuries before hygiene was established. The modern evolution of the science of hygiene shows the danger that emphasis on healthy lifestyles or on environmental protection may result in regulations and finally in a tyranny that may threaten the liberty of human rights. The so-called "principle of concern" is an example of such irrationality because there is no sensible proportion between risk and expense.

  16. Twitter and Public Health (Part 1): How Individual Public Health Professionals Use Twitter for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole E; Islam, Sabrina; Pizarro, Katherine

    2017-09-20

    The use of social networking sites is increasingly being adopted in public health, in part, because of the barriers to funding and reduced resources. Public health professionals are using social media platforms, specifically Twitter, as a way to facilitate professional development. The objective of this study was to identify public health professionals using Twitter and to analyze how they use this platform to enhance their formal and informal professional development within the context of public health. Keyword searches were conducted to identify and invite potential participants to complete a survey related to their use of Twitter for public health and professional experiences. Data regarding demographic attributes, Twitter usage, and qualitative information were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. Open-response survey questions were analyzed using the constant comparison method. "Using Twitter makes it easier to expand my networking opportunities" and "I find Twitter useful for professional development" scored highest, with a mean score of 4.57 (standard deviation [SD] 0.74) and 4.43 (SD 0.76) on a 5-point Likert scale. Analysis of the qualitative data shows the emergence of the following themes for why public health professionals mostly use Twitter: (1) geography, (2) continuing education, (3) professional gain, and (4) communication. For public health professionals in this study, Twitter is a platform best used for their networking and professional development. Furthermore, the use of Twitter allows public health professionals to overcome a series of barriers and enhances opportunities for growth. ©Mark Hart, Nichole E Stetten, Sabrina Islam, Katherine Pizarro. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.09.2017.

  17. Keeping the “Public” in Schools of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation’s public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation’s largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  18. Intercultural competency in public health: a call for action to incorporate training into public health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFleckman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultural roles needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. In focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  19. Smoking Health Professional Student: An Attitudinal Challenge for Health Promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cauchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211. A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5–5.3; p ≤ 0.001; and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1–13.1; p ≤ 0.001. Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1–8.5; p ≤ 0.001. Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8–13.3; p = 0.002. Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models.

  20. School health approach to teaching and learning of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Lukianova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: disclosure of health-ways for teaching and learning of students. Material: analysis of the publications of domestic and foreign authors. Results: The article is devoted to the implementation of healthy way approach to the educational process, namely, the rational organization of training aimed at keeping the dynamics of human health, the prevention of mental fatigue and overload, increase adaptive reserves of the body of the person; intensification of teaching and learning of students (application-is controversial dialogue, training, game forms and methods of training, participation in project activities, the work of pedagogical workshops that stimulates emotional accommodation and understanding of knowledge, helps students acquire personal-relevant knowledge and experience; use of health effect of artistic and practical (music, painting activities of students. Conclusions: highlights the key towards the implementation of health-promoting approach to the educational process.

  1. The public communication of science in public health graduate programs in Brazil: From the coordinators' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C. A.; Gallo, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction - The elaboration process of public policies for science and technology in knowledge societies should include not only experts, but all society members. There are studies on lay people's perception of science and technology. However, what is the scientists' perspective on public communication of science? Objectives - To describe and characterize the concepts that coordinators of Brazilian public health graduate programs have about public communication of science. Methods - This is an analytical and descriptive report of an exploratory research (doctoral study). The answers of fifty-one coordinators to two questionnaires were submitted for content analysis. The categories were transformed into variables that allowed the data processing by the Hiérarchique Classificatoire et Cohésitive (CHIC®) software. Results - Similarity analysis strongly suggested (0,99) that coordinators understand public communication as a communication directed to academic peers and students, also as a form of participation in scientific events and communication by scientific papers. Likewise, the implication analysis suggested a strong implication (0,98) between scientific communication understood as public communication. Conclusion - The notion of public communication of science as a social right and as a commitment and responsibility of researchers and research centers is not explicitly present in the narrative of the coordinators, although in general the coordinators conceive it as a relevant activity. This study thus contributes to a reflection on the role of scientists, researchers and research centers in public communication of science and technology.

  2. Health Resources Statistics; Health Manpower and Health Facilities, 1968. Public Health Service Publication No. 1509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    This report is a part of the program of the National Center for Health Statistics to provide current statistics as baseline data for the evaluation, planning, and administration of health programs. Part I presents data concerning the occupational fields: (1) administration, (2) anthropology and sociology, (3) data processing, (4) basic sciences,…

  3. Public Health in Europe : 10 years EUPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kirch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    What is Public Health (PH? What are the links between Public Health research and policy in Europe? Where is PH coming from in the 20th century and where is it directed to?

    These are some of the questions addressed by Public Health in Europe – 10 years EUPHA, the volume, edited by Prof.W. Kirch and published by Springer in 2004, that presents a selection of the manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of EUPHA, held in Dresden in 2002.

    Gunnar Tellness, the President of EUPHA, reminds us what PH is, or what it should be: the science devoted to reduce in the population the amount of disease, premature death and disease-related discomfort, sickness and disability.

    In addressing these themes,Tellness suggests to improve PH by employing healthpromoting and cultural activities, in order to establish strong collaborations between public agencies, private business, organisations and pioneers.

  4. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  5. Gambling and the Health of the Public: Adopting a Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, David A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade there has been an unprecedented expansion of legalized gambling throughout North America. Three primary forces appear to be motivating this growth: (1) the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; (2) tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and (3) the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (e.g., video lottery terminals, powerball mega-lotteries, and computer offshore gambling). Associated with this phenomenon, there has been an increase in the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among the general adult population, as well as a sustained high level of gambling-related problems among youth. To date there has been little dialogue within the public health sector in particular, or among health care practitioners in general, about the potential health impact of gambling or gambling-related problems. This article encourages the adoption of a public health perspective towards gambling. More specifically, this discussion has four primary objectives:1. Create awareness among health professionals about gambling, its rapid expansion and its relationship with the health care system;2. Place gambling within a public health framework by examining it from several perspectives, including population health, human ecology and addictive behaviors;3. Outline the major public health issues about how gambling can affect individuals, families and communities;4. Propose an agenda for strengthening policy, prevention and treatment practices through greater public health involvement, using the framework of The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion as a guide.By understanding gambling and its potential impacts on the public's health, policy makers and health practitioners can minimize gambling's negative impacts and appreciate its potential benefits.

  6. Public understandings of genetics and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, C M

    2010-01-01

    This review of adult public understandings of genetics related to health indicates that the public's understandings overlap with those of professionals in some areas, but not others. Specifically, the majority of the world's people who have been studied understand genetics through the lens of heredity, not in terms of the structural and functional nature of genes. Public understandings of hereditary processes are influenced by models of social relationships and by experiential familiarity with particular conditions as much as by academic research results. Most people hold a fairly strong belief that many health conditions are substantially influenced by both genes and other factors. However, they do not have a stable understanding of the nature of gene-environment interactions. People in cultures where science is not a prominent cultural mode are even less likely to hold the belief structures of professional geneticists. In some areas--notably with regard to racialization of genetic medicine and characterizations of genetic variations as 'mutations'--at least some members of the public strongly reject some geneticists' constructions. Public understanding of details pertinent to genetic testing generally appears to be weak.

  7. Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1998-11-01

    Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.

  8. FORMULATION OF INDONESIAN PUBLIC HEALTH DEVELOPMENT INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of formulation the Indonesian Public Health Development Index (IPHDI was to describe the successful development of public health based on composite several community-based health indicators. Cross sectional study design.The data analyzed was a combination of a nationwide survey covering Baseline Health Research (Riskesdas 2007, National Social Economic Survey (Susenas 2007 and the Village Potential (Podes in 2008. Selection of appropriate indicators included in IPHDI associated with LE at birth, selected on the basis of consensus expert team. When the indicator has the RSE (relative standard error value of less than 30% and the value was held for more than 75% of districts. then the indicator is a candidate in the calculation IPHDI. The team doing the analysis on 22 models of the combination of indicators. The number of indicators chat involved between 18 to 24. These models have been made and tested for correlation weighting of life expectancy each district. Results of correlation ranged from 0.314 to 0.512 and all models have a significance value p< 0.001. The model was chosen considering the variables that are considered priorities and values of correlation. IPHDI Highest value is 0.708959 (Magelang City, Central Java and the lowest is 0.247059 (Pegunungan Bintang district, Papua. Conclusion. IPHDI utilization is to know district who has severe health problems, resulting in enhancement programs that have intervened, resulting in focusing the target location, and became one of the parameters for the calculation of aid allocations fairly from center to the region. Key words: health indicators, Indonesian public health development index, life expectancy

  9. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... change can affect your health. Read About It Climate Change and Human Health (Public Broadcasting Services (including their teacher resources)) - Web ... Health Sciences) - Overview of the potential effects of climate change on human health. Climate and Health Program: Health Effects (Centers for ...

  10. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: brokering a deal for public health, but on whose terms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Clare; Caraher, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Coalitions of multinational food and drink businesses have pledged to reformulate their products and to market them responsibly. Largely business-led and self-regulated, the integrity of these voluntary initiatives has been questioned. The Public Health Responsibility Deal in England is an example of a voluntary initiative that is government-led. Does this approach provide evidence that with public leadership there is potential for voluntary actions to deliver meaningful results for public health? The subject of the research is the calorie reduction initiative of the Responsibility Deal. Source material was obtained primarily through a series of UK Freedom of Information requests and comprises previously unpublished Department of Health documentation relating to relevant meetings held during 2011 and 2012. The Responsibility Deal approach to calorie reduction deliberately involves the food industry in the specification of the measures it is to implement (reformulation and portion control). Finding the common ground between private and public interests has resulted in the deflection of public health objectives and the preclusion of adequate monitoring and evaluation. The Responsibility Deal approach is fundamentally flawed in its expectation that industry will take voluntary actions that prioritise public health interests above its own. Being government-led counts for little in the absence of sanctions to drive compliance. Instead the initiative affords private interests the opportunity to influence in their favour the public health policies and strategies that affect their products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation hormesis, public health, and public policy: a commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R J; Bowers, E J; Clelland, R C

    1983-03-01

    Public policy affecting public health regarding effects of low-level ionizing radiations has been, and is being, determined by effects estimates based on linear or other monotonic extrapolation from high-level radiation dose-response data to presumed ecologically realistic low-level exposure effects. Such predictive, unmeasured estimates are very possibly in serious error; they are incompatible with observed low-level dose-response data that indicate a negative correlation between low-level radiation data and health effects, such as cancer mortality rates. Observed negative correlations with low-level radiation data are to be expected on the basis of evidence supporting the validity of the hormesis phenomenon. Hormesis theory, derived in part from evolutionary biology, asserts that while high levels of exposure to an agent such as ionizing radiation are indeed hazardous, ecologically realistic low levels can be stimulatory and largely beneficial. Stimulation of activities of DNA and other repair mechanisms may be involved. Although evidence of the reality of radiation hormesis has been reported in about 1000 scientific publications over the last century, this effect has been largely unrecognized. Moreover, this widespread non-acceptance of hormesis as a real-world phenomenon is usually but not always present in the case of chemical hormesis; the oversight appears systematic. The ignoring of the hormesis phenomenon seems to constitute a very serious error in modern biomedical science and in preventive medicine. A mathematical model is offered that describes the general shape of certain dose-response functions when radiation hormesis at low-level exposure is taken into consideration along with the well-known detrimental effects of high-level radiation.

  12. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  13. Strategic Planning in Population Health and Public Health Practice: A Call to Action for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Charles; Madhavan, Guruprasad; Rappuoli, Rino; Levin, Scott; Shortliffe, Edward; Colwell, Rita

    2016-03-01

    Scarce resources, especially in population health and public health practice, underlie the importance of strategic planning. Public health agencies' current planning and priority setting efforts are often narrow, at times opaque, and focused on single metrics such as cost-effectiveness. As demonstrated by SMART Vaccines, a decision support software system developed by the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, new approaches to strategic planning allow the formal incorporation of multiple stakeholder views and multicriteria decision making that surpass even those sophisticated cost-effectiveness analyses widely recommended and used for public health planning. Institutions of higher education can and should respond by building on modern strategic planning tools as they teach their students how to improve population health and public health practice. Strategic planning in population health and public health practice often uses single indicators of success or, when using multiple indicators, provides no mechanism for coherently combining the assessments. Cost-effectiveness analysis, the most complex strategic planning tool commonly applied in public health, uses only a single metric to evaluate programmatic choices, even though other factors often influence actual decisions. Our work employed a multicriteria systems analysis approach--specifically, multiattribute utility theory--to assist in strategic planning and priority setting in a particular area of health care (vaccines), thereby moving beyond the traditional cost-effectiveness analysis approach. (1) Multicriteria systems analysis provides more flexibility, transparency, and clarity in decision support for public health issues compared with cost-effectiveness analysis. (2) More sophisticated systems-level analyses will become increasingly important to public health as disease burdens increase and the resources to deal with them become scarcer. The teaching of strategic planning in public

  14. [Health literacy as one of the contemporary public health challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    One of the fundamental public health challenges in the 21st century should be the improvement of people's health literacy, namely the understanding of health messages. The acquired high level of health literacy means that one knows how and where information concerning health determinants can be found, is able to assess it critically and in favorable conditions even modify them, which seems to be of particular importance from the perspective of heath promotion, prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, for professionals in these fields, knowledge of ways how to improve health literacy, as well as awareness of related benefits and the consequences of its poor level, seems to be indispensable. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explain the term of "health literacy", its determinants and implications.

  15. What is appropriate to post on social media? Ratings from students, faculty members and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anuja; Petty, Elizabeth M; Jaber, Reda M; Tackett, Sean; Purkiss, Joel; Fitzgerald, James; White, Casey

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain what medical students, doctors and the public felt was unprofessional for medical students, as future doctors, to post on a social media site, Facebook(®) . The significance of this is that unprofessional content reflects poorly on a student, which in turn can significantly affect a patient's confidence in that student's clinical abilities. An online survey was designed to investigate the perceptions of University of Michigan medical students, attending physicians and non-health care university-wide employees (that serves as a subset of the public) regarding mock medical students' Facebook(®) profile screenshots. For each screenshot, respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to rate 'appropriateness' and whether they would be 'comfortable' having students posting such content as their future doctors. Compared with medical students, faculty members and public groups rated images as significantly less appropriate (p public' have different thresholds of what is acceptable on a social networking site. Our findings will prove useful for students to consider the perspectives of patients and faculty members when considering what type of content to post on their social media sites. In this way, we hope that our findings provide insight for discussions, awareness and the development of guidelines related to online professionalism for medical students. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [About development of public health of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepin, O P

    2013-01-01

    The article presents public health system characterized by public responsibility for health of citizen under various forms of property. The issues of management, planning, financing and organization of health care are discussed.

  17. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  18. Shaping public health education, research, and policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab countries often face multifaceted health challenges, including gaps and ... play a critical role in filling this gap by educating the public health workforce as well as ... implement an alternative institutional model for public health based on a ...

  19. Empathy in health professional students: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Cristina; La Cerra, Carmen; Aloisio, Federica; Montanari, Paola; Lancia, Loreto

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that empathy strengthens the relationship between patients and health professionals and also improves patient and health professional satisfaction, which helps promote the best clinical outcomes. Empathy is considered an essential prerequisite for a nurse to effectively care for a patient and for a holistic understanding of a patient's perspective in a student population. The main aim was to compare empathy levels between health professional students attending different university courses. A comparative study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted in two successive academic year cohorts of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university. A sample of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university was investigated using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS). Overall, 502 health professional students were included in the study. The students in nursing showed significantly higher empathy levels than the students in other health professions. Furthermore, the female students were found to exhibit significantly more overall empathy than the male students were. The undergraduate nursing students showed a significantly higher mean score of empathy measured by the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS) than the students attending other health undergraduate courses. This could mean that a particular aptitude in establishing a help-relationship with other people exists among the students that choose to become a nurse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MPH education for the 21st century: design of Columbia University's new public health curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Melissa D; Galea, Sandro; Bayer, Ronald; Walker, Julia R; Fried, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    Because public health challenges are changing rapidly, over the past 3 years, we have turned a critical eye to the master of public health program at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Under a process dubbed "curriculum renewal," we engaged more than 170 faculty, staff, and students (and hundreds of alumni and employers of our graduates) in an initiative to develop a completely new design for master of public health education that launched in fall 2012. We have described its design and structure and presented some preliminary evaluation data.