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Sample records for public health screening

  1. Human Health Screening and Public Health Significance of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010 – 2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue may also be appropriate. Finally, new toxicological data suggests that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which may warrant a more robust assessment of this information. This paper provides a screening-level human health risk assessment using the margin of exposure of exposure approach, of contaminants of emerging concern detected in drinking water. As far as we are a

  2. Melanoma screening: Informing public health policy with quantitative modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gilmore

    Full Text Available Australia and New Zealand share the highest incidence rates of melanoma worldwide. Despite the substantial increase in public and physician awareness of melanoma in Australia over the last 30 years-as a result of the introduction of publicly funded mass media campaigns that began in the early 1980s -mortality has steadily increased during this period. This increased mortality has led investigators to question the relative merits of primary versus secondary prevention; that is, sensible sun exposure practices versus early detection. Increased melanoma vigilance on the part of the public and among physicians has resulted in large increases in public health expenditure, primarily from screening costs and increased rates of office surgery. Has this attempt at secondary prevention been effective? Unfortunately epidemiologic studies addressing the causal relationship between the level of secondary prevention and mortality are prohibitively difficult to implement-it is currently unknown whether increased melanoma surveillance reduces mortality, and if so, whether such an approach is cost-effective. Here I address the issue of secondary prevention of melanoma with respect to incidence and mortality (and cost per life saved by developing a Markov model of melanoma epidemiology based on Australian incidence and mortality data. The advantages of developing a methodology that can determine constraint-based surveillance outcomes are twofold: first, it can address the issue of effectiveness; and second, it can quantify the trade-off between cost and utilisation of medical resources on one hand, and reduced morbidity and lives saved on the other. With respect to melanoma, implementing the model facilitates the quantitative determination of the relative effectiveness and trade-offs associated with different levels of secondary and tertiary prevention, both retrospectively and prospectively. For example, I show that the surveillance enhancement that began in

  3. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  4. Guidelines for breast cancer screening in Lebanon Public Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Salim M; El Saghir, Nagi S; Ammar, Walid

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of national epidemiological data since the late 1990s has led to the adoption of evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer screening in Lebanon (2006). Almost 50% of breast cancer patients in Lebanon are below the age of 50 years and the age-adjusted incidence rate is estimated at 69 new cases per 100,000 per year (2004). This official notification calls for breast self-examination (BSE) every month starting age 20, and a clinical breast examination (CBE) performed by a physician every three years between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Starting age 40, and for as long as a woman is in good health, an annual CBE and mammography are recommended. Women with known genetic family history of breast cancer should start screening 10 years earlier than the first young patient in the family, or earlier depending on medical advice. The Breast Cancer National Task Force (BCNTF) recommends certification of mammography centers and continued training of personnel to assure high quality mammograms, and to minimize unnecessary investigations and surgeries.It recommends that a national program should record call-backs of women for annual screening and follow-up data on abnormal mammograms. BCNTF encourages the adoption of these guidelines and monitoring of their results, as well as follow-up of breast cancer epidemiology and registry in Lebanon, and scientific progress in early breast cancer detection to determine needs for modifications in the future.

  5. Screening for substance abuse in women's health: a public health imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Daisy J; Wolff, Kristina B

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use is a significant public health problem with particular implications for the health and safety of women. Women who abuse these substances are more likely to have untreated depression and anxiety and are at higher risk for intimate partner violence, homelessness, incarceration, infectious disease, and unplanned pregnancy. Substance abuse during pregnancy places both mother and fetus at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Data regarding the prevalence of substance abuse in women are conflicting and difficult to interpret. On the clinical level, strong arguments exist against routine urine drug testing and in favor of the use of validated instruments to screen women for drug and alcohol use both in primary women's health care and during pregnancy. A number of sex-specific screening tools are available for clinicians, some of which have also been validated for use during pregnancy. Given the risks associated with untreated substance abuse and dependence in women, the integration of drug and alcohol screening into daily clinical practice is imperative. This article reviews screening tools available to providers in both the prenatal and primary women's health care settings and addresses some of the challenges raised when women screen positive for drug and alcohol abuse. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. The health status of asylum seekers screened by Auckland Public Health in 1999 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Mark; Moor, Catherine; Wansbrough, Tony; Calder, Lester

    2002-08-23

    Approximately 1500 to 1800 applications for refugee status are made to the New Zealand Immigration Service each year. Approximately one third of these asylum seekers receive health screening from Auckland Public Health. We report here key findings from this screening programme for the period 1999 to 2000. The files of patients attending the Auckland Public Health Protection Asylum Seekers Screening Clinic at Green Lane Hospital were reviewed. Data on demographics, medical examination, diagnostic testing and referrals were analysed. Nine hundred people, mainly from Middle Eastern countries, received screening. Important findings were: symptoms of psychological illness (38.4%); Mantoux skin test positivity ( 36.4%); active tuberculosis (0.6%); TB infection requiring chemoprophylaxis (18%) or chest X-ray monitoring (15%); gut parasite infection; carrier state for alpha and beta thalassaemia and the heterozygous states for HbS and HbE; incomplete immunisation; and the need for referral to a secondary care service (32.6%). Immigrant communities in New Zealand have special healthcare needs, as well as experiencing language barriers, cultural differences and economic difficulties. Healthcare providers should be alert to these needs. Appropriate resources are required to address these issues in a timely fashion.

  7. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  8. Data integration and warehousing: coordination between newborn screening and related public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrell, Bradford L

    2003-01-01

    At birth, patient demographic and health information begin to accumulate in varied databases. There are often multiple sources of the same or similar data. New public health programs are often created without considering data linkages. Recently, newborn hearing screening (NHS) programs and immunization programs have virtually ignored the existence of newborn dried blood spot (DBS) newborn screening databases containing similar demographic data, creating data duplication in their 'new' systems. Some progressive public health departments are developing data warehouses of basic, recurrent patient information, and linking these databases to other health program databases where programs and services can benefit from such linkages. Demographic data warehousing saves time (and money) by eliminating duplicative data entry and reducing the chances of data errors. While newborn screening data are usually the first data available, they should not be the only data source considered for early data linkage or for populating a data warehouse. Birth certificate information should also be considered along with other data sources for infants that may not have received newborn screening or who may have been born outside of the jurisdiction and not have birth certificate information locally available. This newborn screening serial number provides a convenient identification number for use in the DBS program and for linking with other systems. As a minimum, data linkages should exist between newborn dried blood spot screening, newborn hearing screening, immunizations, birth certificates and birth defect registries.

  9. Biomarkers in cancer screening: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhir; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi

    2002-08-01

    The last three decades have witnessed a rapid advancement and diffusion of technology in health services. Technological innovations have given health service providers the means to diagnose and treat an increasing number of illnesses, including cancer. In this effort, research on biomarkers for cancer detection and risk assessment has taken a center stage in our effort to reduce cancer deaths. For the first time, scientists have the technologies to decipher and understand these biomarkers and to apply them to earlier cancer detection. By identifying people at high risk of developing cancer, it would be possible to develop intervention efforts on prevention rather than treatment. Once fully developed and validated, then the regular clinical use of biomarkers in early detection and risk assessment will meet nationally recognized health care needs: detection of cancer at its earliest stage. The dramatic rise in health care costs in the past three decades is partly related to the proliferation of new technologies. More recent analysis indicates that technological change, such as new procedures, products and capabilities, is the primary explanation of the historical increase in expenditure. Biomarkers are the new entrants in this competing environment. Biomarkers are considered as a competing, halfway or add-on technology. Technology such as laboratory tests of biomarkers will cost less compared with computed tomography (CT) scans and other radiographs. However, biomarkers for earlier detection and risk assessment have not achieved the level of confidence required for clinical applications. This paper discusses some issues related to biomarker development, validation and quality assurance. Some data on the trends of diagnostic technologies, proteomics and genomics are presented and discussed in terms of the market share. Eventually, the use of biomarkers in health care could reduce cost by providing noninvasive, sensitive and reliable assays at a fraction of the cost of

  10. Public health advocacy in action: the case of unproven breast cancer screening in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca S; Croager, Emma J; Kameron, Caitlin B; Pratt, Iain S; Vreugdenburg, Thomas D; Slevin, Terry

    2016-09-30

    In recent years, nonmammographic breast imaging devices, such as thermography, electrical impedance scanning and elastography, have been promoted directly to consumers, which has captured the attention of governments, researchers and health organisations. These devices are not supported by evidence and risk undermining existing mammographic breast cancer screening services. During a 5-year period, Cancer Council Western Australia (CCWA) used strategic research combined with legal, policy and media advocacy to contest claims that these devices were proven alternatives to mammography for breast cancer screening. The campaign was successful because it had input from people with public health, academic, clinical and legal backgrounds, and took advantage of existing legal and regulatory avenues. CCWA's experience provides a useful advocacy model for public health practitioners who are concerned about unsafe consumer products, unproven medical devices, and misleading health information and advertising.

  11. [Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening at a public health service of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Solana; Ibáñez, Carolina; Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Brañes, Jorge; Barriga, María Isabel; Cartagena, Jaime; Núñez, Felipe; González, Francisca; Cook, Paz; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection have a good performance as screening tests and could be included in cervical cancer early detection programs. We conducted a population-based trial comparing HPV detection and Papanicolaou as primary screening tests, in a public health service in Santiago, Chile. To describe the experience of implementing this new molecular test and present the main results of the study. Women aged 25 to 64 enrolled in three public health centers were invited to participate. In all women, samples were collected for Papanicolaou and HPV DNA testing, and naked-eye visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid was performed. Women with any positive screening test were referred to the local area hospital for diagnostic confirmation with colposcopy and biopsy of suspicious lesions. Screening results were obtained for 8265 women, of whom 931 (11.3%) were positive to any test. The prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was 1.1%; nine women had invasive cervical cancer. Sensitivities for the detection of CIN2+ were 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 16.4-29.2) for Papanicolaou and 92.7% (95% CI 84.4-96.8) for HPV testing; specificities were 98.9% (95% CI 98.7-99.0) and 92.0% (95% CI 91.4-92.6) respectively. This experience showed that the implementation of a molecular test for cervical cancer screening is not a major challenge in Chile: it was well accepted by both the health team and the participants, and it may improve the effectiveness of the screening program.

  12. Human Health Screening and Public Health Significance of Contaminants of Emerging Concern Detected in Public Water Supplies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Background information for human health margin of exposure paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Benson , B., O. Conerly , W. Sander, A....

  13. Rectal swab screening assays of public health importance in molecular diagnostics: Sample adequacy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisovic, Sanja; Eintracht, Shaun; Longtin, Yves; Oughton, Matthew; Brukner, Ivan

    Rectal swabs are routinely used by public health authorities to screen for multi-drug resistant enteric bacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Screening sensitivity can be influenced by the quality of the swabbing, whether performed by the patient (self-swabbing) or a healthcare practitioner. One common exclusion criterion for rectal swabs is absence of "visible soiling" from fecal matter. In our institution, this criterion excludes almost 10% of rectal swabs received in the microbiology laboratory. Furthermore, over 30% of patients in whom rectal swabs are cancelled will not be re-screened within the next 48h, resulting in delays in removing infection prevention measures. We describe two quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays, human RNAse P and eubacterial 16S rDNA, which might serve as suitable controls for sampling adequacy. However, lower amounts of amplifiable human DNA make the 16s rDNA assay a better candidate for sample adequacy control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Achieving public and global health competencies: A teaching case study of Botswana's cervical cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatch, Harriet; Sowicz, Timothy Joseph; Teng, Helen; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2018-02-09

    To design and implement a case study on the cervical cancer screening program in Botswana to teach public and global health competencies to undergraduate nursing students. The case study was developed following a review of the literature on the epidemiology and health policies of cervical cancer in Botswana, and an interview with an obstetrician/gynecologist engaged in both clinical practice and research in Botswana. The case study has been implemented over seven semesters to students enrolled in the Nursing in the Community course at the University of Pennsylvania. Approximately 75-100 students are enrolled each semester. Student's perceptions of epidemiologic skills gained and group functioning. Students responded to an open-ended question about lessons learned and offered suggestions to improve the learning experience. Faculty assessment of student deliverables demonstrated that students achieved the learning objectives and mastered necessary competencies. More than 70% (n = 69) of the students indicated that they acquired relevant skills at greater than a satisfactory level. Generally, students had great experiences working in groups measured across five dimensions: engagement/contribution, creativity/resilience, on task/works independently, social interaction/communication, and preparedness. However, isolated cases of poor group functioning were reported for engagement/contribution, and creativity/resilience. The case study, which has been revised with respect to length, content and group processes, has been valuable in educating undergraduate nursing students in a more engaging way that mimics real life public health nursing scenarios. Students achieved both public and global health competencies through participation in the case study. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Giridhara R; Tejaswi, B; Kalavathi, M; Vatsala, G M; Murthy, G V S; Kinra, Sanjay; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH) is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%). However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92%) of the doctors had poor knowledge (68%) about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them. Significance for public healthRising burden of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy is a cause for concern and is associated with short and long term deleterious consequences for mother and offspring. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore the screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia (GH). The current study considers

  16. Rates of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women With Severe Mental Illness in the Public Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Monique; Thomas, Melanie; Frolov, Latoya; Riano, Nicholas S; Vittinghoff, Eric; Schillinger, Dean; Newcomer, John W; Mangurian, Christina

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening rates among women with severe mental illness. California Medicaid administrative records (2010-2011) for 31,308 women with severe mental illness were examined. Participants received specialty mental health services and were not dually eligible for Medicare. Poisson models assessed association between selected predictors and cervical cancer screening. Overall, 20.2% of women with severe mental illness received cervical cancer screening during the one-year period. Compared with white women, Asian women (adjusted risk ratio [ARR]=1.23), black women (ARR=1.10), and Hispanic women (ARR=1.11) (pWomen ages 28-37 were more likely than those ages 18-27 to have been screened (ARR=1.31, phealth care use was the strongest predictor of screening (ARR=3.07, pwomen in the sample were not regularly screened for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening for this high-risk population should be prioritized.

  17. Frailty screening and assessment tools: a review of characteristics and use in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, F; Capanna, A; Ferraro, M; Scarcella, P; Marazzi, M C; Palombi, L; Liotta, G

    2018-01-01

    Frailty screening and assessment are a fundamental issue in Public Health in order to plan prevention programs and services. By a narrative review of the literature employing the International Narrative Systematic Assessment tool, the authors aims to develop an updated framework for the main procedures and measurement tools to assess frailty in older adults, paying attention to the use in the primary care setting. The study selected 10 reviews published between January 2010 and December 2016 that define some characteristics of the main tools used to measure the frailty. Within the selected reviews only one of the described tools met all the criteria (multidimensionality, quick and easy administration, accurate risk prediction of negative outcomes and high sensitivity and specificity) necessary for a screening tool. Accurate risk prediction of negative outcomes could be the appropriate and sufficient criteria to assess a tool aimed to detect frailty in the community-dwelling elderly population. A two-step process (a first short questionnaire to detect frailty and a second longer questionnaire to define the care demand at individual level) could represent the appropriate pathway for planning care services at community level.

  18. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  19. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  20. Seeing through the public health smoke-screen in drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    In deliberations on drug policy in United Nations fora, a consensus has emerged that drug use and drug dependence should be treated primarily as public health concerns rather than as crimes. But what some member states mean by "public health approach" merits scrutiny. Some governments that espouse treating people who use drugs as "patients, not criminals" still subject them to prison-like detention in the name of drug-dependence treatment or otherwise do not take measures to provide scientifically sound treatment and humane social support to those who need them. Even drug treatment courts, which the U.S. and other countries hold up as examples of a public health approach to drug dependence, can serve rather to tighten the hold of the criminal justice sector on concerns that should be addressed in the health sector. The political popularity of demonisation of drugs and visibly repressive approaches is an obvious challenge to leadership for truly health-oriented drug control. This commentary offers some thoughts for judging whether a public health approach is worthy of the name and cautions drug policy reformers not to rely on facile commitments to health approaches that are largely rhetorical or that mask policies and activities not in keeping with good public health practise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. War trauma and torture experiences reported during public health screening of newly resettled Karen refugees: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Tonya L; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Letts, James P; Dwee, Ehtaw

    2015-04-08

    Karen refugees have suffered traumatic experiences that affect their physical and mental health in resettlement. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends assessing traumatic histories and mental health symptoms during initial public health screening. This article reports the traumatic experiences that Karen refugees were able to describe during a short screening and contributes knowledge to existing human rights documentation systems. Four semi-structured and open-ended items asked about lifetime experiences of war trauma and torture. Interviews were completed with adult, Karen refugees during their initial public health screening. Experiences of war trauma and torture were coded using the extensive Human Rights Information and Documentation (HURIDOCS) Micro-thesauri coding system. Additional codes were created to describe experiences not captured by existing codes. Over 85% of 179 Karen people interviewed experienced life-threatening war trauma. All participants who reported war trauma or torture stories were able to describe at least one event. New war trauma codes proposed include: widespread community fear, systematic destruction/burning of house or village, exposure to dead bodies, orphaned in the context of war, injury caused by a landmine, fear of Thai police or deportation from Thailand, and harm or killings in the context of war. New torture codes include: forced portering; forced to be a human landmine sweep; forced to be a soldier, including child soldier; forced contact with a dead body; and removal of the eyes. Karen refugees were able to report traumatic experiences in the context of a brief health screening. The findings confirm existing reports of human rights violations against Karen people and suggest that additional codes be added to the HURIDOCS Micro-thesauri system that is used by torture treatment centers. Understanding the nature of traumatic experiences of this group is important for health providers working

  2. Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwyk, Sasha; Jin, Ya-Ping; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne; Masucci, Lisa; Wedge, Richard; Flanagan, John; Brent, Michael H; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Tu, Hong Anh; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered. We used a Markov chain to simulate disease burden based on eye examination rates and DR progression over a 30-year time horizon. Results were presented as an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists was associated with higher costs ($9,908,543.32) and improved QALYs (156,862.44), over 30 years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1668.43/QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential determinants of the results were the cost of optometric screening and selected utility scores. At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that the new policy was cost-effective was 99.99%. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists is cost-effective based on a commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY. Findings from this study can inform the decision to expand public-insured optometric services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human papilloma virus (HPV) prophylactic vaccination: challenges for public health and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Jasani, B; Fiander, A

    2007-04-20

    active at the age of 14 years, vaccination has been suggested at 10-12 years. However, parental concerns over the sexual implications of HPV vaccination may reduce uptake of vaccination thereby reducing the efficacy of an HPV vaccination programme. Concerns have already been raised over the acceptability of a vaccine preventing a sexually transmitted infection in young adolescents, particularly amongst parents or communities who consider their children to be at low risk of infection. This may be a particularly sensitive issue for ethnic minority groups. This paper considers the factors which will influence the efficacy of a public HPV vaccination programme and its impact on cervical screening.

  4. Newborn screening for congenital cytomegalovirus: Options for hospital-based and public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Dollard, Sheila; Ross, Danielle S; Cannon, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and developmental disability in children. Early identification of infected children through screening could allow for early intervention and improvement in functional outcomes among the subset who develop sequelae. To outline potential options and strategies for screening newborns for congenital CMV infection and to discuss barriers to screening and data needs to inform future policy decisions. Commentary based on the literature and expert opinion on newborn dried blood spot screening, newborn hearing screening/Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs, and congenital CMV. Although no population-based screening for congenital CMV is underway, pilot newborn screening studies using a variety of assays with urine or dried blood spot specimens are underway. Challenges to screening are both practical-uncertain sensitivity of blood spot assays suitable for large-scale screening and lack of infrastructure for collection of urine specimens; and evidentiary-the need to demonstrate improved outcomes and value of screening to offset the expense and potential adverse psychosocial consequences for children and families whose children require periodic monitoring but never develop sequelae. Screening for congenital CMV infection is a potentially important intervention that merits additional research, including the logistical feasibility of different screening options and psychosocial consequences for families.

  5. Awareness of cervical cancer and willingness to participate in screening program: Public health policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdatta Patra

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The country's national program advocates for opportunistic and targeted screening of women. An understanding of the factors that influences womens' willingness to participate in screening program is essential for the success of such programs. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for dissemination of knowledge about various aspects of cancer cervix which is critical for uptake of any screening program in a developing country.

  6. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  7. Liver diseases: A major, neglected global public health problem requiring urgent actions and large-scale screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, Patrick; Kutala, Blaise K

    2018-02-01

    CLDs represent an important, and certainly underestimated, global public health problem. CLDs are highly prevalent and silent, related to different, sometimes associated causes. The distribution of the causes of these diseases is slowly changing, and within the next decade, the proportion of virus-induced CLDs will certainly decrease significantly while the proportion of NASH will increase. There is an urgent need for effective global actions including education, prevention and early diagnosis to manage and treat CLDs, thus preventing cirrhosis-related morbidity and mortality. Our role is to increase the awareness of the public, healthcare professionals and public health authorities to encourage active policies for early management that will decrease the short- and long-term public health burden of these diseases. Because necroinflammation is the key mechanism in the progression of CLDs, it should be detected early. Thus, large-scale screening for CLDs is needed. ALT levels are an easy and inexpensive marker of liver necroinflammation and could be the first-line tool in this process. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Public health and laboratory considerations regarding newborn screening for congenital cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Sheila C; Schleiss, Mark R; Grosse, Scott D

    2010-10-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infection in newborns worldwide and causes hearing loss and other neurological disability in 15-20% of infected infants. Only about half of the hearing loss resulting from congenital CMV infection is currently detected by universal newborn hearing screening because of late-onset hearing loss. Thus, much of the hearing loss and the majority of other CMV-associated disabilities remain undetected for years after birth and are never connected to CMV infection. Congenital CMV may be appropriate to include in national newborn screening (NBS) programs because it is more common than other disorders tested for by NBS programs and is a major cause of disability. Significant obstacles to the implementation of screening for congenital CMV include the lack of a standardized, high-throughput screening test and a protocol for follow-up of CMV-infected children. Nonetheless, screening newborns for congenital CMV infection merits further consideration.

  9. Awareness of cervical cancer and willingness to participate in screening program: Public health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Somdatta; Upadhyay, Madhu; Chhabra, Pragti

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in India. There is a high mortality as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and nonexistent screening programs. This study was planned to find out awareness about cervical cancer among women and their willingness to utilize screening services in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, India. A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in a resettlement colony of North-West Delhi. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect information regarding different aspects of cervical cancer. Analysis was done using SPSS package (SPSS version 16 (UCMS and GTBH, Delhi, India)). A total of 373 women were included in the study. Mean age of study participants was 39.14 years. Two-third of the study population were illiterate. Half of the study population was aware of cervical cancer, and only one-fourth of population were willing to participate in a screening test. Willingness was higher among educated, ever user of family planning method and having knowledge about at least one risk factor, signs or symptoms, or possibility of early diagnosis of cancer cervix. The country's national program advocates for opportunistic and targeted screening of women. An understanding of the factors that influences womens' willingness to participate in screening program is essential for the success of such programs. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for dissemination of knowledge about various aspects of cancer cervix which is critical for uptake of any screening program in a developing country.

  10. Health Screening Behaviour among Female Urban Dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nairan Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ageing population is a public health challenge, affects most countries. Health screenings are able to detect diseases at the earliest stage. A cross-sectional study in December 2014 conducted among 643 older women who randomly interviewed using structured questionnaire from two urban governmental health centres in Malaysia. Aims of the study were to describe health screening services behaviour and health care accessibility among women aged 50 and above. Factors such as living arrangement and age played important roles in health screening execution among older female community dwellers. Advocacy on health screening is vital as to reduce the morbidity and mortality among them.

  11. Public health implications from COGS and potential for risk stratification and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hilary; Chowdhury, Susmita; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Pashayan, Nora; Pharoah, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The PHG Foundation led a multidisciplinary program, which used results from COGS research identifying genetic variants associated with breast, ovarian and prostate cancers to model risk-stratified prevention for breast and prostate cancers. Implementing such strategies would require attention to the use and storage of genetic information, the development of risk assessment tools, new protocols for consent and programs of professional education and public engagement.

  12. The Relations Between False Positive and Negative Screens and Smoking Cessation and Relapse in the National Lung Screening Trial: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Gorelick, Jeremy J; Sicks, JoRean D; Park, Elyse R; Graham, Amanda L; Abrams, David B; Gareen, Ilana F

    2016-01-01

    Lung screening is an opportunity for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, but smoking behaviors may differ across screening results. Changes in smoking were evaluated among 18 840 current and former smokers aged 55-74 scheduled to receive three annual lung screenings. Participants were randomized to low-dose computed tomography or single-view chest radiography in the American College of Radiology/National Lung Screening Trial. Outcome measures included point and sustained (6-month) abstinence and motivation to quit among smokers; and relapse among smokers who quit during follow-up, recent quitters (quit < 6 months), and long-term former smokers (quit ≥ 6 months). During five years of follow-up, annual point prevalence quit rates ranged from 11.6%-13.4%; 48% of current smokers reported a quit attempt and 7% of long-term former smokers relapsed. Any false positive screening result was associated with subsequent increased point (multivariable hazard ratio HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.35) and sustained (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.43) abstinence among smokers. Recent quitters with ≥1 false positive screen were less likely to relapse (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54, 0.96). Screening result was not associated with relapse among long-term former smokers or among baseline smokers who quit during follow-up. A false positive screen was associated with increased smoking cessation and less relapse among recent quitters. Consistently negative screens were not associated with greater relapse among long-term former smokers. Given the Affordable Care Act requires most health plans to cover smoking cessation and lung screening, the impact and cost-effectiveness of lung screening could be further enhanced with the addition of smoking cessation interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Primary care characteristics and their association with health screening in a low-socioeconomic status public rental-flat population in Singapore- a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Cher, Wen Qi; Sin, David; Li, Zong Chen; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2016-02-06

    In Singapore, subsidized primary care is provided by centralized polyclinics; since 2000, policies have allowed lower-income Singaporeans to utilize subsidies at private general-practitioner (GP) clinics. We sought to determine whether proximity to primary care, subsidised primary care, or having regular primary care associated with health screening participation in a low socioeconomic-status public rental-flat community in Singapore. From 2009-2014, residents in five public rental-flat enclaves (N = 936) and neighboring owner-occupied precincts (N = 1060) were assessed for participation in cardiovascular and cancer screening. We then evaluated whether proximity to primary care, subsidised primary care, or having regular primary care associated with improved adherence to health screening. We also investigated attitudes to health screening using qualitative methodology. In the rental flat population, for cardiovascular screening, regular primary care was independently associated with regular diabetes screening (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.59, CI = 1.12-2.26, p = 0.009) and hyperlipidemia screening (aOR = 1.82, CI = 1.10-3.04, p = 0.023). In the owner-occupied flats, regular primary care was independently associated with regular hypertension screening (aOR = 9.34 (1.82-47.85, p = 0.007), while subsidized primary care was associated with regular diabetes screening (aOR = 2.94, CI = 1.04-8.31, p = 0.042). For cancer screening, in the rental flat population, proximity to primary care was associated with less participation in regular colorectal cancer screening (aOR = 0.42, CI = 0.17-0.99, p = 0.049) and breast cancer screening (aOR = 0.29, CI = 0.10-0.84, p = 0.023). In the owner-occupied flat population, for gynecological cancer screening, usage of subsidized primary care and proximity to primary care was associated with higher rates of breast cancer and cervical cancer screening; however

  14. Public Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ian health ministry, and the Canadian. International ... Tanzanian and Canadian researchers began work on ... information on the major causes of death ... The effects have been dramatic. Accord- ... destroy mosquito breeding grounds, such.

  15. Through our children's eyes--the public health impact of the vision screening requirements for Indiana school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Edwin C; Meetz, Richard E; Harmon, L'erin L

    2010-02-01

    The vision screening of preschool and school children is a widely accepted procedure to detect vision problems that can interfere with learning. The Indiana General Assembly requires the annual vision screening with the Modified Clinical Technique (MCT) of all children upon their enrollment in either kindergarten or the first grade, with the exception of schools that apply for and receive waivers to conduct only a distance Snellen chart screening. In association with the Indiana State Department of Health, the Indiana University School of Optometry conducted an analysis of statewide school screening data on 36,967 grade 1 children from 139 of the 294 Indiana school corporations that submitted data for the 2000-2001 school year to examine differences in referral rate by screening method, the socioeconomic status of children screened, and academic performance. The MCT was used by 125 of the school corporations, and some other technique was used by 14 school corporations. Significant differences were seen when comparing the mean referral rates of school corporations that conduct the MCT against school corporations that do not conduct the MCT (P = 0.001) and in the rate of referral by median family income of the children screened (P = 0.050). A median family income of $46,500 was identified as the level at which the income-specific difference in referral rates ceased to be significant (P = 0.074). In spite of an observed tendency toward a higher referral rate for children who performed below average on the standardized Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress Plus (ISTEP+) exam, results were found to be not significant (P = 0.116) when comparing the percentage of grade 1 children referred to an eye care provider in 2000-2001 with their percentages of passing both the English/language arts and mathematics components of the 2002-2003 ISTEP+ exam (in grade 3). Schools using the highly sensitive and specific MCT identified more visually at-risk children than

  16. Applying spatial analysis tools in public health: an example using SaTScan to detect geographic targets for colorectal cancer screening interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Recinda L; Henry, Kevin A; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Feaster, Daniel J; Kobetz, Erin; Lee, David J

    2014-03-20

    Epidemiologists are gradually incorporating spatial analysis into health-related research as geocoded cases of disease become widely available and health-focused geospatial computer applications are developed. One health-focused application of spatial analysis is cluster detection. Using cluster detection to identify geographic areas with high-risk populations and then screening those populations for disease can improve cancer control. SaTScan is a free cluster-detection software application used by epidemiologists around the world to describe spatial clusters of infectious and chronic disease, as well as disease vectors and risk factors. The objectives of this article are to describe how spatial analysis can be used in cancer control to detect geographic areas in need of colorectal cancer screening intervention, identify issues commonly encountered by SaTScan users, detail how to select the appropriate methods for using SaTScan, and explain how method selection can affect results. As an example, we used various methods to detect areas in Florida where the population is at high risk for late-stage diagnosis of colorectal cancer. We found that much of our analysis was underpowered and that no single method detected all clusters of statistical or public health significance. However, all methods detected 1 area as high risk; this area is potentially a priority area for a screening intervention. Cluster detection can be incorporated into routine public health operations, but the challenge is to identify areas in which the burden of disease can be alleviated through public health intervention. Reliance on SaTScan's default settings does not always produce pertinent results.

  17. Factors associated with performing tuberculosis screening of HIV-positive patients in Ghana: LASSO-based predictor selection in a large public health data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Mueller-Using

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to propose the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operators procedure (LASSO as an alternative to conventional variable selection models, as it allows for easy interpretation and handles multicollinearities. We developed a model on the basis of LASSO-selected parameters in order to link associated demographical, socio-economical, clinical and immunological factors to performing tuberculosis screening in HIV-positive patients in Ghana. Methods Applying the LASSO method and multivariate logistic regression analysis on a large public health data set, we selected relevant predictors related to tuberculosis screening. Results One Thousand Ninety Five patients infected with HIV were enrolled into this study with 691 (63.2 % of them having tuberculosis screening documented in their patient folders. Predictors found to be significantly associated with performance of tuberculosis screening can be classified into factors related to the clinician’s perception of the clinical state, as well as those related to PLHIV’s awareness. These factors include newly diagnosed HIV infections (n = 354 (32.42 %, aOR 1.84, current CD4+ T cell count (aOR 0.92, non-availability of HIV type (n = 787 (72.07 %, aOR 0.56, chronic cough (n = 32 (2.93 %, aOR 5.07, intake of co-trimoxazole (n = 271 (24.82 %, aOR 2.31, vitamin supplementation (n = 220 (20.15 %, aOR 2.64 as well as the use of mosquito bed nets (n = 613 (56.14 %, aOR 1.53. Conclusions Accelerated TB screening among newly diagnosed HIV-patients indicates that application of the WHO screening form for intensifying tuberculosis case finding among HIV-positive individuals in resource-limited settings is increasingly adopted. However, screening for TB in PLHIV is still impacted by clinician’s perception of patient’s health state and PLHIV’s health awareness. Education of staff, counselling of PLHIV and sufficient financing are

  18. Marginal public health gain of screening for colorectal cancer: modelling study, based on WHO and national databases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, J.A.; Getz, L.; Sjonell, G.

    2013-01-01

    .78 to 0.92]. Our calculations are based on the World Health Organization and national databanks on death causes (ICD-10) and the mid-year number of inhabitants in the target group. For Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, we used data for 2009. For Iceland, due to the population's small size, we......, cardiovascular diseases and accidents, with some national variations. Conclusions and implications Establishment of a screening programme for CRC for people aged 55-74 can be expected to affect only a minor proportion of all premature deaths in the Nordic setting. From a public health perspective, prioritizing...

  19. Public Health Departments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — State and Local Public Health Departments in the United States Governmental public health departments are responsible for creating and maintaining conditions that...

  20. Impact of a public cholesterol screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P M; Guinan, K H; Burke, J J; Karp, W B; Richards, J W

    1990-12-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has endorsed physician case finding as the primary method to detect individuals with elevated cholesterol levels. Despite this recommendation, promotional and for-profit public screening programs have flourished. We surveyed participants of a mall-based cholesterol screening program 1 year after their screening. Sixty-four percent of those screened had not previously known their cholesterol levels. Those who were newly screened were less likely to benefit from this testing than the general public, since they were older (mean age, 55.3 years), more likely to be female (67.4%), and nonsmokers (88%). Screenees had excellent recall of their cholesterol level (mean absolute reporting error, 0.24 mmol/L [9 mg/dL]) and a good understanding of cholesterol as a coronary heart disease risk. Those with elevated cholesterol levels reported high distress from screening but no reduction in overall psychosocial well-being and an actual decrease in absenteeism. Only 53.7% of all who were advised to seek follow-up because of an elevated screening value had done so within the year following the screening program. However, of those with values greater than 6.2 mmol/L (240 mg/dL), 68% had sought follow-up. Many of those who participate in public screening programs have been previously tested, fall into low-benefit groups, or fail to comply with recommended follow-up. We therefore conclude that cholesterol screening programs of the type now commonly offered are unlikely to contribute greatly to the national efforts to further reduce coronary heart disease.

  1. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  2. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  3. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  4. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  5. Universal opt-out screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) within correctional facilities is an effective intervention to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Brown, Brandon; Allen, Scott A

    2017-09-11

    Purpose Worldwide efforts to identify individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) focus almost exclusively on community healthcare systems, thereby failing to reach high-risk populations and those with poor access to primary care. In the USA, community-based HCV testing policies and guidelines overlook correctional facilities, where HCV rates are believed to be as high as 40 percent. This is a missed opportunity: more than ten million Americans move through correctional facilities each year. Herein, the purpose of this paper is to examine HCV testing practices in the US correctional system, California and describe how universal opt-out HCV testing could expand early HCV detection, improve public health in correctional facilities and communities, and prove cost-effective over time. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the value of standardizing screening programs across facilities by mandating all facilities (universal) to implement opt-out testing policies for all prisoners upon entry to the correctional facilities. Findings Current variability in facility-level testing programs results in inconsistent testing levels across correctional facilities, and therefore makes estimating the actual number of HCV-infected adults in the USA difficult. The authors argue that universal opt-out testing policies ensure earlier diagnosis of HCV among a population most affected by the disease and is more cost-effective than selective testing policies. Originality/value The commentary explores the current limitations of selective testing policies in correctional systems and provides recommendations and implications for public health and correctional organizations.

  6. Heart-Health Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools For Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly ... in Spanish . Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  7. Environmental Public Health Tracking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast series, CDC scientists address frequently asked questions about the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, including using and applying data, running queries, and much more.

  8. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    "Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...

  9. A public health perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    EDITORIAL. Enabling local health departments to save more lives: A public ... promoting health through the organized efforts of society” (1) ... and synergistic with achieving the sustainable development goals because its furtherance brings a ...

  10. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  11. The growth pattern of 0-1-year-old Danish children, when screened by public health nurses--the Copenhagen County Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Petersen, Janne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2005-01-01

    Using inadequate growth references when screening child health could lead to false conclusions concerning individual growth. We were concerned that this might apply to the official Danish growth reference....

  12. Health Screening - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pelvic Exam and Pap Test - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 National Cancer Institute How to Prepare for a ... a Mammogram and Pap Test - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Asian Health Coalition Arabic (العربية) Expand Section American ...

  13. Advancing Public Health in Cancer - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is the leading cause of death from disease among Americans under 85. Learn how NCI advances public health by conducting research to improve the delivery of quality cancer prevention, screening, and treatment to all Americans.

  14. Private and public eugenics: genetic and screening in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists and geneticists claim that genetics has an increasing role to play in public health policies and programs in the future. Within this perspective, genetic testing and screening are instrumental in avoiding the birth of children with serious, costly or untreatable disorders. This paper

  15. Electronic Publication: Writing for the Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Addresses paper versus electronic publication, discussing the implications for reading and writing, and whether it is as easy to read from a screen as from a book. Notes that the computer medium arose from a research project to design the perfect book, the Dynabook. (SR)

  16. Public health and Plowshare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, Jr, J G [Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, U.S. PubIic Health Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  17. Public health and Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, J.G. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  18. Issues in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sim, Fiona; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    ..., there is increasing understanding of the inevitable limits of individual health care and of the need to complement such services with effective public health strategies. Major improvements in people's health will come from controlling communicable diseases, eradicating environmental hazards, improving people's diets and enhancing the availability ...

  19. Public health and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  20. Children's Health Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  1. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  2. Screening mammography: a successful public health initiative El tamizaje mamográfico: una iniciativa de salud pública que ha dado buenos resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Feig

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the ability of screening mammography to reduce breast cancer death rates, and it discusses methods that maximize benefits and reduce false-positive interpretations in a screening program. The review covers published results from screening mammography programs conducted in Europe and North America, along with quality assurance measures designed to ensure that similar or even better outcomes will be shared by other populations of screened women. Randomized trials in Europe and the United States of America have shown the benefit from screening women ages 40-70 years. Encouraged by the success of these trials, many Scandinavian countries now offer screening mammography to their populations as a public health service. These service screening programs have reduced breast cancer deaths as much as 63% among women who were screened. In the United States, where 61.5% of women age 40 and older report having had a mammogram in the preceding year, death rates from breast cancer have been falling despite an increasing incidence of the disease. The technical quality of mammography in the United States has improved as a result of advances in mammography equipment, including the film-screen systems. Also contributing to the improvement has been the implementation of federally mandated quality control testing at each mammography facility, as required by the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA, which the Congress of the United States approved in 1992. Factors that result in increased detection of early-stage cancers include better technique, use of two mammographic views per breast, annual screening intervals, and improved interpretation. Mammography is one of the 10 major subject categories on the American Board of Radiology examinations. Furthermore, MQSA requires radiologists who practice mammography to obtain continuing medical education credits and to use standard interpretation assessments on every report. Manuals for technical quality

  3. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. The pedagogical value of a student-run community-based experiential learning project: The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine Public Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Tay, Clifton M; Lee, Jeannette J M; Koh, Gerald C H

    2010-09-01

    We assessed the pedagogical value of a student-led community-based experiential learning project called the Public Health Screening (PHS) run by medical and nursing students of the National University of Singapore's Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (NUS YLLSoM). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered anonymised questionnaire on medical and nursing students who participated in PHS using the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) Survey Instrument. Participants also gave an overall score for their learning experience at the PHS. The participation rate was 93.1% (576/619) for medical students and 100% (37/37) for nursing students. All participants gave the PHS learning experience a high rating (median = 8 out of maximum of 10, inter-quartile range, 7 to 9). A majority of participants felt that PHS had helped them to improve across all domains surveyed. For medical students, those in preclinical years and females were independently more likely to feel that PHS had helped them to improve in communication skills, teamwork, ability to identify social issues, taking action, and gaining and applying their knowledge than those in clinical years and males. Improved ability to interact with patients (β=1.64, 95%CI, 1.01-2.27), appreciation of challenges to healthcare faced by Singaporeans from lower income groups (β=0.93, 95%CI, 0.49-1.37), thinking of others (β=0.70, 95%CI, 0.04-1.37) and tolerance of different people (β =0.63, 95%CI, 0.17-1.10) were strongly associated with the overall rating score. PHS was a positive learning experience in a wide range of domains for all students involved. This suggests that student-organised community-based experiential learning projects have potential educational value for both medical and nursing students.

  5. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders

    2015-01-01

    in the theoretical as well as the practical potential of the public health professional. Thus, he and she must be able to perform, what WHO Europe has developed as Essential Public Health Operations (EPHOs).3 This, in turn, implies that the public health professional possesses the set of intellectual (knowledge...... endorsed by WHO Europe’s member states as the basis for the public health education in Europe.5 The sections of the lists include: Public health methods; Population health and: Its social and economic determinants, and: Its material environmental determinants; Man-made interventions and systems, namely...... Health policy, health economics, organizational theory, health legislation, and public health leadership and management; Health promotion—health education, health protection, disease prevention; public health ethics. This should form the central part of the basis for all public health professionals...

  6. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  7. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  8. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  9. Bioethics and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Penchaszadeh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the evolution of bioethics a discipline from its initial focus, concerned with issues of personal autonomy and the conflicts around the use of complex technology in medicine, to where it is now; focused on major population issues in public health, with a focus on equality, justice and the right to health. As part of this it considers the 18 guiding principles and issues in bioethics contained in the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights of UNESCO.

  10. Facebook and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey about the perceptions and practices of social media managers and experts in the area of public health. We have collected Facebook data from 153 public health care organizations and conducted a survey on them. 12% of organizations responded to the questionnaire....... The survey results were combined with the findings from our previous work of applying clustering and supervised learning algorithms on big social data from the official Facebook walls of these organizations. In earlier research, we showed that the most successful strategy that leads to higher post engagement...... is visual content. In this paper, we investigated if organisations pursue this strategy or some other strategy that was successful and has not been uncovered by the machine learning algorithms. Performance of each organisation on Facebook is based on the number of posts (volume share) and the number...

  11. [Relation of psychological distress after diagnosis of gastric cancer at a cancer screening center with psychological support from public health nurses and family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Sakiko; Ozawa, Harumi

    2003-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the degree of psychological distress during the first 6 months after diagnosis of gastric cancer and investigate the relation to psychological support from public health nurses and family members. One hundred and five patients with stomach, colorectal, or esophagus cancer were mailed a questionnaire. They were asked questions concerning the level of shock on the day of diagnosis, at 1-week after the diagnosis, and at 6 months post diagnosis. In addition, their physical and psychological status was assessed at the 6-month time point. They were also asked about perceived psychological support from public health nurses and family members. The relation between psychological distress and such psychological support was then assessed using multiple regression analyses. The levels of shock on the day of diagnosis and after 1-week were both significantly related to the psychological support from public health nurses. Physical and psychological status at 6 months post diagnosis was significantly related to the level of psychological support from the patient's family members. The study revealed that psychological support from public health nurses improves the level of patient psychological distress during the first 1 week after the cancer diagnosis. Psychological support from family members facilitates the physical and psychological adjustment at 6 months post diagnosis. The results indicate that psychological support is important just after cancer diagnosis and for longer term adjustment, pointing to a major role of health care professionals alleviating problems associated with cancer diagnosis.

  12. Geomatics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, R; Jhonson, C P

    2006-01-01

    Geomatics technology has tremendous potential to address public health issues particularly under the present circumstances of global climate change and climate or technology induced human migration, which result in an increase in the geographical extent and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases. The authors present an overview of the science of geomatics, describe the potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases and review the applications of remote sensing for disease vector surveillance.

  13. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  14. Screening physical health? Yes! But...: nurses' views on physical health screening in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Scott, David; Nankivell, Janette; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2013-08-01

    To explore nurses' views on the role of nurses in screening and monitoring for physical care of consumers with serious mental illness, at a regional mental health care service. People with serious mental illness experience heightened incidence of preventable and treatable physical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Screening and monitoring are considered universal clinical safeguards. Nurses can potentially facilitate systematic screening, but their views on physical health care practices are rarely investigated. Qualitative exploratory study. Focus group interviews with 38 nurses of a regional mental health care service district of Australia. To facilitate discussion, participants were presented with a screening system, called the Health Improvement Profile (HIP), as an exemplar of screening of physical health risks by nurses. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analysis framework. Nurses argued that treatable and preventable physical health problems were common. Four main themes were identified: screening - essential for good practice; the policy-practice gap; 'screening then what?' and, is HIP the answer? Screening and monitoring were considered crucial to proper diagnosis and treatment, however, were not performed systematically or consistently. Nurse readiness for an enhanced role in screening was shaped by: role and responsibility issues, legal liability concerns, funding and staff shortages. Participants were concerned that lack of follow up would limit effectiveness of these interventions. Screening was considered an important clinical step in effective diagnosis and treatment; however, identified barriers need to be addressed to ensure screening is part of a systemic approach to improve physical health of consumers with serious mental illness. Nurses have potential to influence improvement in physical health outcomes for consumers of mental health services. Such potential can only be realised if a

  15. A new measure for infant mental health screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Janni; Holstein, Bjorn E.; Wilms, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    by community health nurses (CHN) in existing service settings in Denmark. This study was conducted to describe the development of a service setting based measure to screen for infant mental health problems, to investigate problems identified by the measure and assess the validity and feasibility in existing......Background: Mental health problems are a major public health challenges, and strategies of early prevention are needed. Effective prevention depends on feasible and validated measures of screening and intervention. Previous research has demonstrated potentials for infant mental health screening...... and feasibility was demonstrated, and the participation was 91%. Conclusions:The new measure shows potentials for infant mental health screening. However, further exploration of construct validity and reliability is needed....

  16. Training public health superheroes: five talents for public health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Matthew; Shickle, Darren; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leaders have been criticized for their policy stances, relationships with governments and failure to train the next generation. New approaches to the identification and training of public health leaders may be required. To inform these, lessons can be drawn from public health 'superheroes'; public health leaders perceived to be the most admired and effective by their peers. Members and Fellows of the UK Faculty of Public Health were contacted via e-newsletter and magazine and asked to nominate their 'Public Health Superhero'. Twenty-six responses were received, nominating 40 different people. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis, based on 'grounded theory', was conducted. Five leadership 'talents' for public health were identified: mentoring-nurturing, shaping-organizing, networking-connecting, knowing-interpreting and advocating-impacting. Talent-based approaches have been effective for leadership development in other sectors. These talents are the first specific to the practice of public health and align with some aspects of existing frameworks. An increased focus on identifying and developing talents during public health training, as opposed to 'competency'-based approaches, may be effective in strengthening public health leadership. Further research to understand the combination and intensity of talents across a larger sample of public health leaders is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A global public health imperative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    Actions towards closing the health equity gap: A global public health imperative. Tewabech ... global health development. With only two ... of himself and of his family; including food, clothing .... impact on health equity and in the end issued the.

  18. Nanotechnology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Tanır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new revolution in technology; being used in different parts of life such as self-cleaning paints, dirt repellent fabrics, the destruction of cancer cells without harming the person, biosensors that can detect even a single bacterium, odorless socks due to the destruction of bacteria, germ-free refrigerators, disinfection etc. In this article, we consider in the perspective of public health the possible risks of this new technology, which is starting to appear in all areas of our daily lives. 

  19. Advances in dental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R D

    2001-07-01

    Dental public health has been defined as 'the science and art of preventing oral diseases, promoting oral health and improving the quality of life through the organised efforts of society'. Dental practitioners most often have the oral health of individual patients as their primary focus but the aim of public health is to benefit populations. Early developments in dental public health were concerned largely with demonstrating levels of disease and with treatment services. With greater appreciation of the nature of oral health and disease, and of their determinants has come recognition of the need for wider public health action if the effects of prevention and oral health promotion are to be maximized.

  20. Profile of Public Health Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ruth Gaskins; Greer, Annette; Clay, Maria; McFadden, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Public health leaders play pivotal roles in ensuring the population health for our nation. Since 2000, the number of schools of public health has almost doubled. The scholarly credentials for leaders of public health in academic and practice are important, as they make decisions that shape the future public health workforce and important public health policies. This research brief describes the educational degrees of deans of schools of public health and state health directors, as well as their demographic profiles, providing important information for future public health leadership planning. Data were extracted from a database containing information obtained from multiple Web sites including academic institution Web sites and state government Web sites. Variables describe 2 sets of public health leaders: academic deans of schools of public health and state health directors. Deans of schools of public health were 73% males and 27% females; the PhD degree was held by 40% deans, and the MD degree by 33% deans. Seventy percent of deans obtained their terminal degree more than 35 years ago. State health directors were 60% males and 40% females. Sixty percent of state health directors had an MD degree, 4% a PhD degree, and 26% no terminal degree at all. Sixty-four percent of state health directors received their terminal degree more than 25 years ago. In addition to terminal degrees, 56% of deans and 40% of state health directors held MPH degrees. The findings call into question competencies needed by future public health professionals and leadership and the need to clarify further the level of public health training and degree type that should be required for leadership qualifications in public health.

  1. Public Health Nursing: Public Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , Alaska 99752 Phone: 442-7144 Fax: 442-7292 e-mail: Josephine Oke, Program Manager [back to top] North Phone: 852-0270 Fax: 852-2855 email: Andrey Boskhomdzhiev [back to top] Municipality of Anchorage P.O

  2. Critical perspectives in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Judith; Labonte, Ronald N

    2008-01-01

    ... the contemporary roles of 'critical voices' in public health research and practice from a range of disciplines and contexts. The book covers many of the pressing concerns for public health practitioners and researchers, including: * * * * * the implications of new genetic technologies for public health; the impact of globalisation on local practice...

  3. Health Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Have an Eye Exam? (Prevent Blindness America) Lipid Panel (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Lung Cancer Screening (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish Skin Cancer Screening (National Cancer ...

  4. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  5. Publication ethics in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Elger, Bernice S

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we describe and analyse three issues in publication ethics that are raised when conducting research in emergencies and disasters. These include reluctance to share data and samples because of concerns about publications, loss of individual authorship in high high-profile multi-entity publications, and the deaths of authors during dangerous research projects. An emergency research pledge may be useful in avoiding some of these issues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  7. Neuroeconomics and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

      Objective: To identify and describe the parameters of the Frontal Power of Concentration (C). Method: Systematic review of EEG- and fMRI-studies from a neuroeconomic point of view. Results: C is a quadripartite executive integrator depending on: 1) Limbic system (L) generates emotions and cogni...... + εI → 1   Discussion:  How to reinforce volitional flexibility (c)? Firstly, cognitive predictions are improved by open-mindedness. Secondly, emotional control is best maintaining an appropriate level of physical fitness. Thirdly, our imagination is directly facilitated by in...... predicts that well-organized stress-management integrating LowTech-interventions as exercise (L↓ and c↑), in-depth-relaxation (c↓) and diet (integrating L, R and c) tailored to the individual would improve public health (national life expectancy) significantly...

  8. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  9. Public health ethics: key concepts and issues in policy and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawson, Angus

    2011-01-01

    .... Topics covered include the nature of public health ethics, the concepts of disease and prevention, risk and precaution, health inequalities and justice, screening, vaccination and disease control...

  10. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  11. Conventional and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, G

    2009-09-01

    This paper suggests that current models of public health are no longer sufficient as a means for understanding the health challenges of the anthropogenic age, and argues for an alternative based upon an ecological model. The roots of this perspective originated within the Victorian era, although it found only limited expression at that time. Ecological thinking in public health has only been revived relatively recently. Derived from an analysis of obesity, this paper proposes the development of an approach to ecological public health based on four dimensions of existence: the material, the physiological, the social and the cultural-cognitive. The implications for public policy are considered.

  12. Climate Change and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    It is clear that the public health community is concerned about the human health impacts of climate change, but are we inadvertently underestimating the scope of the problem and obfuscating potentially useful interventions by using a narrow intellectual frame in our discussions with policy makers? If we take a more holistic approach, we see that the public health impacts of climate change are only one subset of the enormous public health impacts of fossil fuel burning. This broader perspective can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment that is more useful for decision making in public policy settings.

  13. Public health communications for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, E

    1994-03-30

    Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences.

  14. Optimal screening and donor management in a public stool bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerouni, Abbas; Burgess, James; Burns, Laura J; Wein, Lawrence M

    2015-12-17

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is being investigated as a treatment for other microbiota-associated diseases. To facilitate these activities, an international public stool bank has been created, which screens donors and processes stools in a standardized manner. The goal of this research is to use mathematical modeling and analysis to optimize screening and donor management at the stool bank. Compared to the current policy of screening active donors every 60 days before releasing their quarantined stools for sale, costs can be reduced by 10.3 % by increasing the screening frequency to every 36 days. In addition, the stool production rate varies widely across donors, and using donor-specific screening, where higher producers are screened more frequently, also reduces costs, as does introducing an interim (i.e., between consecutive regular tests) stool test for just rotavirus and C. difficile. We also derive a donor release (i.e., into the system) policy that allows the supply to approximately match an exponentially increasing deterministic demand. More frequent screening, interim screening for rotavirus and C. difficile, and donor-specific screening, where higher stool producers are screened more frequently, are all cost-reducing measures. If screening costs decrease in the future (e.g., as a result of bringing screening in house), a bottleneck for implementing some of these recommendations may be the reluctance of donors to undergo serum screening more frequently than monthly.

  15. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a variety of comprehensive classroom and curriculum resources. Framing The Future Faculty Resources Educational Models and Reports ... research, and regulate health systems to achieve these goals. Its reach is global. The public health field ...

  16. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Deborah; Sentell, Tetine; Albright, Cheryl; Lansidell, Doug; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Seto, Todd; Stevens, Joel Mark

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Blood pressure reduction and control are associated with reduced risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. To achieve optimal reduction and control, reliable and valid methods for blood pressure measurement are needed. Office based measurements can result in ‘white coat’ hypertension, which is when a patient's blood pressure in a clinical setting is higher than in other settings, or ‘masked’ hypertension, which occurs when a patient's blood pressure is normal in a clinical setting, but elevated outside the clinical setting. In 2015, the US Preventative Services Task Force recommended Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) as the “best method” for measuring blood pressure, endorsing its use both for confirming the diagnosis of hypertension and for excluding ‘white coat’ hypertension. ABPM is a safe, painless and non-invasive test wherein patients wear a small digital blood pressure machine attached to a belt around their body and connected to a cuff around their upper arm that enables multiple automated blood pressure measurements at designated intervals (typically every 15 to 30 minutes) throughout the day and night for a specified period (eg, 24 hours). Patients can go about their typical daily activities wearing the device as much as possible, except when they are bathing, showering, or engaging in heavy exercise. Given the importance of blood pressure monitoring and control to population public health, this article provides details on the relevance and challenges of blood pressure measurement broadly then describes ABPM generally and specifically in the Hawai‘i context. PMID:29164016

  17. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mental health in schools and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.

  19. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  20. Social media in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  1. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  2. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  3. GIS and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cromley, Ellen K; McLafferty, Sara

    2012-01-01

    ...s. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy...

  4. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like Saba are about three to four times… https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/13/health/colombia- ... often be overlooked as a cause of death": https://insideclimatenews.… Environmental health matters: https://www.theatlantic.com/ ...

  5. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...... disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession...

  6. Breast Cancer Screening Practice and Health-Promoting Behavior Among Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Im Kim, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: On the basis of these results, public education about importance of breast cancer screening and health promoting behavior should be strongly advocated by health professionals and mass media in China.

  7. [Health services research for the public health service (PHS) and the public health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Wildner, M

    2015-03-01

    There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Why feminism in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A

    1999-12-01

    The issues raised in this editorial and exemplified within a number of the studies reported in this issue indicate new directions for public health, directions which take feminist scholarship, both outside and within the medical framework, into account. The changing potential of feminist public health, as derived from the articles in this issue, can be summarised within the following issues: new research areas, positioning women as actors, development of theoretical frameworks, reflexive theory of science, interplay between sex and gender, gender-sensitive methods, diversities among women/men, pro-feminist research on men's health and using the results for change. Thus, feminist public health represents a shift towards the new public health, with holistic and multidisciplinary activities, based on theoretical pluralism, multiple perspectives and collective actions with the aim of improving the health of gender-subordinated groups.

  9. Bioethics in Public Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Peguero

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioethics study method concerns the duties and values that must be fulfilled for respect for life. The aim of this article is to provide a reflection on bioethics in public health actions. It is a review article that includes authors with different positions. Bioethics, despite its apparent individual focus, is vital to fulfil essential functions in public health, and to guarantee the right to health and respect for human dignity.

  10. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  11. Division of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontier Learn what marijuana means for Alaska and you It's your health - Teen Health Autism: Learn the Outbreak of Life-threatening Coagulopathy Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoids Use Friday, May 25, 2018 Impacts of Climate Change in Alaska PDF Monday, January 8, 2018 Breastfeeding mothers reporting marijuana

  12. Opportunities for Public Relations Research in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Considers how communication researchers have developed a solid body of knowledge in the health field but know little about the activities of public relations practitioners in public health bodies. Suggests that public relations scholarship and practice have much to offer the field of public health in helping public health bodies meet their…

  13. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    .... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...

  14. Screening for Motor Dysgraphia in Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielza Regina Ismael Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for warning signs of dysgraphia in schoolchildren at the sixth grade of elementary school. Method: This was a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional cohort study performed with 630 schoolchildren assessed through the (adapted Analytical Dysgraphia Inventory, which recognizes difficulties in writing through the tracing the graphics. Results: A total of 22% (n = 138 of the sample presented all indications of dysgraphia; the most prevalent indicator was ascending/descending/fluctuating lines (53.6%. When the indicators were correlated to gender, males showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in most of them. Among the warning signs of co-occurrences, dyslexia was the most prevalent indicator (22%. Conclusion: Given the large number of warning signs of dysgraphia observed in schoolchildren, it is advisable to screen for these signs, in order to implement early interventions. Resumo: Objetivo: Rastrear sinais de alerta para a disgrafia em escolares do 6° ano do ensino fundamental. Método: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, de coorte transversal realizado com 630 escolares avaliados através do Inventário Disgráfico Analítico (adaptado, que reconhece as dificuldades da escrita através do traçado dos grafismos. Resultados: Em 22% (n = 138 da amostra apareceram todos os indicativos de disgrafia, sendo que o indicador mais prevalente foi o de linha ascendente/descendente/flutuante (53,6%. Se correlacionados os indicadores ao gênero,os meninos apresentaram diferença significativa (p < 0,05 na maioria deles. Dentre os sinais de alerta de co-ocorrências, a dislexia foi a que obteve maior indicador (22%. Conclusão: Considerando o grande número de sinais de alerta para disgrafia encontrados nos escolares, torna-se pertinente o rastreio para que uma intervenção precoce seja realizada. Keywords: Screening, Dysgraphia, Learning disorders, Palavras-chave: Rastreio, Disgrafia, Transtornos de aprendizagem

  15. Public health leadership education in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Hideo; Zakariasen,Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadershi...

  16. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs.

  17. Public Policy and Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine

    2018-04-05

    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  19. Personalism for public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  20. Radiological protection and public health: crossbreeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, Patrick; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper summarizes the scope of activities, ongoing experience and current results of the Expert Group on the Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection (EGPH) of the Committee of Radiological Protection and Public Health, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. While the prime and general task of the EGPH group is looking at how the public health and radiation protection can better take an advantage of their respective perspectives, the following four areas have been explored in detail: a) Exposure to radon; b) Justification of medical exposures; c) Public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence; and d) Management of individual differences. In most of these areas, a targeted telephone survey on public policies in selected countries was used for collecting information from stake holders (public, consumers groups, public health and radiation protection regulators, governmental bodies, medical practitioners, patients, scientific communities, NGOs, etc.). The presented paper also highlights key issues of collected information and summarises existing approaches and policies. The case study on exposure to radon collects national information on approaches to the management of domestic radon risks, focusing on the integration of radiation protection and public health aspects (quality of dwellings, overall quality of indoor air, perception of radon levels, position of radon risk in the pool of other risks). In the case of justification of medical exposures, the Group studies the applications of the justification principle in opportunistic screenings (responsibilities, management of the situation, risk assessment). The precautionary principle and its impact on policy judgement in the light of significant scientific uncertainties can have a large influence on radiological-protection decision making. The case study on public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence is exploring how these uncertainties and

  1. Saúde pública e ética na era da medicina genômica: rastreamentos genéticos Public health and ethics in the age of genomic medicine: genetic screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Miranda Gomes de Constantino Bandeira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo contextualizar o campo da saúde pública diante dos grandes avanços da biotecnologia e genética aplicada, destacando elementos para a problematização do tema tais como benefícios e questões éticas relacionados aos rastreamentos genéticos. O Projeto Genoma Humano gerou várias expectativas, dentre elas, a possibilidade de rastrear genes associados a doenças e comportamentos, e mais ainda, de intervir geneticamente no ser humano, levantando preocupações relativas ao renascimento da eugenia, ao aconselhamento genético, e ao uso da informação genética como critério de acesso aos planos de saúde e postos de trabalho. Uma discussão de todos esses tópicos é essencial para que a saúde pública seja beneficiada com as informações obtidas através da análise genômica das populações.This article has the objective to bring the field of public health into context in the face of the great advances of biotechnology and applied genetics, focusing on issues related to the theme such as benefits and ethics concerning genetic screening. The Human Genome Project has generated many expectations among which the possibility of screening genes associated to diseases and behaviors, moreover, the possibility of genetic interventions on humans, creating concerns related to the resurgence of Eugenia, of genetic counseling and the use of genetic information as a standard for access to healthcare clinics and jobs. The discussion of all these issues is essential to benefit public health with information obtained through population genomic analysis.

  2. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  3. Influencing public health without authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present processes, products and needs of post-graduate public health education for the health programming, implementation and oversight responsibilities at field level and suggests some solutions for the institutes to adopt or adapt for improving the quality of their scholars. Large number of institutions has cropped up in India in the recent years to meet the growing demand of public health specialists/practitioners in various national health projects, international development partners, national and international NGOs. Throwing open MPH courses to multi-disciplinary graduate's is a new phenomenon in India and may be a two edged sword. On one hand it is advantageous to produce multi-faceted Public health postgraduates to meet the multi tasking required, on the other hand getting all of them to a common basic understanding, demystifying technical teaching and churning out products that are acceptable to the traditional health system. These Institutions can and must influence public health in the country through producing professionals of MPH/ MD degree with right attitude and skill-mix. Engaging learners in experimentation, experience sharing projects, stepping into health professionals' roles and similar activities lead to development of relatively clear and permanent neural traces in the brain. The MPH institutes may not have all efficient faculties, for which they should try to achieve this by inviting veterans in public health and professionals from corporate health industry for interface with students on a regular basis. The corporate and public health stalwarts have the capacities to transmit the winning skills and knowledge and also inspire them to adopt or adapt in order to achieve the desired goals.

  4. Hawaii's public mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVoort, Debra J

    2005-03-01

    The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.

  5. The breast screening programme and misinforming the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2011-01-01

    The information provided to the public by the NHS Breast Screening Programme has been criticized for lack of balance, omission of information on harms and substantially exaggerated estimates of benefit. These shortcomings have been particularly evident in the various invitation leaflets for breast...... screening and in the Programme's own 2008 Annual Review, which celebrated 20 years of screening. The debate on screening has been heated after new data published in the last two years questioned the benefit and documented substantial harm. We therefore analysed whether the recent debate and new pivotal data...... about breast screening has had any impact on the contents of the new 2010 leaflet and on the 2010 Annual Review. We conclude that spokespeople for the Programme have stuck to the beliefs about benefit that prevailed 25 years ago. Concerns about over-diagnosis have not been addressed either and official...

  6. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.

  7. Process evaluation of health fairs promoting cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Liang, Shuting; Rodgers, Kirsten; Haardoerfer, Regine; Hennessy, Grace; Gilbertson, Kendra; Heredia, Natalia I; Gatus, Leticia A; Fernandez, Maria E

    2017-12-18

    and were motivated through their participation to read educational materials or discuss screening with providers. Public health professionals can benefit from this process evaluation and recommendations for designing and evaluating health fairs.

  8. Digital government and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  9. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  10. Public health genetic counselors: activities, skills, and sources of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge.

  11. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  14. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Influence of a screening navigation program on social inequalities in health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Fanny; Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Mignon, Astrid; Berchi, Célia; Salinas, Agnès; Launoy, Guy; Christophe, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a screening navigation program leads to more favorable health beliefs and decreases social inequalities in them. The selected 261 noncompliant participants in a screening navigation versus a usual screening program arm had to respond to health belief measures inspired by the Protection Motivation Theory. Regression analyses showed that social inequalities in perceived efficacy of screening, favorable attitude, and perceived facility were reduced in the screening navigation compared to the usual screening program. These results highlight the importance of health beliefs to understand the mechanism of screening navigation programs in reducing social inequalities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Crowdsourcing applications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Daren C; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kirchner, Thomas R; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-02-01

    Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed, problem-solving, and production model that uses the collective intelligence of networked communities for specific purposes. Although its use has benefited many sectors of society, it has yet to be fully realized as a method for improving public health. This paper defines the core components of crowdsourcing and proposes a framework for understanding the potential utility of crowdsourcing in the domain of public health. Four discrete crowdsourcing approaches are described (knowledge discovery and management; distributed human intelligence tasking; broadcast search; and peer-vetted creative production types) and a number of potential applications for crowdsourcing for public health science and practice are enumerated. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  17. Public health financial management competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Costich, Julia F

    2009-01-01

    The absence of appropriate financial management competencies has impeded progress in advancing the field of public health finance. It also inhibits the ability to professionalize this sector of the workforce. Financial managers should play a critical role by providing information relevant to decision making. The lack of fundamental financial management knowledge and skills is a barrier to fulfilling this role. A national expert committee was convened to examine this issue. The committee reviewed standards related to financial and business management practices within public health and closely related areas. Alignments were made with national standards such as those established for government chief financial officers. On the basis of this analysis, a comprehensive set of public health financial management competencies was identified and examined further by a review panel. At a minimum, the competencies can be used to define job descriptions, assess job performance, identify critical gaps in financial analysis, create career paths, and design educational programs.

  18. Causal inference in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.

  19. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  20. Digital Government and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agencys readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, manage...

  1. Nuclear power and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has always emphasized the health and safety aspects of the various stages of power production. Nevertheless, the question of public acceptance is becoming increasingly important in the expansion of nuclear power programmes. Objections may arise partly from the tendency to accept familiar hazards but to react violently to unfamiliar ones such as radiation, which is not obvious to the senses and may result in delayed adverse effects, sometimes manifested only in the descendants of the individuals subjected to the radiation. The public health authorities therefore have an important role in educating the public to overcome these fears. However, they also have the duty to reassure the public and convince it that proper care has been taken to protect man and his environment. This duty can be fulfilled by means of independent evaluation and control to ensure that safe nuclear facilities are built, care is taken with their siting, they are operated safely, and the effects of possible accidents are minimized. The selection and development of a nuclear power facility should be carried out with a sound understanding of the factors involved. WHO has collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the preparation of a booklet summarizing the available information on the subject. It deals with the role of atomic energy in meeting future power needs, radiation protection standards, the safe handling of radioactive materials, disturbances of the environment arising from plant construction and ancillary operations, and the public health implications

  2. Nuclear power and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has always emphasized the health and safety aspects of the various stages of power production. Nevertheless, the question of public acceptance is becoming increasingly important in the expansion of nuclear power programmes. Objections may arise partly from the tendency to accept familiar hazards but to react violently to unfamiliar ones such as radiation, which is not obvious to the senses and may result in delayed adverse effects, sometimes manifested only in the descendants of the individuals subjected to the radiation. The public health authorities therefore have an important role in educating the public to overcome these fears. However, they also have the duty to reassure the public and convince it that proper care has been taken to protect man and his environment. This duty can be fulfilled by means of independent evaluation and control to ensure that safe nuclear facilities are built, care is taken with their siting, they are operated safely, and the effects of possible accidents are minimized. The selection and development of a nuclear power facility should be carried out with a sound understanding of the factors involved. WHO has collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the preparation of a booklet summarizing the available information on the subject. It deals with the role of atomic energy in meeting future power needs, radiation protection standards, the safe handling of radioactive materials, disturbances of the environment arising from plant construction and ancillary operations, and the public health implications.

  3. Policy, politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening of Visually Impaired Children for Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilay Açıl, MSN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children.

  5. Influence of qualitative research on women's health screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadir, Anna Maria; Lang, Ariella; Klein, Talia; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2014-01-01

    Considerable time and resources are allocated to carry out qualitative research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the availability of qualitative research on women's health screening and assess its influence on screening practice guidelines in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Medline, CINHAL, and WEB of Science databases were used to identify the availability of qualitative research conducted in the past 15 years on 3 different women's health screening topics: cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, and prenatal first-trimester screening. Key national practice guidelines on women's health screening were selected using the National Guideline Clearinghouse web site. Bibliometric analysis was used to determine the frequency of qualitative references cited in the guidelines. A total of 272 qualitative research papers on women's health screening was identified: 109 on cervical cancer screening, 104 on breast cancer screening, and 59 on prenatal first-trimester screening. The qualitative studies focused on health care provider perspectives as well as ethical, ethnographic, psychological, and social issues surrounding screening. Fifteen national clinical practice guidelines on women's health screening were identified. A total of 943 references was cited, only 2 of which comprised of qualitative research cited by only 1 clinical practice guideline. Although there is considerable qualitative research that has been carried out on women's health screening, its incorporation into clinical practice guidelines is minimal. Further exploration of the disconnect between the two is important for enhancing knowledge translation of qualitative research within clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  7. Role of public health center for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The role of public health center such as surveillance screening, mass decontamination, health consultation and management, and dosage of stable iodine tablets are thought by Nuclear Safety Commission in 2008. The pollution screening and decontamination, internal exposure screening and valuation, dosage of iodine tablets, health consultation of residents and risk communication, comparative evaluation of health risks, health management under the low dose exposure are discussed to handle problems by the government and local government, and to protect the right to know information. In order to prepare the serious health hazard, the children's thyroid gland test and internal exposure test and the follow-up system have to be practiced by the local government. (S.Y.)

  8. Surgery, public health, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Syed Nabeel; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Surgical healthcare is rapidly gaining recognition as a major public health issue. Surgical disparities are large, with poorest populations receiving the least amount of emergency and essential surgical care. In light of recent evidence, developing countries, such as Pakistan, must acknowledge surgical disease as a major public health issue and prioritize research and intervention accordingly. We review information from various sources and describe the current situation of surgical health care in Pakistan and highlight areas of neglect. Pakistan suffers an annual deficit of 17 million surgeries. Surgical disease kills more people than infectious diseases inclusive of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal disease, and childhood infections. The incidence of trauma and maternal mortality ratio are staggeringly high. There is a severe dearth of surgical and anesthesia-related epidemiological data. Important information that would help to drive policy and planning is not available. Corruption and neglect have led to a dilapidated health care infrastructure. Surgical care is largely inaccessible to the poor, especially those living in rural areas. The country faces a dearth of healthcare professionals, especially paramedics, anesthetists, and surgeons. Unsafe surgery and anesthesia poses a significant risk to patients. There is no national policy on surgical illness and the preventive aspects of surgery are nonexistent. Consistent with other underdeveloped countries, surgical care in Pakistan is dismal. Neglecting surgery and safe anesthesia has led to countless deaths and disability. Physicians, researchers, policy makers, and the government health care system must engage and commit to provide access to emergency, essential, and safe surgical care.

  9. Health risks and changes in self-efficacy following community health screening of adults with serious mental illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Cook

    Full Text Available Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%, hypertension (32%, diabetes (14%, smoking (44%, nicotine dependence (62%, alcohol abuse (17%, drug abuse (11%, and coronary heart disease (10%. A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%. Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants' self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care.

  10. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  11. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  12. Newborn Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more articles Reference Desk Glossary (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Find an Expert Eunice Kennedy Shriver National ... other than English on Newborn Screening NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns Screening Newborns' Hearing Now ...

  13. Training physician investigators in medicine and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Marc N; Jay, Melanie R; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; Foltin, George L; Lipkin, Mack; Schwartz, Mark D

    2012-07-01

    We have described and evaluated the impact of a unique fellowship program designed to train postdoctoral, physician fellows in research at the interface of medicine and public health. We developed a rigorous curriculum in public health content and research methods and fostered linkages with research mentors and local public health agencies. Didactic training provided the foundation for fellows' mentored research initiatives, which addressed real-world challenges in advancing the health status of vulnerable urban populations. Two multidisciplinary cohorts (6 per cohort) completed this 2-year degree-granting program and engaged in diverse public health research initiatives on topics such as improving pediatric care outcomes through health literacy interventions, reducing hospital readmission rates among urban poor with multiple comorbidities, increasing cancer screening uptake, and broadening the reach of addiction screening and intervention. The majority of fellows (10/12) published their fellowship work and currently have a career focused in public health-related research or practice (9/12). A fellowship training program can prepare physician investigators for research careers that bridge the divide between medicine and public health.

  14. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  15. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  16. Sexual Violence Screening Practices of Student Health Centers Located on Universities in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Valerie; Williams, Jessica R.; Gattamorta, Karina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe current sexual violence screening practices of student health centers located on universities in Florida. Participants: Institutional level data was collected from 33 student health centers from November 2015 through January 2016. The student health centers were located on public or private…

  17. Automating Behavioral Health Screening - Addressing Risk Communication Electronically

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow, Bruce E; Gahm, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    ... outpatient behavioral health clinic and 3,451 Soldiers screened 90 days following return from OIF deployment. The screening was completed via scanning software and has more recently been updated to a completed automated kiosk system...

  18. Screening for congenital heart malformation in child health centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); J. Hess (Jakob); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Although screening for congenital heart malformations is part of the child health care programme in several countries, there are very few published evaluations of these activities. This report is concerned with the evaluation of this screening at

  19. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Surfing the net for public health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C; Hemingway, A; Hartwell, H

    2011-08-01

    To identify public health open educational resources (OER) available online, map the identified OER to The Public Health Skills and Career Framework (PHSCF), and triangulate these findings with public health practitioners. Systematic online search for public health OER. An online search was undertaken using a pre-defined set of search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Public health OER were then mapped against the UK PHSCF. The findings of the search were discussed with public health specialists to determine whether or not they used these resources. A number of public health OER were identified, located on 42 websites from around the world. Mapping against the UK PHSCF demonstrated a lack of coverage in some areas of public health education. It was noted that many of the OER websites identified were not those generally used in practice, and those sites preferred by public health specialists were not identified by the online search. Public health OER are available from a number of providers, frequently universities and government organizations. However, these reflect a relatively small pool of original OER providers. Tagging of websites does not always identify their public health content. In addition, users of public health OER may not use search engines to identify resources but locate them using other means. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Public health and demographic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, C.H.; Loebl, A.S.; Miller, F.L.; Ritchey, P.N. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  2. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-06-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fi elds of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  3. East African Journal of Public Health: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines; » Copyright Notice; » Privacy Statement ... and noncommunicable diseases, health leadership and management issues. ... current scientific and policy debates, including methodological issues in public health research.

  4. The public health system in England

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, David J; Marks, Linda; Smith, Katherine E

    2010-01-01

    .... The Public Health System in England offers a wide-ranging, provocative and accessible assessment of challenges confronting a public health system, exploring how its parameters have shifted over time...

  5. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in a public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, F.; Mohsin, S.N.; Mukhtar, S.; Hussain, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism if left untreated results in growth failure, irreversible mental retardation, and cretinism. National neonatal screening programs are therefore, launched to diagnose congenital hypothyroidism and manage it timely. Objectives: To screen new borns for congenital hypothyroidism in two public sector hospitals of Lahore. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional descriptive study conducted at departments of Gynae/Obs and Pediatric Shaikh Zayed Hospital and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from February 2010 to November 2011. Subjects and Methods: Awareness brochures for congenital hypothyroidism were developed and attached with the antenatal card of each pregnant case attending antenatal clinic at Gynae/Obs OPD. Newborns who had stayed in hospital for more than 24 hour, and whose parents consented for heal prick were tested for blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone. Results were reported within four days and thyroid-stimulating hormone >= 20mIU/L was taken as high value. Parents of those neonates who had high value were contacted to give a fresh sample for confirmation. Confirmed results were provided within next 4-5 days to the parents and treating pediatrician for appropriate treatment. Results: A total of 1357 samples were screened using blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone and out of these 1330 were normal ( =20mIU/L). These 27 neonates were further tested using confirmatory tests For serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, T3 and T4. After confirmatory tests only one case had congenital hypothyroidism who was referred for treatment. Three cases were suspected to have subclinical hypothyroidism and these were retested after six months which, picked another case of confirmed subclinical hypothyroidism who was referred for treatment. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism was 2 out of 1357 cases. Conclusion: The screening could pick 2 cases of hypothyroidism from a total of 1357 cases which is high when compared to global rates

  6. The case for transforming governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen; Gursky, Elin A

    2006-01-01

    Changing threats to the public's health necessitate a profound transformation of the public health enterprise. Despite recent attention to the biodefense role of public health, policymakers have not developed a clear, realistic vision for the structure and functionality of the governmental public health system. Lack of leadership and organizational disconnects across levels of government have prevented strategic alignment of resources and undermined momentum for meaningful change. A transformed public health system is needed to address the demands of emergency preparedness and health protection. Such transformation should include focused, risk-based resource allocation; regional planning; technological upgrades; workforce restructuring; improved integration of private-sector assets; and better performance monitoring.

  7. Iron overload: what is the role of public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulihan, Mary M; Sayers, Cindy A; Grosse, Scott D; Garrison, Cheryl; Grant, Althea M

    2011-12-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis type 1, also known as hereditary hemochromatosis classical (HHC), is an iron overload disorder associated, in most cases, with mutations of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene. Although suggested algorithms for diagnosing iron overload are available, there are still questions about options for genetic and biochemical screening for hemochromatosis and duration of treatment. This article provides a summary of an expert workgroup meeting convened on September 24-25, 2009, entitled "Iron Overload: What is the Role of Public Health?" The purpose of the meeting was to enable subject matter experts to share their most recent clinical and scientific iron overload information and to facilitate the discussion of future endeavors, with special emphasis on the role of public health in this field. The two main topics were the research priorities of the field, including clinical, genetic, and public health issues, and the concerns about the validity of current screening recommendations for the condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  9. The pull of public health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Braine, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Public health has burgeoned over the past 100 years, from the study of tropical diseases in the 19th century to national public health systems after World War One and, more recently, to include international public health. Education has kept up with these trends, and today there are hundreds of schools around the world, many flourishing in developing countries.

  10. [Public health services between "new public health" and "new public management"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppen, M

    1996-04-01

    Today, a substantial reorientation of the Public Health services in the Federal Republic of Germany is broadly seen necessary. Patterns of functional and organisational restructuring of Public Health services on the regional and the communal level are closely linked with concepts of prevention and health promotion. Hence, a number of agencies have already adopted new tasks and functions like comprehensive and transorganizational planning, coordination and evaluation as well as the establishment of new reporting systems. Presently, the transformation process from the bureaucratic mode of administering matters of health to a new Public Health orientation receives new impacts from the international "New Public Management" movement. Comparatively late, with the beginning of the 1990s, a growing number of German municipalities has introduced new concepts of administration. Local government administrations, of which the Public Health services are a part, follow the model of modern service organizations producing services in a more efficient, professionalized and consumer-oriented way. Specific elements of economising modernisation programmes like re-distribution of tasks, de-centralisation, extension of managerial capacities, setting of stimulating working conditions that provide employees with greater independence of action as well as career opportunities, are at the same time prerequisites for innovative strategies of health protection and coordination policies of Public Health services.

  11. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  12. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  13. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  14. East African Journal of Public Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Journal of Public Health is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing scientific research work from a range of public health related disciplines including community medicine, epidemiology, nutrition, behavioural sciences, health promotion, health education, communicable and non-communicable disease.

  15. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of a...

  16. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  17. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  18. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  19. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  20. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  1. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Orvik, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutio...

  2. Climate change and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Benny

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.

  3. Utility and justice in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Kathryn

    2017-12-11

    Many public health practitioners and organizations view themselves as engaged in the promotion or achievement of equity. However, discussions around public health frequently assume that practitioners and policy-makers take a utilitarian approach to this work. I argue that public health is better understood as a social justice endeavor. I begin by presenting the utility view of public health and then discuss the equity view. This is a theoretical argument, which should help public health to justify interventions for communicable and non-communicable diseases equally, and which contributes to breaking down the 'old/new' public health divide. This argument captures practitioners' views of the work they are engaged in and allows for the moral and policy justification of important interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases. Systemic interventions are necessary to remedy high rates of disease among certain groups and, generally, to improve the health of entire populations. By viewing diseases as partly the result of failures of health protective systems in society, public health may justify interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases equally. Public health holds a duty to improve the health of the worst-off in society; by prioritizing this group, the health of the whole community may improve. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  5. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  6. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention

  7. Public Health's Falling Share of US Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-01-01

    We examined trends in US public health expenditures by analyzing historical and projected National Health Expenditure Accounts data. Per-capita public health spending (inflation-adjusted) rose from $39 in 1960 to $281 in 2008, and has fallen by 9.3% since then. Public health's share of total health expenditures rose from 1.36% in 1960 to 3.18% in 2002, then fell to 2.65% in 2014; it is projected to fall to 2.40% in 2023. Public health spending has declined, potentially undermining prevention and weakening responses to health inequalities and new health threats.

  8. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  9. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  10. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  11. The State Public Health Laboratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Stanley L; Astles, J Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M; Wilcke, Burton W; White, Vanessa A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the goal of which is to promote public-private collaboration to assure quality laboratory services and public health surveillance. To enhance the realization of the NLS, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) launched in 2004 a State Public Health Laboratory System Improvement Program. In the same year, APHL developed a Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey, a tool to measure improvement through the decade to assure that essential PHL services are provided.

  12. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  13. What makes health public?: a critical evaluation of moral, legal, and political claims in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggon, John

    2012-01-01

    .... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--

  14. Creating training opportunities for public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D; Healton, C; Hamburg, M; Rosenfield, A; Cagan, E; Van Wie, W; Haviland, M L

    1999-04-01

    In response to several reports issued by the federal government and private foundations on the under-training of public health practitioners, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University (SPH) and the New York City Department of Health (NYC DOH) initiated the Public Health Scholars program (SPH-PHS) to make degree-level public health training available to NYC DOH employees. Public Health Scholars receive a 50% tuition scholarship and enroll part-time while working full-time at NYC DOH. Sixteen scholars have enrolled during the past three years. The SPH-PHS program is considered a success by both SPH and NYC DOH. This article details the history of the collaboration between the two agencies and the structure of the program and provides a critical analysis of the SPH-PHS program based on interviews with 16 scholars. It also examines the cost and benefit to other schools of public health of implementing such a program.

  15. Public health legal preparedness in Indian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ralph T; Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-04-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health-related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities.

  16. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  18. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  19. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.

  20. The new genetics and the public's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunton, Robin; Petersen, Alan R., Ph. D

    2002-01-01

    ...; discusses the role of the media in framing debate about genetics, health and medicine. The New Genetics and the Public's Health addresses the emerging social and political consequences of the new genetics and provides a stimulating critique of current research and practice in public health. Alan Petersen is Professor in Sociolo...

  1. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  2. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  3. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  4. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-12-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  5. REFLECTIONS ABOUT NURSES WORK IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alves Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This research is a part of CIPESC (Classification of Nursing Practice in Public Health project, with national coordination by ABEn (Brazilian Nursing Association witch purpose was to elaborate an inventory of activities developed by Public Health Nurses. It sough to analyze the contribution of the nurses in public health in the South Sanitary District in the city of Goiânia (GO – Brazil, and to identify the meaning of nurses work contribution at Public Health Services, by users and managers. The study was developed by a descriptive-analytical investigation in a qualitative approach. The subjects were managers and users of the Public Health System. Data was collected by individual semi-structured interview directed to the managers and controlling and the Technique of Focal Group. The results had been grouped in three categories: "Performance of the professional", "Education Perspective of Nurses Work”, and "Health-care attendance". As conclusion was found that the nurses give great contribution in the implantation and maintenance of the health politics; that it has concern with the professional formation, that many times is responsible for the incompatibility between the service and the expected potential; it is stand out performance of the nurse as health education professional in the inserted activities in the public health, being intense its contact with the community. KEY WORDS: Public Health; Nursing; Public Health Nursing.

  6. Duration of daily TV/screen watching with cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health: Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-01-01

    The link of duration of TV and/or screen watching and chronic health conditions by subtypes is unclear. Therefore, the relationship between TV and/or screen watching hours and cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health and well-being (happiness) was assessed in an independent population-based survey to identify correlations of various hours with health conditions. Data was retrieved from the Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions and TV and/or screen watching duration in both Scottish adults and children was collected by annual household interviews. Chi-square test and survey weighted logistic and multi-nominal modelling were performed. 5527 (57.0%) Scottish adults aged 16-99 watched TV and/or screen daily for 3 + h on average. There was a trend toward more hypertension, angina, stroke, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and poor self-rated health and mental health. Reporting watching TV and/or screen for 4 + h, for 5 + h and for 8 + h was associated with higher rates of heart attack, heart murmur or other heart troubles and abnormal heart rhythms, respectively. 414 (20.7%) Scottish children aged 4-12 watched TV and/or screen for 3h or more. They tended to have poor self-rated health and life difficulties perceived as emotional and behavioural problems. There were associations between various hours of TV and/or screen watching (3+h) and poor health observed both in Scottish adults and children. Future educational and public health programmes minimising TV and/or screen watching in order to protect cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health might be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Public health challenges in sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Melody J; Weinstock, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens are a popular choice for protection from ultraviolet radiation, and hence, important components in the public health campaign to reduce the burden of skin cancer. Public health messages in skin cancer prevention have been used effectively in educational campaigns. The benefits of sunscreen extend beyond skin cancer prevention into other aspects of health and disease prevention: sunscreen decreases the risk for sunburn during physical activity outdoors and seems not to increase the risk for osteoporosis. Public health efforts have laid a solid foundation on which to face the continuing challenge of promoting and developing effective public health campaigns and health policies that encourage sunscreen use, sun protection, and the primary prevention of skin cancer. In this article, the controversies, concerns, and challenges of sunscreen use as it relates to public health are discussed.

  8. Public health emergencies in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Prasad Acharya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergencies in urban India can be caused by natural or man-made disasters. Occurrence of a public health emergency adds to the already stretched health system. This paper looks into the public health emergency conditions in urban India, and our preparedness to tackle them. To address this composite threat to nation’s health and development, a concerted public health response is needed, that can ensure efficient delivery in emergency situations Public health emergency is an occurrence or eminent threat of an illness or health condition caused by bio-terrorism, epidemic or pandemic disease, or novel and highly fatal infectious agent or biological toxin, that possess a substantial risk of a significant number of human facilities or incidents or permanent or long–term disability (1. It is a condition that requires the government to declare a state of public health emergency. The declaration of a state of public health emergency permits the government to suspend state regulations,and change the functions of state agencies (2. Term “Urban” refers to perplexing variety of environments.  Health circumstances of small cities and town differ in many ways from larger cities and metros. Within cities, change in lifestyle of residents is observed. The urban system is often present with full array of health providers ranging from traditional healer, street drug seller to highly –trained surgeons (3.

  9. Genetics, health care, and public policy: an introduction to public health genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Alison

    2007-01-01

    ... initiative About this book Further reading and resources Principles of public health The emergence of public health genetics The human genome project and 'genomic medicine' Community genetics Current developments in public health genetics Genomics and global health 2 Genetic science and technology Basic molecular genetics Genes and the geno...

  10. A school-based public health model to reduce oral health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Valiente, Jonathan E; Espinosa, Gloria; Yepes, Claudia; Padilla, Cesar; Puffer, Maryjane; Slavkin, Harold C; Chung, Paul J

    2018-12-01

    Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home. Key informant interviews and focus groups informed program development. Parent surveys assessed preventative oral health behaviors and access to oral health services. Results from screening exams, program costs and rates of reimbursement were recorded. From 2012 to 2015, six elementary schools and three dental provider groups participated. Four hundred ninety-one parents received oral health education and 89 served as community oral health volunteers; 3,399 screenings and fluoride applications were performed on 2,776 children. Sixty-six percent of children had active dental disease, 27 percent had visible tooth decay, and 6 percent required emergent care. Of the 623 students who participated for two consecutive years, 56 percent had fewer or no visible caries at follow-up, while only 17 percent had additional disease. Annual program cost was $69.57 per child. Using a broad based, oral health coalition, a school-based universal screening and fluoride varnishing program can improve the oral health of children with a high burden of untreated dental diseases. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  12. Bureau of Radiological Health publications index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    The Key Word in Context (KWIC) index to the publications of the Bureau of Radiological Health was prepared to aid in the retrieval and identification of publications originated or authored by Bureau staff or published by the Bureau. These publications include journal articles, government publications and technical reports, selected staff papers, and Bureau news releases issued by HEW. For convenience, the document is divided into four sections, KWIC Index, Author Index, Bibliography Index, and BRH Publications Subject Index

  13. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  14. International public health strategies in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbase, A.C.; Roman, G.; Zemouri, C.; Rangel Bonamigo, R.; Torres Dornelles, S.I.

    2018-01-01

    Structured strategies to tackle skin diseases and related infections provide a framework and direct actions against their burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) develops, updates, advocates, and disseminates international public health strategies and implementation tools including guidelines.

  15. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    ... human health and well-being. The author covers a wealth of topics including foundations, the joint history of public health and urban planning, transportation and land use, infrastructure and natural disasters, assessment tools...

  16. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    "This text combines an examination of how the physical environment affects our health with a description of how public health and urban planning can work together to create environments that improve...

  17. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  18. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  19. Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaal, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the role of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic in radiation protection in the Slovak Republic. Public Health Authority is budgetary organization, which depends on the funding of the Ministry of Health. As the state administration authority performs execution of state regulatory activities in the field of health protection in Slovak republic and radiation protection as well. Radiation Protection Supervision is performed according to the act on public health protection. Organization scheme of radiation protection in the Slovak Republic is presented

  20. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  1. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  2. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda.

  3. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  4. Contributions of Public Health to nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Method: Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Final considerations: Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care.

  5. Obesity stigma: important considerations for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2010-06-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health.

  6. The breast screening programme and misinforming the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2011-01-01

    screening and in the Programme's own 2008 Annual Review, which celebrated 20 years of screening. The debate on screening has been heated after new data published in the last two years questioned the benefit and documented substantial harm. We therefore analysed whether the recent debate and new pivotal data...

  7. Migration: a core public health ethics issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, V; Dawson, A

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we outline the link between migration, public health and ethics. Discussing relevant arguments about migration from the perspective of public health and public health ethics. Critical review of theories and frameworks, case-based analysis and systematic identification and discussion of challenges. Migration is a core issue of public health ethics and must take a case-based approach: seeking to identify the specific ethical dimensions and vulnerabilities in each particular context. Public health as a practice, built upon the core value of justice, requires the protection and promotion of migrants' well-being (even if this produces tension with immigration services). Ethical analysis should take all phases of migration into account: before, during and after transit. We argue that migration policies, at least as they relate to migrants' well-being, should be founded upon a shared humanity, respect for human rights and on the idea that effective public health cannot and should not be confined within the borders and to the citizens of any host country. We make the case for migration to be seen as a core issue of public health ethics. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  9. Routledge handbook of global public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Richard G; Sommer, Marni

    2011-01-01

    ... processes such as the growth of inequalities between the rich and the poor in countries around the world, the globalisation of trade and commerce, new patterns of travel and migration, as well as a reduction in resources for the development and sustainability of public health infrastructures. The Routledge Handbook of Global Public Health explores ...

  10. Public health and the Australian Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C

    1995-06-01

    The powers vested in the Commonwealth Government by the Constitution contain the basis of much public health law in Australia. Yet this is not often recognised; public health law is generally, and historically, seen as the states' responsibility. This article surveys the broad range of constitutional powers that the Commonwealth Government can rely upon to make public health laws. It considers areas of power specified in the Constitution, such as those with respect to external affairs and corporations. Decisions of the High Court have interpreted the various heads of power very broadly and have significantly enhanced the potential of the Commonwealth to pass detailed and far-reaching public health law. To this fact must be added the taxation arrangements in Australia and, with these, the very extensive control that the Commonwealth can exercise through its monopoly of major taxation sources. Its power to make financial arrangements can tie dependent states into specific policies (including public health policies) as a condition of the grants made to them. However, these broad powers may be limited in some important respects: the High Court is increasingly identifying rights and freedoms in the Constitution that may increasingly bring both state and Commonwealth public health law under challenge. Despite this possibility, the Commonwealth may prove to be our most significant source of public health law, and public health policy makers should recognise the full potential of its power to make such laws.

  11. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  13. Mental health in prisons: A public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A

    2009-01-01

    Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.

  14. Public health systems under attack in Canada: Evidence on public health system performance challenges arbitrary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Ak'ingabe; Perreault, Robert

    2016-10-20

    Public health is currently being weakened in several Canadian jurisdictions. Unprecedented and arbitrary cuts to the public health budget in Quebec in 2015 were a striking example of this. In order to support public health leaders and citizens in their capacity to advocate for evidence-informed public health reforms, we propose a knowledge synthesis of elements of public health systems that are significantly associated with improved performance. Research consistently and significantly associates four elements of public health systems with improved productivity: 1) increased financial resources, 2) increased staffing per capita, 3) population size between 50,000 and 500,000, and 4) specific evidence-based organizational and administrative features. Furthermore, increased financial resources and increased staffing per capita are significantly associated with improved population health outcomes. We contend that any effort at optimization of public health systems should at least be guided by these four evidence-informed factors. Canada already has existing capacity in carrying out public health systems and services research. Further advancement of our academic and professional expertise on public health systems will allow Canadian public health jurisdictions to be inspired by the best public health models and become stronger advocates for public health's resources, interventions and outcomes when they need to be celebrated or defended.

  15. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  16. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  17. The health indicators associated with screen-based sedentary behavior among adolescent girls: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Barnett, Lisa; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lubans, David R

    2013-04-01

    Evidence suggests sitting time is independently associated with a range of health issues in adults, yet the relationship between sedentary behavior and health indicators in young people is less clear. Age-related increases in sedentary behavior are well-documented; the behavioral patterns of adolescent girls are of particular concern. More than one third of adolescent girls' sedentary behavior time is accumulated through use of recreational screen-based behaviors. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between recreational screen-based sedentary behavior and the physical, behavioral, and psychosocial health indicators for adolescent girls. A secondary objective was to identify studies that have adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. A structured electronic search of all publication years (through December 2011) was conducted to identify studies in: CINAHL, Communications and Mass Media Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Included publications were observational and interventional studies involving adolescent girls (12-18 years) that examined associations between screen-based, sedentary behavior and health indicators (physical, psychosocial, and/or behavioral). The search identified 33 studies that evaluated health indicators of screen-based sedentary behaviors among adolescent girls. Strong evidence for a positive association between screen-based sedentary behavior and weight status was found. A positive association was observed between screen-time and sleep problems, musculoskeletal pain and depression. Negative associations were identified between screen time and physical activity/fitness, screen time and psychological well-being, and screen time and social support. The relationship between screen-based sedentary behavior and diet quality was inconclusive. Less than half of the studies adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. Screen-based sedentary

  18. Using Social Media to Characterize Public Sentiment Toward Medical Interventions Commonly Used for Cancer Screening: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Omar; Blumberg, Seth; Ladabaum, Uri; Sinha, Sidhartha R

    2017-06-07

    Although cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, millions of people worldwide remain unscreened. Social media provide a unique platform to understand public sentiment toward tools that are commonly used for cancer screening. The objective of our study was to examine public sentiment toward colonoscopy, mammography, and Pap smear and how this sentiment spreads by analyzing discourse on Twitter. In this observational study, we classified 32,847 tweets (online postings on Twitter) related to colonoscopy, mammography, or Pap smears using a naive Bayes algorithm as containing positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. Additionally, we characterized the spread of sentiment on Twitter using an established model to study contagion. Colonoscopy-related tweets were more likely to express negative than positive sentiment (negative to positive ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.51-1.80, Psocial media data provides a unique, quantitative framework to better understand the public's perception of medical interventions that are commonly used for cancer screening. Given the growing use of social media, public health interventions to improve cancer screening should use the health perceptions of the population as expressed in social network postings about tests that are frequently used for cancer screening, as well as other people they may influence with such postings. ©Omar Metwally, Seth Blumberg, Uri Ladabaum, Sidhartha R. Sinha. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 07.06.2017.

  19. Scaring the Public: Fear Appeal Arguments in Public Health Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cummings

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of threat and fear appeal arguments has given rise to a sizeable literature. Even within a public health context, much is now known about how these arguments work to gain the public’s compliance with health recommendations. Notwithstanding this level of interest in, and examination of, these arguments, there is one aspect of these arguments that still remains unexplored. That aspect concerns the heuristic function of these arguments within our thinking about public health problems. Specifically, it is argued that threat and fear appeal arguments serve as valuable shortcuts in our reasoning, particularly when that reasoning is subject to biases that are likely to diminish the effectiveness of public health messages. To this extent, they are rationally warranted argument forms rather than fallacies, as has been their dominant characterization in logic.

  20. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  1. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  2. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  3. Environmental policy and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Barry L. (Barry Lee)

    2007-01-01

    ... or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission ...

  4. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...... as the disintegration of such values. Possible implications for public health management and leadership include four different forms. The application of the conceptual model can potentially draw attention to value conflicts and help to clarify contradictory, institutional logics. It can also potentially support health...... workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...

  5. Screening for congenital heart malformations in child health centres

    OpenAIRE

    Juttmann, Rikard

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this thesis is to clarify the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for congenital heart malformations in Dutch child health centres and the possibilities to optimise this prevention programme. To this end the following main questions will be addressed. 1. Does screening for congenital heart malformations, as actually performed in Dutch child health centres, prevent adverse outcomes of these disorders in the short and long run? What would be the answer to ...

  6. Role of the Public Health Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R T [Bureau of Radiological Health, RockviIle, MD (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)

  7. Role of the Public Health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.T.

    1969-01-01

    The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)

  8. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  9. Public engagement on global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emma R M; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-05-20

    Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  10. Income Disparities in the Use of Health Screening Services Among University Students in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Soojin; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Public health insurance coverage for preventive care in young adults is incomplete in Korea. Few studies have focused on young adults’ socioeconomic disparities in preventive care utilization. We aimed to explore household income disparities in the use of different types of health screening services among university students in Korea. This cross-sectional study used a web-based self-administered survey of students at a university in Korea from January to February 2013. To examine the associations between household income levels and health screening service use within the past 2 years, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for various covariables. Of 2479 participants, 45.5% reported using health screening services within 2 years (university-provided screening 32.9%, private sector screening 16.7%, and both 4.1%). Household income levels were not significantly associated with overall rates of health screening service use with a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) in the lowest versus highest income group of 1.12 (0.87–1.45, Ptrend = 0.35). However, we found significantly different associations in specific types of utilized screening services by household income levels. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of university-provided health screening service use in the lowest versus highest income level was 1.74 (1.30–2.34; Ptrend income level was 0.45 (0.31–0.66; Ptrend income groups among university students in Korea, although overall rates of health screening service use were similar across income levels. Low-income students were more likely to use university-provided health screening services, and less likely to use private sector screening services. To ensure appropriate preventive care delivery for young adults and to address disparities in disadvantaged groups, the expansion of medical insurance coverage for preventive health care, establishment of a usual source of

  11. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  13. PUBLIC HEALTH Health problems flow freely across borders ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 oct. 2010 ... For four decades, IDRC has supported research across the developing world that has saved lives and reduced illness by tackling threats to public health such as infections diseases, tobacco, dilapidated health systems, and degraded environments.

  14. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  15. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  16. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  17. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.

  19. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  20. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  1. Health screenings for women over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  2. Health screenings for men over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  3. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty...

  4. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  5. Bioterrorism, public health, and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

    2002-01-01

    The controversy over the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act has underscored the enduring tension in public health between guarding the common welfare and respecting individual liberty. The current version of the act, crafted in response to extensive public commentary, attempts to strike a balance between these values but has failed to allay the concerns of many civil libertarians and privacy advocates. Although the debates over the model act have been triggered by the threat of bioterrorism, they illustrate broader philosophical differences, with profound implications for all realms of public health policy.

  6. Public health workforce employment in US public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Virginia C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the number and distribution of 26 administrative, professional, and technical public health occupations across the array of US governmental and nongovernmental industries. This study used data from the Occupational Employment Statistics program of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. For each occupation of interest, the investigator determined the number of persons employed in 2006 in five industries and industry groups: government, nonprofit agencies, education, healthcare, and all other industries. Industry-specific employment profiles varied from one occupation to another. However, about three-fourths of all those engaged in these occupations worked in the private healthcare industry. Relatively few worked in nonprofit or educational settings, and less than 10 percent were employed in government agencies. The industry-specific distribution of public health personnel, particularly the proportion employed in the public sector, merits close monitoring. This study also highlights the need for a better understanding of the work performed by public health occupations in nongovernmental work settings. Finally, the Occupational Employment Statistics program has the potential to serve as an ongoing, national data collection system for public health workforce information. If this potential was realized, future workforce enumerations would not require primary data collection but rather could be accomplished using secondary data.

  7. Yield and Efficiency of Mental Health Screening: A Comparison of Screening Protocols at Intake to Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Potter, Beth K; Crocker, Anne G; Wells, George A; Colman, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The value of screening for mental illness has increasingly been questioned in low prevalence settings due to high false positive rates. However, since false positive rates are related to prevalence, screening may be more effective in higher prevalence settings, including correctional institutions. We compared the yield (i.e. newly detected cases) and efficiency (i.e. false positives) of five screening protocols to detect mental illness in prisons against the use of mental health history taking (the prior approach to detecting mental illness). We estimated the accuracy of the six approaches to detect an Axis I disorder among a sample of 467 newly admitted male inmates (83.1% participation rate). Mental health history taking identified only 41.0% (95% CI 32.1, 50.6) of all inmates with mental illness. Screening protocols identified between 61.9 and 85.7% of all cases, but referred between 2 and 3 additional individuals who did not have a mental illness for every additional case detected compared to the mental health history taking approach. In low prevalence settings (i.e. 10% or less) the screening protocols would have had between 4.6 and 16.2 false positives per true positive. While screening may not be practical in low prevalence settings, it may be beneficial in jails and prisons where the prevalence of mental illness is higher. Further consideration of the context in which screening is being implemented, and of the impacts of policies and clinical practices on the benefits and harms of screening is needed to determine the effectiveness of screening in these settings.

  8. Yield and Efficiency of Mental Health Screening: A Comparison of Screening Protocols at Intake to Prison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Martin

    Full Text Available The value of screening for mental illness has increasingly been questioned in low prevalence settings due to high false positive rates. However, since false positive rates are related to prevalence, screening may be more effective in higher prevalence settings, including correctional institutions. We compared the yield (i.e. newly detected cases and efficiency (i.e. false positives of five screening protocols to detect mental illness in prisons against the use of mental health history taking (the prior approach to detecting mental illness.We estimated the accuracy of the six approaches to detect an Axis I disorder among a sample of 467 newly admitted male inmates (83.1% participation rate. Mental health history taking identified only 41.0% (95% CI 32.1, 50.6 of all inmates with mental illness. Screening protocols identified between 61.9 and 85.7% of all cases, but referred between 2 and 3 additional individuals who did not have a mental illness for every additional case detected compared to the mental health history taking approach. In low prevalence settings (i.e. 10% or less the screening protocols would have had between 4.6 and 16.2 false positives per true positive.While screening may not be practical in low prevalence settings, it may be beneficial in jails and prisons where the prevalence of mental illness is higher. Further consideration of the context in which screening is being implemented, and of the impacts of policies and clinical practices on the benefits and harms of screening is needed to determine the effectiveness of screening in these settings.

  9. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  10. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  11. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  12. Does health status influence intention regarding screening mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Jeong; Park, Bo-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed information surveyed from a community-based sample of Korean women older than 40 years of age to understand the relationships between health status and screening behavior. In a cross-sectional population-based study, a two-stage, geographically stratified household-based sampling design was used for assembly of a probability sample of women aged 40-69 years living in Gunpo in Korea, resulting in a total sample size of 503 women. The primary outcome variable for this analysis was the respondent's intention to obtain a mammogram. Predictor variables included health status and other factors known to influence the use of cancer screening, such as age, education, income, marital status and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. Health status was assessed by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The median EQ visual analogue scale score was 75.0, ranging from 20 to 100. In bivariate analyses, the percentage of women reporting to have intention toward mammography use decreased with worsening health status. Women who had problems with mobility or anxiety/depression showed lower intention to undergo future screening mammography. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that health status was significantly associated with intention toward mammography use. Anxiety or depression was an independent predictor of future screening mammography use. Health status is significantly associated with intention regarding screening mammography use. Physicians or other health professionals should be aware that health status is an important component for health promotion, and should pay more attention to clients' possible vulnerability in screening mammography use due to their poor health status. (author)

  13. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  14. [Public health, genetics and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow, Miguel H

    2002-10-01

    Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics.

  15. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  16. Public health genomics and personalized prevention: lessons from the COGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Hall, A; Chowdhury, S; Dent, T; Pharoah, P D P; Burton, H

    2013-11-01

    Using the principles of public health genomics, we examined the opportunities and challenges of implementing personalized prevention programmes for cancer at the population level. Our model-based estimates indicate that polygenic risk stratification can potentially improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. However, compared with 'one-size-fits-all' screening programmes, personalized screening adds further layers of complexity to the organization of screening services and raises ethical, legal and social challenges. Before polygenic inheritance is translated into population screening strategy, evidence from empirical research and engagement with and education of the public and the health professionals are needed. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  17. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE... topic's public health importance, existing challenges, and opportunities for action to decrease the...

  18. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  19. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical ... Historical events were described from its first record in Ethiopia in 1905. ... information on patterns of distribution and relation of transmission to seasons and ...

  20. Public health informatics and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Magnuson, J A

    2013-01-01

    In a revised edition, this book covers all aspects of public health informatics, and discusses the creation and management of an information technology infrastructure that is essential in linking state and local organizations in their efforts to gather data.

  1. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  2. VT - Environmental Public Health Tracking Data Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — What is Environmental Public Health Tracking?Tracking is an ongoing national effort to better understand how environmental hazards can contribute to certain...

  3. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  4. Innovation and motivation in public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Maroto, Andrés; Rubalcaba, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Innovations in public health services promote increases in the health status of the population. Therefore, it is a major concern for health policy makers to understand the drivers of innovation processes. This paper focuses on the differences in behaviour of managers and front-line employees in the pro-innovative provision of public health services. We utilize a survey conducted on front-line employees and managers in public health institutions across six European countries. The survey covers topics related to satisfaction, or attitude towards innovation or their institution. We undertake principal components analysis and analysis of variance, and estimate a multinomial ordered probit model to analyse the existence of different behaviour in managers and front-line employees with respect to innovation. Perception of innovation is different for managers and front-line employees in public health institutions. While front-line employees' attitude depends mostly on the overall performance of the institution, managers feel more involved and motivated, and their behaviour depends more on individual and organisational innovative profiles. It becomes crucial to make both managers and front-line employees at public health institutions feel participative and motivated in order to maximise the benefits of technical or organisational innovative process in the health services provision.

  5. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  6. Mental health treatment patterns following screening at intake to prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Potter, Beth K; Crocker, Anne G; Wells, George A; Grace, Rebecca M; Colman, Ian

    2018-01-01

    While there is general consensus about the need to increase access to mental health treatment, it is debated whether screening is an effective solution. We examined treatment use by inmates in a prison system that offers universal mental health screening. We conducted an observational study of 7,965 consecutive admissions to Canadian prisons. We described patterns of mental health treatment from admission until first release, death, or March, 2015 (median 14-month follow-up). We explored the association between screening results and time of first treatment contact duration of first treatment episode, and total number of treatment episodes. Forty-three percent of inmates received at least some treatment, although this was often of short duration; 8% received treatment for at least half of their incarceration. Screening results were predictive of initiation of treatment and recurrent episodes, with stronger associations among those who did not report a history prior to incarceration. Half of all inmates with a known mental health need prior to incarceration had at least 1 interruption in care, and only 46% of inmates with a diagnosable mental illness received treatment for more than 10% of their incarceration. Screening results were associated with treatment use during incarceration. However, mental health screening may have diverted resources from the already known highest need cases toward newly identified cases who often received brief treatment suggestive of lower needs. Further work is needed to determine the most cost-effective responses to positive screens, or alternatives to screening that increase uptake of services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  8. Political Economy of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  9. Natural radioactivity and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The radioactivity have been existing everywhere in the nature for the night of times. The most radioactive places such Guarapari in Brazil or Ramsar in Iran or springs of Bad Gastein in Austria do not reveal more cancers linked to radioactivity than everywhere else. Only the important radiation doses over 100 MSv received in one time are dangerous for health. (N.C.)

  10. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K

    2000-09-01

    There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have particular relevance. Globalization, in turn, can be defined as a process that is changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres and along at least three dimensions. Understanding public health and globalization in these ways suggests the urgent need for research to better understand the linkages between the two, and effective policy responses by a range of public health institutions, including the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine. The paper is based on a review of secondary literature on globalization that led to the development of a conceptual framework for understanding potential impacts on the determinants of health and public health. The paper then discusses major areas of public health in relation to these potential impacts. It concludes with recommendations on how the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine might contribute to addressing these impacts through its various activities. Although there is growing attention to the importance of globalization to public health, there has been limited research and policy development in the United Kingdom. The UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine needs to play an active role in bringing relevant issues to the attention of policy makers, and encourage its members to take up research, teaching and policy initiatives. The potential impacts of globalization support a broader understanding and practice of public health that embraces a wide range of health determinants.

  11. An off-site screening process for the public in radiation emergencies and disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Won; Ho, Ha Wi; Jin, Young Woo

    2016-01-01

    A contamination screening process for the local population in radiation emergencies is discussed. We present an overview of the relevant Korean governmental regulations that underpin the development of an effective response system. Moreover, case studies of foreign countries responding to mass casualties are presented, and indicate that responses should be able to handle a large demand for contamination screening of the local public as well as screening of the immediate victims of the incident. We propose operating procedures for an off-site contamination screening post operated by the local government for members of the public who have not been directly harmed in the accident. In order to devise screening categories, sorting strategies assessing contamination and exposure are discussed, as well as a psychological response system. This study will lead to the effective operation of contamination screening clinics if an accident occurs. Furthermore, the role of contamination screening clinics in the overall context of the radiation emergency treatment system should be clearly established

  12. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  13. Sepsis is a preventable public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Jordan A; Wang, Henry E; Martin, Greg S

    2018-05-06

    There is a paradigm shift happening for sepsis. Sepsis is no longer solely conceptualized as problem of individual patients treated in emergency departments and intensive care units but also as one that is addressed as public health issue with population- and systems-based solutions. We offer a conceptual framework for sepsis as a public health problem by adapting the traditional model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

  14. Music and Public Health - An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Theorell, Töres

    2018-01-01

    Introduction to Music and Public Health as a new research field. The history of the field in the Nordic countries is presented, and the 13 contributions to the book are briefly reviewed.......Introduction to Music and Public Health as a new research field. The history of the field in the Nordic countries is presented, and the 13 contributions to the book are briefly reviewed....

  15. Five Classic Articles in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Borak, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In this brief review, Dr. Jonathan Borak comments on five seminal papers that helped shape the fields of epidemiology and public health. These papers include Hill?s criteria for inferring causality; the first proof of the multistage theory of cancer; the first evidence that subclinical lead exposures can cause neurobehavioral impairment in children; a simple yet robust study that had a major influence on setting current air pollution policies; and a landmark review of the general public?s per...

  16. Ecological public health and climate change policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, George P

    2010-01-01

    The fact that health and disease are products of a complex interaction of factors has long been recognized in public health circles. More recently, the term 'ecological public health' has been used to characterize an era underpinned by the paradigm that, when it comes to health and well-being, 'everything matters'. The challenge for policy makers is one of navigating this complexity to deliver better health and greater equality in health. Recent work in Scotland has been concerned to develop a strategic approach to environment and health. This seeks to embrace complexity within that agenda and recognize a more subtle relationship between health and place but remain practical and relevant to a more traditional hazard-focused environmental health approach. The Good Places, Better Health initiative is underpinned by a new problem-framing approach using a conceptual model developed for that purpose. This requires consideration of a wider social, behavioural etc, context. The approach is also used to configure the core systems of the strategy which gather relevant intelligence, subject it to a process of evaluation and direct its outputs to a broad policy constituency extending beyond health and environment. This paper highlights that an approach, conceived and developed to deliver better health and greater equality in health through action on physical environment, also speaks to a wider public health agenda. Specifically it offers a way to help bridge a gap between paradigm and policy in public health. The author considers that with development, a systems-based approach with close attention to problem-framing/situational modelling may prove useful in orchestrating what is a necessarily complex policy response to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

  17. Big social data analytics for public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Hansen, Kjeld; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, social media has offered new opportunities for interaction and distribution of public health information within and across organisations. In this paper, we analysed data from Facebook walls of 153 public organisations using unsupervised machine learning techniques to understand...

  18. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding public health inspections of restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Grimm, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Foodborne diseases cause 76 million illnesses in the U.S. each year, and almost half of all money spent on food is spent in restaurants. Restaurant inspections are a critical public health intervention for the prevention of foodborne disease. A telephone survey of randomly selected Tennessee residents aged > or =18 was performed. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and expectations regarding restaurant inspections. Of 2000 respondents, 97% were aware that restaurants are inspected regularly by the health department. More than half of the respondents believed that inspections should be performed at least 12 times per year; only one third were aware that inspections currently occur only twice per year in Tennessee. More than one third of the respondents considered an inspection score of > or =90 acceptable for a restaurant at which they would eat; the mean score in Tennessee is 82. When presented with a variety of scenarios, an overwhelming number of respondents felt that public health responses to safety violations should be far more draconian than they actually are. Survey answers did not differ consistently based on respondents' race, gender, or history of having worked in a restaurant. This study identified a number of public misconceptions and unrealistically high expectations of the public health restaurant-inspection system. It is important to improve consumers' understanding of inspection scores and the limitations of regulatory inspections, as well as the role of such inspections in disease prevention.

  19. Why Do People Work in Public Health? Exploring Recruitment and Retention Among Public Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Wisniewski, Janna M; Amos, Kathleen; Bialek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The public health workforce is critical to the functioning of the public health system and protection of the population's health. Ensuring a sufficient workforce depends on effectively recruiting and retaining workers. This study examines factors influencing decisions to take and remain in jobs within public health, particularly for workers employed in governmental public health. This cross-sectional study employed a secondary data set from a 2010 national survey of US public health workers. Survey respondents were included in this study if they responded to at least 1 survey item related to recruitment and retention. A total of 10 859 survey responses fit this criterion. Data examined demographics of public health workers and factors that influenced decisions to take jobs in and remain in public health. Job security (β = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.56) and competitive benefits (β = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70) were significantly and positively associated with governmental employees' decisions to take positions with their current employers compared with public health workers employed by other types of organizations. The same finding held with regard to retention: job security (β = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.57) and competitive benefits (β = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.24-0.83). Two personal factors, personal commitment to public service (β = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42) and wanted a job in the public health field (β = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-0.69), were significantly and positively related to governmental employees deciding to remain with their current employers. It is important to recognize the value of competitive benefits for both current and potential employees. Public health agencies should maintain these if possible and make the value of these benefits known to policy makers or other agencies setting these benefit policies. Job security associated with governmental public health jobs also appears to offer public health an advantage in recruiting and retaining employees.

  20. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the microbiological origin. The impressive progress in understanding the nexus between soil and health has been achieved by experimentation with preserved soil microbial systems functioning along with the metagenomic characterization. The objective of this work is to present an overview of some recent onsets. In the food safety arena, survival of human pathogens in soils has been related to the degree of soil eutrophication and/or related structure of soil microbial communities. Soil microbial systems affect the affinity of plants to internalizing pathogenic organisms. Pharmaceutical arsenals benefit from using field soil environment for developing antibiotics. Enzyme production by soil bacteria is used as the signal source for drug activation. Sanitary functions of sols are dependent on soil microbial system workings. The healthy living can be enhanced by the human immune system training received from direct contact with soils. The hygiene hypothesis considers the microbial input due to exposure to soil as the essential ecosystem service. The invisible links between soil and public health result in large-scale consequences. Examples of concurrent degradation of soil and public health are worth scrutinizing. Public health records can provide valuable sources of 'soil-public health' interactions. It may be worthwhile to examine current assessments of soil health from the public health standpoint. Soil management can be an efficient instrument of public health control.

  1. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernick, M S

    1997-11-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well.

  2. Effect of Pediatric Behavioral Health Screening and Colocated Services on Ambulatory and Inpatient Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen A; Penfold, Robert B; Arsenault, Lisa N; Zhang, Fang; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2015-11-01

    The study sought to determine the impact of a pediatric behavioral health screening and colocation model on utilization of behavioral health care. In 2003, Cambridge Health Alliance, a Massachusetts public health system, introduced behavioral health screening and colocation of social workers sequentially within its pediatric practices. An interrupted time-series study was conducted to determine the impact on behavioral health care utilization in the 30 months after model implementation compared with the 18 months prior. Specifically, the change in trends of ambulatory, emergency, and inpatient behavioral health utilization was examined. Utilization data for 11,223 children ages ≥4 years 9 months to <18 years 3 months seen from 2003 to 2008 contributed to the study. In the 30 months after implementation of pediatric behavioral health screening and colocation, there was a 20.4% cumulative increase in specialty behavioral health visit rates (trend of .013% per month, p=.049) and a 67.7% cumulative increase in behavioral health primary care visit rates (trend of .019% per month, p<.001) compared with the expected rates predicted by the 18-month preintervention trend. In addition, behavioral health emergency department visit rates increased 245% compared with the expected rate (trend .01% per month, p=.002). After the implementation of a behavioral health screening and colocation model, more children received behavioral health treatment. Contrary to expectations, behavioral health emergency department visits also increased. Further study is needed to determine whether this is an effect of how care was organized for children newly engaged in behavioral health care or a reflection of secular trends in behavioral health utilization or both.

  3. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  4. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  5. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  6. ICRP Publication 125: Radiological Protection in Security Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, D A; Lazo, E; Tattersall, P; Simeonov, G; Niu, S

    2014-07-01

    The use of technologies to provide security screening for individuals and objects has been increasing rapidly, in keeping with the significant increase in security concerns worldwide. Within the spectrum of technologies, the use of ionizing radiation to provide backscatter and transmission screening capabilities has also increased. The Commission has previously made a number of statements related to the general topic of deliberate exposures of individuals in non-medical settings. This report provides advice on how the radiological protection principles recommended by the Commission should be applied within the context of security screening. More specifically, the principles of justification, optimisation of protection, and dose limitation for planned exposure situations are directly applicable to the use of ionising radiation in security screening. In addition, several specific topics are considered in this report, including the situation in which individuals may be exposed because they are concealed (‘stowaways’) in a cargo container or conveyance that may be subject to screening. The Commission continues to recommend that careful justification of screening should be considered before decisions are made to employ the technology. If a decision is made that its use is justified, the framework for protection as a planned exposure situation should be employed, including optimization of protection with the use of dose constraints and the appropriate provisions for authorisation and inspection.

  7. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  8. Oral cancer screening practices of oral health professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Haresaku, Satoru; McGrath, Roisin; Bailey, Denise; Mccullough, Michael; Musolino, Ross; Kim, Boaz; Chinnassamy, Alagesan; Morgan, Michael

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate oral cancer-related screening practices of Oral Health Professionals (OHPs - dentists, dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists) practising in Victoria, Australia. A 36-item survey was distributed to 3343 OHPs. Items included socio-demographic and work-related characteristics; self-assessed knowledge of oral cancer; perceived level of confidence in discussing oral health behaviors with patients; oral cancer screening practices; and self-evaluated need for additional training on screening procedures for oral cancer. A total of 380 OHPs responded this survey, achieving an overall response rate of 9.4%. Forty-five were excluded from further analysis. Of these 335 OHP, 72% were dentists; (n = 241); either GDP or Dental Specialists; 13.7% (n = 46) were dental hygienists; 12.2% (n = 41) were oral health therapists, and the remaining 2.1% (n = 7) were dental therapists. While the majority (95.2%) agreed that oral cancer screening should be routinely performed, in actual practice around half (51.4%) screened all their patients. Another 12.8% "Very rarely" conducted screening examinations. The probability of routinely conducting an oral cancer screening was explored utilising Logistic Regression Analysis. Four variables remained statistically significant (p oral cancer screening rose with increasing levels of OHPs' confidence in oral cancer-related knowledge (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.67) and with higher levels of confidence in discussing oral hygiene practices with patients (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52). Results also showed that dental specialists were less likely to perform oral cancer screening examinations compared with other OHPs (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.52) and the likelihood of performing an oral cancer screening decreased when the "patient complained of a problem" (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44). Only half the study sample performed oral cancer screening examinations for all of their patients

  9. Public Health Service Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, J R [Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  10. Public Health Service Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  11. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  12. Integrating GDM management in public health: Pakistan perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Musarrat; Basit, Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with diverse social, economic and cultural dimensions along with limited resources. Non communicable diseases (NCDS) including diabetes are highly prevalent compromising the already challenged health care system. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with its associated maternal and foetal complications is increasing with rapidly changing lifestyle pattern. Since Pakistan has limited resources and other health issues compete strongly with gestational diabetes initiatives, the most feasible strategy will be the horizontal integration. This will work with the existing primary health care system integrating NCD control programmes with Maternal and Child health (MCH) programmes. Utilizing the existing health care system is the only implementable cost effective strategy. Antenatal screening and treatment of GDM alone is not sufficient but Post-partum screening (PPS) of women with GDM is an important strategy for prevention of diabetes as the conversion rates of GDM to type 2 diabetes are high. Furthermore, instead of perceiving GDM as a temporary reversible clinical entity, it should be considered as a trans-generational prevention of diabetes that needs to be addressed as a public health issue in order to improve maternal and foetal health.

  13. Public Swimming Pools | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illness Disease Reporting and Surveillance Bureau of Public Health Laboratories Environmental Health Air Air Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Indoor Air Quality Mold Radon Water Aquatic Toxins Beach Water Quality purification, testing, treatment, and disinfection procedures. To ensure that the pool technicians are

  14. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  15. Cities and the health of the public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2006-01-01

    ... and urban renewal on health, and the challenges facing cities in the developing world. It also examines conditions such as infectious diseases, violence and disasters, and mental illness. Nicholas Freudenberg is Distinguished Professor of Public Health and Social Psychology, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York. Sandro G...

  16. EDITORIAL PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE HEALTH PROFESSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DSB

    and comedians, there is a lot of serious introspection by health professionals and where possible remedial corrective measures are ... The public perception of health professionals is heavily influenced by greatly skewed media reporting. ... because of the resulting intense itch and could hardly sleep at night. The tourist ...

  17. Ethical issues in public health promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... Health promotion has three main ethical issues: (i) what are the ultimate goals for public .... construction of new norms, the shaping of existing norms, the .... despite the fact that we know they are bad for people's health. There.

  18. Barriers and facilitators of mental health screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Heaman, Maureen; McDonald, Sheila; Lasiuk, Gerri; Sword, Wendy; Giallo, Rebecca; Hegadoren, Kathy; Vermeyden, Lydia; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kingston, Joshua; Jarema, Karly; Biringer, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Access to mental health services during pregnancy is most commonly mobilized through formal mental health screening. However, few studies to date have identified barriers and facilitators that affect pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators that influence pregnant women's responses to the screening process and factors associated with their identification. This multi-site, cross-sectional survey recruited pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English in Alberta, Canada. Main outcomes were barriers and facilitators of mental health screening. Descriptive statistics were generated to identify the most common barriers and facilitators and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to determine factors associated with barriers and facilitators. Study participation rate was 92% (460/500). Women's most common barriers were: significant others normalizing their emotional difficulties; desiring to handle mental health problems on their own; preferring to discuss feelings with significant others; and not knowing what emotions were 'normal'. Women who identified these barriers were more likely not to have been treated previously for mental illness, were primiparous, and could not be completely honest with their provider. Main facilitators were provider characteristics (sensitive, interested), reassurance that mental healthcare is a part of routine prenatal care, hearing that other women have emotional problems during pregnancy and knowing that help was available. The sample comprised largely Caucasian, well-educated, and partnered women, which limits generalizability of the findings. Personal and stigma-related barriers influence pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. Efforts to minimize barriers and enhance facilitators should be explored as potential strategies for optimizing prenatal mental health screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. school eye health screening in kaduna north metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogwurike

    Background: Five public primary schools referred to as Local Education ... Conclusion: School eye screening visits should be at least once a year and should involve ... Sex. 6/4-6/18. 6/24-6/60. Visual acuity not measured; believed not blind. M.

  20. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-05

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  1. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  2. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  3. Big Data's Role in Precision Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Precision public health is an emerging practice to more granularly predict and understand public health risks and customize treatments for more specific and homogeneous subpopulations, often using new data, technologies, and methods. Big data is one element that has consistently helped to achieve these goals, through its ability to deliver to practitioners a volume and variety of structured or unstructured data not previously possible. Big data has enabled more widespread and specific research and trials of stratifying and segmenting populations at risk for a variety of health problems. Examples of success using big data are surveyed in surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease. Using novel big data or big data approaches has risks that remain to be resolved. The continued growth in volume and variety of available data, decreased costs of data capture, and emerging computational methods mean big data success will likely be a required pillar of precision public health into the future. This review article aims to identify the precision public health use cases where big data has added value, identify classes of value that big data may bring, and outline the risks inherent in using big data in precision public health efforts.

  4. Business and Breakthrough: Framing (Expanded) Genetic Carrier Screening for the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Avery E; Canary, Heather E; Wong, Bob

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of research has given attention to issues surrounding genetic testing, including expanded carrier screening (ECS), an elective medical test that allows planning or expecting parents to consider the potential occurrence of genetic diseases and disorders in their children. These studies have noted the role of the mass media in driving public perceptions about such testing, giving particular attention to ways in which coverage of genetics and genetic testing broadly may drive public attitudes and choices concerning the morality, legality, ethics, and parental well-being involved in genetic technologies. However, few studies have explored how mass media are covering the newer test, ECS. Drawing on health-related framing studies that have shown in varying degrees the impact particular frames such as gain/loss and thematic/episodic can have on the public, this study examines the frame selection employed by online media in its coverage of ECS. This analysis-combined with an analysis of the sources and topics used in such coverage and how they relate to selected frames-helps to clarify how mass media are covering an increasingly important medical test and offers considerations of how such coverage may inform mass media scholarship as well as health-related practices.

  5. Academic dental public health diplomates: their distribution and recommendations concerning the predoctoral dental public health faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.

  6. Factors predicting health practitioners' awareness of UNHS program in Malaysian non-public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abdussalaam Iyanda; Abdul Majid, Abdul Halim; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Abdullah, Nor Azimah Chew; Hamzah, Sulaiman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2018-06-01

    The current study aims to examine the effects of human resource (measured with the perception of health workers' perception towards UNHS), screening equipment, program layout and screening techniques on healthcare practitioners' awareness (measured with knowledge) of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) in Malaysian non-public hospitals. Via cross sectional approach, the current study collected data using a validated questionnaire to obtain information on the awareness of UNHS program among the health practitioners and to test the formulated hypotheses. 51, representing 81% response rate, out of 63 questionnaires distributed to the health professionals were returned and usable for statistical analysis. The survey instruments involving healthcare practitioners' awareness, human resource, program layout, screening instrument, and screening techniques instruments were adapted and scaled with 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (little) to 7 (many). Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm and bootstrapping techniques were employed to test the hypotheses of the study. With the result involving beta values, t-values and p-values (i.e. β=0.478, t=1.904, phealth practitioners. Likewise, program layout, human resource, screening technique and screening instrument explain 71% variance in health practitioners' awareness. Health practitioners' awareness is explained by program layout, human resource, and screening instrument with effect size (f2) of 0.065, 0.621, and 0.211 respectively, indicating that program layout, human resource, and screening instrument have small, large and medium effect size on health practitioners' awareness respectively. However, screening technique has zero effect on health practitioners' awareness, indicating the reason why T-statistics is not significant. Having started the UNHS program in 2003, non-public hospitals have more experienced and well-trained employees dealing with the screening tools and instrument, and the program layout is well

  7. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  8. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Georgia A; Sangster, Katrina J; Maxwell, Ellen L; McBride, Catherine R J; Drewe, Ross H

    2012-01-01

    To document the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases in Karen refugees in Australia. Retrospective audit of pathology results. Community based cohort in Melbourne over the period July 2006-October 2009. 1136 Karen refugee children and adults, representing almost complete local area settlement and 48% of total Victorian Karen humanitarian intake for the time period. Prevalence of positive test results for refugee health screening, with breakdown by age group (Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases and may be susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases. These data support the need for post-arrival health screening and accessible, funded catch-up immunisation.

  9. Our health and theirs: forced migration, othering, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Natalie J; Zwi, Anthony B

    2006-04-01

    This paper uses 'othering' theory to explore how forced migrants are received in developed countries and considers the implications of this for public health. It identifies a variety of mechanisms by which refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants are positioned as 'the other' and are defined and treated as separate, distant and disconnected from the host communities in receiving countries. The paper examines how this process has the potential to affect health outcomes both for individuals and communities and concludes that public health must engage with and challenge this othering discourse. It argues that public health practitioners have a critical role to play in reframing thinking about health services and health policies for forced migrants, by promoting inclusion and by helping shape a narrative which integrates and values the experiences of this population.

  10. New Technologies in Screening for Disease Risk: Implications for the Worksite and for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    The screening of workers for health problems has been ubiquitous in the worksite for many years. These screening procedures may have ethical and policy implications. Three common types of screening in use include pre-employment, early identification of health problems, and employee monitoring. Pre-employment screening may be used to screen out…

  11. Japan's Public Health Paradigm: Governmentality and the Containment of Harmful Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoy, Amy

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, I revisit the politics of social control in the context of contemporary public health discussions, touching on the management of obesity and chronic illness. Foucault's cautionary observations regarding the infiltration of normative social values into the terrain of healing offer a productive framework for considering the politics of public health in the industrialized world. I explore Japan's public health paradigm and its key features of bureaucratic reform and health interventions through screening, socialization, education, and aggressive lifestyle training, and I consider the close proximity between health and socio-cultural values in the management of chronic conditions in Japan.

  12. The new frontier of public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, David; Gretsinger, Kathryn; Ellis, Ursula

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to describe the experience and educational benefits of a course that has several unique educational design features. Design/methodology/approach This includes narrative description of faculty and student experience from participants in a flipped-instructional-design inter-professional education course. Findings "Improving Public Health - An Interprofessional Approach to Designing and Implementing Effective Interventions" is an undergraduate public health course open to students regardless of background. Its student activities mirror the real-life tasks and challenges of working in a public health agency, including team-building and leadership; problem and project definition and prioritization; evidence-finding and critical appraisal; written and oral presentation; and press interviews. Students successfully developed project proposals to address real problems in a wide range of communities and settings and refined those proposals through interaction with professionals from population and public health, journalism and library sciences. Practical implications Undergraduate public health education is a relatively new endeavor, and experience with this new approach may be of value to other educators. Originality/value Students in this course, journalism graduate students who conducted mock interviews with them and instructors who oversaw the course all describe unique aspects and related personal benefit from this novel approach.

  13. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  15. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO₂ were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no

  16. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI, were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined

  17. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no consistent

  18. Ophthalmic public health; the way ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, F; Rahimi, A; Gharebaghi, R

    2012-01-01

    Visual sciences have been progressing quickly in recent decades through globalization phenomenon. An enormous change has taken place in ocular health issues, however, there are various problems facing ophthalmic public health worldwide. In the previous years, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eradicate avoidable blindness by the year 2020, VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has concentrated on the prevention of blindness disability and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. In view of challenges ahead of visual sciences, close collaboration between international agencies at the global level to implement new strategies and monitor the progress will be mandatory. In these circumstances non-governmental organizations should not be neglected. World Sight Day 2012 would be a great opportunity to be a focus on importance of visual impairment as an important public health issue and discovering new challenges ahead.

  19. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expert and Advocacy Group Consensus Findings on the Horizon of Public Health Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Modell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description: Among the two leading causes of death in the United States, each responsible for one in every four deaths, heart disease costs Americans $300 billion, while cancer costs Americans $216 billion per year. They also rank among the top three causes of death in Europe and Asia. In 2012 the University of Michigan Center for Public Health and Community Genomics and Genetic Alliance, with the support of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Public Health Genomics, hosted a conference in Atlanta, Georgia to consider related action strategies based on public health genomics. The aim of the conference was consensus building on recommendations to implement genetic screening for three major heritable contributors to these mortality and cost figures: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and Lynch syndrome (LS. Genetic applications for these three conditions are labeled with a “Tier 1” designation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because they have been fully validated and clinical practice guidelines based on systematic review support them. Methodology: The conference followed a deliberative sequence starting with nationally recognized clinical and public health presenters for each condition, followed by a Patient and Community Perspectives Panel, working group sessions for each of the conditions, and a final plenary session. The 74 conference participants represented disease research and advocacy, public health, medicine and nursing, genetics, governmental health agencies, and industry. Participants drew on a public health framework interconnecting policy, clinical intervention, surveillance, and educational functions for their deliberations. Results: Participants emphasized the importance of collaboration between clinical, public health, and advocacy groups in implementing Tier 1 genetic screening. Advocacy groups could help with individual and institutional

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Ethiopian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kress CM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of

  2. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  3. Overdiagnosis in publicly organised mammography screening programmes: systematic review of incidence trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    . DATA SOURCES: PubMed (April 2007), reference lists, and authors. Review methods One author extracted data on incidence of breast cancer (including carcinoma in situ), population size, screening uptake, time periods, and age groups, which were checked independently by the other author. Linear regression......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of overdiagnosis (the detection of cancers that will not cause death or symptoms) in publicly organised screening programmes. DESIGN: Systematic review of published trends in incidence of breast cancer before and after the introduction of mammography screening...... was used to estimate trends in incidence before and after the introduction of screening and in older, previously screened women. Meta-analysis was used to estimate the extent of overdiagnosis. RESULTS: Incidence data covering at least seven years before screening and seven years after screening had been...

  4. Depression screening using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 administered on a touch screen computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Jesse R; Berry, Donna L; Wolpin, Seth; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Bush, Nigel; Halpenny, Barbara; Lober, William B; McCorkle, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    To (1) evaluate the feasibility of touch screen depression screening in cancer patients using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), (2) evaluate the construct validity of the PHQ-9 using the touch screen modality, and (3) examine the prevalence and severity of depression using this screening modality. The PHQ-9 was placed in a web-based survey within a study of the clinical impact of computerized symptom and quality of life screening. Patients in medical oncology, radiation oncology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) clinics used the program on a touch screen computer in waiting rooms prior to therapy (T1) and during therapy (T2). Responses of depressed mood or anhedonia (PHQ-2 cardinal depression symptoms) triggered additional items. PHQ-9 scores were provided to the oncology team in real time. Among 342 patients enrolled, 33 (9.6%) at T1 and 69 (20.2%) at T2 triggered the full PHQ-9 by endorsing at least one cardinal symptom. Feasibility was high, with at least 97% completing the PHQ-2 and at least 96% completing the PHQ-9 when triggered and a mean completion time of about 2 min. The PHQ-9 had good construct validity. Medical oncology patients had the highest percent of positive screens (12.9%) at T1, while HSCT patients had the highest percent (30.5%) at T2. Using this method, 21 (6.1%) at T1 and 54 (15.8%) at T2 of the total sample had moderate to severe depression. The PHQ-9 administered on a touch screen computer is feasible and provides valid depression data in a diverse cancer population. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomberg, John P.; Haimson, Oliver L.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant’s likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74

  6. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  7. Energy policy and the public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, B.

    1979-01-01

    The various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and its effect on public health are described. For the U.K., it is shown that the maximum doses to an individual of the general public are well below the ICRP standards. For nuclear workers, the standard mortality ratio rate for UKAEA and BNFL workers is less than the national average and considerably less than that for miners, quarrymen and other industrial employees. The radiological risk to the general public from nuclear plant accidents is very small compared to the general hazards of life. In conclusion, the hazards involved in nuclear technology are no different in kind or in scale to those of existing technologies and indeed the radiological effects on health are better understood than the health risks associated with other technologies. (U.K.)

  8. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  9. [Organization of colon-rectal cancer screening in the Provincial Health Agency of Ragusa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangiardi, F; Ferrera, G; Cilia, S; Aprile, E

    2012-01-01

    Cancer screening is a secondary prevention program that permits early diagnosis of neoplasias and precancerous lesions are in order to diminish mortality and morbidity for certain types of tumors (breast, colon-rectal, and cervical). In 2010, the Ragusa Provincial Health Agency began screening for colon-rectal cancer in an experimental phase that initially involved only the municipality of Ragusa but that was then extended to other municipalities of the province. Although the organizing model suffered from many managerial problems including lack of human resources and tools, there was good collaboration and involvement of the public health/hygiene offices and the general practitioners and volunteer associations. This type of networking was useful in that adhesion to screening was well above that expected. Another winning aspect of the project resulted in clear and pertinent communication to the population.

  10. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH) at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA). Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then...

  11. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D

    2000-04-01

    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new

  12. Is myopia a public health problem in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia, a form of refractive error is a leading cause of visual disability throughout the world. In India uncorrected refractive errors are the most common cause of visual impairment and second major cause of avoidable blindness. Due to this the public health and economic impact of myopia is enormous. Although school vision screening programme is very successful in many states, still a significant number of school going children remain unidentified and the unmet need for correcting refractive errors in children appears to be significant.

  13. The genesis of public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L

    2004-11-01

    As bioethics emerged in the 1960s and 1970s and began to have enormous impacts on the practice of medicine and research--fuelled, by broad socio-political changes that gave rise to the struggles of women, African Americans, gay men and lesbians, and the antiauthoritarianism impulse that characterised the New Left in democratic capitalist societies--little attention was given to the question of the ethics of public health. This was all the more striking since the core values and practices of public health, often entailing the subordination of the individual for the common good, seemed opposed to the ideological impulses of bioethics. Of what relevance is autonomy-focused bioethics for public health, with its mix of justifications including those that are either implicitly or explicitly paternalistic or that seek to impose strictures on individuals and communities in the name of collective welfare? To examine the deep divide between the central commitments of bioethics and the values that animate the practice of public health, we focus on a series of controversies implicating the concepts of privacy, liberty, and paternalism. Recognising the role of moral values in decision-making was a signal contribution of bioethics in its formative period. Over the past three decades a broad array of perspectives emerged under the rubric of bioethics but individualism remains central. As we commence the process of shaping an ethics of public health, it is clear that bioethics is the wrong place to start when thinking about the balances required in defence of the public's health.

  14. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH IN LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled "Public expenditure on health in local budgets" aims analysing and deepening major spending categories that public authorities finance at local level, namely health expenditure. In the first part of the article we have specified the content and role of this category of expenditure in local budgets and also made some feedback on decentralization in health. In the second part of the work, based on data available in Statistical Yearbook of Romania, we have carried out an analysis of the dynamics of health spending from local budgets to emphasize their place and role in the health care expenses. The research carried out follows that the evolution and structure of health expenditure financed from local budgets is determined, along with the legislative framework in the field, by several variables that differ from one territorial administrative unit to another: the existence of sanitary units, their type, the involving of local public authorities in their development and modernization, the number and the social structure of the population. The research shows that over the period 1993-2015, the dynamics of the share of health spending in total expenditures of local budgets is sinusoidal, with a minimum threshold in 2000 of only 0.3%.

  15. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health.

  16. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies (electronic resource)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Stoto, Michael A; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Dausey, David J; Meade, Barbara; Diamond, Alexis; Molander, Roger C

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  17. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dausey, David J

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  18. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  19. The dancing plague: a public health conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L J; Cavanagh, J; Rankin, J

    1997-07-01

    The phenomenon of mass, frenzied dancing affected large populations in various parts of Europe from the thirteenth century and lasted, on and off, for three centuries. The exact aetiology of the Dancing Plague (or Dancing Mania) is still unclear. Retrospective historical review of this public health problem reveals claims for causative factors including demonic possession, epilepsy, the bite of a tarantula, ergot poisoning and social adversity. It seems unlikely that Dancing Mania resulted from a single cause but rather resulted from multiple factors combining with a predisposing cultural background and triggered by adverse social circumstances. Dancing Mania remains one of the unresolved mysteries of public health.

  20. Health literacy screening instruments for eHealth applications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Currie, Leanne M; Bakken, Suzanne; Vawdrey, David K; Stone, Patricia W

    2012-06-01

    To systematically review current health literacy (HL) instruments for use in consumer-facing and mobile health information technology screening and evaluation tools. The databases, PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index, were searched for health literacy assessment instruments using the terms "health", "literacy", "computer-based," and "psychometrics". All instruments identified by this method were critically appraised according to their reported psychometric properties and clinical feasibility. Eleven different health literacy instruments were found. Screening questions, such as asking a patient about his/her need for assistance in navigating health information, were evaluated in seven different studies and are promising for use as a valid, reliable, and feasible computer-based approach to identify patients that struggle with low health literacy. However, there was a lack of consistency in the types of screening questions proposed. There is also a lack of information regarding the psychometric properties of computer-based health literacy instruments. Only English language health literacy assessment instruments were reviewed and analyzed. Current health literacy screening tools demonstrate varying benefits depending on the context of their use. In many cases, it seems that a single screening question may be a reliable, valid, and feasible means for establishing health literacy. A combination of screening questions that assess health literacy and technological literacy may enable tailoring eHealth applications to user needs. Further research should determine the best screening question(s) and the best synthesis of various instruments' content and methodologies for computer-based health literacy screening and assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Autism Developmental Profiles and Cooperation with Oral Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y.; Yiu, Cynthia C. Y.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the associations between autism developmental profiles and cooperation with an oral health screening among preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A random sample of Special Child Care Centres registered with the Government Social Welfare Department in Hong Kong was selected (19 out of 37 Centres). All preschool…

  2. Screening for congenital heart malformations in child health centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Juttmann (Rikard)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this thesis is to clarify the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for congenital heart malformations in Dutch child health centres and the possibilities to optimise this prevention programme. To this end the following main questions will be addressed. 1. Does

  3. Prenatal screening for Down syndrome: a survey of health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Down Syndrome (DS) is a common genetic disorder that is associated with high intrauterine lethality. Morbidity for the survivors includes congenital anomalies and Intellectual Disability (ID). Genetic screening for DS is an ever evolving field with remarkable progress made over the years. Health care workers ...

  4. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  5. Obesity, stigma and public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lynne; Edwards, Nancy; Garrard, Michael; Sims-Jones, Nicki; Clinton, Kathryn; Ashley, Lisa

    2009-03-01

    Given the rise in obesity rates in North America, concerns about obesity-related costs to the health care system are being stressed in both the popular media and the scientific literature. With such constant calls to action, care must be taken not to increase stigmatization of obese people, particularly of children. While there is much written about stigma and how it is exacerbated, there are few guidelines for public health managers and practitioners who are attempting to design and implement obesity prevention programs that minimize stigma. We examine stigmatization of obese people and the consequences of this social process, and discuss how stigma is manifest in health service provision. We give suggestions for designing non-stigmatizing obesity prevention public health programs. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  6. What does social justice require for the public's health? Public health ethics and policy imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Powers, Madison

    2006-01-01

    Justice is so central to the mission of public health that it has been described as the field's core value. This account of justice stresses the fair disbursement of common advantages and the sharing of common burdens. It captures the twin moral impulses that animate public health: to advance human well-being by improving health and to do so particularly by focusing on the needs of the most disadvantaged. This Commentary explores how social justice sheds light on major ongoing controversies in the field, and it provides examples of the kinds of policies that public health agencies, guided by a robust conception of justice, would adopt.

  7. [Economic problems in military public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A

    2000-03-01

    There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.

  8. Ebola 2014: Setting up a port health screening programme at an international train station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Vivien; Wynne-Evans, Edward; Freed, James; Fleet, Katie; Thorn, Simone; Turbitt, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) began in Guinea in December 2013 and was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization in August 2014. In October, the UK government tasked Public Health England (PHE) to set up EVD screening at key ports. The key aim of port-of-entry screening was to identify passengers coming from areas with high risk of EVD, and give them advice to raise their awareness of symptoms and what actions to take. Direct flights from Sierra Leone, Guinea or Liberia had all been cancelled, so intelligence on passenger numbers and routes was used to identify the most commonly used routes from the affected countries into the UK. One of these was St Pancras International train station. Screening had never previously been implemented at a UK train station so had to be set up from scratch. Key to the success of this was excellent multi-agency working between PHE, the UK Border Force, Eurostar, Network Rail and the Cabinet Office. This paper gives an overview of the activation of EVD screening at St Pancras International and the subsequent decommissioning.

  9. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Osipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role of sociology in the scientific management of society — namely — the social construction aimed at the prevention of adverse events and the creation of social realities desirable for the individual and society. One of the areas of social reality, as well as the most important sphere of social life which are subject to social construction is public health. Public health is considered as an integrated expression of the dynamics of individual levels of the health of all members of society. The author emphasizes that the public health of the people is formed by the interaction of two groups of factors — endogenous (sex, biological age, race, body type, heredity and type of the human nervous system and exogenous (natural and social factors. The last are created by people themselves in the course of their ability to live and are operated, that is socially designed. The author analyzes the negative processes related to public health, the most important of which is a complex situation in the health system, lack of faith in the possibility of human medicine. An equally important role belongs to the deterioration of environmental significant share of people’s living conditions and social stress. If earlier scientists did not specify, in what degree of threat of infringement of global ecosystems are connected with a state of health and features of diseases of the population now it is established that various forms of irreversible change of environment are directly dangerous to public health. From an antiquity the effect of discrepancy of the wished (abstractly and actually arising future wished (abstractly — effect of human activity is known: people wish one, however actually all terminates differently, practically, on the contrary. And these characteristics of a public sincere, mental condition can be extremely inconsistent in relation to knowledge. They are the basis of so-called “involuntary behaviors

  10. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for ...

  11. Health Literacy Screening Instruments for eHealth Applications: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A.; Currie, Leanne M.; Bakken, Suzanne; Vawdrey, David K.; Stone, Patricia W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically review current health literacy (HL) instruments for use in consumer-facing and mobile health information technology screening and evaluation tools. Design The databases, PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index, were searched for health literacy assessment instruments using the terms “health”, “literacy”, “computer-based,” and “psychometrics”. All instruments identified by this method were critically appraised according to their reported psychometric properties and clinical feasibility. Results Eleven different health literacy instruments were found. Screening questions, such as asking a patient about his/her need for assistance in navigating health information, were evaluated in 7 different studies and are promising for use as a valid, reliable, and feasible computer-based approach to identify patients that struggle with low health literacy. However, there was a lack of consistency in the types of screening questions proposed. There is also a lack of information regarding the psychometric properties of computer-based health literacy instruments. Limitations Only English language health literacy assessment instruments were reviewed and analyzed. Conclusions Current health literacy screening tools demonstrate varying benefits depending on the context of their use. In many cases, it seems that a single screening question may be a reliable, valid, and feasible means for establishing health literacy. A combination of screening questions that assess health literacy and technological literacy may enable tailoring eHealth applications to user needs. Further research should determine the best screening question(s) and the best synthesis of various instruments’ content and methodologies for computer-based health literacy screening and assessment. PMID:22521719

  12. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate Services to Improve Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Máñez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers. PMID:24776719

  14. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  15. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Lister

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  16. ONCHOCERCIASIS – A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic disease with a wide range of cutaneous and ocular manifestations. It is caused by the tissue nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, and it is transmitted by the bite of a female black fly, Simulium damnosum. Onchocerciasis is a serious public health and socio-economic problem with 95% of all ...

  17. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used

  18. Getting public health ethics into practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maeckelberghe, Els

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethics is the philosophical discipline that advises on decision making criteria when difficult choices are to be made. Research has shown over the last years that public health researchers and practitioners ‘must confront numerous ethical choices' but they ‘often feel ill-prepared to make

  19. Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  20. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  1. The public health impact of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the

  2. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  3. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the m...

  4. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  5. Discrete Choice Experiments in Public Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.

    2015-01-01

    One approach to improve public health is to implement preventive programs that have been proven effective and cost-effective. For any preventive program to be successful, it is of paramount importance that a large majority of the target population participates. Unfortunately, it is not self-evident

  6. Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications of Tuberculosis Among Nomadic Pastoralists in Three Local Governments of Plateau State, North ... Bovine and human tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, and apart from meat inspection at the abattoir, which is not very effective, no control measures are ...

  7. Health security as a public health concept: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldis, William

    2008-11-01

    There is growing acceptance of the concept of health security. However, there are various and incompatible definitions, incomplete elaboration of the concept of health security in public health operational terms, and insufficient reconciliation of the health security concept with community-based primary health care. More important, there are major differences in understanding and use of the concept in different settings. Policymakers in industrialized countries emphasize protection of their populations especially against external threats, for example terrorism and pandemics; while health workers and policymakers in developing countries and within the United Nations system understand the term in a broader public health context. Indeed, the concept is used inconsistently within the UN agencies themselves, for example the World Health Organization's restrictive use of the term 'global health security'. Divergent understandings of 'health security' by WHO's member states, coupled with fears of hidden national security agendas, are leading to a breakdown of mechanisms for global cooperation such as the International Health Regulations. Some developing countries are beginning to doubt that internationally shared health surveillance data is used in their best interests. Resolution of these incompatible understandings is a global priority.

  8. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  9. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalid BOUTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....

  10. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  11. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  12. Public health educational comprehensiveness: The strategic rationale in establishing networks among schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Robert; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Foldspang, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention. The size of schools and university departments of public health varies, and smaller entities may run into problems if seeking to meet the comprehensive curriculum challenge entirely by use of in-house resources. This commentary discusses the relevance and strength of establishing comprehensive curriculum development networks between schools and university departments of public health, as one means to meet the comprehensiveness challenge. This commentary attempts to consider a two-stage strategy to develop complete curricula at the bachelor and master's as well as PhD levels.

  13. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  14. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  15. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Assessing the public health impact of using poison center data for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Lyons, Rebecca; Choudhary, Ekta; Wolkin, Amy; Schier, Joshua

    2017-12-13

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.

  17. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.

  18. Should public health be exempt from ethical regulations? Intricacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Literature review of published papers regarding ethical regulations in public health practice. Results: There is a current criticism of public health ethics as hindering rather than facilitating public health research. There is also an existing dilemma as to which Public health activities constitute research and are ...

  19. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the Federal...

  20. Epigenetics: relevance and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozek, Laura S; Dolinoy, Dana C; Sartor, Maureen A; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of the multilayer regulation of the human genome has led to a greater appreciation of environmental, nutritional, and epigenetic risk factors for human disease. Chromatin remodeling, histone tail modifications, and DNA methylation are dynamic epigenetic changes responsive to external stimuli. Careful interpretation can provide insights for actionable public health through collaboration between population and basic scientists and through integration of multiple data sources. We review key findings in environmental epigenetics both in human population studies and in animal models, and discuss the implications of these results for risk assessment and public health protection. To ultimately succeed in identifying epigenetic mechanisms leading to complex phenotypes and disease, researchers must integrate the various animal models, human clinical approaches, and human population approaches while paying attention to life-stage sensitivity, to generate effective prescriptions for human health evaluation and disease prevention.

  1. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  2. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  3. Big Social Data in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kjeld S.; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the notion of "Socially Shared Health Information" (SSHI) referring to the phenomena of users and health organizations explicitly sharing health related information on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. In order to investigate the phenomena of SSHI, in this paper, we...... present a multi-method case study of the organizational strategies for and user engagement with the Facebook page of the official portal for the public Danish Healthcare Services (Sundheds.dk). We analysed qualitative data in the form of a semi-structured interview with the social media editor of Sundhed.......dk and netnographic observations, and quantitative data from the full historic fetch of the official Facebook wall. Our results show a good alignment between the organizational and social media strategies of the public Danish Healthcare Services but point out the lack of domain-specific metrics to measure its...

  4. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AK Lofters,1–4 M Vahabi,5 V Prakash,6 L Banerjee,7 P Bansal,8 S Goel,7,8 S Dunn1,2,9 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, 4Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St Michael’s Hospital, 5Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, 6Screening Saves Lives Program, Canadian Cancer Society, Mississauga, 7Wise Elephant Family Health Team, Brampton, 8Mississauga Halton Central West Regional Cancer Program, Mississauga, 9Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Cancer screening uptake is known to be low among South Asian residents of Ontario. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if lay health educators embedded within the practices of primary care providers could improve willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients taking a quality improvement approach.Materials and methods: Participating physicians selected quality improvement initiatives to use within their offices that they felt could increase willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake. They implemented initiatives, adapting as necessary, for six months.Results: Four primary care physicians participated in the study. All approximated that at least 60% of their patients were of South Asian ethnicity. All physicians chose to work with a preexisting lay health educator program geared toward South Asians. Health ambassadors spoke to patients in the office and telephoned patients. For all physicians, ~60% of South Asian patients who were overdue for cancer screening and who spoke directly to health ambassadors stated they were willing to be screened. One physician was able to track actual screening among contacted patients and found that screening uptake was relatively high: from 29.2% (colorectal cancer to 44.6% (breast cancer of patients came in for screening

  5. The next public health revolution: public health information fusion and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ali S; Fleischauer, Aaron; Casani, Julie; Groseclose, Samuel L

    2010-07-01

    Social, political, and economic disruptions caused by natural and human-caused public health emergencies have catalyzed public health efforts to expand the scope of biosurveillance and increase the timeliness, quality, and comprehensiveness of disease detection, alerting, response, and prediction. Unfortunately, efforts to acquire, render, and visualize the diversity of health intelligence information are hindered by its wide distribution across disparate fields, multiple levels of government, and the complex interagency environment. Achieving this new level of situation awareness within public health will require a fundamental cultural shift in methods of acquiring, analyzing, and disseminating information. The notion of information "fusion" may provide opportunities to expand data access, analysis, and information exchange to better inform public health action.

  6. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  7. [Blind alleys and misconceptions in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H E

    1995-07-01

    The concept of hygiene was created in the 19th century although Hippocrates had already conceived an influence of atmosphere, soil and water on human health. The concept of a public health organisation, however, is a fairly recent one. Environmental and social hygiene were the two poles of the new discipline that focussed on public health. However, the ideologies of capitalism, communism and socialism as well as of social darwinism and "survival of the elite" discredited social hygiene. The decline of totalitarianism was associated with a "loss of face" of state-controlled medicine, including social hygiene. Both the post-World War II German constitution and the previous German statutory health insurance ordinance had blocked it, and hence, no Federal bill on public health was carried. The consequences of this disregard of public health are poor protection by vaccination, a gap in compulsory notification and in epidemics control and high rates of nosocomial infections. Absolutely no development of the science of epidemiology was possible whereas that of medical microbiology is choked by the system now in existence. There is a great misconception within individual hygiene by identifying it merely with cleanliness. Hygiene became a synonym for cleanliness, although that had evolved during a long cultural sociological process centuries before hygiene was established. The modern evolution of the science of hygiene shows the danger that emphasis on healthy lifestyles or on environmental protection may result in regulations and finally in a tyranny that may threaten the liberty of human rights. The so-called "principle of concern" is an example of such irrationality because there is no sensible proportion between risk and expense.

  8. Twitter and Public Health (Part 1): How Individual Public Health Professionals Use Twitter for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole E; Islam, Sabrina; Pizarro, Katherine

    2017-09-20

    The use of social networking sites is increasingly being adopted in public health, in part, because of the barriers to funding and reduced resources. Public health professionals are using social media platforms, specifically Twitter, as a way to facilitate professional development. The objective of this study was to identify public health professionals using Twitter and to analyze how they use this platform to enhance their formal and informal professional development within the context of public health. Keyword searches were conducted to identify and invite potential participants to complete a survey related to their use of Twitter for public health and professional experiences. Data regarding demographic attributes, Twitter usage, and qualitative information were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. Open-response survey questions were analyzed using the constant comparison method. "Using Twitter makes it easier to expand my networking opportunities" and "I find Twitter useful for professional development" scored highest, with a mean score of 4.57 (standard deviation [SD] 0.74) and 4.43 (SD 0.76) on a 5-point Likert scale. Analysis of the qualitative data shows the emergence of the following themes for why public health professionals mostly use Twitter: (1) geography, (2) continuing education, (3) professional gain, and (4) communication. For public health professionals in this study, Twitter is a platform best used for their networking and professional development. Furthermore, the use of Twitter allows public health professionals to overcome a series of barriers and enhances opportunities for growth. ©Mark Hart, Nichole E Stetten, Sabrina Islam, Katherine Pizarro. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.09.2017.

  9. Keeping the “Public” in Schools of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation’s public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation’s largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  10. Intercultural competency in public health: a call for action to incorporate training into public health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFleckman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultural roles needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. In focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  11. [Public health, prevention and federalism: insights from the implementation of the federal law on health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüefli, Christian; Sager, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the new Swiss law on health care insurance (KVG) introduced the coverage of certain preventive measures. This provided an opportunity to include research-based public health issues in federal health policy. The present article examines the problems with which the realization of those goals in a Federalist health care system with strong cantonal autonomy as it is found in Switzerland was confronted. Comparative qualitative case studies design (vaccination of school age children and screening-mammography). Switzerland's federalist health care system strongly hinders the realisation of the Confederation's public health goals. Prevention falls into the cantons' autonomy and the federal KVG (Krankenversicherungsgesetz; Health insurance law) only regulates the coverage of the services provided, but does not contain any instruments to assure implementation in consistency with the policy goals. Under those circumstances, conflicts of interest between the implementing actors, varying cantonal preferences, and scarce resources block the implementation of public health goals. The results imply stronger leadership of the Confederation in prevention policy and an improved consideration of implementation aspects in approving new measures to obligatory insurance coverage.

  12. Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2012-05-01

    The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detecting cardiometabolic syndrome using World Health Organization public health action points for Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandinetti, Andrew; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Mau, Marjorie K; Chow, Dominic C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics of World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index action points for cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Native Hawaiians and people of Asian ancestry (ie, Filipino and Japanese). Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,452 residents of a rural community of Hawai'i between 1997 and 2000, of which 1,198 were analyzed in this study. Ethnic ancestry was determined by self-report. Metabolic status was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Screening characteristics of WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were compared to WHO public health action points or to WHO West Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) cut-points. Among Asian-ancestry participants, WHO public health action points improved both sensitivity and specificity for detecting CMS. However, similar improvements were not observed for WPRO criteria for Native Hawaiians. Moreover, predictive values were high regardless of which criteria were utilized due to high CMS prevalence. WHO public health actions points for Asians provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in detection of CMS. However, predictive value, which varies greatly with disease prevalence, should be considered when deciding which criteria to apply.

  14. [Use of data display screens and ocular hypertension in local public sector workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Torró, Rosana; Merelles Tormo, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the association between work with data display screens (DDS) and ocular hypertension (OHT). A cross-sectional study among local public sector workers (Diputación Provincial de Valencia). Data from 620 people were collected over 25 months, from periodic medical examinations performed at an occupational health unit. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was obtained with a portable puff tonometer validated for screening, establishing the cut-off point for OHT at 22 mmHg. Both biological characteristics and other work-related variables were taken into account as covariates. Descriptive statistics of the data were obtained, together with nonparametric tests with a level of significance of 95% and logistic regression with p 〈0.1 as the level of significance of the likelihood test. The average age of the study population is 52.8 years. The prevalence of OHT was 3.5% (5.1% among men and 1.2% among women; p=0.012). No significant associations were found between hours of DDS-related work and OHT were found (p=0.395). Logistic regression corroborated the association between gender and OHT, with women less affected (OR = 0.234; 95%CI: 0.068 - 0.799; p=0.020). In our study, no associations were found between time of exposure to data display screens and ocular hypertension. Logistic regression points to a certain association between ocular hypertension and gender, with men being more predisposed. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  15. Screening-Level Safety Assessment of Personal Care Product Constituents Using Publicly Available Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest S. Fung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations recommend evaluating individual ingredients when assessing the safety of personal care or cosmetic products. The goal of this study was to present a screening-level safety assessment methodology to evaluate the safety of a product by identifying individual ingredients, determining their frequency of use in on-market products, and examining published safe-level-of-use information for each ingredient. As a case study, we evaluated WEN by Chaz Dean (WCD cleansing conditioners since there have been claims of adverse health effects associated with product use. We evaluated 30 ingredients in three on-market WCD cleansing conditioners. We then analyzed the National Library of Medicine’s Household Products Database and the Environmental Working Group’s (EWG Skin Deep Cosmetic Database, two of the largest publicly available databases, for other on-market personal care and cosmetic products that contained these ingredients. Safe-level-of-use information for each ingredient was obtained by reviewing peer-reviewed literature, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA generally recognized as safe (GRAS database, available Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR publications, and available product safety publications. The results of this analysis showed that more than 20,000 personal care and cosmetic products contained one or more of the evaluated ingredients used in WCD cleaning conditioners. Published safety information was available for 21 of the 30 evaluated ingredients: seven identified ingredients were designated as GRAS by the FDA and 16 ingredients had safe-level-of-use information available from the CIR. This study presents a screening-level safety assessment methodology that can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the safety of an ingredient intended for use in personal care and cosmetic products before a product is launched onto the market. This study provides evidence that the evaluated WCD cleansing conditioner ingredients

  16. Health Resources Statistics; Health Manpower and Health Facilities, 1968. Public Health Service Publication No. 1509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    This report is a part of the program of the National Center for Health Statistics to provide current statistics as baseline data for the evaluation, planning, and administration of health programs. Part I presents data concerning the occupational fields: (1) administration, (2) anthropology and sociology, (3) data processing, (4) basic sciences,…

  17. Public Health in Europe : 10 years EUPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kirch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    What is Public Health (PH? What are the links between Public Health research and policy in Europe? Where is PH coming from in the 20th century and where is it directed to?

    These are some of the questions addressed by Public Health in Europe – 10 years EUPHA, the volume, edited by Prof.W. Kirch and published by Springer in 2004, that presents a selection of the manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of EUPHA, held in Dresden in 2002.

    Gunnar Tellness, the President of EUPHA, reminds us what PH is, or what it should be: the science devoted to reduce in the population the amount of disease, premature death and disease-related discomfort, sickness and disability.

    In addressing these themes,Tellness suggests to improve PH by employing healthpromoting and cultural activities, in order to establish strong collaborations between public agencies, private business, organisations and pioneers.

  18. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  19. Gambling and the Health of the Public: Adopting a Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, David A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade there has been an unprecedented expansion of legalized gambling throughout North America. Three primary forces appear to be motivating this growth: (1) the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; (2) tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and (3) the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (e.g., video lottery terminals, powerball mega-lotteries, and computer offshore gambling). Associated with this phenomenon, there has been an increase in the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among the general adult population, as well as a sustained high level of gambling-related problems among youth. To date there has been little dialogue within the public health sector in particular, or among health care practitioners in general, about the potential health impact of gambling or gambling-related problems. This article encourages the adoption of a public health perspective towards gambling. More specifically, this discussion has four primary objectives:1. Create awareness among health professionals about gambling, its rapid expansion and its relationship with the health care system;2. Place gambling within a public health framework by examining it from several perspectives, including population health, human ecology and addictive behaviors;3. Outline the major public health issues about how gambling can affect individuals, families and communities;4. Propose an agenda for strengthening policy, prevention and treatment practices through greater public health involvement, using the framework of The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion as a guide.By understanding gambling and its potential impacts on the public's health, policy makers and health practitioners can minimize gambling's negative impacts and appreciate its potential benefits.

  20. Public understandings of genetics and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, C M

    2010-01-01

    This review of adult public understandings of genetics related to health indicates that the public's understandings overlap with those of professionals in some areas, but not others. Specifically, the majority of the world's people who have been studied understand genetics through the lens of heredity, not in terms of the structural and functional nature of genes. Public understandings of hereditary processes are influenced by models of social relationships and by experiential familiarity with particular conditions as much as by academic research results. Most people hold a fairly strong belief that many health conditions are substantially influenced by both genes and other factors. However, they do not have a stable understanding of the nature of gene-environment interactions. People in cultures where science is not a prominent cultural mode are even less likely to hold the belief structures of professional geneticists. In some areas--notably with regard to racialization of genetic medicine and characterizations of genetic variations as 'mutations'--at least some members of the public strongly reject some geneticists' constructions. Public understanding of details pertinent to genetic testing generally appears to be weak.

  1. Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1998-11-01

    Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.

  2. The public health leadership certificate: a public health and primary care interprofessional training opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia.

  3. FORMULATION OF INDONESIAN PUBLIC HEALTH DEVELOPMENT INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of formulation the Indonesian Public Health Development Index (IPHDI was to describe the successful development of public health based on composite several community-based health indicators. Cross sectional study design.The data analyzed was a combination of a nationwide survey covering Baseline Health Research (Riskesdas 2007, National Social Economic Survey (Susenas 2007 and the Village Potential (Podes in 2008. Selection of appropriate indicators included in IPHDI associated with LE at birth, selected on the basis of consensus expert team. When the indicator has the RSE (relative standard error value of less than 30% and the value was held for more than 75% of districts. then the indicator is a candidate in the calculation IPHDI. The team doing the analysis on 22 models of the combination of indicators. The number of indicators chat involved between 18 to 24. These models have been made and tested for correlation weighting of life expectancy each district. Results of correlation ranged from 0.314 to 0.512 and all models have a significance value p< 0.001. The model was chosen considering the variables that are considered priorities and values of correlation. IPHDI Highest value is 0.708959 (Magelang City, Central Java and the lowest is 0.247059 (Pegunungan Bintang district, Papua. Conclusion. IPHDI utilization is to know district who has severe health problems, resulting in enhancement programs that have intervened, resulting in focusing the target location, and became one of the parameters for the calculation of aid allocations fairly from center to the region. Key words: health indicators, Indonesian public health development index, life expectancy

  4. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: brokering a deal for public health, but on whose terms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Clare; Caraher, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Coalitions of multinational food and drink businesses have pledged to reformulate their products and to market them responsibly. Largely business-led and self-regulated, the integrity of these voluntary initiatives has been questioned. The Public Health Responsibility Deal in England is an example of a voluntary initiative that is government-led. Does this approach provide evidence that with public leadership there is potential for voluntary actions to deliver meaningful results for public health? The subject of the research is the calorie reduction initiative of the Responsibility Deal. Source material was obtained primarily through a series of UK Freedom of Information requests and comprises previously unpublished Department of Health documentation relating to relevant meetings held during 2011 and 2012. The Responsibility Deal approach to calorie reduction deliberately involves the food industry in the specification of the measures it is to implement (reformulation and portion control). Finding the common ground between private and public interests has resulted in the deflection of public health objectives and the preclusion of adequate monitoring and evaluation. The Responsibility Deal approach is fundamentally flawed in its expectation that industry will take voluntary actions that prioritise public health interests above its own. Being government-led counts for little in the absence of sanctions to drive compliance. Instead the initiative affords private interests the opportunity to influence in their favour the public health policies and strategies that affect their products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tracking Master of Public Health graduates: Linking higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Master of Public Health (MPH) students come from a wide range of health professional backgrounds. Graduate programmes in public health should equip alumni with knowledge and skills to analyse and integrate health research findings, and have a practical approach to current public health issues. In South ...

  6. Radiation hormesis, public health, and public policy: a commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R J; Bowers, E J; Clelland, R C

    1983-03-01

    Public policy affecting public health regarding effects of low-level ionizing radiations has been, and is being, determined by effects estimates based on linear or other monotonic extrapolation from high-level radiation dose-response data to presumed ecologically realistic low-level exposure effects. Such predictive, unmeasured estimates are very possibly in serious error; they are incompatible with observed low-level dose-response data that indicate a negative correlation between low-level radiation data and health effects, such as cancer mortality rates. Observed negative correlations with low-level radiation data are to be expected on the basis of evidence supporting the validity of the hormesis phenomenon. Hormesis theory, derived in part from evolutionary biology, asserts that while high levels of exposure to an agent such as ionizing radiation are indeed hazardous, ecologically realistic low levels can be stimulatory and largely beneficial. Stimulation of activities of DNA and other repair mechanisms may be involved. Although evidence of the reality of radiation hormesis has been reported in about 1000 scientific publications over the last century, this effect has been largely unrecognized. Moreover, this widespread non-acceptance of hormesis as a real-world phenomenon is usually but not always present in the case of chemical hormesis; the oversight appears systematic. The ignoring of the hormesis phenomenon seems to constitute a very serious error in modern biomedical science and in preventive medicine. A mathematical model is offered that describes the general shape of certain dose-response functions when radiation hormesis at low-level exposure is taken into consideration along with the well-known detrimental effects of high-level radiation.

  7. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  8. [Health literacy as one of the contemporary public health challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    One of the fundamental public health challenges in the 21st century should be the improvement of people's health literacy, namely the understanding of health messages. The acquired high level of health literacy means that one knows how and where information concerning health determinants can be found, is able to assess it critically and in favorable conditions even modify them, which seems to be of particular importance from the perspective of heath promotion, prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, for professionals in these fields, knowledge of ways how to improve health literacy, as well as awareness of related benefits and the consequences of its poor level, seems to be indispensable. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explain the term of "health literacy", its determinants and implications.

  9. [About development of public health of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepin, O P

    2013-01-01

    The article presents public health system characterized by public responsibility for health of citizen under various forms of property. The issues of management, planning, financing and organization of health care are discussed.

  10. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  11. Shaping public health education, research, and policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab countries often face multifaceted health challenges, including gaps and ... play a critical role in filling this gap by educating the public health workforce as well as ... implement an alternative institutional model for public health based on a ...

  12. An evaluation of a health screening program for migrant women to Taiwan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chu Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate an integrated screening program for female migrants to Taiwan. Method: We performed a mixed methodological evaluation of a public health nurse (PHN-led intervention to promote an integrated screening program for female migrants to Taiwan. The clinical case yield was determined by an audit, and staff/client questionnaires were used for the evaluation. Screening comprised surveillance for four untreated chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, and liver disease, four cancers (mouth, bowel, liver, and cervix, parasitic infection, and hyperlipidemia. Results: Three hundred and thirty-six PHNs and 4751 immigrant women – with an average age of 29.2 years, most of whom were from Vietnam (44% or mainland China (41% – took part in the programme. Two thirds of screened women had no abnormalities. Further investigation was required in 1523 women, of whom 1220 were found to have significant disease. The majority of 280 PHNs (85% found the content, processes, and waiting time to be ‘highly acceptable’ and thought the program was worthwhile and could be incorporated into standard care. Conclusions: The Taipei County Comprehensive Health Screening Programme provided an accessible, free-of-charge, and preventative intervention for female migrants to Taiwan and had a good clinical case yield.

  13. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Public health strategies for Mäori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durie, M

    2000-06-01

    When the New Zealand Department of Public Health was established in 1900, Maöri health status was compromised to the extent that survival itself was threatened. The remarkable turnaround was unexpected and owes much to pioneer Maöri professionals, especially the first Maöri medical practitioner, Dr. Maui Pomare, who graduated in the United States in 1899. As "Medical Officer to the Maöris," and later as Minister of Health, he made major changes through a five-part strategy: recognizing Maöri community leaders as leaders in health, improving access to societal goods and services (especially housing and education), appealing to cultural practices that were linked to good health, wise use of political power, and developing a skilled Maori health workforce to complement community leadership. Although mental health disorders and lifestyle illnesses have largely replaced infectious diseases, malnutrition, and tuberculosis, Pomare's strategy has continuing relevance and warrants serious consideration as a model for health promotion.

  15. Workplace health promotion in the context of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe M. Masanotti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern societies, work is the source of most individual, corporate and community wealth. The level of each society’s health is therefore particularly vulnerable to disruption caused by employee illness. Today healthy workplaces are one of the most important determinants of health. However, public health has tended to completely ignore health in the workplace and occupational medicine has tended to ignore it in part. This article refers to the Italian and European context and, through a review of international recommendations, research and direct field experiences, presents workplace health promotion as an important tool in the field of public health.

    Through the years, several initiatives have been tested. One of the platforms that has demonstrated to be cost effective is based on the principles included in the Ottawa Charter which, when applied to the workplace, define workplace health promotion. In the last twelve years, the European Commission has recognized the workplace as a key determinant of health and has outlined a methodology of workplace health promotion as defined in the Luxemburg Declaration. The basis of this methodology is planning. Without correct strategy and policy development it will not be possible to create a sustainable society. The enforcement of Lisbon treaty seems to be a substantial step forward for Europe.

  16. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  17. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    /119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  18. Evolutionary public health: introducing the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Nesse, Randolph M; Sear, Rebecca; Johnstone, Rufus A; Stearns, Stephen C

    2017-07-29

    The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity. Ecological interactions that influence mortality risk, nutrient availability, and pathogen burden shape energy allocation strategies throughout the life course, thereby affecting diverse health outcomes. Public health interventions could improve their own effectiveness by incorporating an evolutionary perspective. In particular, evolutionary approaches offer new opportunities to address the complex challenges of global health, in which populations are differentially exposed to the metabolic consequences of poverty, high fertility, infectious diseases, and rapid changes in nutrition and lifestyle. The effect of specific interventions is predicted to depend on broader factors shaping life expectancy. Among the important tools in this approach are mathematical models, which can explore probable benefits and limitations of interventions in silico, before their implementation in human populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  20. Social media in public health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Henriksen, Helle Zinner

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of social media use in Danish public health care with respect to capabilities, interactions, orientations, and value distribution. Taking an exploratory approach, the paper draws on an array of quantitative and qualitative data, and puts forward four propositions......: social media transform the access to health-related information for patients and general practitioners, the uptake of social media can be a cost driver rather than a cost saver, social media provide empowerment to patients, and the uptake of social media is hindered by legal and privacy concerns...

  1. Florence Nightingale: nurse and public health pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    August 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who must be, without doubt, the most famous name in nursing. Most people, even those in the health professions, think of her as 'The Lady with the Lamp'; the heroine of the Crimean War, who tended the sick and wounded soldiers at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution, which continued long after Crimea, was in the organization of nursing training, in hospital planning, public and military health, and in effective collection of medical statistics.

  2. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  3. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.

  4. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century.

  5. PPACA and public health: creating a framework to focus on prevention and wellness and improve the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majette, Gwendolyn Roberts

    2011-01-01

    PPACA epitomizes comprehensive health care reform legislation. Public health, disease prevention, and wellness were integral considerations in its development. This article reveals the author's personal experiences while working on the framework for health care reform in the United States Senate and reviews activity in the United States House of Representatives. This insider's perspective delineates PPACA's positive effect on public health by examining the infrastructure Congress designed to focus on prevention, wellness, and public health, with a particular focus on the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council; the National Prevention, Health Promotion, Public Health, and Integrative Health Care Strategy; and the Prevention and Public Health Fund. The Council, strategy, and fund are especially important because they reflect compliance with some of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations to improve public health in the United States, as well as international health and human rights norms that protect the right to health. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  6. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eYeatts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an experience trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they cover key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.

  7. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

  8. The public health implications of asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Bousquet, Jean; Bousquet, Philippe J.; Godard, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a very common chronic disease that occurs in all age groups and is the focus of various clinical and public health interventions. Both morbidity and mortality from asthma are significant. The number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to asthma worldwide is similar to that for diabetes, liver cirrhosis and schizophrenia. Asthma management plans have, however, reduced mortality and severity in countries where they have been applied. Several barriers reduce the availabi...

  9. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.

  10. Public health capacity in the provision of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services.

  11. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  12. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  13. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  14. Public health implications of wireless technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Carpenter, David O

    2009-08-01

    Global exposures to emerging wireless technologies from applications including mobile phones, cordless phones, DECT phones, WI-FI, WLAN, WiMAX, wireless internet, baby monitors, and others may present serious public health consequences. Evidence supporting a public health risk is documented in the BioInitiative Report. New, biologically based public exposure standards for chronic exposure to low-intensity exposures are warranted. Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future. Regardless of whether or not the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Such action is fully compatible with the precautionary principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration, the European Constitution Principle on Health (Section 3.1) and the European Union Treaties Article 174.

  15. Public support for neonatal screening for Pompe disease, a broad-phenotype condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinreich Stephanie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal screening for Pompe disease has been introduced in Taiwan and a few U.S. states, while other jurisdictions including some European countries are piloting or considering this screening. First-tier screening flags both classic infantile and late-onset Pompe disease, which challenges current screening criteria. Previously, advocacy groups have sometimes supported expanded neonatal screening more than professional experts, while neutral citizens' views were unknown. This study aimed to measure support for neonatal screening for Pompe disease in the general public and to compare it to support among (parents of patients with this condition. The study was done in the Netherlands, where newborns are not currently screened for Pompe disease. Newborn screening is not mandatory in the Netherlands but current uptake is almost universal. Methods A consumer panel (neutral group and (parents of patients with Pompe disease (Pompe group were sent information and a questionnaire. Responses were analyzed of 555 neutral and 58 Pompe-experienced informants who had demonstrated sufficient understanding. Results 87% of the neutral group and 88% of the Pompe group supported the introduction of screening (95% CI of difference -10 to 7%. The groups were similar in their moral reasoning about screening and acceptance of false positives, but the Pompe-experienced group expected greater benefit from neonatal detection of late-onset disease. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for demographics confirmed that approval of the introduction of screening was independent of having (a child with Pompe disease. Furthermore, respondents with university education, regardless of whether they have (a child with Pompe disease, were more likely to be reluctant about the introduction of screening than those with less education, OR for approval 0.29 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.49, p Conclusions This survey suggests a rather high level of support for newborn

  16. Mapping Rwanda public health research(1975-2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research on public health in Rwanda ... formed analyses on journals, most cited articles, authors, publication years, ... One of the major areas is public health. In fact, public health represented the needs ... In the advanced ... searches to get the main relevant topics.

  17. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  18. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  19. Public health system - current status and world experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyeva І.А.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the review, the evolution of Public Health and global development tendencies of Public Health system have been discussed. Stages of formation of the updated concept, principles of Public Health organization and the role of various organizations have been shown in the connection with development of the global concept of "Health for All". A well-functioning public health system is primarily the result of multisectoral cooperation. The aim of modern Public Health is to provide conditions of access to appropriate and cost-effective health care for all population groups, including health promotion and disease prevention.

  20. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  1. Adoption and use of social media among public health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Smith, Amanda K; Van Wagenen, Sarah B

    2012-03-26

    Effective communication is a critical function within any public health system. Social media has enhanced communication between individuals and organizations and has the potential to augment public health communication. However, there is a lack of reported data on social media adoption within public health settings. The purposes of this study were to assess: 1) the extent to which state public health departments (SHDs) are using social media; 2) which social media applications are used most often; and 3) how often social media is used interactively to engage audiences. This was a non-experimental, cross sectional study of SHD social media sites. Screen capture software Snag-It® was used to obtain screenshots of SHD social media sites across five applications. These sites were coded for social media presence, interactivity, reach, and topic. Sixty percent of SHDs reported using at least one social media application. Of these, 86.7% had a Twitter account, 56% a Facebook account, and 43% a YouTube channel. There was a statistically significant difference between average population density and use of social media (p = .01). On average, SHDs made one post per day on social media sites, and this was primarily to distribute information; there was very little interaction with audiences. SHDs have few followers or friends on their social media sites. The most common topics for posts and tweets related to staying healthy and diseases and conditions. Limitations include the absence of a standard by which social media metrics measure presence, reach, or interactivity; SHDs were only included if they had an institutionally maintained account; and the study was cross sectional. Social media use by public health agencies is in the early adoption stage. However, the reach of social media is limited. SHDs are using social media as a channel to distribute information rather than capitalizing on the interactivity available to create conversations and engage with the audience. If

  2. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaferstein, F.

    1997-01-01

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  3. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  4. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F. [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  5. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  6. Protecting Health and Saving Lives: The Part-Time/Internet-Based Master of Public Health Program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…

  7. Teaching nutrition in an International Master of Public Health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elliot M; Fatunmbi, Bayo S; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan

    2002-01-01

    The health of populations is related to the norms and characteristics of society and its socio-economic organization. The causes of food-related ill health are located at the national and international levels and the cure must be sought in good governance. Thus, it is obvious that a Master's Degree in International Public Health must include a thorough overview of the "food chain" from "plough to plate" within the political, economical, socio-economic changes, environmental, industrial, scientific, and health contexts. Nutritional deficiencies are addressed by a variety of measures, including food supply and utilization programs, specific supplementation for high-risk groups, and food fortification to reach a general population. All are part of a wide-based public health nutrition approach, applicable in developed, redeveloping, and newly developing countries. This article is based on experience in teaching Public Health Nutrition to a mixed group of foreign students from different countries. Our goal is to prepare students for a variety of public health careers related to nutrition and health. The aim of this course is to introduce current roles and aspects of food and nutrition policy, focusing on food and nutrition security, human rights for food and nutrition, and the complex interactions among local and global systems. Students are introduced to nutrition screening, assessment, and research skills, and nutrition in emergency situations and in disaster relief. During the course the students learn about the design and the evaluation of nutrition interventions at the individual, community, and national level. The course gives a broad-based examination of major themes related to development and underdevelopment, poverty and wealth, equality and inequality. It also introduces program planning from the perspective of international organisations such as the World Food Program and the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation of the United

  8. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Calgary, Alberta: Sources and screening health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m 3 and 39μg/m 3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m 3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer. Alkanes (58%) were the most dominant compounds followed by halogenated VOCs (22%) and aromatics (11%). Mean and maximum 24h ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the United States regulatory agencies and a cancer screening benchmark used in Alberta equivalent to 1 in 100,000 lifetime risk. The Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed nine VOC sources at downtown Calgary, where oil/natural gas extraction/combustion (26%), fuel combustion (20%), traffic sources including gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, mixed fugitive emissions (10-15%), and industrial coatings/solvents (12%) were predominant. Other sources included dry cleaning (3.3%), biogenic (3.5%) and a background source (18%). Source-specific health risk values were also estimated. Estimated cancer risks for all sources were below the Alberta cancer screening benchmark, and estimated non-cancer risks for all sources were well below a safe level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Public health and Web 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardey, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This article examines the nature and role of Web 2.0 resources and their impact on health information made available though the Internet. The transition of the Web from version one to Web 2.0 is described and the main features of the new Web examined. Two characteristic Web 2.0 resources are explored and the implications for the public and practitioners examined. First, what are known as 'user reviews' or 'user testimonials', which allow people to comment on the health services delivered to them, are described. Second, new mapping applications that take advantage of the interactive potential of Web 2.0 and provide tools to visualize complex data are examined. Following a discussion of the potential of Web 2.0, it is concluded that it offers considerable opportunities for disseminating health information and creating new sources of data, as well as generating new questions and dilemmas.

  10. The public health workforce: An assessment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, M.

    2015-01-01

    The public health workforce is a key resource of population health. How many people work in public health in the Netherlands, what are their characteristics and who does what? Remarkably, such information about the size and composition of the public health workforce in the Netherlands is lacking. A

  11. 'Controversy'. Propaganda versus evidence based health promotion: the case of breast screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, A

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem in the developed world, and the common perception of the risks of developing the disease are communicated to the public via a variety of means. This includes leaflets in doctors' surgeries, health promotion campaigns and invitations from well woman clinics to attend for various forms of screening. The national breast cancer screening programme in the UK has a very high compliance rate (which is vital) and a well oiled media machine. This article examines the way in which the risks of developing breast cancer are communicated to women of all ages in the UK, and speculates as to the reason behind the misleading manner in which health promoters offer this information.

  12. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  13. Effective Screening for Emotional Distress in Refugees: The Refugee Health Screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed.

  14. Statistical methods used in the public health literature and implications for training of public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Powell, Amanda; Johnson, Tessa; Cadwell, Betsy L

    2017-01-01

    Statistical literacy and knowledge is needed to read and understand the public health literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify basic and advanced statistical methods used in public health research. We randomly sampled 216 published articles from seven top tier general public health journals. Studies were reviewed by two readers and a standardized data collection form completed for each article. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency distributions. Results were summarized for statistical methods used in the literature, including descriptive and inferential statistics, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and statistical software used. Approximately 81.9% of articles reported an observational study design and 93.1% of articles were substantively focused. Descriptive statistics in table or graphical form were reported in more than 95% of the articles, and statistical inference reported in more than 76% of the studies reviewed. These results reveal the types of statistical methods currently used in the public health literature. Although this study did not obtain information on what should be taught, information on statistical methods being used is useful for curriculum development in graduate health sciences education, as well as making informed decisions about continuing education for public health professionals.

  15. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straten, G F M; Friele, R D; Groenewegen, P P

    2002-07-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used in a research project to monitor trust and to predict behaviour of people such as consulting "alternative practitioners". The idea for the research was suggested by economic research into public trust. In the study, a phased design was used to overcome the operationalization problem. In the first phase, a qualitative study was conducted; and, in the second, a quantitative study. In the first phase, more than 100 people were interviewed to gain insight into the issues they associated with trust. Eight categories of issues that were derived from the interviews were assumed to be possible dimensions of trust. On the basis of these eight categories and the interviews, a questionnaire was developed that was used in the second phase. In this phase, the questionnaire was sent to 1500 members of a consumer panel; the response was 70 percent. The analysis reveals that six of the eight possible dimensions appear in factor analysis. These dimensions are trust in: the patient-focus of health care providers; macro policies level will have no consequences for patients; expertise of health care providers; quality of care; information supply and communication by care providers and the quality of cooperation. The reliability of most scales is higher than 0.8. The validity of the dimensions is assessed by determining the correlation between the scales on the one hand, and people's experience and a general mark they would assign on the other. We conclude that public trust is a multi-dimensional concept, including not only issues that relate to the patient-doctor relationship, but also issues that relate to health care institutions. The instrument appears to be reliable and valid.

  16. Islamophobia, Health, and Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen; Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Zulfacar

    2018-06-01

    focused on both physical and mental health (n = 10; 19%) or health care seeking (n = 7; 13%). Studies showed associations between Islamophobia and poor mental health, suboptimal health behaviors, and unfavorable health care-seeking behaviors. This study elucidates the associations between Islamophobia, health, and socioecological determinants of health. Future studies should examine the intersectional nature of Islamophobia and include validated measures, representative samples, subgroup analyses, and comparison groups. More methodologically rigorous studies of Islamophobia and health are needed. Public Health Implications. Addressing the discrimination-related poor health that Muslims and racialized Muslim-like subgroups experience is central to the goals of health equity and assurance of the fundamental right to health.

  17. The prevalence of mental health problems among users of NHS stop smoking services: effects of implementing a routine screening procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratschen Elena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco dependence among people with mental health problems is an issue that deserves attention both from a clinical and from a public health perspective. Research suggests that Stop Smoking Services often fail to ask clients about underlying mental health problems and thus fail to put in place the treatment adaptations and liaison procedures often required to meet the needs of clients with a mental health condition who want to stop smoking. This study assesses the recording of mental health problems in a large NHS stop smoking service in England and examines the effect of implementing a short screening procedure on recording mental health conditions. Methods Treatment records from the Stop Smoking Service covering a period of 13 months were audited. The prevalence of reported mental health problems in the six month period before the implementation of the mental health screening procedure was compared with that of the six month period following implementation. The screening procedure was only implemented in the support services directly provided by the Stop Smoking Service. Comparisons were also made with third-party sections of the service where no such screening procedure was introduced. Results The prevalence of reported mental health problems among a total of n = 4999 clients rose from less than 1% before implementation of the screening procedure to nearly 12% in the period following implementation, with the change being statistically significant. No significant rise was observed over the same period in the sections of the service where no screening procedure was implemented. Conclusions The absence of standard procedures to record mental health problems among service users in many stop smoking services is currently likely to prevent the detection of co morbidity. Implementing a simple screening procedure appears suitable to increase the routine recording of mental health problems in a stop smoking service, which is an

  18. Uncited articles in Brazilian public health journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Barbosa, Milena Maria de Araújo Lima; de Oliveira, Karoline; Quinta, Fernanda Paranhos; Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; França, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we describe the percentage of non-citation in Brazilian public health journals, a field that, until now, had not been investigated nationally or internationally. We analyzed articles, published between 2008 and 2012, of eight public health journals indexed in the scopus database. The percentage of non-citation differs between journals (from 5.7% to 58.1%). We identified four statistically distinct groups: História, Ciência, Saúde – Manguinhos (58% uncited articles); Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva, Interface, and Saúde e Sociedade (32% to 37%); Ciência & Saúde Coletiva and Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia (16% to 17%); and Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública (6%). The non-citation in the first three years post-publication also varies according to journal. Four journals have shown a clear decline of non-citation: Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, and Physis. Another three (Revista de Saúde Pública, Saúde e Sociedade, and Interface) presented an oscillation in non-citation, but the rates of 2008 and 2012 are similar, with different magnitudes. In turn, the journal História, Ciência, Saúde – Manguinhos maintains high rates of non-citation. Multidisciplinary journals attract more citation, but a comprehensive citation model still needs to be formulated and tested. PMID:29211202

  19. Uncited articles in Brazilian public health journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Barbosa, Milena Maria de Araújo Lima; Oliveira, Karoline de; Quinta, Fernanda Paranhos; Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; França, Ivan

    2017-12-04

    Here, we describe the percentage of non-citation in Brazilian public health journals, a field that, until now, had not been investigated nationally or internationally. We analyzed articles, published between 2008 and 2012, of eight public health journals indexed in the scopus database. The percentage of non-citation differs between journals (from 5.7% to 58.1%). We identified four statistically distinct groups: História, Ciência, Saúde - Manguinhos (58% uncited articles); Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva, Interface, and Saúde e Sociedade (32% to 37%); Ciência & Saúde Coletiva and Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia (16% to 17%); and Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública (6%). The non-citation in the first three years post-publication also varies according to journal. Four journals have shown a clear decline of non-citation: Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, and Physis. Another three (Revista de Saúde Pública, Saúde e Sociedade, and Interface) presented an oscillation in non-citation, but the rates of 2008 and 2012 are similar, with different magnitudes. In turn, the journal História, Ciência, Saúde - Manguinhos maintains high rates of non-citation. Multidisciplinary journals attract more citation, but a comprehensive citation model still needs to be formulated and tested.

  20. Labour market outcomes of public health graduates: evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ian W; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-09-01

    Little information is available on the public health workforce. This study contributes to the gap in the literature and examines the demographic characteristics, career destinations and earnings of Masters in Public Health (MPH) graduates in Australia, using data from the 1999-2009 waves of the Graduate Destination Survey. It was found that public health graduates had a high amount of female representation and very low proportions of indigenous representation. Public health graduates experienced a relatively low unemployment rate and 85% were employed within 120 days of graduation. However, close to half of the graduates did not work in the health industry or in health-related roles. The mean salaries of public health graduates working in public health roles were relatively low compared to those in other occupations, but they had a range comparable to that observed for public health professionals in the USA and were higher than those of other Masters graduates in some other health fields. The results indicate strong demand and positive employment prospects for public health graduates in Australia. Strategies to target recruitment and/or retention of female or indigenous graduates in the public health workforce should be a priority. Mapping of public health graduate destinations and employment prospects should might be prioritised, given its strong potential to facilitate workforce planning and provide potential public health workers with more comprehensive career trajectories. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.

  1. Tourist health as a new branch of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, W

    1989-01-01

    Tourism has been steadily expanding in recent years and continues to do so, with the result that the health and social problems related to this new mass phenomenon are growing likewise. Urgent and serious attention to the various implications is now required on the part of relevant national and international bodies and of all sectors interested in the health and wellbeing of tourists, both in their place of origin and at their destination. Tourist health is a new branch of public health concerned with the protection and promotion of the health of tourists. The traditional role of medicine has always been to deal with the health aspects of the most important of life's activities, such as work and sport. The medical profession cannot therefore neglect a leisure-time pursuit such as tourism, in view of its wide-ranging health implications. The Italian Association for Tourist Medicine (IATM) and the Tourist Health Centre, with headquarters in Rimini, were founded in 1983 to assist in the creation of tourist health as a discipline and to promote its development. An international meeting on Prevention and control of infections in tourists in the Mediterranean area, organized in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Tourism Organization (WTO) was held in Rimini on 8-11 February 1988. The meeting recommended that the IATM act as focal point in the promotion of tourist health and tourist medicine, especially for countries in the Mediterranean area. In December 1988, the Tourist Health Centre, Rimini was designated as a WHO collaborating centre for tourist health and tourist medicine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  3. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  4. Phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and haemoglobinopathies: public health issues for a Brazilian newborn screening program Fenilcetonúria, hipotireoidismo congênito e hemoglobinopatias: questões de saúde pública para um programa de triagem neonatal brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Botler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the frequency of detected congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria and haemoglobinopathies in the State of Rio de Janeiro's (Brazil Newborn Screening Program (NBSP was analyzed between the years of 2005 and 2007. There were two Newborn Screening Reference Centers (named NSRC A and B with programmatic differences. In 2007, overall detection coverage reached 80.7%. The increase in the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (1:1,030 in 2007 was attributed to the reduction of neonatal TSH value limits over time. The incidence discrepancy of phenylketonuria between NSRC A (1:28,427 and B (1:16,522 might be partially explained by the small number of cases. The incidence of sickle cell disease and its traits were uniformly high (1:1,288 and 1:21, respectively. This was coherent with the ethnic composition of the population. The differences in laboratory methods and critical values, in addition to other programmatic issues, may explain the variances in the results and limited analysis of the role of biological and environmental determinants in the occurrence of these diseases.Neste estudo, foi analisada a frequência de detecção do hipotireoidismo congênito, fenilcetonúria e hemoglobinopatias no Programa de Triagem Neonatal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, entre 2005 e 2007. Havia dois Serviços de Referência em Triagem Neonatal (designados SRTN A e B com diferenças programáticas. Em 2007, a cobertura alcançou 80,7%. O aumento na incidência do hipotireoidismo congênito (1:1.030 em 2007 foi atribuído à redução no valor de corte do TSH ao longo do tempo. As incidências discrepantes da fenilcetonúria entre os modelos (SRTN A - 1:28.427; SR-TN B - 1:16.522 podem ser parcialmente explicadas pelo pequeno número de casos. A incidência da doença falciforme e do traço falcêmico foi uniformemente elevada (1:1.288 e 1:21, respectivamente, sendo coerente com a composição étnica da população. As diferenças nos m

  5. Social determinants approaches to public health: from concept to practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blas, Erik; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Sivasankara Kurup, A

    2011-01-01

    ... social determinants and health equity issues in 13 public health programmes, and identified possible entry points for interventions to address those social determinants and inequities at the levels of socioeconomic context, exposure, vulnerability, health outcomes and health consequences.-- Publisher's description.

  6. Georgia Public Health Laboratory, Decatur, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This case study was prepared as one in a series for the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new and retrofit laboratory buildings in both the public and the private sectors. The energy-efficient elements of the laboratory featured in this case study-the Georgia Public Health Laboratory, Decatur, Georgia-include sustainable design features, light-filled interior spaces for daylighting, closely grouped loads (such as freezers), the use of recirculated air in administrative areas, direct digital controls for heating and cooling equipment, sunscreens, and low-emissivity window glazing. These elements, combined with an attractive design and well-lighted work spaces, add up to a building that ranks high in comfort and low in energy use.

  7. Who pays for public employee health costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Jeffrey; Cutler, David M

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the incidence of public-employee health benefits. Because these benefits are negotiated through the political process, relevant labor market institutions deviate significantly from the competitive, private-sector benchmark. Empirically, we find that roughly 15 percent of the cost of recent benefit growth was passed onto school district employees through reductions in wages and salaries. Strong teachers' unions were associated with relatively strong linkages between benefit growth and growth in total compensation. Our analysis is consistent with the view that the costs of public workers' benefits are difficult to monitor, contributing to benefit oriented, and often under-funded, compensation schemes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibiotic innovation for future public health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, U

    2017-10-01

    The public health threat of antibiotic resistance has gained attention at the highest political levels globally, and recommendations on how to respond are being considered for implementation. Among the recommended responses being explored for their feasibility is the introduction of economic incentives to promote research and development of new antibiotics. There is broad agreement that public investment should stimulate innovation and be linked to policies promoting sustainable and equitable access to antibiotics. Though commonly used, the term 'innovation' is not based on a common understanding. This article aims to initiate discussion on the meaning of 'innovation' in this context. Literature and expert opinion. As the definition of a novel class (novel scaffold, novel pharmacophore), a novel target (novel binding site) and a novel mode of action-the three traditional criteria for 'innovation' in this context-may be confounded by the complexities of antibacterial drug discovery, a biological and outcome-oriented definition of innovation is presented to initiate discussion. Such an expanded definition of innovation in this specific context is based on the overarching requirement that a drug not be affected by cross-resistance to existing drugs in the organisms and indications for which it is intended to be used, and that it have low potential for high-frequency, high-level single-step resistance if intended as a single drug therapy. Policy makers, public health authorities and funders could use such a comprehensive definition of innovation to prioritize where publicly funded incentives should be applied. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  10. Council of public health. Report of 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Following a general introduction over the organisation and function of the Council of Public Health, of the work carried out by two philosophy committees, two deliberation groups and 60 general committees, during 1978, are presented. Included are reports from the philosophy committee for radiation hygiene and committees for food irradiation, disposal of radioactive waste and categorised radionuclide laboratories, guide-lines for radiation safety in hospitals and clinics, isotope laboratories, legal responsibility of radiation accidents, computer tomography, supplementary advice for nuclear energy, combustion furnace for radioactive waste, experiments on subjects with radioactive materials and systematic dental X-ray examination. (C.F.)

  11. Public health evaluation of waste management plan of urban areas of Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Andrea; Lombardi, Lidia; Carpentieri, Matteo; Buiatti, Eva; Bartolacci, Simone; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Linzalone, Nunzia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Public health evaluation impact for solid municipal waste management of Florence urban areas is considered. In this case study the evaluation step of screening show the environmental analysis of pollutants in the urban areas and epidemiologic study of exposed population in the area

  12. Health Effects and Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Wilschut (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem, with over a million newly diagnosed cases per year worldwide. CRC occurs especially frequently in established market economies like Europe, the United States (US), Canada, Australia and Japan. The lifetime incidence in average

  13. Viewpoint: Re-instating a 'public health' system under universal health care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew

    2015-02-01

    I examine possibilities for strengthening essential public health functions in the context of India's drive to implement universal health care. In a country where population health outcomes are rooted in social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological conditions, it is important to have a state mediated public health system that can modify the causes of the major public health problems. This calls for strengthening the social epidemiological approach in public health by demarcating public health functions distinct from medical care. This will be a prerequisite for the growth of the public health profession in the country, because it can offer avenues for newly trained professionals within the country to work in 'core' public health.

  14. East African Journal of Public Health: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Journal of Public Health: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > East African Journal of Public Health: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Public Health Intelligence: Learning From the Ebola Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David Jay

    2015-01-01

    Today’s public health crises, as exemplified by the Ebola outbreak, lead to dramatic calls to action that typically include improved electronic monitoring systems to better prepare for, and respond to, similar occurrences in the future. Even a preliminary public health informatics evaluation of the current Ebola crisis exposes the need for enhanced coordination and sharing of trustworthy public health intelligence. We call for a consumer-centric model of public health intelligence and the formation of a national center to guide public health intelligence gathering and synthesis. Sharing accurate and actionable information with government agencies, health care practitioners, policymakers, and, critically, the general public, will mark a shift from doing public health surveillance on people to doing public health surveillance for people. PMID:26180978

  16. Social determinants approaches to public health: from concept to practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blas, Erik; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Sivasankara Kurup, A

    2011-01-01

    The thirteen case studies presented in this publication describe experiences with implementing public health programs that intend to address social determinants and to have a great impact on health equity...

  17. The private partners of public health: public-private alliances for public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Sharon; Bryant, Carol; Harris, Jeff; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Lobb, Ano; Hannon, Peggy A; Cross, Jeffrey L; Gray, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    We sought to convey lessons learned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) about the value and challenges of private-sector alliances resulting in innovative health promotion strategies. Several PRCs based in a variety of workplace and community settings contributed. We conducted interviews with principal investigators, a literature review, and a review of case studies of private-sector alliances in a microbusiness model, a macrobusiness model, and as multiparty partnerships supporting public health research, implementation, and human resource services. Private-sector alliances provide many advantages, particularly access to specialized skills generally beyond the expertise of public health entities. These skills include manufacturing, distribution, marketing, business planning, and development. Alliances also allow ready access to employee populations. Public health entities can offer private-sector partners funding opportunities through special grants, data gathering and analysis skills, and enhanced project credibility and trust. Challenges to successful partnerships include time and resource availability and negotiating the cultural divide between public health and the private sector. Critical to success are knowledge of organizational culture, values, mission, currency, and methods of operation; an understanding of and ability to articulate the benefits of the alliance for each partner; and the ability and time to respond to unexpected changes and opportunities. Private-public health alliances are challenging, and developing them takes time and resources, but aspects of these alliances can capitalize on partners' strengths, counteract weaknesses, and build collaborations that produce better outcomes than otherwise possible. Private partners may be necessary for program initiation or success. CDC guidelines and support materials may help nurture these alliances.

  18. Regulatory context and evolutions - Public Health Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodde, S.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled that numerous laws, decrees and orders have been published between 2001 and 2007 due to the transposition of EURATOM directives defining standards for population and worker health protection against dangers resulting from ionizing radiations, the author reviews the regulatory evolutions which occurred in 2008 and 2009, and those currently in progress. They concern the protection of people exposed to radon, the field of radiotherapy, authorizations issued in application of the French public health code. Some decisions are about to be finalized. They concern the activities submitted to a declaration, the modalities of prolongation of the lifetime of sealed sources, a list of apparatus categories the handling of which requires an ability certificate

  19. Reconciliation with environmental quality and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmlund, Anna

    2010-12-01

    This report is an appendix to the 'Environmental Impact Assessment - Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The report makes a reconciliation with how the national and regional environmental quality and public health objectives are met in the construction, operation and decommissioning of the encapsulation plant and final disposal facility, and the Clink (encapsulation facility combined with CLAB). The starting point for reconciliation is the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This report provides reconciliations against how the environmental and health objectives are met. A more detailed description of the business and its environmental impacts is provided in the EIA.The disposal facility is planned to be constructed in Forsmark municipality, Oesthammar and the encapsulation is constructed, combined with CLAB, in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn municipality

  20. 78 FR 9055 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the..., Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo...