WorldWideScience

Sample records for public health advocacy

  1. Public health and media advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns.

  2. Academic advocacy in public health: Disciplinary 'duty' or political 'propaganda'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K E; Stewart, E A

    2017-09-01

    The role of 'advocacy' within public health attracts considerable debate but is rarely the subject of empirical research. This paper reviews the available literature and presents data from qualitative research (interviews and focus groups conducted in the UK in 2011-2013) involving 147 professionals (working in academia, the public sector, the third sector and policy settings) concerned with public health in the UK. It seeks to address the following questions: (i) What is public health advocacy and how does it relate to research?; (ii) What role (if any) do professionals concerned with public health feel researchers ought to play in advocacy?; and (iii) For those researchers who do engage in advocacy, what are the risks and challenges and to what extent can these be managed/mitigated? In answering these questions, we argue that two deeply contrasting conceptualisations of 'advocacy' exist within public health, the most dominant of which ('representational') centres on strategies for 'selling' public health goals to decision-makers and the wider public. This contrasts with an alternative (less widely employed) conceptualisation of advocacy as 'facilitational'. This approach focuses on working with communities whose voices are often unheard/ignored in policy to enable their views to contribute to debates. We argue that these divergent ways of thinking about advocacy speak to a more fundamental challenge regarding the role of the public in research, policy and practice and the activities that connect these various strands of public health research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Advocacy and Public Policy Perceptions and Involvement of Master Certified Health Education Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Dianne L; Van Wasshenova, Emily; Mahas, Rachel; Everhart, F Jeannine; Thompson, Amy; Boardley, Debra

    2017-09-01

    Master Certified Health Education Specialists (MCHES; n = 186) participated in a mail survey on advocacy and public policy. Over half of participants reported that they had contacted a public official or provided policy-related information to consumers or other professionals. Participants identified barriers and benefits to influencing public policy. The greatest benefit was identified as improving the health or welfare of the public while the greatest barrier was that they were busy with other priorities. Participants also described their level of involvement, knowledge, training in advocacy, and their self-efficacy in performing various advocacy activities. Most MCHES reported voting and other basic advocacy functions while far fewer had participated in more advanced advocacy activities. Although nearly 73% had formal training on advocacy and policy, only 26% received it through college coursework. Factors predictive of advocacy and policy involvement were determined through a stepwise regression analysis. Five independent variables predicted the total number of advocacy activities and when combined accounted for nearly 61% of the variance. Government-level health educators' misconception that they cannot participate in advocacy and public policy issues should be dispelled. Health education specialists with the MCHES credential need coursework and additional training on how to effectively influence public health policy.

  4. Planning for the next generation of public health advocates: evaluation of an online advocacy mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Emily; Stoneham, Melissa; Saunders, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Despite being viewed as a core competency for public health professionals, public health advocacy lacks a prominent place in the public health literature and receives minimal coverage in university curricula. The Public Health Advocacy Institute of Western Australia (PHAIWA) sought to fill this gap by establishing an online e-mentoring program for public health professionals to gain knowledge through skill-based activities and engaging in a mentoring relationship with an experienced public health advocate. This study is a qualitative evaluation of the online e-mentoring program. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants at the conclusion of the 12-month program to examine program benefits and determine the perceived contribution of individual program components to overall advocacy outcomes. Results Increased mentee knowledge, skills, level of confidence and experience, and expanded public health networks were reported. Outcomes were dependent on participants' level of commitment, time and location barriers, mentoring relationship quality, adaptability to the online format and the relevance of activities for application to participants' workplace context. Program facilitators had an important role through the provision of timely feedback and maintaining contact with participants. Conclusion An online program that combines public health advocacy content via skill-based activities with mentoring from an experienced public health advocate is a potential strategy to build advocacy capacity in the public health workforce. So what? Integrating advocacy as a core component of professional development programs will help counteract current issues surrounding hesitancy by public health professionals to proactively engage in advocacy, and ensure that high quality, innovative and effective advocacy leadership continues in the Australian public health workforce.

  5. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expert and Advocacy Group Consensus Findings on the Horizon of Public Health Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Modell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description: Among the two leading causes of death in the United States, each responsible for one in every four deaths, heart disease costs Americans $300 billion, while cancer costs Americans $216 billion per year. They also rank among the top three causes of death in Europe and Asia. In 2012 the University of Michigan Center for Public Health and Community Genomics and Genetic Alliance, with the support of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Public Health Genomics, hosted a conference in Atlanta, Georgia to consider related action strategies based on public health genomics. The aim of the conference was consensus building on recommendations to implement genetic screening for three major heritable contributors to these mortality and cost figures: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and Lynch syndrome (LS. Genetic applications for these three conditions are labeled with a “Tier 1” designation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because they have been fully validated and clinical practice guidelines based on systematic review support them. Methodology: The conference followed a deliberative sequence starting with nationally recognized clinical and public health presenters for each condition, followed by a Patient and Community Perspectives Panel, working group sessions for each of the conditions, and a final plenary session. The 74 conference participants represented disease research and advocacy, public health, medicine and nursing, genetics, governmental health agencies, and industry. Participants drew on a public health framework interconnecting policy, clinical intervention, surveillance, and educational functions for their deliberations. Results: Participants emphasized the importance of collaboration between clinical, public health, and advocacy groups in implementing Tier 1 genetic screening. Advocacy groups could help with individual and institutional

  7. Lobbying and advocacy for the public's health: what are the limits for nonprofit organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J S

    1999-09-01

    Nonprofit organizations play an important role in advocating for the public's health in the United States. This article describes the rules under US law for lobbying by nonprofit organizations. The 2 most common kinds of non-profits working to improve the public's health are "public charities" and "social welfare organizations." Although social welfare organizations may engage in relatively unlimited lobbying, public charities may not engage in "substantial" lobbying. Lobbying is divided into 2 main categories. Direct lobbying refers to communications with law-makers that take a position on specific legislation, and grassroots lobbying includes attempts to persuade members of the general public to take action regarding legislation. Even public charities may engage in some direct lobbying and a smaller amount of grassroots lobbying. Much public health advocacy, however, is not lobbying, since there are several important exceptions to the lobbying rules. These exceptions include "non-partisan analysis, study, or research" and discussions of broad social problems. Lobbying with federal or earmarked foundation funds is generally prohibited.

  8. Accessing evidence to inform public health policy: a study to enhance advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, R G; Eyler, A A; Dodson, E A; Brownson, R C

    2015-06-01

    Improving population health often involves policy changes that are the result of complex advocacy efforts. Information exchanges among researchers, advocates, and policymakers is paramount to policy interventions to improve health outcomes. This information may include evidence on what works well for whom and cost-effective strategies to improve outcomes of interest. However, this information is not always readily available or easily communicated. The purposes of this paper are to describe ways advocates seek information for health policy advocacy and to compare advocate demographics. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Seventy-seven state-level advocates were asked about the desirable characteristics of policy-relevant information including methods of obtaining information, what makes it useful, and what sources make evidence most reliable/trustworthy. Responses were explored for the full sample and variety of subsamples (i.e. gender, age, and position on social and fiscal issues). Differences between groups were tested using t-tests and one-way analysis of variance. On average, advocates rated frequency of seeking research information as 4.3 out of five. Overall, advocates rated the Internet as the top source, rated unbiased research and research with relevancy to their organization as the most important characteristics, and considered information from their organization as most reliable/believable. When ratings were examined by subgroup, the two characteristics most important for each question in the total sample (listed above) emerged as most important for nearly all subgroups. Advocates are a resource to policymakers on health topics in the policy process. This study, among the first of its kind, found that advocates seek research information, but have a need for evidence that is unbiased and relevant to their organizations and report that university-based information is reliable. Researchers and advocates should partner so research is useful in advocating for

  9. Promoting Health Through Policy and Systems Change: Public Health Students and Mentors on the Value of Policy Advocacy Experience in Academic Internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Daniela; Pell, Dylan; Forster-Cox, Sue; Garcia, Evelyn; Ornelas, Sophia; Bandstra, Brenna; Mata, Holly

    2017-05-01

    Emerging professionals and new Certified Health Education Specialists often lack academic training in and actual experience in National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Area of Responsibility VII: Communicate, Promote, and Advocate for Health, Health Education/Promotion, and the Profession. For undergraduate and graduate students who have an opportunity to complete an internship or practicum experience, gaining experience in Competencies 7.2: Engage in advocacy for health and health education/promotion and 7.3: Influence policy and/or systems change to promote health and health education can have a profound impact on their career development and their ability to advocate for policies that promote health and health equity. Compelling evidence suggests that interventions that address social determinants of health such as poverty and education and those that change the context through improved policy or healthier environments have the greatest impact on public health, making it vital for emerging public health professionals to gain experience in policy advocacy and systems change. In this commentary, students and faculty from two large universities in the U.S.-Mexico border region reflect on the value of policy advocacy in academic internship/fieldwork experiences. Based on their experiences, they highly recommend that students seek out internship opportunities where they can participate in policy advocacy, and they encourage university faculty and practicum preceptors to provide more opportunities for policy advocacy in both classroom and fieldwork settings.

  10. More than a message: framing public health advocacy to change corporate practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Wallack, Lawrence; Woodruff, Katie

    2005-06-01

    Framing battles in public health illustrate the tension in our society between individual freedom and collective responsibility. This article describes how two frames, market justice and social justice, first articulated in a public health context by Dan Beauchamp, influence public dialogue on the health consequences of corporate practices. The authors argue that public health advocates must articulate the social justice values motivating the changes they seek in specific policy battles that will be debated in the context of news coverage. The authors conclude with lessons for health education practitioners who need to frame public health issues in contentious and controversial policy contexts. Specific lessons include the importance of understanding the existing values and beliefs motivating the public health change being sought, the benefits of articulating core messages that correspond to shared values, and the necessity of developing media skills to compete effectively with adversaries in public debate.

  11. A Media Advocacy Intervention Linking Health Disparities and Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J.; McIntyre, Lynn; Persaud, Steven A.; Thomas, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Media advocacy is a well-established strategy for transmitting health messages to the public. This paper discusses a media advocacy intervention that raised issues about how the public interprets messages about the negative effects of poverty on population health. In conjunction with the publication of a manuscript illustrating how income-related…

  12. Developing an alternative alcohol advertising complaint review system: lessons from a world-first public health advocacy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L Pierce

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Young people in Australia are frequently exposed to alcohol marketing. Leading health organisations recommend legislative controls on alcohol advertising as part of a comprehensive approach to reduce alcohol-related harm. However, Australia relies largely on industry self-regulation. This paper describes the development and implementation of the Alcohol Advertising Review Board (AARB, a world-first public health advocacy initiative that encourages independent regulation of alcohol advertising. The AARB reviews complaints about alcohol advertising, and uses strategies such as media advocacy, community engagement and communicating with policy makers to highlight the need for effective regulation. In 4 years of operation, the AARB has received more complaints than the self-regulatory system across a similar period. There has been encouraging movement towards stronger regulation of alcohol advertising. Key lessons include the importance of a strong code, credible review processes, gathering support from reputable organisations, and consideration of legal risks and sustainability. The AARB provides a unique model that could be replicated elsewhere.

  13. The post-2015 landscape: vested interests, corporate social responsibility and public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the tensions between UN calls for private sector engagement in the post-2015 landscape and public health opposition to those 'harm industries' that are 'corporate vectors of disease' for the mounting global non-communicable disease burden. The UN's support for public-private partnership has provided industries with 'vested interests' in the propagation of unhealthy behaviours with new opportunities for the strategic alignment of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) endeavours with the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. This has galvanised public health advocates to place pressure on the World Health Organisation to formalise their ambiguous stance towards private sector involvement in public policy formation and the resultant 'conflicts of interest'. This paper critically examines the 'gathering storm' between this 'anti-corporate movement' and the alcohol industry in the increasingly politicised domain of CSR. Drawing on the example of SABMiller's Tavern Intervention Program, the paper argues that CSR represents a profound threat to the sanctity and moral authority of the public health worldview. Questions therefore need to be asked about whether the public health-led path of industry non-association will necessarily result in health improvements or just a further retrenchment of the ideological faultlines explored in the paper.

  14. Prison health advocacy and its changing boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2008-01-01

    Advocacy is an important tool for translating population health objectives and research findings into policy and practice, as well as for enhancing stakeholder support for programmes and activities with a potential to improve the health of populations. At the inception of modern prisons, health advocacy approaches focused on appealing to humanitarian and religious sentiments of stakeholders to improve the well-being of prisoners. This approach achieved limited results, not least because of persistent apathy of custodial authorities and the public to prisoners' wellbeing. From the mid twentieth century onwards, a constitutional and human rights approach evolved, with courts becoming actively involved in mandating minimum health standards in prisons. Penal populism eroded public support for a judicial recourse to improving prison health services, and encouraged governments to institute procedural barriers to prisoner-initiated litigation. The author proposes an approach premised on public health principles as an appropriate platform to advocate for improvements in prison health services in this era. Such an advocacy platform combines the altruistic goals of the humanitarian and constitutional rights approaches with an appeal to community's self-interest by alerting the public to the social, financial and health implications inherent in released prisoners suffering from major communicable and chronic diseases re-entering the community.

  15. When advocacy obscures accuracy online: digital pandemics of public health misinformation through an antifluoride case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brittany; Getman, Rebekah; Saraf, Avinash; Zhang, Lily H; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2015-03-01

    In an antifluoridation case study, we explored digital pandemics and the social spread of scientifically inaccurate health information across the Web, and we considered the potential health effects. Using the social networking site Facebook and the open source applications Netvizz and Gephi, we analyzed the connectedness of antifluoride networks as a measure of social influence, the social diffusion of information based on conversations about a sample scientific publication as a measure of spread, and the engagement and sentiment about the publication as a measure of attitudes and behaviors. Our study sample was significantly more connected than was the social networking site overall (PSocial diffusion was evident; users were forced to navigate multiple pages or never reached the sample publication being discussed 60% and 12% of the time, respectively. Users had a 1 in 2 chance of encountering negative and nonempirical content about fluoride unrelated to the sample publication. Network sociology may be as influential as the information content and scientific validity of a particular health topic discussed using social media. Public health must employ social strategies for improved communication management.

  16. When Advocacy Obscures Accuracy Online: Digital Pandemics of Public Health Misinformation Through an Antifluoride Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, Rebekah; Saraf, Avinash; Zhang, Lily H.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In an antifluoridation case study, we explored digital pandemics and the social spread of scientifically inaccurate health information across the Web, and we considered the potential health effects. Methods. Using the social networking site Facebook and the open source applications Netvizz and Gephi, we analyzed the connectedness of antifluoride networks as a measure of social influence, the social diffusion of information based on conversations about a sample scientific publication as a measure of spread, and the engagement and sentiment about the publication as a measure of attitudes and behaviors. Results. Our study sample was significantly more connected than was the social networking site overall (P < .001). Social diffusion was evident; users were forced to navigate multiple pages or never reached the sample publication being discussed 60% and 12% of the time, respectively. Users had a 1 in 2 chance of encountering negative and nonempirical content about fluoride unrelated to the sample publication. Conclusions. Network sociology may be as influential as the information content and scientific validity of a particular health topic discussed using social media. Public health must employ social strategies for improved communication management. PMID:25602893

  17. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  18. Advocacy 201: Incorporating Advocacy Training in Health Education Professional Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy; Kerr, Dianne; Dowling, Jamie; Wagner, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Involvement in advocacy is a responsibility of health educators, as identified by the National Commission on Health Education Credentialing. Of all the professional responsibilities, participation in advocacy-related activity is often neglected. This lack of participation may be due to the absence of advocacy and policy skills training in health…

  19. Community Health Worker Professional Advocacy: Voices of Action from the 2014 National Community Health Worker Advocacy Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Phillips, David; Haywoord, Catherine; Redondo, Floribella; Bell, Melanie L; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explores community health worker (CHW) engagement in professional advocacy. Data from the National Community Health Worker Advocacy Survey (n = 1661) assessed the relationship between CHW professional advocacy and CHW demographics, and work characteristics. Qualitative data articulated the quality of professional advocacy efforts. Approximately, 30% of CHW respondents advocated for professional advancement or collaborated with other CHWs to advance the workforce. Advocacy was more prevalent among CHWs affiliated with a professional network. CHW advocacy targeted recognition of the field, appropriate training and compensation, and sustainable funding. CHW professional advocacy is imperative to advancement of the field.

  20. Impact of Advocacy Initiatives on Nurses' Motivation to Sustain Momentum in Public Policy Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elicit insight from the public policy leaders of 2 regional professional nursing organizations on key qualities of their current advocacy initiatives that motivate nurses to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy beyond a single episode. The goal is to inform quality improvement in the development of future advocacy initiatives to increase sustained engagement of nurses. Social cognitive theory was used as the rationale for this qualitative, descriptive study. A purposive convenience sample of executive leadership and board committee members from 2 regional professional nursing organizations were recruited to complete an initial Web-based electronic survey, followed by separate semistructured interview focus groups. One organization was composed primarily of advanced practice registered nurses, and the other group composed of diverse, multispecialty nursing members with varied educational levels. Nine themes emerged, categorized as facilitators or challenges to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation. Highlighting and marketing facilitators to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy, while designing and testing new initiatives that address the challenges, may increase the number of nurses who sustain engagement in the policy advocacy process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  2. Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

    2001-01-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

  3. Comment on Cross, Fine, Jones, and Walsh (2012): Do Mental Health Professionals Who Serve on/with Child Advocacy Centers Experience Role Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Cross, Fine, Jones, and Walsh's (2012) article "Mental Health Professionals in Children's Advocacy Centers: Is There Role Conflict?" challenges two recent publications' criticisms that child advocacy centers create role conflict for mental health professionals and explains how child advocacy centers actually work, describing the different roles…

  4. 78 FR 22948 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer...

  5. 78 FR 41193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer...

  6. 78 FR 78516 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer...

  7. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  8. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  9. Kentucky Teen Institute: Results of a 1-Year, Health Advocacy Training Intervention for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi M; Rice, Jason A; Steinbock, Stacie; Reno-Weber, Ben; Okpokho, Ime; Pile, Amanda; Carrico, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    The Kentucky Teen Institute trains youth throughout the state to advocate for policies that promote health in their communities. By evaluating two program summits held at universities, regularly scheduled community meetings, ongoing technical support, and an advocacy day at the state Capitol, the aims of this study were to assess the impact of the intervention on correlates of youths' advocacy intentions and behaviors and to assess youth participants' and other key stakeholders' perceptions of the intervention. An ecological model approach and the theory of planned behavior served as theoretical frameworks from which pre-post, one-group survey and qualitative data were collected (June 2013-June 2014). An equal number of low-income and non-low-income youth representing five counties participated in the Summer Summit pretest (n = 24) and Children's Advocacy Day at the Capitol posttest (n = 14). Survey data revealed that youths' attitude toward advocacy, intentions to advocate, and advocacy behaviors all improved over the intervention. Observations, interviews, a focus group, and other written evaluations identified that the youths', as well as their mentors' and advocacy coaches', confidence, communities' capacity, and mutually beneficial mentorship strengthened. Stronger public speaking skills, communication among the teams, and other recommendations for future advocacy interventions are described.

  10. [Health advocacy in child care: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Raquel Dully; Mello, Débora Falleiros; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-01-01

    This narrative literature review aimed to identify the publications about health law, in the ambit of child health care. The databases LILACS and MEDLINE were searched, between 2004 and 2009. Thirteen articles were analyzed, and three themes were identified: Emphasis on knowledge, abilities and attitudes for the development of competencies; Partnerships as an imperative; Health and Law: intersectorial relationship. The studies about the practice of health law are relevant to our reality, especially in primary health care, pointing out for the possibilities of its applicability in the role of the nurses acting in the family health strategy, with families and children.

  11. Advocacy: critical component in a comprehensive mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianos, Stanley; Kehyayan, Vahe

    2012-01-01

    Although rights protection and best interest perspectives are frequently viewed as diametric opposites, mental health advocacy is an important strategy in pursuit of both civil rights and therapeutic goals for people with mental illness. Independent, client-centered advocacy supports the attainment of consumer-identified goals for recovery, equality, and social inclusion and mitigates the negative consequences of stigma and discrimination. Advocacy strives to return decision-making authority to consumers and thus to empower them to play a more central role in their own care, treatment, rehabilitation, and life choices. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. Health care advocacy turns into political activism.

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, T

    1995-01-01

    Some advocacy groups are becoming more willing to engage in political activism. One is the Ontario Lung Association, which has been calling attention to government inaction on air-pollution issues such as controlling smog and improving indoor air quality. These lobbying efforts are supported by some physicians, who believe that environmental factors are behind the increased incidence of respiratory illness.

  13. Working with Mental Health Advocacy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenety, Megan; Kiselica, Mark

    There are many factors behind the growing advocacy movement for mentally ill individuals. These factors include the prevalence of mental illness in society, deinstitutionalization, the restrictions of managed care, an increased awareness of the rights of the mentally ill, and empowerment of mentally ill clients. Despite the growing importance of…

  14. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  15. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Murdoch, Linda; Reeder, Anthony I; Amun, Qa-t-a

    2011-05-29

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  16. Changing policy framing as a deliberate strategy for public health advocacy: a qualitative policy case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in other public health areas. © 2014

  17. Health advocacy organizations and the pharmaceutical industry: an analysis of disclosure practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Sheila M; Raveis, Victoria H; Friedman, Anne; Rothman, David J

    2011-04-01

    Health advocacy organizations (HAOs) are influential stakeholders in health policy. Although their advocacy tends to closely correspond with the pharmaceutical industry's marketing aims, the financial relationships between HAOs and the pharmaceutical industry have rarely been analyzed. We used Eli Lilly and Company's grant registry to examine its grant-giving policies. We also examined HAO Web sites to determine their grant-disclosure patterns. Only 25% of HAOs that received Lilly grants acknowledged Lilly's contributions on their Web sites, and only 10% acknowledged Lilly as a grant event sponsor. No HAO disclosed the exact amount of a Lilly grant. As highly trusted organizations, HAOs should disclose all corporate grants, including the purpose and the amount. Absent this disclosure, legislators, regulators, and the public cannot evaluate possible conflicts of interest or biases in HAO advocacy.

  18. The Teen Photovoice Project: A Pilot Study to Promote Health Through Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necheles, Jonathan W.; Chung, Emily Q.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Ryan, Gery W.; Williams, La’Shield B.; Holmes, Heidi N.; Wells, Kenneth B.; Vaiana, Mary E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians, public health practitioners, and policymakers would like to understand how youth perceive health issues and how they can become advocates for health promotion in their communities. 1,2 Traditional research methods can be used to capture these perceptions, but are limited in their ability to activate (excite and engage) youth to participate in health promotion activities. Objectives To pilot the use of an adapted version of photovoice as a starting point to engage youth in identifying influences on their health behaviors in a process that encourages the development of health advocacy projects. Methods Application of qualitative and quantitative methods to a participatory research project that teaches youth the photovoice method to identify and address health promotion issues relevant to their lives. Participants included 13 students serving on a Youth Advisory Board (YAB) of the UCLA/RAND Center for Adolescent Health Promotion working in four small groups of two to five participants. Students were from the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. Results Results were derived from photograph sorting activities, analysis of photograph narratives, and development of advocacy projects. Youth frequently discussed a variety of topics reflected in their pictures that included unhealthy food choices, inducers of stress, friends, emotions, environment, health, and positive aspects of family. The advocacy projects used social marketing strategies, focusing on unhealthy dietary practices and inducers of stress. The youths’ focus on obesity-related issues have contributed to the center’s success in partnering with the Los Angeles Unified School District on a new community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Conclusion Youth can engage in a process of identifying community-level health influences, leading to health promotion through advocacy. Participants focused their advocacy work on selected issues addressing the types of unhealthy food

  19. Políticas públicas, estructuras del Estado y defensa del derecho a la protección de la salud Public policy, structures of the state and the advocacy of the right to health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruelas-Barajas

    2008-01-01

    . This article lists some of the potential causes of the lack of implementation of public policies. At the same time, explores the highly dynamic nature of the health care system at the present and towards the future. The magnitude of the challenges faced by the health care system requires concerted actions of many actors, not only from the very health care system but also from outside. Thus, public policies have to be considered not just at the governmental level but at the state level. Therefore, the main argument of this paper is that given the need to respond to complex challenges to protect the health of the population and their rights in a very complex context, there is a need to formulate and implement state policies that require the intervention of the appropriate state structures to make sure that the design and execution leads to the expected achievements. One such structure at the state level, among others, is the General Health Council, an organization established in 1841, that was incorporated within the Mexican Constitution in 1917, depending directly from the President of Mexico as Head of State. This Council has been reinforced to improve its assigned role to better participate, along other state structures, in the formulation and implementation of public policies such as those for the advocacy of citizen rights.

  20. Advocating self-advocacy: board membership in a statewide mental health consumer organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2014-08-01

    Until 2008 Ohio Advocates for Mental Health was a statewide mental health advocacy organization run by mental health consumers and supportive of consumer-run organizations around the state. The author's tenure on the board entailed repeated engagement with questions of identity - self-identity, peer support through personal identification, and negotiation of public identities with provider groups and the state agency. These are fundamental to defining and legitimating the claims of mentally ill people not just for health care resources but for full participation as citizens in the public sphere.

  1. Tabaco de liar: una prioridad de salud pública y consumo Fine-cut tobacco: a priority for public health and consumer advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Castaño Calduch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Valorar si el tabaco de liar supone un problema en materia de salud pública y consumo. Métodos: Se estudia el 70% del mercado español. En materia de salud pública, se analizan los contenidos de nicotina, alquitrán y monóxido de carbono del humo, y se comparan con los de los cigarrillos convencionales. En materia de consumo, se examina el etiquetado. Resultados: Los contenidos de nicotina, alquitrán y monóxido de carbono alcanzan valores de hasta el 70%, el 85% y el 84%, respectivamente, más de lo permitido para los cigarrillos convencionales. El 67% de las muestras no indican los contenidos de nicotina y alquitrán, y el 100% el monóxido de carbono. A pesar de la existencia de etiquetado, éste no garantiza una información suficiente al consumidor. Conclusiones: El tabaco de liar supone un problema tanto en materia de salud pública como en consumo. Por ello, sería necesaria alguna medida que permita resolver esta cuestión.Objectives: To study whether fine-cut tobacco poses a problem for public health and consumer affairs. Methods: We analyzed up to 70% of the fine-cut tobacco market in Spain. Regarding public health, the contents of nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide were analyzed and compared with levels in conventional cigarettes. Concerning consumer affairs, the labeling of samples was checked. Results: The contents of nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide reached values of 70%, 85% and 84%, respectively. These values are higher than those allowed in conventional cigarettes. A total of 67% of the samples analyzed did not show nicotine and tar contents on the labeling. None of the labels showed carbon monoxide contents. The presence of labeling per se did not guarantee sufficient information for consumers. Conclusions Fine-cut tobacco is a problem in both public health and consumer affairs. Solutions are required to resolve both problems.

  2. Predicting Levels of Policy Advocacy Engagement Among Acute-Care Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bruce S; Nyamathi, Adeline; Heidemann, Gretchen; Bird, Melissa; Ward, Cathy Rogers; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Duan, Lei; Kaplan, Charles

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to describe the factors that predict health professionals' engagement in policy advocacy. The researchers used a cross-sectional research design with a sample of 97 nurses, 94 social workers, and 104 medical residents from eight hospitals in Los Angeles. Bivariate correlations explored whether seven predictor scales were associated with health professionals' policy advocacy engagement and revealed that five of the eight factors were significantly associated with it (p advocacy engagement, eagerness, skills, tangible support, and organizational receptivity. Regression analysis examined whether the seven scales, when controlling for sociodemographic variables and hospital site, predicted levels of policy advocacy engagement. Results revealed that patient advocacy engagement (p advocacy engagement. Ethical commitment did not predict policy advocacy engagement. The model explained 36% of the variance in policy advocacy engagement. Limitations of the study and its implications for future research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  3. Educating for advocacy: recommendations for professional preparation and development based on a needs and capacity assessment of health education faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Susan M; Galer-Unti, Regina A; Tappe, Marlene K

    2009-01-01

    An electronic survey was used to conduct a needs and capacity assessment of health education faculty to determine the extent to which advocacy instruction is present in undergraduate and graduate curricula in health education and to identify faculty members' needs and capacity to provide professional preparation and development experiences related to advocacy. An analysis of the results reveals that most undergraduate and graduate health education programs include advocacy instruction. Although faculty believe advocacy and instruction related to advocacy are important, many lack advocacy-related professional preparation and development experiences and do not participate in advocacy-related training initiatives and advocacy activities. There is wide variability in faculty confidence in their competence to provide advocacy instruction. Partnerships among professional organizations, health education practitioners, university faculty, individuals engaged in policy advocacy initiatives, and policy makers are needed to enhance the capacity of university faculty to provide professional preparation and development experiences related to advocacy.

  4. A Public Policy Advocacy Project to Promote Food Security: Exploring Stakeholders' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkey, Kayla M; Raine, Kim D; Storey, Kate E; Willows, Noreen D

    2016-09-01

    To achieve food security in Canada, comprehensive approaches are required, which involve action at the public policy level. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 14 stakeholders engaging in a 9-month participatory public policy advocacy project to promote community food security in the province of Alberta through the initiation of a campaign to develop a Universal School Food Strategy. Through this exploration, four main themes were identified; a positive and open space to contribute ideas, diversity and common ground, confidence and capacity, and uncertainty. Findings from this study suggest that the participatory advocacy project provided a positive and open space for stakeholders to contribute ideas, through which the group was able to narrow its focus and establish a goal for advocacy. The project also seems to have contributed to the group's confidence and capacity to engage in advocacy by creating a space for learning and knowledge sharing, though stakeholders expressed uncertainty regarding some aspects of the project. Findings from this study support the use of participatory approaches as a strategy for facilitating engagement in public policy advocacy and provide insight into one group's advocacy experience, which may help to inform community-based researchers and advocates in the development of advocacy initiatives to promote community food security elsewhere.

  5. Promoting Sex and Reproductive Health Education among Adolescent Should Place Emphasis on Advocacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-liang LIU; Jin WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To make a exploration of the function of advocacy in the promotion of sex and reproductive health education for adolescents.Methods The advocacy played a key role on the promotion of adolescent sex and reproductive education by taking "International cooperation project to promote Chinese youth reproductive health "(YRH project) as example.Results The successful experience of YRH project indicated advocacy's important function in the promotion of sex and reproductive health education for adolescents.Conclusion Advocacy is a crucial element in promoting adolescent sex and reproductive health education.

  6. Newspaper Advocacy Advertising: A Medium for Discussing Public Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Eugene H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Content analysis of 288 advocacy ads in the "Washington Post" and 373 in the "New York Times" showed that (1) for-profit organizations place such ads more frequently, although nonprofit groups are increasing their use; (2) 3 organizations placed a quarter of all the ads; (3) economic and social welfare issues predominated; and (4) primary…

  7. Evaluation of resident attitudes and self-reported competencies in health advocacy

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    Fok Mark C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CanMEDS Health Advocate role, one of seven roles mandated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons Canada, pertains to a physician's responsibility to use their expertise and influence to advance the wellbeing of patients, communities, and populations. We conducted our study to examine resident attitudes and self-reported competencies related to health advocacy, due to limited information in the literature on this topic. Methods We conducted a pilot experience with seven internal medicine residents participating in a community health promotion event. The residents provided narrative feedback after the event and the information was used to generate items for a health advocacy survey. Face validity was established by having the same residents review the survey. Content validity was established by inviting an expert physician panel to review the survey. The refined survey was then distributed to a cohort of core Internal Medicine residents electronically after attendance at an academic retreat teaching residents about advocacy through didactic sessions. Results The survey was completed by 76 residents with a response rate of 68%. The majority agreed to accept an advocacy role for societal health needs beyond caring for individual patients. Most confirmed their ability to identify health determinants and reaffirmed the inherent requirements for health advocacy. While involvement in health advocacy was common during high school and undergraduate studies, 76% of residents reported no current engagement in advocacy activity, and 36% were undecided if they would engage in advocacy during their remaining time as residents, fellows or staff. The common barriers reported were insufficient time, rest and stress. Conclusions Medical residents endorsed the role of health advocate and reported proficiency in determining the medical and bio-psychosocial determinants of individuals and communities. Few residents, however, were

  8. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she ad

  9. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  10. Mental health advocacy and African and Caribbean men: good practice principles and organizational models for delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbigging, Karen; McKeown, Mick; French, Beverley

    2013-03-01

    Advocacy has a critical role to play in addressing concerns about access to appropriate mental health care and treatment for African and Caribbean men. To investigate good practice principles and organizational models for mental health advocacy provision for African and Caribbean men. The study consisted of: (i) A systematic literature review. Bibliographic and internet searching was undertaken from 1994 to 2006. The inclusion criteria related to mental health, advocacy provision for African and Caribbean men. (ii) Four focus groups with African and Caribbean men to explore needs for and experiences of mental health advocacy. (iii) An investigation into current advocacy provision through a survey of advocacy provision in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (iv) Twenty-two qualitative stakeholder interviews to investigate the operation of mental health advocacy for this client group. The study was undertaken in partnership with two service user-led organizations and an African Caribbean mental health service. Primary research in this area is scant. Mainstream mental health advocacy services are often poor at providing appropriate services. Services developed by the Black Community and voluntary sector are grounded in different conceptualizations of advocacy and sharper understanding of the needs of African and Caribbean men. The lack of sustainable funding for these organizations is a major barrier to the development of high-quality advocacy for this group, reflecting a lack of understanding about their distinctive role. The commissioning and provision of mental health advocacy needs to recognize the distinct experiences of African and Caribbean men and develop capacity in the range of organizations to ensure equitable access. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. From Classroom to Capitol: Building Advocacy Capacity Through State-Level Advocacy Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lydia; Starry, Bethany; Gangi, Catherine; Lube, Lauren M; Cedergren, Anders; Whitney, Emily; Rees, Keely

    2016-11-01

    This commentary provides insight from Community Health Education and Master of Public Health students on the benefits of participating in a state-level Advocacy Experience and provides a theoretical framework for increased advocacy intention among students as a result of participating in a state-level Advocacy Experience. Providing students the opportunity to translate what they learn about advocacy in the classroom into advocacy in action with policy makers is vital to the career development of our future health education professionals and is key to increasing advocacy capacity within our profession. This article builds on previous work from emerging public health professionals highlighting the role of policy advocacy in professional development and provides additional perspectives from the next generation of health education specialists.

  12. Peer, professional, and public: an analysis of the drugs policy advocacy community in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Aileen; Quigley, Eoghan; Zobel, Frank; Moore, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades a range of advocacy organisations have emerged on the drugs policy landscape seeking to shape the development of policy at national and international levels. This development has been facilitated by the expansion of 'democratic spaces' for civil society participation in governance fora at national and supranational level. However, little is known about these policy actors - their aims, scope, organisational structure, or the purpose of their engagement. Drug policy advocacy organisations were defined as organisations with a clearly stated aim to influence policy and which were based in Europe. Data on these organisations was collected through a systematic tri-lingual (English, French and Spanish) Internet search, supplemented by information provided by national agencies in the 28 EU member states, Norway and Turkey. In order to differentiate between the diverse range of activities, strategies and standpoints of these groups, information from the websites was used to categorise the organisations by their scope of operation, advocacy tools and policy constituencies; and by three key typologies - the type of advocacy they engaged in, their organisational type, and their advocacy objectives and orientation. The study identified over two hundred EU-based advocacy organisations (N=218) which included civil society associations, NGOs, and large-scale alliances and coalitions, operating at local, national and European levels. Three forms of advocacy emerged from the data analysis - peer, professional and public policy. These groups focused their campaigns on practice development (harm reduction or abstinence) and legislative reform (reducing or strengthening drug controls). The findings from this study provide a nuanced profile of civil society advocacy as a policy community in the drugs field; their legitimacy to represent cases, causes, social values and ideals; and their focus on both insider and outsider strategies to achieve their goals. The level of

  13. From Advocacy to Action in Global Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Ross, David A; Viner, Russell M; Santelli, John S

    2016-10-01

    In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement.

  14. Mental Health Professionals in Children's Advocacy Centers: Is There Role Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore P.; Fine, Janet E.; Jones, Lisa M.; Walsh, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    Two recent chapters in professional books have criticized children's advocacy centers for creating role conflict for mental health professionals because of their work with criminal justice and child protection professionals in children's advocacy centers as part of a coordinated response to child abuse. This article argues that these critiques…

  15. Advocacy for women's health should include lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Dibble, Suzanne L; Hagan, H Jennifer J; Davids, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    Although research confirms that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality, established scientific studies are often not reflected in laws and judicial opinions for lesbians with regard to employment, taxation, pensions, disability, healthcare, immigration, military service, marriage, custody, and adoption. The expression of homosexual attraction or behavior is sometimes met by disdain or violence. Psychological and epidemiological research confirms that the public discriminatory attitudes and second-class legal status cause physical, emotional, and financial harm to lesbians, their families, and their children. Some lesbians experience discrimination in healthcare and avoid routine primary healthcare. To decrease the harm, and improve the health of lesbians, medical institutions can include sexual orientation and gender identity in their nondiscrimination policies and offer domestic partner coverage in employment benefits. Our specialty societies should review current laws and judicial opinions and advocate for change. Further, specialty societies can effect change by issuing policy statements about issues of orientation and by writing orientation/identity curricula for public schools, colleges, and postcollegiate education to improve their accuracy, reduce sexually transmitted diseases, delay sexual activity, and reduce morbidity from homophobic violence.

  16. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  17. “We Are Not Really Marketing Mental Health”: Mental Health Advocacy in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Reuben; Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Crooks, Megan; Mangezi, Walter; Abas, Melanie; Katz, Craig; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. Methods We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country’s mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. Results Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy’s importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate (“targets”), what they advocate for (“asks”), how advocates reach their targets (“access”), how they make their asks (“arguments”), and the results of their advocacy (“outcomes”). Discussion Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs. PMID:27607240

  18. Political Action Day: A Student-Led Initiative to Increase Health Advocacy Training Among Medical Students

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    Harbir Gill

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is a critical aspect of the competent physician's role. It is identified as a core competency by several national physician regulatory organizations, yet few formal training programs exist. We developed an initiative to teach medical students health advocacy skills. Methods: At Political Action Day, students from Alberta medical schools lobbied the provincial government. A day of training seminars preceded Political Action Day that focused on teaching health advocacy and communication strategies. The following day, medical students met with elected representatives at the Legislative Assembly. An entry and exit survey was administered to students. Results: On October 26-27th, 2008, 40 students met with 38/83 (46% elected representatives including the Minister of Health and Wellness. Feedback from students and politicians suggests the event was effective in teaching advocacy skills. This initiative inspired students to be politically active in the future. Conclusions: Political Action Day helps fulfill the health advocacy competency objectives, and requires minimal curriculum time and resources for integration. It is an effective tool to begin teaching advocacy, and should be further expanded and replicated at other Canadian medical schools.

  19. Senior Centers and Policy Advocacy: Changing Public Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasani, Manoj; Goldkind, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    As critical components of the aging continuum of care, senior centers promote older adult health and well-being by providing opportunities for recreation, socialization, nutrition, health education, and access to vital social services. Nationally, a vast network of 11,000 senior centers serves over four million older adults annually. As the United…

  20. Institutionalising of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  1. Closing Reflections: Public Policy, Advocacy, and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jane E.; Shepherd, Katharine G.

    2016-01-01

    When the Higher Education Consortium for Special Education (HECSE) convened in January 2016 in Washington, we celebrated both IDEA's and HECSE's 40th anniversaries. As we reflected on those two anniversaries, the convictions that generated this special issue became increasingly evident: the irrevocable significance of the impact of public policy…

  2. Closing Reflections: Public Policy, Advocacy, and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jane E.; Shepherd, Katharine G.

    2016-01-01

    When the Higher Education Consortium for Special Education (HECSE) convened in January 2016 in Washington, we celebrated both IDEA's and HECSE's 40th anniversaries. As we reflected on those two anniversaries, the convictions that generated this special issue became increasingly evident: the irrevocable significance of the impact of public policy…

  3. Health and human rights advocacy: perspectives from a Rwandan refugee camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita; Rounkle, Ann-Marie

    2012-07-01

    Working at the bedside and within communities as patient advocates, nurses frequently intervene to advance individuals' health and well-being. However, the International Council of Nurses' Code of Ethics asserts that nurses should expand beyond the individual model and also promote a rights-enabling environment where respect for human dignity is paramount. This article applies the results of an ethnographic human rights study with displaced populations in Rwanda to argue for a rights-based social advocacy role for nurses. Human rights advocacy strategies include sensitization, participation, protection, good governance, and accountability. By adopting a rights-based approach to advocacy, nurses contribute to health agendas that include more just social relationships, equitable access to opportunities, and health-positive living situations for all persons.

  4. Corporate colonization of health activism? Irish health advocacy organizations' modes of engagement with pharmaceutical corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Orla

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on a study that aimed to shed light on the "cultures of action" of Irish health advocacy organizations, and particularly their modes of engagement with pharmaceutical corporations. Debates about what some interpret as the "corporate colonization" of health activism provide the backdrop for the analysis. The empirical dimension of the study involved a survey of 112 organizations and in-depth study of a small number of organizations that manifest diverse modes of engagement with the pharmaceutical industry. The varying modes of interaction are plotted along a continuum and characterized as corporatist, cautious cooperation, and confrontational. Evidence is presented of a strong and growing cultural tendency in Irish health advocacy organizations to frame pharmaceutical corporations as allies in their quests for better health. The analysis of four constitutive dimensions of organizations' cultures of action can reveal the legitimating logics underlying their diverging positions around pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. While the research shows that pharmaceutical corporations have largely succeeded in defining themselves as a philanthropic force and rightful players in Irish health activism, it cautions against a simplistic conclusion that this is evidence of corporate colonization.

  5. Mental health as an advocacy priority in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Anand

    2014-05-01

    This column reviews the evolution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) mental health advocacy in relation to modern mental health advocacy efforts. In addition to developments in organized psychiatry (e.g., American Psychiatric Association's LGBT caucus), grassroots LGBT community initiatives are playing an important role (e.g., Trevor Project providing crisis intervention/suicide prevention services to LGBT youth, face-to-face mental health services in LGBT community centers). Studies have found that LGBT individuals are at increased risk for mental health problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, substance misuse, suicidal ideation, self-harm). Mental health advocacy in the LGBT community has been slowed by the long-standing association of the concept of homosexuality with psychopathology in mainstream psychiatry (e.g., homosexuality was only removed from the DSM in 1973, ego dystonic homosexuality still appears in the ICD-10). However, positive developments in LGBT mental health advocacy have been fostered by the proposed minority stress model (i.e., that elevated risk of mental illness in LGBT individuals is a consequence of a hostile stressful environment). A particularly encouraging initiative is the It Gets Better Project, in which thousands of videos, some by prominent individuals, have been posted online to send a message of hope to LGBT youth facing harassment and low self-esteem.

  6. Challenges, health implications, and advocacy opportunities for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender global health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, I reflect on challenges with conducting global health research internationally as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, grapple with decisions related to coming out in regions with anti-LGBT laws, and outline the risks and benefits of different advocacy options related to the promotion of LGBT health globally. Despite significant advances in LGBT rights in many countries, homosexuality remains illegal in many others. Using a critical medical anthropology framework, I argue that anti-LGBT laws constitute structural violence and have many detrimental consequences including discrimination and violence; poorer mental and physical health outcomes; and risky sexual behaviors. As a global health provider, there are many options for the promotion of LGBT health worldwide.

  7. Perceptions of Health Information Seeking and Partner Advocacy in the Context of a Cardiology Office Visit: Connections with Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checton, Maria G; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Catona, Danielle

    2017-05-01

    This paper explores perceived active health information seeking, informal advocacy by a partner or other, cardiac efficacy, and cardiovascular health indicators for patients surveyed while visiting their cardiologist. Participants include 208 patients with a diagnosed heart condition. Variables include predisposing characteristics (e.g., illness severity, demographics), perceived active health information seeking during an office visit, informal advocacy by partner or other, cardiac efficacy, and cardiovascular health indicators (i.e., basal metabolic index (BMI), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides). Data were analyzed using correlations, t-tests, and structural equation modeling. As hypothesized, perceived active health information seeking during an office visit (positively) and informal advocacy by partner or other (negatively) predicted cardiac efficacy. One path was added from active information seeking to BMI. Cardiac efficacy, in turn, significantly predicted total cholesterol and BMI. The model was also replicated for LDLs but not for HDLs or triglycerides. We discuss implications for cardiac disease management.

  8. Mental Health Priorities: Stigma Elimination and Community Advocacy in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Corrigan, Patrick W.; Kanodia, Nupur; Buchholz, Blythe; Abelson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Low rates of psychological help-seeking among college students have been attributed to a lack of awareness about on-campus resources and to mental illness stigma. One mental health advocacy organization, Active Minds, collaborates with its university-recognized student-run on-campus chapters to promote service use and psychological healthy…

  9. Using Social Network Analysis to Predict Early Collaboration within Health Advocacy Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Todd C.; Strong, Debra A.

    2012-01-01

    Within coalitions of consumer advocates formed to advance health insurance coverage expansions, engaging in united advocacy activities soon after formation might be an important precursor to attaining coalition effectiveness in shaping policy. In this article, the authors apply social network analysis (SNA) to examine how organizational…

  10. Integrating Medical and Environmental Sociology with Environmental Health: Crossing Boundaries and Building Connections through Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine…

  11. Twitter and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use.

  12. 42 CFR 51.7 - Eligibility for protection and advocacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for protection and advocacy services... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements § 51.7 Eligibility for protection and advocacy services. In accordance with section...

  13. Training Public Health Advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.

  14. Oral health policy forum: developing dental student knowledge and skills for health policy advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Karen M; Edelstein, Burton L

    2012-12-01

    This article describes the planning, sequential improvements, and outcomes of Indiana University School of Dentistry's annual Oral Health Policy Forum. This one-day forum for fourth-year dental students was instituted in 2005 with the Indiana Dental Association and the Children's Dental Health Project to introduce students to the health policy process and to encourage their engagement in advocacy. Following a keynote by a visiting professor, small student groups develop arguments in favor and in opposition to five oral health policy scenarios and present their positions to a mock or authentic legislator. The "legislator" critiques these presentations, noting both effective and ineffective approaches, and the student deemed most effective by fellow students receives a gift award. During the afternoon, students tour the Indiana State House, observe deliberations, and meet with legislators. In 2009, 92 percent of students reported a positive impression of the forum, up from 60 percent in 2005. Half (49 percent) in 2009 indicated that they were more inclined to become involved with the political process following the forum, up from 21 percent in 2005. Dental students' feedback became increasingly positive as the program was refined and active learning opportunities were enhanced. This model for engaging students in policy issues important to their professional careers is readily replicable by other dental schools.

  15. From Individuals to International Policy: Achievements and Ongoing Needs in Diabetes Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Oser, Sean M; Close, Kelly L; Liu, Nancy F; Hood, Korey K; Anderson, Barbara J

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes impacts tens of millions of people in the United States of America and 9 % of the worldwide population. Given the public health implications and economic burden of diabetes, the needs of people with diabetes must be addressed through strategic and effective advocacy efforts. Diabetes advocacy aims to increase public awareness about diabetes, raise funds for research and care, influence policy impacting people with diabetes, and promote optimal individual outcomes. We present a framework for diabetes advocacy activities by individuals and at the community, national, and international levels and identify challenges and gaps in current diabetes advocacy. Various groups have organized successful diabetes advocacy campaigns toward these goals, and lessons for further advancing diabetes advocacy can be learned from other health-related populations. Finally, we discuss the role of healthcare providers and mental/behavioral health professionals in advocacy efforts that can benefit their patients and the broader population of people with diabetes.

  16. Blogging and Social Media for Mental Health Education and Advocacy: a Review for Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Holly S; Richards, Misty; Muir, Owen; Chan, Steven Richard; Caton, Michael; MacMillan, Carlene

    2015-11-01

    We live in a digital age where information can be found instantaneously via the Internet. Studies have shown that consumers search for much of their medical information on the Internet, particularly utilizing blogs and social media platforms. As the mental health field is riddled with misinformation and stigma, this offers a unique opportunity for psychiatrists and mental health professionals to reach a broad audience for mental health education and advocacy. In this review, we discuss the various methods and techniques for blogging and social media. We then review the current recommendations for ethics and professionalism as well as make recommendations to strengthen our guidance in this new and evolving field.

  17. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series Undergraduate Network Membership Contact Discover What is Public Health? Public health protects and improves the health of individuals, families, communities, and populations, locally and globally. Public health is personal. Public health professionals focus on preventing ...

  18. Training Internal Medicine Residents in Social Medicine and Research-Based Health Advocacy: A Novel, In-Depth Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gaurab; Pels, Richard J; Stark, Rachel L; Jain, Priyank; Bor, David H; McCormick, Danny

    2017-04-01

    Health disparities are pervasive worldwide. Physicians have a unique vantage point from which they can observe the ways social, economic, and political factors impact health outcomes and can be effective advocates for enhanced health outcomes and health equity. However, social medicine and health advocacy curricula are uncommon in postgraduate medical education. In academic year (AY) 2012, the Cambridge Health Alliance internal medicine residency program transformed an elective into a required social medicine and research-based health advocacy curriculum. The course has three major innovations: it has a yearlong longitudinal curriculum, it is required for all residents, and all residents complete a group research-based health advocacy project within the curricular year. The authors describe the structure, content, and goals of this curriculum. Over the last four years (AYs 2012-2015), residents (17/32; 53%) have rated the overall quality of the course highly (mean = 5.2, where 6 = outstanding; standard deviation = 0.64). In each year since the new course has been implemented, all scholarly work from the course has been presented at conferences by 31 resident presenters and/or coauthors. The course seems to enhance the residency program's capacity to recruit high-caliber residents and faculty members. The authors are collecting qualitative and quantitative data on the impact of the course. They will use their findings to advocate for a national health advocacy competency framework. Recommendations about how to initiate or further develop social medicine and health advocacy curricula are offered.

  19. The Last Chance to Save the Planet? An Analysis of the Geoengineering Advocacy Discourse in the Public Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshelm, Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering, i.e., the deliberate manipulation of the global climate using grand-scale technologies, poses new challenges in terms of environmental risks and human–nature relationships. Until recently, these technologies were considered science fiction, but they are now being reconsidered by researchers, leading to an emerging public debate. Our aim is to improve our understanding of the public discourse on geoengineering in mass media. We analyze 1500 articles published from 2005 to 2013, constructing four coherent storylines that represent most of the geoengineering advocacy in the public discourse in mass media. We scrutinize inconsistencies in this discourse and argue that geoengineering may be the first example of a grand-scale technology that in some important respects has clear postmodern tendencies: geoengineering advocacy, for example, is not based on objective truth claims of the natural sciences and does not promise a better world.

  20. Banning shisha smoking in public places in Iran: an advocacy coalition framework perspective on policy process and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Breton, Eric; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    Shisha smoking is a widespread custom in Iran with a rapidly growing prevalence especially among the youth. In this article, we analyze the policy process of enforcing a federal/state ban on shisha smoking in all public places in Kerman Province, Iran. Guided by the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), we investigate how a shisha smoking ban reached the political agenda in 2011, how it was framed by different policy actors, and why no significant breakthrough took place despite its inclusion on the agenda. We conducted a qualitative study using a case study approach. Two main sources of data were employed: face-to-face in-depth interviews and document analysis of key policy texts. We interviewed 24 policy actors from diverse sectors. A qualitative thematic framework, incorporating both inductive and deductive analyses, was employed to analyze our data. We found that the health sector was the main actor pushing the issue of shisha smoking onto the political agenda by framing it as a public health risk. The health sector and its allies advocated enforcement of a federal law to ban shisha smoking in all public places including teahouses and traditional restaurants whereas another group of actors opposed the ban. The pro-ban group was unable to neutralize the strategies of the anti-ban group and to steer the debate towards the health harms of shisha smoking. Our analysis uncovers three main reasons behind the policy stasis: lack of policy learning due to lack of agreement over evidence and related analytical conflicts between the two groups linked to differences in core and policy beliefs; the inability of the pro-ban group to exploit opportunities in the external policy subsystem through generating stronger public support for enforcement of the shisha smoking ban; and the nature of the institutional setting, in particular the autocratic governance of CHFS which contributed to a lack of policy learning within the policy subsystem. Our research demonstrated the utility

  1. Global health: a successful context for precollege training and advocacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Gervassi

    Full Text Available Despite a flourishing biomedical and global health industry too few of Washington state's precollege students are aware of this growing sector and emerging ideas on bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Against the backdrop of numerous reports regarding declining precollege student interest in science, a precollege program was envisioned at Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (as of 2010, Seattle BioMed to increase youth engagement in biomedical research and global health, increase community interest in infectious diseases and mobilize a future biomedical workforce. Since 2005, 169 rising high school juniors have participated in the BioQuest Academy precollege immersion program at Seattle BioMed. Assembling in groups of 12, students conduct laboratory experiments (e.g., anopheline mosquito dissection, gene expression informed tuberculosis drug design and optimizing HIV immunization strategies related to global health alongside practicing scientific mentors, all within the footprint the institute. Laudable short-term impacts of the program include positive influences on student interest in global health (as seen in the students' subsequent school projects and their participation in Seattle BioMed community events, biomedical careers and graduate school (e.g., 16.9% of teens departing 2008-2009 Academy report revised goals of attaining a doctorate rather than a baccalaureate diploma. Long-term, 97% of alumni (2005-2008 are attending postsecondary schools throughout North America; eight graduates have already published scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals and/or presented their scientific data at national and international meetings, and 26 have been retained by Seattle BioMed researchers as compensated technicians and interns. Providing precollege students with structured access to practicing scientists and authentic research environments within the context of advancing global health has been a robust means of both building a future

  2. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Published Books Fact Sheets Reports and Issue Briefs Advertising Public Health Buyers Guide Publications Contacts Professional Development ... Steps Challenge doubles its goal Apr 11 2017 Facebook Is your organization an APHA member? As an ...

  3. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  4. Tobacco control advocacy in Australia: reflections on 30 years of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Wakefield, M

    2001-06-01

    Australia has one of the world's most successful records on tobacco control. The role of public health advocacy in securing public and political support for tobacco control legislation and policy and program support is widely acknowledged and enshrined in World Health Organization policy documents yet is seldom the subject of analysis in the public health policy research literature. Australian public health advocates tend to not work in settings where evaluation and systematic planning are valued. However, their day-to-day strategies reveal considerable method and grounding in framing theory. The nature of media advocacy is explored, with differences between the conceptualization of routine "programmatic" public health interventions and the modus operandi of media advocacy highlighted. Two case studies on securing smoke-free indoor air and banning all tobacco advertising are used to illustrate advocacy strategies that have been used in Australia. Finally, the argument that advocacy should emanate from communities and be driven by them is considered.

  5. Do empowerment strategies facilitate knowledge and behavioral change? The impact of family health advocacy on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Chonody, Jill M

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of a Family Health Advocacy (FHA) intervention on 46 African American women ages 13 to 35 living in a rural southern community. FHA utilizes empowerment strategies to provide education and social support to reduce risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes. Use of a paired t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest scores in the acquisition of knowledge of safer sex practices, alcohol consumption, early prenatal care, maternal infection, and nutrition. Behavioral change was not realized in the areas of nutrition or behaviors that cause risk of maternal infection. Social workers can influence behavioral change for at-risk populations by addressing microlevel barriers such as education and resources and macrolevel barriers such as advocacy for expanded health and social services.

  6. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection.

  7. Philosophy + Advocacy = Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutt, Kevin; Townley, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about music advocacy strategies has long been promoted as important for music educators, not only for the benefit of their individual programs but also for the specific benefit of music students and the general public. This article suggests an approach to advocacy grounded in the teacher's professional beliefs, phrased in terms…

  8. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio...

  9. Women's groups and professional organizations in advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Adrienne; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2009-08-01

    After the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) have improved in many countries, and been supported by awareness raised by women's health advocates, increasingly by youth groups, and also by organizations of health professionals. In the HIV/AIDS area, involvement of organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS is crucial to improve prevention and care. However, after victories during the 1990s, combating opposition by social and political conservatives has taken up much energy in recent years. Continuous advocacy to broaden acceptance of the fundamental importance of SRHR, their role in meeting the Millennium Development Goals, and the imperative to increase funding, is essential.

  10. Developing effective written communication and advocacy skills in entry-level health educators through writing-intensive program planning methods courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galer-Unti, Regina A; Tappe, Marlene K

    2006-01-01

    Written communication is a requisite skill for practitioners in the field of health education. Advocacy skills are now considered to be both a professional competency and an ethical responsibility. Given that many advocacy strategies involve written communication, it makes sense that the skills of writing and advocacy be developed concomitantly and within a writing-intensive class. The purposes of this article are twofold: (a) to describe the role of writing-intensive program planning methods courses in the development of written communication and advocacy skills in entry-level health educators and (b) to suggest strategies for planning, implementing, and assessing writing-intensive assignments and instructional activities designed to develop students' written communication and advocacy skills. Multiple examples of writing assignments are presented that can be used in helping students in developing their critical thinking, writing, and advocacy skills.

  11. Children's Health Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  12. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  13. The Affordable Care Act and Health Insurance Exchanges: Advocacy Efforts for Children's Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orynich, C Ashley; Casamassimo, Paul S; Seale, N Sue; Litch, C Scott; Reggiardo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate legislative differences in defining the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) pediatric dental benefit and the role of pediatric advocates across states with different health insurance Exchanges. Data were collected through public record investigation and confidential health policy expert interviews conducted at the state and federal level. Oral health policy change by the pediatric dental profession requires advocating for the mandatory purchase of coverage through the Exchange, tax subsidy contribution toward pediatric dental benefits, and consistent regulatory insurance standards for financial solvency, network adequacy and provider reimbursement. The pediatric dental profession is uniquely positioned to lead change in oral health policy amidst health care reform through strengthening state-level formalized networks with organized dentistry and commercial insurance carriers.

  14. The Surgeon and Advocacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sensitization and the organisation of blood donation drives from the other cadres of healthcare? If we implore all our elective patients' relatives to donate a unit or more, our .... Southern African Journal of ... health advocacy is a team sport.

  15. The voice of Florence Nightingale on advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick C

    2012-01-31

    Modern nursing is complex, ever changing, and multi focused. Since the time of Florence Nightingale, however, the goal of nursing has remained unchanged, namely to provide a safe and caring environment that promotes patient health and well being. Effective use of an interpersonal tool, such as advocacy, enhances the care-giving environment. Nightingale used advocacy early and often in the development of modern nursing. By reading her many letters and publications that have survived, it is possible to identify her professional goals and techniques. Specifically, Nightingale valued egalitarian human rights and developed leadership principles and practices that provide useful advocacy techniques for nurses practicing in the 21st century. In this article we will review the accomplishments of Florence Nightingale, discuss advocacy in nursing and show how Nightingale used advocacy through promoting both egalitarian human rights and leadership activities. We will conclude by exploring how Nightingale's advocacy is as relevant for the 21st century as it was for the 19th century.

  16. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  17. Integrating psychotherapy research with public health and public policy goals for incarcerated women and other vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I review my research applying interpersonal treatments and interpersonal principles from psychotherapy for major depression and substance use to broader public health goals for incarcerated women and other vulnerable populations. A public health focus has led me to expand the boundaries of psychotherapy research to include partners such as prisons, parole officers, and bachelor's level providers; behaviors like risky sex; service delivery challenges; and ultimately to research with an eye toward informing policy and advocacy. A public health perspective provides context and rationale for conducting sound psychotherapy research; the combination of public health and psychotherapy-specific perspectives can lead to novel research.

  18. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  19. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  20. Public health ethics: informing better public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.

  1. From Climate Advocacy to Public Engagement: An Exploration of the Roles of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Szarka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of non-governmental organisations (NGOs to encourage public engagement with climate protection is analysed through a conceptual framework focused on six advocacy functions: issue framing, knowledge generation and dissemination, attribution of responsibility, lobbying, public mobilisation and agenda setting. This framework is used to organise and interpret the results of a fieldwork study of environmental NGOs, conducted in France, Germany and the UK. Key findings include the importance of the cross-linkage of climate with other categories of issue, NGO stress on knowledge as a precursor to action, a ‘politics of accountability’ in which the attribution of responsibility paves the way for making political demands, a preference for multi-layered lobbying, where process can be as important as product, and the need to adjust NGO mobilisation and agenda setting strategies in the aftermath of the 2009 Copenhagen negotiations and the financial crisis.

  2. 42 CFR 51.31 - Conduct of protection and advocacy activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. 51.31 Section 51.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS... and Federal law and the canons of professional ethics, a P&A system may use any appropriate technique...

  3. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  4. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  5. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelen, A Christian; Kitagawa, Kent; Maddock, Jay; Hayes, Donald; St John, Tonya Lowery; Rajan, Ranjani

    2013-01-01

    Chronically understaffed public health laboratories depend on a decreasing number of employees who must assume broader responsibilities in order to sustain essential functions for the many clients the laboratories support. Prospective scientists considering a career in public health are often not aware of the requirements associated with working in a laboratory regulated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The purpose of this pilot internship was two-fold; introduce students to operations in a regulated laboratory early enough in their academics so that they could make good career decisions, and evaluate internship methodology as one possible solution to workforce shortages. Four interns were recruited from three different local universities, and were paired with an experienced State Laboratories Division (SLD) staff mentor. Students performed tasks that demonstrated the importance of CLIA regulations for 10–15 hours per week over a 14 week period. Students also attended several directed group sessions on regulatory lab practice and quality systems. Both interns and mentors were surveyed periodically during the semester. Surveys of mentors and interns indicated overall positive experiences. One-on-one pairing of experienced public health professionals and students seems to be a mutually beneficial arrangement. Interns reported that they would participate if the internship was lower paid, unpaid, or for credit only. The internship appeared to be an effective tool to expose students to employment in CLIA-regulated laboratories, and potentially help address public health laboratory staffing shortfalls. Longer term follow up with multiple classes of interns may provide a more informed assessment. PMID:23386992

  6. Advocacia em saúde no Brasil contemporâneo Health advocacy in contemporary Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Gandolfi Dallari

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o conceito de advocacia em saúde, por meio da descrição de seus elementos, sua prática e seus agentes. A necessidade da formulação de tal conceito surge da função que tem a universidade, entre outras, de identificar demandas sociais e oferecer alternativas que busquem a superação de obstáculos. A ênfase é centrada na participação social, assegurada na Constituição, promulgada em 1988, e que desde então tem sido tomada como referência no desenvolvimento dos mecanismos de construção da cidadania, especialmente quando relacionada à conquista do direito à saúde.The concept of health advocacy is presented by means of a description of its elements, practice and agents. The need to formulate this concept derives from one of the main functions of the university: the identification of social demands and the presentation of alternatives that aim at eliminating obstacles to their fulfilment. Social participation, as guaranteed by the 1988 Constitution, understood as an opportunity for the development of mechanisms for the construction of citizenship, especially as related to the conquist of the right to health, is emphasized.

  7. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald K; Calhoun, Candice R; Joseph, Lin; Farnsworth, JoAnn Y; Arakaki, Kimberly B

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai‘i Maternal and Infant Health Collaborative, founded in 2013, is a public-private partnership committed to improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality. The Collaborative was developed in partnership with the Executive Office on Early Learning Action Strategy with help from the Department of Health and National Governor's Association. The Action Strategy provides Hawai‘i with a roadmap for an integrated and comprehensive early childhood system, spanning preconception to third grade. The Collaborative helps advance goals within the Action Strategy by focusing on ensuring that children have the best start in life by being healthy and welcomed. The Collaborative has completed a strategic plan and accompanying Logic Model, The First 1,000 Days, aimed at achieving the outcomes of 8% reduction in preterm births and 4% reduction in infant mortality. To date over 120 people across Hawai‘i have been involved in the Collaborative. These members include physicians and clinicians, public health planners and providers, insurance providers and health care administrators. The work is divided into three primary areas and coordinated by a cross sector leadership team. Work is specific, outcome driven, informed by data and primarily accomplished in small work groups. PMID:27738566

  8. Multimedia materials for education, training, and advocacy in international health: experiences with the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative CD-ROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJ Beanland

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe an innovative use of multimedia materials to support training and advocacy within a schistosomiasis control programme. The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI at Imperial College London works with selected sub-Saharan African countries to develop schistosomiasis control programmes. Two elements of the SCI programme were supported by multimedia materials developed at the Wellcome Trust in collaboration with the SCI: (1 training of programme managers, district health officers, and those delivering practical elements of the programme; and (2 advocacy targeted at decision-makers and donors. Evaluation of the materials revealed high reported ratings for both user satisfaction and impact from use of the product. From this experience we draw out several general messages about development of multimedia materials and how these will play a growing future role in promoting training within international health.

  9. Multimedia materials for education, training, and advocacy in international health: experiences with the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative CD-ROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, T J; Lacey, S D; Melkman, D D; Palmer, S; Stothard, J R; Fleming, F; Fenwick, A

    2006-09-01

    We describe an innovative use of multimedia materials to support training and advocacy within a schistosomiasis control programme. The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) at Imperial College London works with selected sub-Saharan African countries to develop schistosomiasis control programmes. Two elements of the SCI programme were supported by multimedia materials developed at the Wellcome Trust in collaboration with the SCI: (1) training of programme managers, district health officers, and those delivering practical elements of the programme; and (2) advocacy targeted at decision-makers and donors. Evaluation of the materials revealed high reported ratings for both user satisfaction and impact from use of the product. From this experience we draw out several general messages about development of multimedia materials and how these will play a growing future role in promoting training within international health.

  10. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Public Health Nutrition Education Liv Elin Torheim* 1, Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir2, 3, Inga Thorsdottir2, 3, Aileen Robertson4, Runa Midtvåge4, Chalida Mae Svastisalee4, Hanne Gillett4, Agneta Yngve5, Arja Erkkilä6 1Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College......) and healthy aging. Unhealthy dietary patterns, high blood pressure and obesity are major risk factors for NCDs such as cancers, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial......, educational, social, economic, structural, political and/or legislative. The knowledge, skills, competencies and cultural heritage of the broader community should form a basis for all analyses and actions. The competencies required to be an effective PHN practitioner has been described by several scholars...

  11. Sustainable Health Development Becoming Agenda for Public Health Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein TAKIAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs aim to transform our world, and each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be achieved, everyone needs to do their part: governments, academia, the private sector and all people. This paper summarizes the main evidence-based recommendations made by excellent academics and scholars who discussed their experiences and views during the conference to respond to the challenges of sustainable health development.Methods: To contribute to exploring to the academia's role in reaching SDGs, the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Health Development was held at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, on 24-25 April 2016, in Tehran, Iran. Results: In line with Goal 3 of SDGs: "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages", the conference discussed various aspects of Universal Health Coverage (UHC, as well as Global Action Plans for prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs, and explained the special role of academic public health institutes in education, research and service provision in the two above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: To fulfill the requirements of SDGs, modern approaches to funding, education, teaching, research priority setting and advocacy, which in turn need novel strategies in collaboration and constructive partnerships among academic public health institutes from low, middle and high-income countries, are essential. Keywords: Sustainable development goals (SDGs, Academia, UHC, NCD

  12. Sustainable Health Development Becoming Agenda for Public Health Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takian, Amirhossein; Akbari-Sari, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to transform our world, and each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be achieved, everyone needs to do their part: governments, academia, the private sector and all people. This paper summarizes the main evidence-based recommendations made by excellent academics and scholars who discussed their experiences and views during the conference to respond to the challenges of sustainable health development. To contribute to exploring to the academia's role in reaching SDGs, the 1(st) International Conference on Sustainable Health Development was held at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, on 24-25 April 2016, in Tehran, Iran. In line with Goal 3 of SDGs: "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages", the conference discussed various aspects of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as well as Global Action Plans for prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), and explained the special role of academic public health institutes in education, research and service provision in the two above-mentioned areas. To fulfill the requirements of SDGs, modern approaches to funding, education, teaching, research priority setting and advocacy, which in turn need novel strategies in collaboration and constructive partnerships among academic public health institutes from low, middle and high-income countries, are essential.

  13. Sustainable Health Development Becoming Agenda for Public Health Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKIAN, Amirhossein; AKBARI-SARI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to transform our world, and each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be achieved, everyone needs to do their part: governments, academia, the private sector and all people. This paper summarizes the main evidence-based recommendations made by excellent academics and scholars who discussed their experiences and views during the conference to respond to the challenges of sustainable health development. Methods: To contribute to exploring to the academia’s role in reaching SDGs, the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Health Development was held at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, on 24–25 April 2016, in Tehran, Iran. Results: In line with Goal 3 of SDGs: “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”, the conference discussed various aspects of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as well as Global Action Plans for prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), and explained the special role of academic public health institutes in education, research and service provision in the two above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: To fulfill the requirements of SDGs, modern approaches to funding, education, teaching, research priority setting and advocacy, which in turn need novel strategies in collaboration and constructive partnerships among academic public health institutes from low, middle and high-income countries, are essential. PMID:28028502

  14. Public health, public trust and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2007-06-01

    Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.

  15. The art and science of political advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiorowski, Donna

    2014-01-01

    School nurses throughout the nation, individually and collectively, work to bring about change for the school nursing profession and to safeguard the health of children and the public. School nurses practice amidst education reform, health care reform, changes in society, and medical and technological advancements. School nurses must be active in decisions that affect their daily practice by involvement in the local, state, and federal political process. School nurses must craft the art and develop the science of political advocacy.

  16. [Phonoaudiology in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R M

    1992-06-01

    An undestanding of the activities and functions of a speech therapist within the specific context of the Basic Health Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde) is sought. Difficulties relating to the introduction of a new service on the basis of one of the health professions that has not hitherto belonged to the group of categories which are traditionally incorporated in these same Basic Units. When the statistical data on the demand for speech therapy services by the population who attend health centres were considered, it was discovered that 32% were of schooling age and had been referred by schools, allegedly due to "learning problems". Closer contact with these children, through speech therapy, has brought a different aspect to light i.e. that one cannot consider as disturbance/deviation/problem/pathology written signs which constitute indications of the shock between the process of literacy and that of learning how to read and write. To understand the problem from the point of view of public health, a programme of teacher counselling is proposed, with the purpose of helping the school to clarify its role as co-constructor of the child's literacy process and of returning to the teacher the responsibility for the success and/or failure of teaching how to read and write. A similar programme is proposed for creches where coincidently, a greater proportion (44%) of the younger children (2 to 5 years of age) are seen to have difficulties in oral language development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  18. Public Policy Involvement by Certified Health Education Specialists: Results of a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahas, Rachel; Van Wasshenova, Emily; Everhart, F Jeannine; Thompson, Amy; Boardley, Debra

    2016-09-01

    Advocating for health-related activities is an essential part of being a health educator and knowing how to advocate is an important part of the Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) exam. However, based on previous research, there may be a gap between knowing how to and actually participating in public policy activities. The purpose of this study was to determine public policy involvement of CHES. Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 500 CHES (41% response rate). The highest selected public policy activities by CHES were the following: voting at an election (88.9%), contacting a public office (49%), and providing policy-related information (42.9%). The number of locations CHES individuals selected in having training on advocacy was a predictive factor in their confidence to perform advocacy. Positive correlations between perceived knowledge and effectiveness of the public policy process and self-reported involvement in public policy were found. Although there is moderate self-reported involvement in public policy activities, more emphasis needs to be placed on raising the confidence of CHES to perform advocacy-related activities in the field. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Promoting the Everyday: Pro-Sharia Advocacy and Public Relations in Ontario, Canada's "Sharia Debate"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer A Selby

    2013-01-01

    .... Instead, I argue that the "Sharia Debate" served as a catalyst for mainstream conservative Muslim groups in Ontario to develop public relations apparatuses that better facilitate the perspectives of everyday religious conservatives in the public sphere.

  20. TB SCENARIO & PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir K. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a major public health problem world o ver and it is India’s worst scourge. In the words of Charles Dickens “it is the disease medicine never cured, wealth warded off, or poverty could boast exemption from.... Which sometimes moves in giant strides & sometimes at tardy sluggish pace, but slow or quick... is never sur e and certain”. India bears 28.4% of the entire world’s burden of Tuberculosis. Every year 2 2 lakh persons contract Tuberculosis, but only half of them seek medical care. One Indian die s of Tuberculosis every 3 minutes! Tuberculosis is not only a medical malady but an ec onomic disaster too it perpetuates poverty and poverty begets Tuberculosis. In view of the enor mity of the problem let us leaf through the pages of history

  1. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  2. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  3. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  4. Collaboration, Competencies and the Classroom: A Public Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Wallar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program is a professional degree program that seeks to prepare graduates to meet complex public health needs by developing their proficiency in the 36 public health core competencies. Provision of experiential learning opportunities, such as a semester-long practicum, is part of student development. In the Fall 2013 semester, a new opportunity was introduced in which small groups of students were paired with local public health professionals to complete a capstone business plan assignment that addressed a current public health issue. However, the impact of this external collaboration on the student learning experience was unknown. To address this, quantitative and qualitative information about students’ perceived proficiency in the core competencies and their learning experiences was collected using a pre/post survey and focus groups, respectively. A post-assignment survey was also administered to participating local public health professionals in which they assessed their group’s proficiency in the core competencies, and provided additional feedback. The results of this study showed that students had unique learning experiences with enhanced proficiency in different areas including policy and program planning, implementation and evaluation, assessment and analysis, and partnerships, collaboration and advocacy. Managing and communicating expectations was important throughout the learning experience. By using realistic community-based assignments, graduate public health programs can enrich students’ learning experiences by creating an environment for students to apply their classroom knowledge and gain practical knowledge and skills.

  5. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  6. Facilitating Trainees' Multicultural Development and Social Justice Advocacy through a Refugee/Immigrant Mental Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Schale, Codi L.; Khamphakdy-Brown, Supavan

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explored trainees' experiences in an outreach program for refugee/immigrant women to examine if those experiences facilitated the development of multicultural competency and social justice advocacy. Twelve students were interviewed, and their responses yielded 3 categories: development of cultural knowledge,…

  7. Health for all: a public health vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, W H

    1991-12-01

    The approach of a millennial passage invites public health to a review of past performance and a preview of future prospects toward assuring a healthy public. Since the 1974 Canadian Lalonde report, the best national plans for health progress have emphasized disease prevention and health promotion. WHO's multinational Health for All by the Year 2000 promotes basic health services essential to leading a socially and economically productive life. Healthy People 2000, the latest US guide, establishes three goals: increase healthy life span, reduce health disparities, and achieve universal access to preventive services. Its objectives can be used to excite public understanding, equip program development, evaluate progress, and encourage public accountability for health initiatives. Needed is federal leadership in defining requisite action and securing necessary resources. Elsewhere a "new public health" emphasizes community life-style and multisectoral "healthy public policy." In the United States, a national health program is needed to achieve equity in access to personal health care. Even more essential is equitable sharing in basic health determinants in society--nutritious food, basic education, safe water, decent housing, secure employment, adequate income, and peace. Vital to such a future is able and active leadership now from governments and public health professionals.

  8. Professional advocacy: linking Virginia's story to public policy-making theory, learning from the past and applying it to our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Melody K

    2012-05-01

    Too often the nursing profession has been shortsighted regarding its ability to educate legislators and the public on the value of the nurse and the need for policy change. This has stagnated the profession's agenda setting, influence, and position. Virginia nurses, however, rose to the challenge a few years ago. They addressed the nursing faculty shortage by introducing legislation to improve faculty salaries and promote nursing education. They fully defined their problem, formed a unified coalition to develop a solution, and found the political environment favorable for policy change. Their advocacy success story can lend guidance and encouragement for advocacy for the profession. Linking their successful road to policy change to the B. B. Longest (2010) public policy-making framework provides a roadmap for future success.

  9. Research capacity strengthening in South Asia: based on the experience of South Asian Hub for Advocacy, Research and Education on Mental Health (SHARE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Razzaque, B

    2017-01-01

    The South Asian Hub for Advocacy, Research and Education (SHARE) was a five-year National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded program that aimed to stimulate the research base for task-shifting mental health interventions to address the mental health treatment gap in low and middle-income countries. During its 5 years (2011-2016) SHARE made notable accomplishments, including providing 20 studentships for short courses and ten fellowships to conduct mentored study, developing a new humanitarian research training course, implementing distance learning courses, creating an online repository of training materials, creation of a network of public health researchers at different career stages in South Asia, strengthening of partnerships amongst institutions of SHARE network and supporting its member's to produce peer reviewed publications. Furthermore, additional research capacity building and research grants leveraged on SHARE network were secured. The salient lessons learned in the 5-year program were that research capacity-building opportunities need to be tailored to the local context, as SHARE sought to develop and support courses that can build the capacities in specific areas identified as weak in the South Asian region. Mentoring was recognized as a critical component for which innovative and effective models of mentoring in the region need to be developed. Diverse platforms and mediums ought to be utilized to deliver the research training programs. Finally, research capacity-building program requires collaborative efforts of multiple stakeholders working locally, nationally and globally to attain the maximum impact in a region.

  10. The role of public health in the prevention of war: rationale and competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, William H; Barker, Kathy; Arya, Neil; Rohde, Jon; Donohoe, Martin; White, Shelley; Lubens, Pauline; Gorman, Geraldine; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-06-01

    In 2009 the American Public Health Association approved the policy statement, "The Role of Public Health Practitioners, Academics, and Advocates in Relation to Armed Conflict and War." Despite the known health effects of war, the development of competencies to prevent war has received little attention. Public health's ethical principles of practice prioritize addressing the fundamental causes of disease and adverse health outcomes. A working group grew out of the American Public Health Association's Peace Caucus to build upon the 2009 policy by proposing competencies to understand and prevent the political, economic, social, and cultural determinants of war, particularly militarism. The working group recommends that schools of public health and public health organizations incorporate these competencies into professional preparation programs, research, and advocacy.

  11. Zoning should promote public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  12. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  13. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health.

  14. Migrant Health: a value for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The health matters associated with migration are crucial public health challenges faced by both governments and societies. According to United Nations estimates, 120 million of the approximately 175 million migrants worldwide are migrant workers with their families (1. Legal and illegal workers have a different status and, therefore, varying levels of access to social and health services. The collective health needs and implications of this sizeable population are considerable, and different health determinants and levels of vulnerability could impact on their health (2. The main public health goal is to avoid disparities in health status and access to health services between migrants and the host population (3. The second, closely associated principle, is to ensure migrants’ health rights, as stated during the 4th Conference on Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health in Europe which took place from 21st to 23rd June 2012 in Milan, where Migrants and ethnic minorities were confirmed as a benefit to the society (4.

  15. Social media in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  16. Advocacy and IPR, tutorial 4

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    With open access and repositories assuming a high profile some may question whether advocacy is still necessary. Those involved in the business of setting up and populating repositories are aware that in the majority of institutions there is still a great need for advocacy. This tutorial will give participants an opportunity to discuss different advocacy methods and approaches, including the 'top down' and 'bottom up' approach, publicity methods and the opportunities offered by funding body positions on open access. Participants will have the opportunity to share experiences of what works and what doesn't. The advocacy role often encompasses responsibility for advising academics on IPR issues. This is a particularly critical area where repository staff are engaged in depositing content on behalf of academics. The tutorial will offer an opportunity to discuss the IPR issues encountered by those managing repositories. The tutorial will draw on the experience of participants who have been engaged in advocacy act...

  17. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  18. Periodontal health and global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-10-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal/oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging local, national and international resources to assure that people can be healthy. Social determinants of health, environmental hazards and unhealthy lifestyles are prioritized in modern public health-care. Disease prevention and health promotion are cornerstones in actions for public health. This volume of Periodontology 2000 is entitled ‘Periodontal health and global public health’; the 12 articles of this volume discuss different aspects of this statement. It covers a range of subjects from public health issues to patient care. This monograph intends to stimulate community action research in the field of periodontology in order to help the development of appropriate public health intervention and relevant surveillance programs. It also expects to stimulate health authorities and professional organizations to initiate and support actions to promote periodontal health in their respective countries.

  19. Working together for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pompeo

    2009-06-01

    Italy's recent economic growth and strategic position in the Mediterranean Sea have made it a prime destination for immigrants and asylum seekers in Europe. Despite its well-developed health care system, statistics on foreign citizens' health are worrisome. In 1998 public health services were extended to illegal immigrants, giving them the right to necessary urgent and non-urgent medical assistance, even for a prolonged period. This paper examines a two-year joint intervention project between Centre for the Study and Research of Public Health (Mental Health), Local Health Agency ROMA E (LHA RME) and the non-governmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Rome.

  20. The Role of Public Health in the Prevention of War: Rationale and Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Kathy; Arya, Neil; Rohde, Jon; Donohoe, Martin; White, Shelley; Lubens, Pauline; Gorman, Geraldine; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the American Public Health Association approved the policy statement, “The Role of Public Health Practitioners, Academics, and Advocates in Relation to Armed Conflict and War.” Despite the known health effects of war, the development of competencies to prevent war has received little attention. Public health’s ethical principles of practice prioritize addressing the fundamental causes of disease and adverse health outcomes. A working group grew out of the American Public Health Association’s Peace Caucus to build upon the 2009 policy by proposing competencies to understand and prevent the political, economic, social, and cultural determinants of war, particularly militarism. The working group recommends that schools of public health and public health organizations incorporate these competencies into professional preparation programs, research, and advocacy. PMID:24825229

  1. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  2. 45 CFR 1321.13 - Advocacy responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advocacy responsibilities. 1321.13 Section 1321.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.13 Advocacy responsibilities....

  3. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and disease prevention, health economics and leadership, health sociology, ethics, etc.—unified under the comprehensive public health umbrella. This approach will contribute to the prevention of silo thinking and isolated, particularistic action. Conversely, just thinking in and engaging specialists...

  4. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can.

  5. Citizens United, public health, and democracy: the Supreme Court ruling, its implications, and proposed action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, William H

    2011-07-01

    The 2010 US Supreme Court Citizens United v Federal Election Commission 130 US 876 (2010) case concerned the plans of a nonprofit organization to distribute a film about presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. The Court ruled that prohibiting corporate independent expenditures for advocacy advertising during election campaigns unconstitutionally inhibits free speech. Corporations can now make unlimited contributions to election advocacy advertising directly from the corporate treasury. Candidates who favor public health positions may be subjected to corporate opposition advertising. Citizen groups and legislators have proposed remedies to ameliorate the effects of the Court's ruling. The public health field needs to apply its expertise, in collaboration with others, to work to reduce the disproportionate influence of corporate political speech on health policy and democracy.

  6. 86(th) Annual Georgia Public Health Association Meeting & Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina A; Abbott, Regina; Sims, Christy

    2015-01-01

    The 86(th) annual meeting of the Georgia Public Health Association (GPHA) and joint conference with the Southern Health Association was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on April 13-14, 2015, with pre-conference (April 12(th)) and post-conference (April 14(th)) Executive Board meetings. As Georgia's leading forum for public health researchers, practitioners, and students, the annual meeting of the GPHA brings together participants from across the state to explore recent developments in the field and to exchange techniques, tools, and experiences. Historically, the GPHA conference has been held in Savannah (n=24); Jekyll Island (n=20); Atlanta (n=16); Augusta (n=4); and Gainesville (n=1). There was no annual meeting during the early years (1929-1936); during World War II (1941-1943 and 1945); and for four years during the 1980s. Between 2006 and 2010, GPHA held one-day annual meetings and business sessions with educational workshops. Several new initiatives were highlighted as part of this year's conference. These included a "move and groove" physical activity lounge, registration scholarships for students with a dedicated meet-and-greet reception, an expanded exhibit hall, presentation and approval of three resolutions (related to healthy foods at official activities and events; weapons at official activities and events; and memorials), and approval of the 2015 legislative policy positions and amended association bylaws. The theme for the conference was Advocacy in Action for Public Health. Specifically, the program addressed ensuring access to care; protecting funding for core programs, services, and infrastructure; eliminating health disparities; and addressing key public health issues important to the state of Georgia. One hundred and nine (109) abstracts were submitted for peer review; 36 were accepted for poster and 40 for workshop presentations. Four plenary sessions with keynote speakers covered the intersection between advocacy and policy, Georgia's response to the

  7. [Anomie and public mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  8. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E

    2009-06-01

    Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.

  9. Anonymous HIV workplace surveys as an advocacy tool for affordable private health insurance in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Beer Ingrid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 15%, Namibia is in need of innovative health financing strategies that can alleviate the burden on the public sector. Affordable and private health insurances were recently developed in Namibia, and they include coverage for HIV/AIDS. This article reports on the efficacy of HIV workplace surveys as a tool to increase uptake of these insurances by employees in the Namibian formal business sector. In addition, the burden of HIV among this population was examined by sector. Methods Cross-sectional anonymous HIV prevalence surveys were conducted in 24 private companies in Namibia between November 2006 and December 2007. Non-invasive oral fluid-based HIV antibody rapid tests were used. Anonymous test results were provided to the companies in a confidential report and through presentations to their management, during which the advantages of affordable private health insurance and the available insurance products were discussed. Impact assessment was conducted in October 2008, when new health insurance uptake by these companies was evaluated. Results Of 8500 targeted employees, 6521 were screened for HIV; mean participation rate was 78.6%. Overall 15.0% (95% CI 14.2-15.9% of employees tested HIV positive (range 3.0-23.9% across companies. The mining sector had the highest percentage of HIV-positive employees (21.0%; the information technology (IT sector had the lowest percentage (4.0%. Out of 6205 previously uninsured employees, 61% had enrolled in private health insurance by October 2008. The majority of these new insurances (78% covered HIV/AIDS only. Conclusion The proportion of HIV-positive formal sector employees in Namibia is in line with national prevalence estimates and varies widely by employment sector. Following the surveys, there was a considerable increase in private health insurance uptake. This suggests that anonymous HIV workplace surveys can serve as a tool to motivate

  10. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  11. Genomics, medicine and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Trbovich

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health genomics unifies the scientific disciplines of genetics and public health. Public health genomics aims to facilitate the transfer of newly acquired knowledge in genetic and molecular biology into classical medicine, to evaluate the currently available genetic tests, and to educate both the medical community and the general population about advancements in molecular and cell biology of medical interest. Due to various factors, the application of new genetic discoveries in classical medicine and the evaluation of the current genetic clinical tests occur at relatively slow paste. The challenge of public health genomics is to create the most effective modus for coexistence of new molecular and cell biology discoveries and classical medical techniques in applied medicine. The ultimate goal is to accomplish a truly individualized medical therapy.

  12. Public Health Genetics : Challenging "Public Health at the Crossroads"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brand

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear public health professionals, Honestly, isn’t it time to ask whether or not we are doing “the right things”in public health? Are our present public health strategies evidence-based? The public health agenda demands a vision that reaches beyond research to the application of public health and the determination of it’s impact. In this scenario what is the role of genomics? In the past twenty years, advances in genome research have revolutionised what is known about the role of inheritance in health and disease.[1]

    Nowadays,we know that our DNA determines not only the cause of single-gene disorders, but also determines our predisposition to common diseases.Whereas medicine is currently undergoing extraordinary developments from its morphological and phenotype orientation to a molecular and genotype orientation, promoting the importance of prognosis and prediction, public health practice has to date concerned itself with environmental determinants of health and disease and has paid scant attention to genetic variations within the population.

     The advances brought about by genomics is changing these perceptions.[2,3] Many predict, that this knowledge will enable health promotion messages and disease prevention programmes to be specifically directed at susceptible individuals or at subgroups of the population, based on their genetic profile.[4,5]

    The new technologies will allow researchers to examine genetic mutations at the functional genomic unit level, and to better understand the significance of environmental factors such as noxious agents, nutrition and personal behaviour in relation to the causation of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, psychiatric disorders and infectious diseases.

  13. Lessons in media advocacy: a look back at Saskatchewan's nursing education debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurer, Marie Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Nurses are encouraged to exert their influence in the realm of public policy, particularly policies related to the nursing profession, the health care system and the health of their clients. Media advocacy can be used by nursing organizations to mobilize public support on policy issues in order to influence policy makers. This article retrospectively examined the media advocacy efforts of nursing stakeholders in Saskatchewan, Canada in response to a new government policy that would have impacted educational requirements for licensure as a registered nurse (RN) in that province. Print media sources from the period January to March, 2000 were examined to determine the specific media advocacy techniques used by nursing organizations within the framework of the policy cycle. The success of nursing stakeholders in reversing the government position highlights the effectiveness of media advocacy as a tool to disseminate messages from the nursing profession in order to impact policy.

  14. Patient Education vs. Patient Experiences of Self-advocacy: Changing the Discourse to Support Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Teresa L; Medberry, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    A growing emphasis on patient self-advocacy has emerged in the public discourse on cancer survivorship. This discourse shapes patients' conceptualizations about self-advocacy and in turn influences their health care attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this discourse analysis is to explore the language of self-advocacy by comparing a published self-advocacy guide with the lived experiences of women with ovarian cancer. Data sources include (1) a self-advocacy patient education guide published by the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship and (2) transcripts of focus groups conducted with ovarian cancer survivors. Discourse analysis techniques were used to take a close look at the language used by both to uncover the meaning each group ascribed to self-advocacy. Challenges and inconsistencies were noted between the patient education guide and transcripts including viewing self-advocacy as a skill set to assert one's needs as opposed to a means by which to preserve a positive attitude and maintain a trusting relationship with health care providers, respectively. Some women saw themselves as self-advocates yet struggled to locate relevant health information and hesitated to upset their relationship with their health care providers. This analysis highlights tensions between the discourses and points to ways in which patient education materials can be adjusted to support cancer survivors in advocating for their needs according to their unique situations and preferences.

  15. 78 FR 22947 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center Improvements Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center.... SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center Improvements Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas,...

  16. 75 FR 47348 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  17. 76 FR 6190 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  18. 78 FR 41194 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center Improvements Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center.... SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center Improvements Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas,...

  19. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  20. 76 FR 10941 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  1. 78 FR 22947 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer...

  2. 75 FR 10864 - Open meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  3. 78 FR 41193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer...

  4. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  5. 76 FR 32021 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  6. 75 FR 55404 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  7. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  8. 78 FR 64064 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center Improvements Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center.... SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center Improvements Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas,...

  9. 75 FR 39333 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  10. 76 FR 17993 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  11. 78 FR 64063 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer...

  12. 75 FR 33893 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  13. 78 FR 78516 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center Improvements Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center.... SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Assistance Center Improvements Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas,...

  14. 76 FR 63717 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  15. 76 FR 37196 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  16. 75 FR 62629 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  17. 78 FR 78517 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Taxpayer Communications Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer...

  18. 76 FR 45005 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  19. 76 FR 2194 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  20. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michelle; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-01-01

    Chinese Americans constitute the largest percentage of Asian Americans. In Hawai‘i, Chinese Americans make up approximately 4.7% of the total state population. Accurately assessing health disparities across specific Asian American subgroups is critically important to health research and policy, as there is often substantial variability in risk and outcomes. However, even for Chinese Americans, the largest of the Asian American subgroups, such analyses can present challenges in population-based surveys. This article considers these challenges generally and then specifically in terms of the issue of health literacy and heart disease in Chinese Americans using existing population-based survey data sets in the United States, California, and Hawai‘i.

  1. Ethical analysis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc J; Reich, Michael R

    2002-03-23

    Public-health regularly encounters serious ethical dilemmas, such as rationing scarce resources, influencing individuals to change their behaviour, and limiting freedom to diminish disease transmission. Yet unlike medical ethics, there is no agreed-upon framework for analysing these difficulties. We offer such a framework. It distinguishes three philosophical views, often invoked in public-health discourse: positions based on outcomes (utilitarianism), positions focused on rights and opportunities (liberalism), and views that emphasise character and virtue (communitarianism). We explore critical variations within each approach, and identify practical problems that arise in addressing the ethical dimensions of health policy. We conclude by examining challenges posed by the feminist argument of ethics-of-care and by postmodern views about the nature of ethics. Health professionals need enhanced skills in applied philosophy to improve the coherence, transparency, and quality of public deliberations over ethical issues inherent in health policy.

  2. Scientists as communicators: A randomized experiment to assess public reactions to scientists' social media communication along the science-advocacy continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, J.; Vraga, E.; Myers, T.; Stenhouse, N.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    The question of what type of role scientists, or experts more generally, should play in policy debates is a perennial point of discussion within the scientific community. It is often thought that communication containing some form of policy advocacy is likely to compromise the perceived credibility of the individual scientist engaged in such behavior, with the possibility that it may also harm the credibility of the scientific community more broadly. Rather than evaluating statements in a binary fashion as representing either pure objectivity or pure advocacy, one recent model proposes that public communication by scientists should instead be thought of as falling along a continuum based upon the extent of normative judgment implicit in a statement. This approach predicts that as the extent of normative judgment increases, it poses a relatively greater risk to a scientist's perceived credibility. Though such a model is conceptually useful, little empirical social science research has systematically explored how individuals form judgments about different types of advocacy to examine common assumptions about the relative risks associated with such behaviors. In this presentation, we will report results from a national online experiment (N=1200) that examines audience responses to fictional social media posts written by either a climate scientist or a television weathercaster. Following the above model, the posts represent differing degrees of advocacy defined by the extent of normative judgment implicit in each statement. In instances where a specific policy is advocated, we examine whether participants' reactions are shaped by the extent to which the policy mentioned is congruent with one's political ideology. We hope this study will serve as an exemplar of applied science communication research that can begin to help inform scientists and other experts about the potential implications of different communication options they may choose from in deciding how to engage

  3. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases has a new Spanish language website! https://t.co… RT @CDCgov: Know when you need ... Together we can fight antibiotic resistance. Be #AntibioticSmart. https://t.… RT @AMJPublicHealth: Whiteness of the #opioidepidemic is ...

  4. Child maltreatment law and policy as a foundation for child advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Donald C; Krugman, Richard D

    2009-04-01

    Advocacy for children is a fundamental pediatric concern and activity. Notwithstanding achievements for children to date, pediatrics can do more in the twenty-first century to advocate for children and promote research on ways in which advocacy for children can be improved. Evidence-based advocacy should take many directions including legislation, system change in local and state agencies such as social services and health departments, financial assistance including Medicaid, evidence provided to courts at trial and on appeal through "friend of the court" participation, family guidance, public education, and the promotion of pediatric law and bioethics.

  5. Public health leadership education in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Uno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadership programs offered in various parts of the world, and suggests several principles to be taken into account for the development of public health leadership education in the future. A variety of educational programs in public health leadership are classified into several types in terms of their formats: degree programs offered by schools of public health or other programs of public health, those offered in partnership with public health agencies, and so on. All of these programs have important implications for the overall effectiveness of public health leadership education. For public health leadership education to be effective, the partnership between academia and public health agencies is vitally important. Programs should provide opportunities to learn on the basis of practical public health experience, a commitment to life-long learning, flexibility in design, and recognition of the diverse needs of individuals and communities. The application of distance learning methods is one of the options to make this possible.Keywords: public health leadership, public health professionals, school of public health

  6. Gambling advocacy: lessons from tobacco, alcohol and junk food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha L; David, Jennifer; Randle, Melanie; Daube, Mike; Senior, Kate

    2016-06-01

    To explore the attitudes and opinions of public health experts in gambling and related unhealthy commodity industries towards the tactics used by the gambling industry to prevent reform and the advocacy responses to these tactics. In-depth interviews (30-60 minutes) with a convenience sample of 15 public health experts and stakeholders with a public health approach to gambling (n=10), or other unhealthy commodity industries (food, alcohol, tobacco, n=5). Participants described the influences of political lobbying and donations on public policy, and industry framing of problem gambling as an issue of personal responsibility. Industry funding of, and influence over, academic research was considered to be one of the most effective industry tactics to resist reform. Participants felt there was a need to build stronger coalitions and collaborations between independent academics, and to improve the utilisation of media to more effectively shift perceptions of gambling harm away from the individual and towards the product. Gambling industry tactics are similar to the tactics of other unhealthy commodity industries. However, advocacy initiatives to counter these tactics in gambling are less developed than in other areas. The formation of national public health coalitions, as well as a strong evidence base regarding industry tactics, will help to strengthen advocacy initiatives. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Health education and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, A

    1986-01-01

    The UK's Minister for Health has again raised the debate about the role of health educators, and in particular that of the Health Education Council, in what is termed public policy work. 1 possible definition of public policy work as regards health education is that aspect that seeks to establish certain health promoting principles as part of the conscious factors always to be considered by individuals, by opinion leaders, by manufacturers, by employers and trade unions, by service providers, by local authorities, and by central government in their plans and decisions. The Health Education Council (HEC) has no power to make or impose public policy; the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) has that task. The world of health education providers includes the Health Education Officers working for the Health Authorities and with the Education Authorities, an increasing number of important academic workers in the field, the HEC, the Scottish Health Education Group (SHEG), the DHSS, and some of the members of various professions who provide health education to the public as part of their daily work. Most of the HEC's work consists of providing these people with health educational tools. If the HEC begins to do more in the public policy field, it will not be at the cost of providing health educational tools. At the HEC a staff of 4 liaison workers is responsible for keeping field workers informed about future and imminent HEC work programs. They also assess needs and ideas by holding periodic meetings with Health Education Officers and others in various parts of the country. HEC's efforts have contributed substantially to increasing attention to preventive health measures on the part of the DHSS, parliamentary committees, the Royal Colleges, other professional bodies, and the media. In regard to the future, several paths deserve exploration as part of the HEC's education of decision-makers and opinion-formers. These include: local authorities, relevant

  8. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  9. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants.

  10. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries...... in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid...... of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?...

  11. Health Reforms and Public Health in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminashvili, D.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Starting from 90‘th, the Government of Georgia (GoG made several attempts to transform Georgian health care system into one with improved efficiency, accessibility, and quality services. Mandatory social health insurance which was introduced in the 1990s was abolished and private health insurance has been promoted as its replacement. The main principle of health care reform since 2006 was the transition towards complete marketization of the health care sector: private provision, private purchasing, liberal regulation, and minimum supervision.This paper aims to analyze an impact of ongoing reforms on public health and population health status.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was conducted through national and international organization reports; key informant interviews were conducted with major stakeholders. RESULTS: The country has attained critical achievements in relation to improved maternal and child health, national responses to HIV, TB and Malaria. Life expectancy has increased from 70.3 years in 1995 to 75.1 years in 2010. Under-5 mortality indicator has improved from 45.3 to 16.4 per 1000 live birth in 2005-2010 meaning a 64% decrease. However, Georgia is still facing a number of critical challenges securing better health for the population. Cardiovascular diseases are by far the largest cause of mortality, respiratory diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and have doubled during last decade. Georgia has one of the highest rates of male smoking in the world (over 50%.CONCLUSION: Governmental efforts in health promotion and disease prevention can have significant impact on health status by preventing chronic diseases and detecting health problems at a treatable stage. Government should consider increasing funding for public health and prevention programmes with the focus on prevention of the main risk factors affecting the population’s health: tobacco and drug use and unsafe

  12. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  13. Health Advocacy Project: Evaluating the Benefits of Service Learning to Nursing Students and Low Income Individuals Involved in a Community-Based Mental Health Promotion Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels-Dennis, Joan; Xia, Liudi; Secord, Sandra; Raiger, Amelia

    2016-10-08

    Poverty, along with other factors such as unemployment, work and life stressors, interpersonal violence, and lack of access to high quality health and/or social services all play a role in determining who develops a mental illness and for whom those symptoms persist or worsen. Senior nursing student preparing to enter the field and working in a service learning capacity may be able to influence early recovery and symptom abatement among those most vulnerable to mental illness. A consortium of community stakeholders and researchers collaboratively designed a 10-week mental health promotion project called the Health Advocacy Project (HAP). The project combines case management and system navigation support delivered by trained and highly supervised nursing students to individuals experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, we present the findings of a qualitative fidelity evaluation that examines the effectiveness of nursing students in delivering the health advocacy intervention at the level and with the intensity originally intended. The findings demonstrate how the services of senior nursing students may be optimized to benefit our healthcare system and populations most at risk for developing MDD and PTSD.

  14. Causal inference in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.

  15. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  16. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization.

  17. [Public health education in Austria. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.

  18. "If I Don't Like the Way I Feel With a Certain Drug, I'll Tell Them.": Older Adults' Experiences With Self-Determination and Health Self-Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiano, Nicole; Whiteman, Karen; Shtompel, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    Health self-advocacy is associated with positive health outcomes, though existing research indicates that older adults may be at a disadvantage when self-advocating within the health care and disability support systems. This study examined perceptions of older adults' health self-advocacy behaviors and the context under which they self-advocate for their chronic conditions. The study involved in-depth interviews with 37 older adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities and 9 geriatric case managers in South and Central Florida. Data were systematically analyzed for themes. Thematic findings revealed that concerns over quality of life is the most common motivator for older adults to engage in health self-advocacy and that self-advocacy involves gathering information to prepare for decision-making and confronting providers about the information gathered. The findings suggest that providers may help facilitate self-determination by framing health communication within the context of quality of life.

  19. Una experiencia de defensa de la salud en violencia contra las mujeres Health advocacy in violence against women: an experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vives-Cases

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de respuestas políticas para los problemas de salud en la comunidad necesita para su concepción como problema social un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica continuo y accesible para la población y de decisores que contribuyan a ello. En noviembre de 2003 comenzó una iniciativa de defensa de la salud de las mujeres en Internet con el objetivo de contar con una información que contribuya a la construcción de un enfoque poblacional del problema de la violencia del compañero íntimo (VCI. Desde entonces, mensualmente se publica en e-leusis.net (página de Internet dedicada a las mujeres el índice epidémico (razón entre las muertes sucedidas en el mes correspondiente y la mediana de muertes del quinquenio anterior de muertes por VCI en la sección «Alerta Violencia». Más de la mitad de los meses estudiados (enero 2003-diciembre 2004 resultaron epidémicos (índice epidémico ≥ 1,25. La iniciativa se hizo pública en una rueda de prensa y cada mes se difunde una nota de prensa en la que se da a conocer el índice epidémico de muertes por VCI. Desde su puesta en marcha, «Alerta Violencia» ha recibido 2.330 visitas, con una media aproximada de 65 visitas semanales. Las noticias son cubiertas por varios periódicos, informativos de televisión y emisoras de radio.The development of political responses to a problem needs for its construction as a social problem of a continuous epidemiological surveillance system available for the affected public and key decision makers. A women's health advocacy net based initiative was launched in November 2003. Every month the epidemic index of deaths (ratio of deaths in that month and median of deaths occurring the previous 5 years due to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is published in a section called «Violence Alert» of e-leusis.net a women's web page. The objective was giving visibility to information contributing to shape the problem. from a population perspective. The initiative

  20. Public Health Activist Skills Pyramid: A Model for Implementing Health in All Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Ehsani Chimeh, Elham

    2017-01-01

    Affecting public health for society requires various competencies. In fact, the prerequisite for the implementation of health in all policies should be effectiveness of public health activists (PHAs) in these competencies. This study aims to determine the competencies of the activists in public health. The present qualitative study reviewed the literature and adopted qualitative methods like content analysis, stakeholder interviews, and conducted focus group discussions with related experts. In each stage, the required competencies were extracted through drawing the main action processes of a PHA. Thereafter, the authors reached an ultimately best-suited working model by classifying and approving extracted competencies. The competencies comprise a pyramid set of three main categories of basic, specialized/professional, and individual updating competencies. Personal management, communication, teamwork, project management, ability to apply principles and concepts of public health, anatomy, physiology, and pathology in the organizations of the society should be included in the basic category. Specialized skills should include ability to plan, public participation, intersectoral collaboration, social marketing, working with the media/media friendly attitude, advocacy, research management and knowledge translation, evaluation of health programs, network establishment and management, deployment and institutionalization, operational research, empowerment and consultation, and protocol and service pack design. Last but not least, individual updating is defined as being informed of the latest scientific articles and reports about health and its situation in different countries as well as determinants that affect health. Implementation of this pyramid requires design and establishment of specific centers for transferring effective public health competencies. This pyramid has also functional use for the revision of educational curriculums in all health study fields. Moreover

  1. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  2. [Cellular phones and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Alex; Karsenty, Eric; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2004-08-01

    The increased use of mobile cellular phone by the public is associated with a wave of contradictory reports about the possible health effects, due to the exposure of the users to electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation. This article reviews the state of the art of the present knowledge concerning the biological and medical effects of exposure to cellular phones, with an emphasis on its possible carcinogenic effect. Health conditions, which have been ascribed to the use of mobile phones mainly include some types of cancer and changes of brain activity. However, the balance of evidence from available studies has not yet supported these claims. Following the recommendation of special international expert committees, the IARC (International Association for Research on Cancer) is conducting a multi-center study to determine the possible effect of cellular phone use on brain and salivary gland tumors. Israel is one of the participants of this study. The only established health effect associated with the use of such technology is an increased risk for road accidents, unrelated to the amount of radiation emitted by phone. The challenge posed by this new technology to health authorities all over the world has lead to the definition of a new principle, the so-called "prudent avoidance", used as guidelines for the definition of an adequate public health policy. The public policy in Israel has used the prudent avoidance principles, while awaiting the results of the multi-national epidemiological studies.

  3. Law and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  4. 76 FR 69799 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on...

  5. 75 FR 68403 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment, ideas, and suggestions on...

  6. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  7. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  8. Restructuring public mental health and substance abuse service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, A; Temkin, T; Cradock, C

    1998-01-01

    The authors originally circulated the concepts in this proposal during May 1995. The purpose was to support an open, public dialogue regarding the restructuring of the mental health and substance abuse services in Illinois in anticipation of Medicaid funding changes. Restructuring mental health and substance abuse service systems should follow certain key principles. These principles are applicable to other states, particularly those large in territory and population. The authors propose the temporary use of multiple managed care companies serving as administrative services only (ASO) organizations, each of whom would have responsibility for a given geographic portion of a state. The role of the ASOs would be to organize providers into networks on a regional basis and transfer managed care expertise in financing and clinical management to the relevant state departments and provider groups. Changes in the service delivery system would be phased in over time with reorganization of key components of the system during each phase. Where the provision of mental health, substance abuse, and social services is split among multiple state agencies, these agencies would be merged to achieve unified funding and administrative efficiency. Patients and advocacy organizations would play a key role in overseeing and shaping system restructuring at all levels, including a governmental board reporting to the governor, overseeing ASO organizations' operations and assuring quality and access at the provider level. The authors propose funding of public behavioral health services through use of a tiered, integrated funding model.

  9. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  10. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  11. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  12. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  13. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, J.E.; Alajbeg, I.; Buchler, S.; Carrassi, A.; Hovius, M.; Jacobs, A.; Jenner, M.; Kinnunen, T.; Ulbricht, S.; Zoitopoulos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  14. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink and of productive power (Shiffman. The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semistructured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR advocacy coalitions. Results The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions

  15. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-30

    Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier's Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of

  16. Ask: a health advocacy program for adolescents with an intellectual disability: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennox Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs. The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP, a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population

  17. Lessons learnt from pilot field test of a comprehensive advocacy program to support health promoting schools’ project in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Towhid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Allahverdipour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health promoting schools (HPS) project is currently being used in Iran but many challenges still lie ahead. The present study aimed, to test feasibility of implementing a comprehensive advocacy program (CAP) to overcome the obstacles and problems associated with the consummation of school health programs based on the HPS framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed through recruiting all schools that were enrolled in the national HPS program and located in Jolfa as the intervention group and all of the schools situated in the East Azerbaijan province as control. In order to collect data, Iranian Ministry of Health’s checklists and external audit guidelines for HPS were utilized. In addition, to plan a CAP required data for coordinating fund raising activities including current rules and regulations regarding implementation of local health promotion interventions were collected. Results: Findings of the study revealed that the implemented CAP had improved all HPS dimensions’ mean score in the intervention group. The observed change in the pre- and post-test score in the intervention group was significant (P < 0.05). The intervention was also successful in encouraging signing of an agreement among the participated organizations to be committed to pursue the adopted policies in facilitation of progress towards full implementation of the local HPS project. Conclusion: Commencing changes in the recruited schools’ structure through coordinated multi-level activities is feasible and this must be considered as a priority where contextual determinants exist to motivate progress towards providing healthier educational settings for school aged children in Iran. PMID:28058237

  18. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-01-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fields of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  19. Health Advocacy: A Vital Step in Attaining Human Rights for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolan, C. E.; Boyle, F. M.; Dean, J. H.; Gomez, M. Taylor; Ware, R. S.; Lennox, N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) experience health inequity compared with the general population, a key contributing factor being disparities in social determinants of health. The enactment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) provides a platform for the progression and promotion of…

  20. Antiscience and ethical concerns associated with advocacy of Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G; Bakken, Johan S; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Dumler, J Stephen; Halperin, John J; McSweegan, Edward; Nadelman, Robert B; O’Connell, Susan; Shapiro, Eugene D; Sood, Sunil K; Steere, Allen C; Weinstein, Arthur; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    Advocacy for Lyme disease has become an increasingly important part of an antiscience movement that denies both the viral cause of AIDS and the benefits of vaccines and that supports unproven (sometimes dangerous) alternative medical treatments. Some activists portray Lyme disease, a geographically limited tick-borne infection, as a disease that is insidious, ubiquitous, difficult to diagnose, and almost incurable; they also propose that the disease causes mainly non-specific symptoms that can be treated only with long-term antibiotics and other unorthodox and unvalidated treatments. Similar to other antiscience groups, these advocates have created a pseudoscientific and alternative selection of practitioners, research, and publications and have coordinated public protests, accused opponents of both corruption and conspiracy, and spurred legislative efforts to subvert evidence-based medicine and peer-reviewed science. The relations and actions of some activists, medical practitioners, and commercial bodies involved in Lyme disease advocacy pose a threat to public health. PMID:21867956

  1. Antiscience and ethical concerns associated with advocacy of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G; Bakken, Johan S; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Dumler, J Stephen; Halperin, John J; McSweegan, Edward; Nadelman, Robert B; O'Connell, Susan; Shapiro, Eugene D; Sood, Sunil K; Steere, Allen C; Weinstein, Arthur; Wormser, Gary P

    2011-09-01

    Advocacy for Lyme disease has become an increasingly important part of an antiscience movement that denies both the viral cause of AIDS and the benefits of vaccines and that supports unproven (sometimes dangerous) alternative medical treatments. Some activists portray Lyme disease, a geographically limited tick-borne infection, as a disease that is insidious, ubiquitous, difficult to diagnose, and almost incurable; they also propose that the disease causes mainly non-specific symptoms that can be treated only with long-term antibiotics and other unorthodox and unvalidated treatments. Similar to other antiscience groups, these advocates have created a pseudoscientific and alternative selection of practitioners, research, and publications and have coordinated public protests, accused opponents of both corruption and conspiracy, and spurred legislative efforts to subvert evidence-based medicine and peer-reviewed science. The relations and actions of some activists, medical practitioners, and commercial bodies involved in Lyme disease advocacy pose a threat to public health.

  2. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing public health law communication linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ross D

    2008-01-01

    Although interest in the field of public health law has dramatically increased over the past two decades, there remain significant challenges in communicating and sharing public health law-related knowledge. Access to quality information, which may assist in a public health department's efforts to protect the public's health, welfare, and safety, varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interjurisdictional communication remains at best a patchwork quilt with many holes. What follows is an analysis of several approaches the Public Health Law Association or other public health law-related organizations might undertake to serve as a conduit for the identification, gathering, and dissemination of extant public health law information, as well as the development of new public health law-related content, with a particular focus on the use of electronic means for such efforts.

  4. Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Problem Language: English Español ( ... insufficient sleep is an important public health concern. Sleep-Related Unhealthy Behaviors The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance ...

  5. An Examination of the Self-directed Online Leadership Learning Choices of Public Health Professionals: The Maternal and Child Health Public Health Leadership Institute Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Claudia S P; Noble, Cheryl C; Jensen, Elizabeth T

    To assess the self-selected asynchronous leadership module-based learning choices of public health professionals participating in the Maternal and Child Health Public Health Leadership Institute (MCH PHLI). Online module completion and evaluation data were used to determine the topics most utilized by the Fellows; whether the topics and mode of training were acceptable, relevant, and practical; and whether participant characteristics explained any usage patterns. A total of 109 enrolled Fellows in the MCH PHLI program. Module frequency of selection by Fellows; Fellows' rating scores in regard to relevance, practicality, and acceptability of module topics. All program titles were highly rated. The 5 most frequently selected module topics were employee engagement (87.2%), talent acquisition strategies (84.4%), employee motivation (79.8%), emotional intelligence (78.9%), and workforce development strategies (68.8%). The least accessed topics focused on cultural competence (15.6%), social marketing (25.7%), effective communication and advocacy (25.7%), family partnerships (25.9%), and creating learning organizations (31.2%). All module topics provided were rated as relevant, practical, and acceptable to these public health leaders. Self-directed computer-based learning was rated strongly by the MCH public health leaders in this study. Such an approach can be used to customize training to individual needs and interests. These findings suggest that inclusion of skills that enable public health leaders to effectively work with and through others was of core interest in the MCH PHLI. The finding of higher usage of topics related to workforce management can provide guidance for those developing leadership development programs for maternal and child health professionals. In addition, leadership needs and interests should be assessed regularly to ensure that competency-based leadership development guidelines are adapting to the evolving and complex challenges faced by leaders

  6. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  7. The March of Dimes and Polio: Lessons in Vaccine Advocacy for Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    The polio vaccine became available in 1955, due almost entirely to the efforts of the March of Dimes. In 1921, Franklin Roosevelt gave a public face to polio and mounted a campaign to prevent it, establishing the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1938. During the Depression, U.S. citizens were asked to contribute one dime. Entertainer…

  8. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  9. 45 CFR 1386.23 - Periodic reports: Protection and Advocacy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic reports: Protection and Advocacy System... Advocacy of the Rights of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities § 1386.23 Periodic reports: Protection and Advocacy System. (a) By January 1 of each year the Protection and Advocacy System shall...

  10. 77 FR 8327 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, March 28, 2012, 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  11. 78 FR 56269 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, October 23, 2013 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  12. 78 FR 11277 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, March 27, 2013 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  13. 77 FR 20488 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, April 25, 2012, 2 p.m. Eastern Time...

  14. 78 FR 48231 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, September 25, 2013 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  15. 75 FR 62631 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint ] Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Tuesday, November 23, 2010, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  16. 75 FR 33894 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Thursday, July 8,...

  17. 77 FR 55526 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, October 24, 2012, 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  18. 78 FR 64063 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, November 27, 2013 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  19. 78 FR 3500 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, February 27, 2013 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  20. 76 FR 56880 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Thursday, October 27, 2011, 2 p.m. Eastern Time...

  1. 77 FR 67736 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Thursday, December 13, 2012, 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  2. 77 FR 47166 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, September 26, 2012, 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  3. 75 FR 4141 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Tuesday, February 23, 2010, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  4. 78 FR 41194 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Tuesday, August 6 from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m....

  5. 77 FR 40410 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, August 22, 2012, 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  6. 75 FR 47347 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint ] Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Tuesday, September 28, 2010, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  7. 75 FR 18958 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy...

  8. 77 FR 74921 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, January 23, 2013 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  9. 76 FR 63717 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, November 23, 2011, 2 p.m. Eastern Time...

  10. 77 FR 5313 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, February 22, 2012, 2 p.m., Eastern Time...

  11. 78 FR 15126 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, April 24, 2013 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  12. 76 FR 37197 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Thursday, August 25, 2011, 2 p.m. Eastern Time...

  13. 75 FR 55407 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Tuesday, October 26, 2010, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  14. 77 FR 37102 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting ] public... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Thursday, July 19, 2012, at 8 a.m....

  15. 75 FR 76522 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Tuesday, January 25, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  16. 76 FR 32021 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Monday, July 25,...

  17. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Monday, February 24, 2011, at 2 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  18. 77 FR 61054 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Wednesday, November 28, 2012, 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  19. 76 FR 45006 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be held Thursday, September 22, 2011, 2 p.m. Eastern Time...

  20. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  1. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  2. [Social medicine, public health and governance for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holčík, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.

  3. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  4. Arguing for Rural Health in Medicare: A Progressive Rhetoric for Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    Rural health policy is the laws, regulations, rules, and interpretations that benefit or affect health and health care for rural populations. This paper examines how rural health policy is viewed in the broader field of public policy, discusses the role of advocacy in developing rural health policy, and suggests ways to make that advocacy more…

  5. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on......

  6. Public Health Challenges and Priorities for Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altyn Aringazina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the largest and fastest growing post-Soviet economies in Central Asia. Despite recent improvements in health care in response to Kazakhstan 2030 and other state-mandated policy reforms, Kazakhstan still lags behind other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States of the European Region on key indicators of health and economic development. Although cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among adults, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and blood-borne infectious diseases are of increasing public health concern. Recent data suggest that while Kazakhstan has improved on some measures of population health status, many environmental and public health challenges remain. These include the need to improve public health infrastructure, address the social determinants of health, and implement better health impact assessments to inform health policies and public health practice. In addition, more than three decades after the Declaration of Alma-Ata, which was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care convened in Kazakhstan in 1978, facilitating population-wide lifestyle and behavioral change to reduce risk factors for chronic and communicable diseases, as well as injuries, remains a high priority for emerging health care reforms and the new public health. This paper reviews the current public health challenges in Kazakhstan and describes five priorities for building public health capacity that are now being developed and undertaken at the Kazakhstan School of Public Health to strengthen population health in the country and the Central Asian Region.

  7. The role of public health inspectors in maintaining housing in northern and rural communities: recommendations to support public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Stephanie; Montgomery, Phyllis; Michel, Isabelle; Warren, Claire; Larose, Tricia; Kauppi, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Although there is much evidence about the effects of particular housing conditions on health, less is known about the practices of public health inspectors (PHIs) in relation to minimizing or eliminating potential housing health risks. The purpose of this qualitative study was to illuminate the practices of PHIs in relation to types of biological and physical housing risks. This study used photo vignettes to focus on PHIs' perceptions, options, and resultant interventions with regards to typical housing risks encountered by PHIs in northeastern Ontario. The vignettes represented two general categories of potential housing risks: biological exposures, and physical characteristics of housing. During a semi-structured interview, 34 PHI participants viewed the vignettes, assessed the housing hazard depicted in each, and described the most appropriate intervention. Traditional content analysis methods were used. The assessment of the physical housing hazards was fairly consistent among the PHIs. There seemed to be more variation in their assessment of risk associated with biological factors. Variation in responses was often explained by their different interpretations of the scope of the provincial legislation as well as local public health unit policies and practices. This study demonstrated that PHIs' assessment and responses to potential physical housing hazards were influenced by an interplay between variables related to residents, local service partners, organizational culture, and policy. The recommendations for action also range from specific public health unit protocol to broader research and policy advocacy initiatives. Collectively, the recommendations focus on strategies for optimizing the role of PHIs in reducing housing health risks in mid-size urban or rural areas.

  8. Public health workforce: challenges and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaglehole Robert

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems. The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce.

  9. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  10. Physical Education's Role in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…

  11. Science of the Particular: An Advocacy of Naturalistic Case Study in Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A; Stake, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Case studies can provide us with in-depth understanding of a single demarcated entity. Cases can be corporations and clinics, but are usually people. There are several approaches to case study. Naturalistic case study constitutes the science of the particular. The aim of naturalistic case study is to understand with minimum intervention the particularity of a case in its ordinary situation from multiple perspectives. Naturalistic case study relies on a humanistic commitment to study the world from the human perspective. The purpose here is to illuminate how five key features of naturalistic case study can be used in health research. Case studies are of use in various disciplines. In this article we show that the naturalistic case study can have extraordinary value in health research, and is useful from a variety of perspectives. We do so by presenting a case report of a 92-year-old resident moving to a care center.

  12. The science of doing right: reflections on a global mental health advocacy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwan, Jasleen

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) approved an application submitted by Mount Sinai physicians, Dr Craig Katz, Dr Anna Rosen, and Dr Hiwot Woldu, and medical student Jasleen Salwan to add risperidone to the Essential Medicines List. Initiated in 1977 and updated every 2 years based on applications for revisions submitted by parties outside WHO, the list guides drug policy in developing nations around the world. Although it is not binding, it helps government officials as well as external donors set funding priorities. WHO's approval of the Mount Sinai team's application marked the first addition of an atypical antipsychotic to the list, addressing a major neglected area of global health. It is hoped that it will be followed by many more victories for underserved psychiatric patients across the globe.

  13. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  14. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  15. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  16. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  17. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

    2013-01-01

    Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government's sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations.

  18. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  19. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Milissa; Bevc, Christine A; Hegle, Jennifer; Horney, Jennifer A; Davies, Megan; MacDonald, Pia D M

    2012-02-23

    In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1) elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2) examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public health emergency preparedness and response system.

  20. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiewicz Milissa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. Methods We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1 elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2 examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Results Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Conclusions Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public

  1. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.220 Public Health Service or PHS. Public Health Service or PHS means... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  2. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  3. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  4. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  5. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  6. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  7. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  8. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  9. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  10. Public Health and Midwifery in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    JPRS: ^472 21 March 1961 PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY IN INDONESIA 3y M. Joedono DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release...established to service the translation and research needs of the various government departments. ,-^’ JPRS: J^72 CSO: 1335-S/d PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY

  11. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  12. Clinical ethics and patient advocacy: the power of communication in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Inken Annegret; Fröhlich-Güzelsoy, Leyla; Bruns, Florian; Friedrich, Bernd; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the rights of patients have assumed a more pivotal role in international discussion. Stricter laws on the protection of patients place greater priority on the perspective and the status of patients. The purpose of this study is to emphasize ethical aspects in communication, the role of patient advocates as contacts for the concerns and suggestions of patients, and how many problems of ethics disappear when communication is highlighted. We reviewed 680 documented cases of consultation in a 10-year period of patient advocates' activity at a big German university hospital with 1,300 beds. On the basis of this extensive material, the article will focus on the intersection of the advocate's work with the problems of patients in hospitals. Deficits in the level of communication between health care professionals and patients were frequently uncovered. Patients primarily complain about the lack of dialogue and empathy. Middle-aged patients consulted the patients' advocate disproportionately more often. Measured against this baseline, the group of 65 and older complained less frequently. Besides complaints the advocate was asked in more than one-third of all cases for information about medical matters, hospital regulations or administrative problems. Patients obviously see the advocate as a well-connected and ideally unbiased contact person for uncertainties concerning their malady or a potential stay in hospital. Those seeking help often set hope in the information given by the voluntary patient representative. It should be highly recommended for every German hospital to establish the position of a patient advocate. Furthermore, patients can profit from regular exchange between the advocate and the Ethics Committee, also, to help ensure that their rights are taken into account and implemented in an ethically desirable context.

  13. Public health reform and health promotion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita

    2014-06-01

    More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.

  14. Experiencing Health Advocacy During Cervical Cancer Awareness Week: A National Initiative for Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Glenn; Finlayson, Sarah; Luna, Vilma; Miller, Dianne; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Objectif : Le Collège royal des médecins et chirurgiens du Canada exige que les résidents fassent preuve de compétence dans le rôle de promoteur de la santé (PS ou promotion de la santé). Nous avons cherché à élaborer et à mettre en œuvre, à l’intention des résidents en obstétrique-gynécologie, un module pédagogique national traitant de ce rôle de PS. Ce programme pilote était centré sur la prévention du cancer du col utérin, soit un sujet se prêtant bien à l’application des principes de la promotion de la santé. Méthodes : Un module pédagogique a été élaboré et transmis à tous les programmes de résidence en obstétrique-gynécologie au Canada. Ce module décrit les options de PS mettant en jeu le dépistage de la dysplasie cervicale (telles qu’une clinique visant l’élargissement de la population desservie ou un forum d’éducation visant le public / la population étudiante) qui devaient être mises en œuvre au cours de la Semaine de sensibilisation au cancer du col de l’utérus. La réussite a été mesurée en fonction du nombre de programmes mettant en œuvre le curriculum, du nombre de résidents y ayant participé, de la diversité des projets mis en œuvre, de la nature des personnes (patientes ou apprenants) atteintes par le programme et de l’expérience globale des stagiaires. Résultats : Trois programmes ont mis en œuvre le curriculum en 2011, un programme l’a fait en 2012 et sept l’ont fait en 2013. Après trois ans, le module s’est attiré la participation directe ou indirecte de sept des 16 facultés de médecine, de plus de 100 résidents et de milliers de femmes. De plus, les attributs de la PS vécus par les résidents ont été identifiés : travail d’équipe, leadership, connaissances accrues au sujet des systèmes, capital social accru au sein de la communauté, créativité, innovation et adaptabilité. Conclusion : Nous avons démontré qu’un module pédagogique, visant

  15. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  16. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  17. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  18. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes.

  19. The State Public Health Laboratory System

    OpenAIRE

    Inhorn, Stanley L.; Astles, J. Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M.; Wilcke, Burton W.; White, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the go...

  20. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.

  1. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.

  2. The linkage of Baltimore's mental health and public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M T; Lambropoulos, A S; Williams-Glasser, G; Baron, S T; Birkmeyer, J

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's The Future of Public Health calls for a strengthening of linkages between public health and mental health, with a view to integrating the functions at the service delivery level. This paper details the history of the mental health/public health interface in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1977, mental health and addiction services were merged into the Department of Health. More recently, in 1988 adult mental health services were split off into a quasi-public corporation. Children's mental health, however, was retained as a distinct service within the Department of Health in order to enhance coordination with other health services for children. Replication of such coordinated-care models is certainly feasible.

  3. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  4. A translational framework for public health research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment...

  5. Public Health Nutrition as a Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial to develop a qualified public health nutrition workforce to reduce the NCD burden. Professionals with broad capacity within the field of public health...... nutrition are necessary to identify and respond to the current health challenges. However, public health nutrition has not been recognized as a profession in all countries. Public health nutrition (PHN) is an evolving profession within nutrition science that focuses on solving nutritional problems affecting...... population groups rather than those of individuals. Central elements of the profession are to assess the impact of various aspects of the food systems on the nutritional status, health and health inequalities of population groups, and to develop, recommend and implement evidence-based measures to improve...

  6. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  7. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  8. Economic Evaluation Enhances Public Health Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabarison, Kristina M; Bish, Connie L; Massoudi, Mehran S; Giles, Wayne H

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking "how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and/or social services?" is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.

  9. Economic evaluation enhances public health decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Rabarison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and /or social services? is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.

  10. Climate change: the public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-03-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

  11. Primary care pediatrics and public health: meeting the needs of today's children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alice A; Etzel, Ruth A; Chilton, Lance A; Watson, Camille; Gorski, Peter A

    2012-12-01

    The proportion of children suffering from chronic illnesses--such as asthma and obesity, which have significant environmental components--is increasing. Chronic disease states previously seen only in adulthood are emerging during childhood, and health inequalities by social class are increasing. Advocacy to ensure environmental health and to protect from the biological embedding of toxic stress has become a fundamental part of pediatrics. We have presented the rationale for addressing environmental and social determinants of children's health, the epidemiology of issues facing children's health, recent innovations in pediatric medical education that have incorporated public health principles, and policy opportunities that have arisen with the passage of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  12. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  13. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  14. The role of public health informatics in enhancing public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Thomas G; Foldy, Seth

    2012-07-27

    Public health surveillance has benefitted from, and has often pioneered, informatics analyses and solutions. However, the field of informatics also serves other facets of public health including emergency response, environmental health, nursing, and administration. Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is an interdisciplinary profession that applies mathematics, engineering, information science, and related social sciences (e.g., decision analysis) to important public health problems and processes. Public health informatics is a subdomain of the larger field known as biomedical or health informatics. Health informatics is not synonymous with the term health information technology (IT). Although the concept of health IT encompasses the use of technology in the field of health care, one can think of health informatics as defining the science, the how and why, behind health IT. For example, health IT professionals should be able to resolve infrastructure problems with a network connection, whereas trained public health informaticians should be able to support public health decisions by facilitating the availability of timely, relevant, and high-quality information. In other words, they should always be able to provide advice on methods for achieving a public health goal faster, better, or at a lower cost by leveraging computer science, information science, or technology.

  15. Voices of oncology nursing society members matter in advocacy and decisions related to U.S. Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saria, Marlon Garzo; Stone, Alec; Walton, AnnMarie Lee; Brown, Gean; Norton, Vicki; Barton-Burke, Margaret

    2014-12-01

    The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS), a member of the Nursing Organizations Alliance, invests in advocating for health and public policy decisions by sending members to the Nurse in Washington Internship (NIWI) program annually. NIWI provides a forum to educate nurses on the legislative process, giving attendees a better understanding of political, legislative, and regulatory issues facing nurses. The 2014 ONS delegation participated in training and lobbying focused on federal funding issues, nursing education, workforce oversight, and funding for nursing research. The three-day program ended with a Capitol Hill visit where nurses met with their respective legislators or their staff, using skills learned at NIWI briefings to influence policy for nurses and the patients they serve. Critical health and public policy decisions affecting nurses, their practice, and their patients require participation in and understanding of the legislative process. This article provides a glimpse into the three-day experience of the delegates attending the 2014 NIWI.

  16. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Chelsea A.

    2010-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  17. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  18. Law as a tool of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, S O

    2009-06-01

    The preservation of the public's health is one of the most important goals of government. The enactment and enforcement of law is the primary means by which government can encourage as well as compel conditions for healthier and safer lifestyles. The Law creates and assigns functions for public health authorities. In this regard, law is a fundamental element of effective public health policy and practice. It has played a crucial role in many of public health's greatest achievements. In spite of its contribution to effective Public Health practice, the potential for the application of law to chronic disease prevention and control is yet to be fully recognized. The development and implementation of legal frameworks could broaden the range of effective public health strategies and provide valuable tools for the public health workforce. In order to expand the range of effective public health interventions, the government should use the law as a tool to achieve the goal of preventing chronic diseases and ameliorate the growing epidemic of obesity, heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases and their risk factors.

  19. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  20. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  1. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  2. Twenty-First Century Pathologists' Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy Craig

    2017-07-01

    Pathologists' advocacy plays a central role in the establishment of continuously improving patient care quality and patient safety, and in the maintenance and progress of pathology as a profession. Pathology advocacy's primary goal is the betterment of patient safety and quality medical care; however, payment is a necessary and appropriate component to both, and has a central role in advocacy. Now is the time to become involved in pathology advocacy; the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA) are 2 of the most consequential pieces of legislation impacting the pathology and laboratory industry in the last 20 years. Another current issue of far-reaching impact for pathologists is balance billing, and yet many pathologists have little or no understanding of balance billing. Pathologists at all stages of their careers, and in every professional setting, need to participate. Academic pathologists have a special obligation to, if not become directly involved in advocacy, at least have a broad and current understanding of those issues, as well as the need and responsibility of pathologists to actively engage in advocacy efforts to address them, in order to teach residents the place of advocacy, and its value, as an inseparable and indispensable component of their professional responsibilities.

  3. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kanekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported.  Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential.  In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health.  There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  4. SHOULD WE HAVE FACULTIES OF PUBLIC HEALTH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H W

    1924-02-15

    Public health is the science and art of conscious physical adjustment between man and his surroundings in the universe. The modern conception of man as a product of and a part of nature brings the subject of man's individual physical adjustments with his immediate surroundings into its proper place as the fundamental study-the basis of every form of education. Hence, public health is not only eligible for a position as an independent faculty in any university but is as definitely entitled to such a place as any of those now recognized. It is futile to consider the ordinary 45 hour course in public health, furnished as an incident in the ordinary 4000 to 5000 hour medical course, as more than a smattering, offered to medical students alone, of the 900 to 4500 hour courses in public health offered to professional public health students.

  5. 45 CFR 1386.20 - Designated State Protection and Advocacy agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated State Protection and Advocacy agency... Advocacy of the Rights of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities § 1386.20 Designated State Protection and Advocacy agency. (a) The designating official must designate the State official or public...

  6. 45 CFR 1386.21 - Requirements and authority of the Protection and Advocacy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Advocacy System. 1386.21 Section 1386.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... Protection and Advocacy of the Rights of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities § 1386.21 Requirements and authority of the Protection and Advocacy System. (a) In order for a State to receive...

  7. 45 CFR 1386.24 - Non-allowable costs for the Protection and Advocacy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Advocacy System. 1386.24 Section 1386.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... Protection and Advocacy of the Rights of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities § 1386.24 Non-allowable costs for the Protection and Advocacy System. (a) Federal financial participation is not allowable...

  8. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  9. Personalizing public health: your health avatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Chrystian; McNamara, Anusha; Sorge, Lindsay; Arya, Vibhuti

    2013-01-01

    To describe the creation of a health avatar, with the goals of providing patients with complete health information from various sources, establishing an interactive and customizable platform, empowering users to determine how the health information best fits or speaks to their personal needs, and providing perspective by comparing the health status of the individual with that of the individual's community. The Internet is rapidly becoming integrated into Americans' daily lives. According to the 2007 Health Information National Trends Study, 69% of U.S. adults had access to the Internet and 23% reported using a social networking site. The impact of social media has further grown, and an estimated 50% of adults in America have a profile on social media. The potential for using cyber communities to improve health messaging is great. Several health care organizations have implemented the use of social media in a variety of ways to varying degrees of success. We propose a platform that automatically gathers information and reflects the health status of an individual back to the user. An avatar, which is a representation of a user, could be created and assigned characteristics that allow users to appreciate their health status. The health avatar platform also would allow users to compare their personal status with that of their community. The overall goal is to engage and then motivate users to improve their overall health status. Medicine must acknowledge the evolving relationships that the next generation of patients will have with technology. The health avatar is a platform that incorporates a connection with the health system through electronic medical records and connects individuals to the greater community.

  10. Health care access for refugees and immigrants with precarious status: public health and human right challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; ter Kuile, Sonia; Munoz, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Ouimet, Marie-Jo; Kirmayer, Laurence; Crépeau, François

    2008-01-01

    Migration flux is being transformed by globalization, and the number of people with either undocumented or with a precarious status is growing in Canada. There are no epidemiological data on the health and social consequences of this situation, but clinicians working in primary care with migrants and refugees are increasingly worried about the associated morbidity. This commentary summarizes findings from a pilot study with health professionals in the Montreal area and suggests that the uninsured population predicament is a national problem. Although ethical and legal issues associated with data collection by clinicians, institutions and governments need to be examined, estimating the public health consequences and long-term cost associated with problems in access to health care due to migratory status should be a priority. Current regulations and administrative policies appear to be at odds with the principles of equal rights set out by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Beyond the commitment of individual clinicians, Canadian medical associations should take an advocacy role and scrutinize the ethical and medical implications of the present system.

  11. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  12. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  13. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  14. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Or¬ganization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of to¬bacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are ei¬ther directly engaged in tobacco industry oper-ations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that chal¬lenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy.Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian gov¬ernment’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advo¬cacy campaign (May to October 2010 to chal¬lenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy.Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsor¬ship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies in¬cluding en¬gaging all concerned government agencies from the be¬ginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes.Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strate¬gies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an impor¬tant advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for im¬provements in national tobacco control regulations.

  15. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure.

  16. [Empowerment in the public health practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Shu-Li

    2011-02-01

    Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge.

  17. International Advocacy against DDT and Other Public Health Insecticides for Malaria Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    2010 Nov 15. 17. Betlem J. Importancia mundial de los resultados del proyecto : Programa Mundial sobre demonstracion y aumento de alterna- tivas...Demonstration of Sustainable Alternatives for Malaria Vector Control without the Use of DDT in Mexico and Central America”], Proyecto DDT/PNUMA/GEF/OPS [DDT...epidemiológico de la malaria en las comunidades de los proyectos demostrativos en Meso América. Presented at V Reunion del Comite Directivo “Programa

  18. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  19. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305

  20. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region's fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine's fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as amongst other actors. Hence, the Ukraine

  1. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bridging radiology and public health: the emerging field of radiologic public health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollura, Daniel J; Carrino, John A; Matuszak, Diane L; Mnatsakanyan, Zaruhi R; Eng, John; Cutchis, Protagoras; Babin, Steven M; Sniegoski, Carol; Lombardo, Joseph S

    2008-03-01

    Radiology and public health have an emerging opportunity to collaborate, in which radiology's vast supply of imaging data can be integrated into public health information systems for epidemiologic assessments and responses to population health problems. Fueling the linkage of radiology and public health include (i) the transition from analog film to digital formats, enabling flexible use of radiologic data; (ii) radiology's role in imaging across nearly all medical and surgical subspecialties, which establishes a foundation for a consolidated and uniform database of images and reports for public health use; and (iii) the use of radiologic data to characterize disease patterns in a population occupying a geographic area at one time and to characterize disease progression over time via follow-up examinations. The backbone for this integration is through informatics projects such as Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms and RadLex constructing terminology libraries and ontologies, as well as algorithms integrating data from the electronic health record and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Structured Reporting. Radiology's role in public health is being tested in disease surveillance systems for outbreak detection and bioterrorism, such as the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Challenges for radiologic public health informatics include refining the systems and user interfaces, adhering to privacy regulations, and strengthening collaborative relations among stakeholders, including radiologists and public health officials. Linking radiology with public health, radiologic public health informatics is a promising avenue through which radiology can contribute to public health decision making and health policy.

  3. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  4. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  5. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using......Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  6. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  7. The stigmatization dilemma in public health policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-resistant bacteria pose an increasing and significant public health risk. As awareness of the severity of the problem grows, it is likely that it will become the target for a range of public health interventions. Some of these can intentionally or unintentionally lead...... to stigmatization of groups of citizens. Discussion The article describes the phenomenon of stigmatization within the health care area by discussing the concept in relation to AIDS and psychiatric diagnosis. It unfolds the ethical aspects of using stigmatization as a public health instrument to affect unwanted...... behaviours e.g. smoking. Moreover it discusses stigmatization as an unintended albeit expected side effect of public health instruments potentially used to counter the challenge of multi-resistant bacteria with particular reference to the Danish case of the growing problems with Methicillin...

  8. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing complexit

  9. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  10. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  11. Integrating Advanced Molecular Technologies into Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Marta; MacCannell, Duncan R; Khabbaz, Rima F

    2017-03-01

    Advances in laboratory and information technologies are transforming public health microbiology. High-throughput genome sequencing and bioinformatics are enhancing our ability to investigate and control outbreaks, detect emerging infectious diseases, develop vaccines, and combat antimicrobial resistance, all with increased accuracy, timeliness, and efficiency. The Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) initiative has allowed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide leadership and coordination in integrating new technologies into routine practice throughout the U.S. public health laboratory system. Collaboration and partnerships are the key to navigating this transition and to leveraging the next generation of methods and tools most effectively for public health.

  12. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  13. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  14. Advocacy to address disabling diseases: TDR holds brainstorming session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The UN Development Program/World Bank/World Health Organization's Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases hosted a meeting in January 1998 to discuss new ways of generating sustained commitment to combat disabling tropical diseases, such as filariasis and onchocerciasis. The participants agreed that advocacy should be targeted to a wider audience than the health sector, including international donors, industry, national governments, and endemic communities themselves. Advocacy efforts will be supported by development of a standard protocol that will 1) identify and present the type of evidence that generates sustainable commitment, 2) develop and use appropriate messages for each audience, 3) evaluate new advocacy approaches for their impact on behavioral change and disease control, and 4) evaluate advocacy campaigns. Advocacy about lymphatic filariasis will target all levels, while advocacy about onchocerciasis will target national and local levels.

  15. Trending now: future directions in digital media for the public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Scally, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Digital media usage is expanding enormously and is starting to be used as a public health intervention and communication tool. It has an ability to increase the reach of public health research and communication, as well as drive measurable behaviour change. But there is an absence of both deep and wide understanding of the opportunities within digital media, i.e. most people think only of Facebook and Twitter when they think of social media; smart, strategic planning for its widespread use is not common practice and rigorous evaluative studies of its effectiveness are few and far between. This paper analyses the published literature on this topic and identifies the top 10 directions that use of digital media is likely to take in the medium term. The analysis strongly supports the position that digital media needs to be taken seriously as a vehicle for public health activity in its own right and not merely as an adjunct to other campaigns. Digital media will continue to develop and move from being an add-on to existing activity to being the major vehicle for significant elements of research, data collection and advocacy. It is important that public health leaders fully understand and engage in its development and use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. for permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  17. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  18. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  19. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  20. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall.

  1. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  2. Pooling academic resources for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J M; Hayakawa, J M

    1994-01-01

    In January 1984, the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) was established, bringing together 5 schools of public health with the objectives: to raise the quality of professional education in public health; to enhance the knowledge and skills of health workers through joint projects; to solve health problems through closer links with each other and with ministries of health; to increase opportunities for graduate students through curriculum development; and to make child survival a major priority. The Consortium now comprises 31 academic institutions or units in 16 countries, and is supported by UNICEF, The World Health Organization, the China Medical Board of New York, and the governments of Japan and Malaysia. During 1985-1992, it also received major support from the United States through the US Agency for International Development and the University of Hawaii. During the past 10 years, APACPH has carried out such activities as setting up a data bank on the programs of its members, assessing public health problems, designing new curriculum and systems for service delivery, facilitating information and faculty exchanges, and running workshops for academic administrators. It has also organized conferences on the impact of urbanization on health, aging, child survival, AIDS, and occupational health. Since 1987 it has published the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, the only English language journal on public health issues in the Asia and Pacific region, which will feature work being done by non-English-speaking researchers. Emphasis in the coming years will be placed on setting common standards for teaching and research, so that members can make more use of each other's programs. It is hoped that membership of the Consortium will continue to expand. A particular concern will be to focus more resources on preventive care rather than curative.

  3. Graduate public health training in healthcare of refugee asylum seekers and clinical human rights: evaluation of an innovative curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    An innovative curriculum was developed to equip public health students with appropriate attitude and skills to address healthcare of asylum seekers. Implemented in 2005 the curriculum included: (1) didactic sessions covering epidemiology and health sequelae of torture, asylum laws, and approaches to identify survivors' healthcare needs; (2) panel discussions with survivors and advocates; and (3) participating in medico-legal process of asylum seeking. Complementary mixed methods evaluations included pre- and post-curriculum questionnaires, formal curriculum evaluations, final papers and oral presentations. 125 students participated. Students showed improved knowledge regrading sequelae of abuse and survivors' healthcare needs (P rights careers. As an advocacy and cultural competency training in public health practice addressing healthcare of refugees domestically, this curriculum was well received and effective, and will also help students better serve other similar populations. Population case-based domestic opportunities to teach global health and health and human rights should be effectively utilized to develop a well-equipped global health corps.

  4. Defining and Developing Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra eKarkee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Public Health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of Public Health. However, the exact meaning of Global Public Health is still unclear resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high and low and middle income countries, and the process of globalisation need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course.Global Public Health and Public Health are not separable and Global Public Health often appears as an extension of Public Health in the era of globalisation and interdependence. Though Global Public Health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practised as health problems and their solutions set within low and middle income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low and middle income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalisation and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society and politics; and management are important.

  5. Assessment of Public Health Infrastructure to Determine Public Health Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    62 Confirmed Positive 39 92 42 Residences Abated 40 92 43 Rabies and Zoonosis Control 2 Animal Bite Investigation3 1,280 … … Pets...Shops Inspected 9 9 100 Notes: 1 LHER: Local Health Evaluation Report 2 Zoonosis : Diseases transmitted from animals to humans 3 Number of...5,984 5,984 Childhood Lead Poisoning Risk assessments 2 466 932 Residences abated 8 40 320 Rabies and Zoonosis Control 2 Animal

  6. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Empowerment, self-advocacy and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodley, Dan

    2005-12-01

    This article critiques the relationship between the aims of 'learning disability' policy and the realities of the self-advocacy movement. A previous study found that self-advocacy can be defined as the public recognition of the resilience of people with learning difficulties. In the current climate of Valuing People, partnership boards and 'user empowerment', understanding resilience is crucial to the support of authentic forms of self-advocacy. This article aims to address such a challenge. First, understandings of resilience in relation to self-empowerment and self-advocacy are briefly considered. Second, the current policy climate and service provision rhetoric are critically explored. Third, it is argued that we need to recognize how self-advocacy groups celebrate resilience through a variety of social and identity-shifting actions. How current policy responds to these aspects of resilience is questioned. It is concluded that the lived reality of self-advocacy needs to be foregrounded in any attempt to understand empowerment.

  8. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones Fact sheet N° ... an estimated 6.9 billion subscriptions globally. The electromagnetic fields produced by mobile phones are classified by the ...

  9. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.

  10. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use.

  11. VT - Environmental Public Health Tracking Data Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — What is Environmental Public Health Tracking?Tracking is an ongoing national effort to better understand how environmental hazards can contribute to certain...

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Public Health Threat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance is a global threat and has reached ... and World Health Organization (WHO) have taken ... and 5) Education of the public. .... to decrease transmission of microbes and ... interventions are designed for behavioral change.

  13. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  14. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  15. Swedish public health policy: Impact on regional and local public health practice and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenzius, Marlene; Wamala, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the Swedish National Public Health Policy to determine its impact on public health priorities and practice at regional and local levels between 2004 and 2013. We conducted a survey by questionnaire in February 2013 among Swedish county councils/regions (n=19/21), and municipalities (n=219/290). The National Public Health Policy facilitated systematic public health practice, particularly for planning, for high priority concerns, including conditions during childhood and adolescence, physical activity, and tobacco prevention. Respondents expressed need for a comprehensive monitoring system with comparable indicators nationwide and explicit measurable objectives. To ensure effective monitoring and follow-up, the measurable outcomes need direct relevance to decision making and high-priority public health issues addressing Sweden's "overarching public health goal" - to create societal conditions for good health on equal terms for the entire population.

  16. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders.

  17. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  18. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the microbiological origin. The impressive progress in understanding the nexus between soil and health has been achieved by experimentation with preserved soil microbial systems functioning along with the metagenomic characterization. The objective of this work is to present an overview of some recent onsets. In the food safety arena, survival of human pathogens in soils has been related to the degree of soil eutrophication and/or related structure of soil microbial communities. Soil microbial systems affect the affinity of plants to internalizing pathogenic organisms. Pharmaceutical arsenals benefit from using field soil environment for developing antibiotics. Enzyme production by soil bacteria is used as the signal source for drug activation. Sanitary functions of sols are dependent on soil microbial system workings. The healthy living can be enhanced by the human immune system training received from direct contact with soils. The hygiene hypothesis considers the microbial input due to exposure to soil as the essential ecosystem service. The invisible links between soil and public health result in large-scale consequences. Examples of concurrent degradation of soil and public health are worth scrutinizing. Public health records can provide valuable sources of 'soil-public health' interactions. It may be worthwhile to examine current assessments of soil health from the public health standpoint. Soil management can be an efficient instrument of public health control.

  19. Integrating child health information systems in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Debra; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol; Wild, Ellen L; Mann, Marie Y

    2009-01-01

    Public health agencies at state and local levels are integrating information systems to improve health outcomes for children. An assessment was conducted to describe the extent to which public health agencies are currently integrating child health information systems (CHIS). Using online technology information was collected, to assess completed and planned activities related to integration of CHIS, maturity of these systems, and factors that influence decisions by public health agencies to pursue integration activities. Of the 39 public health agencies that participated, 18 (46%) reported already integrating some or all of their CHIS, and 13 (33%) reported to be planning to integrate during the next 3 years. Information systems most commonly integrated include Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), immunization, vital records, and Newborn Dried Bloodspot Screening (NDBS). Given the high priority that has been placed on using technology to improve health status in the United States, the emphasis on expanding the capability for the electronic exchange of health information, and federal support for electronic health records by 2014, public health agencies should be encouraged and supported in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain integrated CHIS to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information with the clinical healthcare sector.

  20. Law, liability, and public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sharona; Goodman, Richard A; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-06-01

    According to many experts, a public health emergency arising from an influenza pandemic, bioterrorism attack, or natural disaster is likely to develop in the next few years. Meeting the public health and medical response needs created by such an emergency will likely involve volunteers, health care professionals, public and private hospitals and clinics, vaccine manufacturers, governmental authorities, and many others. Conducting response activities in emergency circumstances may give rise to numerous issues of liability, and medical professionals and other potential responders have expressed concern about liability exposure. Providers may face inadequate resources, an insufficient number of qualified personnel, overwhelming demand for services, and other barriers to providing optimal treatment, which could lead to injury or even death in some cases. This article describes the different theories of liability that may be used by plaintiffs and the sources of immunity that are available to public health emergency responders in the public sector, private sector, and as volunteers. It synthesizes the existing immunity landscape and analyzes its gaps. Finally, the authors suggest consideration of the option of a comprehensive immunity provision that addresses liability protection for all health care providers during public health emergencies and that, consequently, assists in improving community emergency response efforts.

  1. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory.

  2. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  3. Dental public health in India: An insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Arshdeep; Sandhu, Anmol Rattan Singh; Dhaliwal, Angad Prakash Singh

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major public health problem, and their burden is on increase in many low- and middle-income countries. Dental public health (DPH) aims to improve the oral health of the population through preventive and curative services. However, its achievements in India are being questioned probably because of lack of proficiency and skill among DPH personnel. The literature search for the present study was conducted utilizing various search engines and electronic databases such as PubMed and MEDLINE. Documents related to the Central and State Governments of India were also considered. Finally, 26 articles were selected for the present study from which relevant information can be extracted. The present study focuses on some of the important aspects relating to DPH in India such as priority for oral health, DPH workforce and curriculum, utilization of DPH personnel in providing primary oral health care, role of mobile dental vans, and research in DPH. It was concluded that more attention should be given toward preventive oral health care by employing more number of public health dentists in public sector, strengthening DPH education and research, and combining oral health programs with general health-care programs.

  4. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  5. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  6. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  7. Political Economy of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  8. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  9. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  10. A public health approach to reducing morbidity and mortality among homeless people in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, James J; Mattison, Shawn; Judge, Christine M; Allen, H Joslyn Strupp; Koh, Howard K

    2005-01-01

    Urban homeless populations suffer disproportionately high rates of premature death. In response to a wave of highly publicized deaths on the streets of Boston during the winter of 1998-1999, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) convened a task force to investigate these deaths and implement an integrated response to this public health crisis. Comprised of a broad coalition of public and private agencies as well as homeless persons and advocacy groups, the MDPH Task Force reviewed the circumstances surrounding the 13 deaths, monitored subsequent deaths among homeless persons in Boston, and implemented a comprehensive plan to address critical needs and prevent further deaths. Contrary to the task force's initial assumption, the 13 decedents had multiple recent contacts with the medical, psychiatric, and substance abuse systems. In response to this finding, the MDPH Task Force sought to improve continuity of care and prevent future deaths among Boston's street population. Coordination of needed services was achieved through the creation of new, and often unconventional, partnerships. This case study exemplifies a public health practice response to the vexing health care challenges confronting homeless people who must struggle to survive on the streets and in shelters.

  11. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...... workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...... is able to cope with the tensions associated with diverse values and competing institutional logics. This definition calls for an understanding of the tensions between values associated with quality, efficiency and integrity, and a dialectical perspective when attempting to assess the integration as well...

  12. Big social data analytics for public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Hansen, Kjeld; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, social media has offered new opportunities for interaction and distribution of public health information within and across organisations. In this paper, we analysed data from Facebook walls of 153 public organisations using unsupervised machine learning techniques to understand...... the characteristics of user engagement and post performance. Our analysis indicates an increasing trend of user engagement on public health posts during recent years. Based on the clustering results, our analysis shows that Photo and Link type posts are most favourable for high and medium user engagement respectively....

  13. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  14. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  15. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  16. Exploring synergies between human rights and public health ethics: A whole greater than the sum of its parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fields of human rights and public health ethics are each concerned with promoting health and elucidating norms for action. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may make a more comprehensive contribution to resolving normative health issues and to advancing a normative framework for global health action than either approach made alone. We explore this synergy by first providing overviews of public health ethics and of international human rights law relevant to health and, second, by articulating complementarities between human rights and public health ethics. Discussion We argue that public health ethics can contribute to human rights by: (a reinforcing the normative claims of international human rights law, (b strengthening advocacy for human rights, and (c bridging the divide between public health practitioners and human rights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how human rights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c recognition of the protection of human rights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that human rights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations. Summary Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and human rights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach.

  17. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  18. Public health 101 nanocourse: a condensed educational tool for non-public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cherie L; Gajdos, Zofia K Z; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2015-03-01

    Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows-including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)-have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health.

  19. Patient advocacy in the USA: key communication role functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donald R; Tipton, Bryan K

    2007-09-01

    Researchers have long documented the importance of patient advocacy programs as a means of providing customer service in health-care organizations. Yet, while effective communication is often acknowledged as key to effective patient advocacy, knowledge of the specific communication role functions enacted by patient advocates remains limited, as does our understanding of the function of patient advocacy at the organizational level. This qualitative investigation not only provides a typology of communication roles enacted by patient advocates while solving problems on behalf of patients and their family members, but also integrates scholarly research on "boundary-spanning" as a means of theoretically contextualizing the advocacy role at the organizational level.

  20. Remote Sensing, Air Quality, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstratio'n projects which could be part of the EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

  1. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  2. Conceptual model of communications in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марія Андріївна Знаменська

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. The role of communications in effective reform of public health in the country is discovered in scientific literature last time. But there are no works that fully present the system of communications in public health; this fact defined actuality of the given research.Methods. The next scientific methods are used in this work: structural and logical analysis, conceptual modeling. The systematic approach became a base of research. Results. There was elaborated conceptual model of the system of communications in public health its node idea is a consistent solution of the priority problem of supply the population of the country in whole and the separate task groups of communicative impact with complex objective information in the system of public health. At constructing of the model there were separated the next groups of problems: structural construction of the system of communication; supply of the system with resources; methods and means of communication; monitoring and assessment of efficiency of communication.Conclusions. The use of this model allows at optimal costs to eliminate the organizational and administrative defects and increase an awareness of the people in organization of public health, in maintenance and improvement of personal health

  3. Improving Team Performance for Public Health Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Megan; Scullard, Mickey; Hedberg, Craig; Moilanen, Emily; Radi, Deborah; Riley, William; Bowen, Paige Anderson; Petersen-Kroeber, Cheryl; Stenberg, Louise; Olson, Debra K

    2017-02-01

    Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response. Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises. Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period. Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7-10).

  4. 75 FR 11999 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  5. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  6. 76 FR 10945 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  7. 75 FR 39332 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  8. 75 FR 7542 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  9. 76 FR 6190 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  10. 78 FR 78516 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer...

  11. 76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  12. 78 FR 22948 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer...

  13. 78 FR 36303 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  14. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  15. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee. AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  16. 77 FR 21156 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  17. 76 FR 22168 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  18. 78 FR 22947 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  19. 78 FR 41194 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notices and Correspondence Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer...

  20. 78 FR 28945 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Joint Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Joint Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer...

  1. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee... of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Notice Improvement Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and suggestions on improving customer service at...

  2. Public Spending on Health as Political Instrument?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fielding, David; Freytag, Andreas; Münch, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that the type of the political regime does not only drive public spending on health, but that dependent on the type of regime inequality in health status within its population is fostered by applying selective strategies. An empirical analysis is conducted for 132 low- and middle...... income states for the years 1995-2010. A simple political economic framework is implemented in order to analyse the rational of policy makers in implementing effective health care provision....

  3. Autonomous public organization policy: a case study for the health sector in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajataramya, B; Fried, B; van der Pütten, M; Pongpanich, S

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes factors affecting autonomous public organization (APO) policy agenda setting and policy formation through comparison of policy processes applied to one educational institute under the Ministry of Education and the other educational institute under the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand. This study employs mixed method including a qualitative approach through documentary research, in-depth interviews, and participant observation. Factors that facilitated the formulation of the APO policy were: (1) awareness of need; (2) clarity of strategies; (3) leadership, advocacy, and strategic partnerships, (4) clear organizational identity; (5) participatory approach to policy formulation, and (6) identification of a policy window. Factors that impeded the formulation of the APO policy were: (1) diverting political priorities; (2) ill-defined organizational identity; (3) fluctuating leadership direction, (4) inadequate participation of stakeholders; and (5) political instability. Although findings cannot be generalized, this case study does offer benchmarking for those in search of ways to enhance processes of policy formulation.

  4. Public Health (AFSC 43HX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    D238 Write training reports 1.41 3 D234 Score tests .65 16 0014 3. Occupational Health E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference...hazard reports 2.22 9 E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference files 1.59 6 0024 3j. Industrial Case files B B 131 Update shop...0048 3bb. Indoor Air Quality B E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference files 1.59 6 0050 4a. Food Inspection Program B E242

  5. Parks, recreation, and public health collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy

    2008-12-03

    The primary goal of many park and recreation agencies is to provide resources and programs that improve quality of life for the community. Increasing physical activity is one aspect of this agenda. Promoting physical activity is a public health goal; however, increasing population-level physical activity will require access to places for physical activity (e.g. parks). Practitioners and policy makers need more information to document the roles that parks and recreation facilities play to promote physical activity and contribute to public health. A working group of approximately 20 professionals experienced in data collection came together to discuss the needs for better surveillance and measurement instruments in the fields of parks, recreation, and public health. The working group made two major recommendations: (1) the need for collaborative research and data sharing, and (2) the need for surveillance measures to demonstrate the amount of health-related physical activity acquired in the park setting.

  6. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... The JPB Foundation 2016 Bladder Cancer ... 2016 Young Investigator Awardees The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) has announced the recipients of the 2016 ...

  7. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  8. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in “Austerity Britain”: A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rafighi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 indepth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers. Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.

  9. Advocacy and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    A highly structured treatment is presented of adversarial systems as they apply to technology assessment. One approach to the problem of adequate criteria of assessment focuses upon the internal operations of assessment entities; operations include problem perception, problem formulation, selection, utilization, determination, and evaluation. Potential contributions of advocacy as a mode of inquiry in technology are discussed; advocacy is evaluated by representative sets of criteria of adequate assessment which include participant criteria, perspectives criteria, situations criteria, base values criteria, and strategies criteria.

  10. Blurring personal health and public priorities: an analysis of celebrity health narratives in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christina S; Aubuchon, Stellina M; McKenna, Timothy P; Ruhl, Stephanie; Simmons, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the functions of personal celebrity health narratives in the public sphere. This study examines data about 157 celebrities, including athletes, actors, musicians, and politicians, who have shared private information regarding a personal health situation (or that of a loved one) with others in the public domain. Part of a larger project on celebrity health narratives, this article highlights three key functions that celebrity health narratives perform--education, inspiration, and activism--and discusses the implications for celebrities and for public conversations about health-related issues.

  11. Public health and health education in faith communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, L M; Levin, J S; Ellison, C G

    1998-12-01

    This special issue of Health Education & Behavior is devoted to broadly examining the interconnections among public health, health education, and faith-based communities. In addition to a focus on questions related to the practice of public health and health education within religious settings (e.g., program development, implementation, and evaluation), the articles in this issue examine a broad range of both substantive and methodological questions and concerns. These articles include contributions that address (1) various theoretical and conceptual issues and frameworks explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health; (2) substantive reviews of current research in the area; (3) individual empirical studies exploring the associations between religious involvement and health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; (4) evaluations of health education programs in faith communities; and (5) religious institutions and their contributions to the development of health policy. The articles comprising the issue are selective in their coverage of the field and provide different and complementary perspectives on the connections between religious involvement and health. It is hoped that this approach will appeal to a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others from health education, public health, and related social and behavioral science disciplines.

  12. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Prematurity: an overview and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Marie C; Litt, Jonathan S; Smith, Vincent C; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of premature births in the United States remains a public health concern. These infants experience substantial morbidity and mortality in the newborn period, which translate into significant medical costs. In early childhood, survivors are characterized by a variety of health problems, including motor delay and/or cerebral palsy, lower IQs, behavior problems, and respiratory illness, especially asthma. Many experience difficulty with school work, lower health-related quality of life, and family stress. Emerging information in adolescence and young adulthood paints a more optimistic picture, with persistence of many problems but with better adaptation and more positive expectations by the young adults. Few opportunities for prevention have been identified; therefore, public health approaches to prematurity include assurance of delivery in a facility capable of managing neonatal complications, quality improvement to minimize interinstitutional variations, early developmental support for such infants, and attention to related family health issues.

  14. Public Health needs modified strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rathi MBBS, M.Sc Epidemiology, Assistant Professor, Department Of Community Medicine, S. B. K. S. Medical Institute and Research Centre, Piparia, Vadodara - 391760, Gujarat, Email -rathisj@yahoo.com

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available is a fast changing field. In fact, the whole concept of diagnosing and treating a patient is modifying rapidly. Benchmarks of the medical progress are continually changing: infectious/communicable diseases ravaged mankind for centuries but the dramatic decline in infectious/communicable diseases, during mid 19th century due to improvements in sanitation, nutrition and general living conditions among affluent countries has changed the picture. But due to re-emergence of certain infectious/communicable diseases the World Health Report 1996 declared that infectious/communicable diseases have not only become the world's leading cause of premature death, but they also threaten to cripple social and economic development in developing countries1. And here we are living in the twenty-first century still bewildered and confused by infectious/communicable diseases despite the availability of vaccination, latest diagnostic facilities, chemotherapy and above all well-trained medical professionals. What makes the scenario particularly tragic is that most infectious/communicable diseases are easily treatable; the failure is operational one. .........

  15. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  16. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  17. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems.

  18. Public policy frameworks for improving population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlov, A R

    1999-01-01

    Four conceptual frameworks provide bases for constructing comprehensive public policy strategies for improving population health within wealthy (OECD) nations. (1) Determinants of population health. There are five broad categories: genes and biology, medical care, health behaviors, the ecology of all living things, and social/societal characteristics. (2) Complex systems: Linear effects models and multiple independent effects models fail to yield results that explain satisfactorily the dynamics of population health production. A different method (complex systems modeling) is needed to select the most effective interventions to improve population health. (3) An intervention framework for population health improvement. A two-by-five grid seems useful. Most intervention strategies are either ameliorative or fundamentally corrective. The other dimension of the grid captures five general categories of interventions: child development, community development, adult self-actualization, socioeconomic well-being, and modulated hierarchical structuring. (4) Public policy development process: the process has two phases. The initial phase, in which public consensus builds and an authorizing environment evolves, progresses from values and culture to identification of the problem, knowledge development from research and experience, the unfolding of public awareness, and the setting of a national agenda. The later phase, taking policy action, begins with political engagement and progresses to interest group activation, public policy deliberation and adoption, and ultimately regulation and revision. These frameworks will be applied to help understand the 39 recommendations of the Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health, the Sir Donald Acheson Report from the United Kingdom, which is the most ambitious attempt to date to develop a comprehensive plan to improve population health.

  19. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2016-07-19

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible.

  20. Mapping the health indicators of Chhattisgarh: A public health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiruchi Galhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The state of Chhattisgarh today faces several challenges in improving the health status of its people. The on-going problems of maternal and child mortality, communicable diseases, and HIV/AIDS pandemic still need greater interventions/support from the already overburdened health systems. In addition, the public health challenges include the escalating burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Keeping all these things in mind a study was carried out to have an overview of the public health scenario of Chhattisgarh. Aim: This paper aims to review the different public health indicators of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of reviewing different health indicators of Chhattisgarh adopting three different methods during the period March-April 2013. The methods were: (i extensive online search, (ii reviewing the related literatures from different journals and other authentic printed materials, and (iii information collected from public health experts through e-mail, telephone, or direct interaction. Results: Out of 2.55 crore populations in the state (as per Census 2011, 78% lives in rural areas and 37% of the population is tribal. The sex ratio is 968 and the literacy rate is 65.5% in population above 7 years of age. There is a shortage of trained health care providers in Chhattisgarh. The crude birth rate is 23.5 per 1000 (population Annual Health Survey [AHS] 2011-2012. The infant mortality rate is 48 per 1000 live births (SRS 2012. Malnutrition, anemia, sickle cell hemoglobinopathy, Beta thalassemia trait, and G6 PD enzyme deficiency are very high among the tribes of Chhattisgarh. Malaria has been a major health problem. Chhattisgarh is one of the states with annual parasite index >5 (MRC report. The other states are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka, Goa, Southern Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Northeastern states. Conclusion: From a public health point of view, most of the health indicators are below

  1. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  2. The public health evaluation of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado De Vito

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines represent some of the most important tools available for the prevention of diseases. In addition to protecting the vaccinated individual from developing a potentially serious disease, they help protect the community by reducing the spread of infectious agents. Therefore, there are not only benefits for the single individual, but also advantages for the entire community and the society. This very simple consideration makes unique the public health evaluation of vaccines, with substantial differences with other public health interventions and a need to adopt different criteria to develop recommendations for use. The public health evaluation of vaccines is challenged by several factors. Vaccine randomized trials often lack adequate sample size, fail to provide critical study details, exclude important populations, and rely on proxies for important outcomes.

  3. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws.

  4. Coupling Public Health and Climate Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, C.; Wolff, M.

    2016-12-01

    Centralized policies and programs are critical to forwarding sustainable practices and improving health. Yet without communication tools and the participation of local residents and policy makers, cities are limited in how much they can achieve. The objective of this presentation is to highlight solutions developed by the San Francisco Department Public Health that intelligently use data-driven planning and on-line communication to engage communities in climate change action and build sustainable and healthy neighborhoods. Climate change is expected to more seriously affect the health and well-being of communities that are least able to prepare for, cope with, and recover from the impacts. By 2100, Extreme heat days in San Francisco are projected to increase by up to 40 days per year and sea levels are expected to rise up to 46 inches by 2100. These climate impacts will have cascading impacts on public health. To address these challenges, the Climate and Health Program is successfully addressing the public health impacts of climate change by leveraging data-driven planning and health indicators to create policies around climate adaptation on a local level by providing data solutions. By centralizing and formalizing the collection of neighborhood-level data, the program provides organizations, city departments, and direct service providers a simple, streamlined way to access information on climate and health. This presentation will provide examples on the innovative use of data and on-line tools that has initiated a public dialogue on the link between climate change and health, and resulted in actions to strengthen community resilience.

  5. Advancing Global Health - The Need for (Better) Social Science Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-02-06

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. Opportunities for Palliative Care in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, Liliana; Pastrana, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the World Health Assembly, of the World Health Organization (WHO), unanimously adopted a palliative care (PC) resolution, which outlines clear recommendations to the United Nations member states, such as including PC in national health policies and in the undergraduate curricula for health care professionals, and highlights the critical need for countries to ensure that there is an adequate supply of essential PC medicines, especially those needed to alleviate pain. This resolution also carries great challenges: Every year over 20 million patients (of which 6% are children) need PC at the end of life (EOL). However, in 2011, approximately three million patients received PC, and only one in ten people in need is currently receiving it. We describe this public health situation and systems failure, the history and evolution of PC, and the components of the WHO public health model. We propose a role for public health for PC integration in community settings to advance PC and relieve suffering in the world.

  7. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  8. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  9. Educational Expertise, Advocacy, and Media Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Joel R.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The efforts of many advocacy organizations to advance their preferred policies despite conflicting evidence of the effectiveness of these policies raise questions about factors that shape successful policy promotion. While many may like to think that expertise on an issue in question is an essential prerequisite for influence in public policy…

  10. Public knowledge and perceptions of connected health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Paul J; Brady, Shauna C; Hughes, Carmel M; McElnay, James C

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to examine the public's knowledge and perceptions of connected health (CH). A structured questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to an opportunistic sample of 1003 members of the public in 11 shopping centres across Northern Ireland (NI). Topics included public knowledge of CH, opinions about who should provide CH and views about the use of computers in health care. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess respondents' willingness to use CH in the future. Sixty-seven per cent of respondents were female, 31% were less than 30 years old and 22% were over 60 years. Most respondents had never heard of CH (92%). Following a standard definition, the majority felt CH was a good idea (≈90%) and that general practitioners were in the best position to provide CH; however, respondents were equivocal about reductions in health care professionals' workload and had some concerns about the ease of device use. Factors positively influencing willingness to use CH in the future included knowledge of someone who has a chronic disease, residence in NI since birth and less concern about the use of information technology (IT) in health care. Those over 60 years old or who felt threatened by the use of IT to store personal health information were less willing to use CH in the future. Increased public awareness and education about CH is required to alleviate concerns and increase the acceptability of this type of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Health Security Intelligence: Assessing the Nascent Public Health Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Information Sharing System MOU Memorandum of Understanding NBIC National Biosurveillance Integration Center NCMI National Center for...definition, have come to the fore in the literature, biosurveillance and health security. Biosurveillance , as a term, is too limited to provide the...purposes. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) in a 2006 report on public health infrastructure described biosurveillance as, “…automated

  12. [nutritional Education In Public Health Services].

    OpenAIRE

    Boog, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discuss the implementation of nutritional education in public health services from the perspective of health professionals (physicians and nurses) working in them. The study was conducted in the Municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from October 1993 to July 1995, using action-based research methodology. The results describe the construction of nutritional knowledge in training and professional institutions; behavior towards food-related problems ...

  13. Risk communication, risk perception, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Risk communication is about building trust while deploying an interactive and ongoing communication process in which audience members are active participants. This interactive participation may not solve a public health crisis, but it will help reduce unwarranted fear, anxiety and distrust. Consequently, if a government agency fails to understand how to effectively communicate about health risks, their trustworthiness and credibility may suffer, and a crisis event may go from bad to worse.

  14. Screening and overdiagnosis : public health implications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of an abnormality that bears no substantial health hazard and no benefit for patients to be aware of. Resulting mainly from the use of increasingly sensitive screening and diagnostic tests, as well as broadened definitions of conditions requiring an intervention, overdiagnosis is a growing but still largely misunderstood public health issue. Fear of missing a diagnosis or of litigation, financial incentives or patient's need of reassurance are further causes ...

  15. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Osipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role of sociology in the scientific management of society — namely — the social construction aimed at the prevention of adverse events and the creation of social realities desirable for the individual and society. One of the areas of social reality, as well as the most important sphere of social life which are subject to social construction is public health. Public health is considered as an integrated expression of the dynamics of individual levels of the health of all members of society. The author emphasizes that the public health of the people is formed by the interaction of two groups of factors — endogenous (sex, biological age, race, body type, heredity and type of the human nervous system and exogenous (natural and social factors. The last are created by people themselves in the course of their ability to live and are operated, that is socially designed. The author analyzes the negative processes related to public health, the most important of which is a complex situation in the health system, lack of faith in the possibility of human medicine. An equally important role belongs to the deterioration of environmental significant share of people’s living conditions and social stress. If earlier scientists did not specify, in what degree of threat of infringement of global ecosystems are connected with a state of health and features of diseases of the population now it is established that various forms of irreversible change of environment are directly dangerous to public health. From an antiquity the effect of discrepancy of the wished (abstractly and actually arising future wished (abstractly — effect of human activity is known: people wish one, however actually all terminates differently, practically, on the contrary. And these characteristics of a public sincere, mental condition can be extremely inconsistent in relation to knowledge. They are the basis of so-called “involuntary behaviors

  17. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  18. A tale of two fields: public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, public health and bioethics have been courting each other, trying to figure out a way to inform and assist one another. Ethics in public health began in epidemiology and public health in ethics began in health law. Attempts have been made to create both an ethics of and in public health. Although many edited volumes and even model curriculums have been created for the teaching of public health ethics, most efforts are mired in medical ethics and do not take the unique population perspective of public health. Several challenges to the development and teaching of public health ethics remain, including the issue of ethics being a required public health competency and the questions: what should be in a public health ethics curriculum, where will instructors be trained and how will such faculty be paid? A true public health ethics will help professionals address issues of values, critical thinking and decision making.

  19. Public health spending and population health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R

    2014-11-01

    This systematic review synthesizes what is known about the relationship between public health spending and population health outcomes, as well as the pathways that may explain how outcomes vary with spending. It also discusses the limitations of the existing literature and identifies areas in need of future research. Studies included in this review were retrieved through an iterative process, primarily through key word searches in two literature databases (PubMed and JSTOR) conducted in 2013. All retrieved studies underwent initial and secondary screening. Articles were included if they (1) examined the link between spending and outcomes or (2) explored pathways that mediate the relationship between spending and outcomes. Seventeen empirical studies and five literature reviews published between 1985 and 2012 were included in this review. Existing evidence suggests that increases in public health spending are associated with improved population health, at least for some outcomes. However, there is little evidence to suggest that increased spending contributes to meaningful reductions in health disparities. Moreover, the pathways through which greater spending translates into better outcomes are not well understood. Although the complexity of the public health delivery system makes it difficult to demonstrate definitive associations between spending and outcomes, financial investments in public health have the potential to improve community health. Additional research is needed to explore the pathways that mediate this relationship. This research would benefit public health practitioners who need evidence on how to best spend financial resources to achieve better health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  1. Pathways for scaling up public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indig, Devon; Lee, Karen; Grunseit, Anne; Milat, Andrew; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    To achieve population-wide health improvement, public health interventions found effective in selected samples need to be 'scaled up' and implemented more widely. The pathways through which interventions are scaled up are not well characterised. The aim of this paper is to identify examples of public health interventions which have been scaled up and to develop a conceptual framework which quantifies and describes this process. A multi-stage international literature search was undertaken to identify examples of public health interventions in high income countries that have been scaled up or implemented at scale. Initial abstract review identified articles which met all the criteria of being a: 1) public health intervention; 2) chronic disease prevention focus; 3) program delivered at a wide geographical scale (state, national or international). Interventions were reviewed and coded into a conceptual framework pathway to document their scaling up process. For each program, an in-depth review of the identified articles was undertaken along with a broad internet based search to determine the outcomes of the dissemination process. A conceptual framework of scaling up pathways was developed that involved four stages (development, efficacy testing, real world trial and dissemination) to which the 40 programs were mapped. The search identified 40 public health interventions that showed evidence of being scaled up. Four pathways were identified to capture the different scaling up trajectories taken which included: 'Type I - Comprehensive' (55%) which passed through all four stages, 'Type II - Efficacy omitters' (5%) which did not conduct efficacy testing, 'Type III - Trial omitters' (25%) which did not conduct a real world trial, and 'Type IV - At scale dissemination' (15%) which skipped both efficacy testing and a real world trial. This is the first study to classify and quantify the potential pathways through which public health interventions in high income countries are

  2. Climate services to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Mánez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary

    2014-04-25

    A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4-6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers.

  3. Public health within the EU policy space: a qualitative study of Organized Civil Society (OCS) and the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, P K

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews how Organized Civil Society (OCS) groups in the field of public health work across the boundaries between European institutions and policy areas. In particular, it explores 1) how the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is conducted by these groups informally within the formal governance structures, and 2) how this advocacy work creates space for public health within the broader political determinants of health. A qualitative mixed-methods framework. Political ethnography, including 20 semi-structured interviews conducted with EU health strategy stakeholders and participant observations in public health events (n = 22) in Brussels over a three-year period (2012-2015), as well as four interviews with EU Member State representatives. Three additional semi-structured interviews were conducted with World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe staff members who had been involved in the drafting of the Health 2020 framework and strategy and the accompanying main implementation pillar, European Action Plan for Strengthening Public Health Capacities and Services (EAP-PHS). The findings provide an insight into OCS work in the field of European public health, offering an account of the experiences of HiAP work conducted by the research participants. The OCS groups perceive themselves as communicators between policy areas within European institutions and between local and supranational levels. The structures and political determinants of health that impose limitations on a public institution can at points be transcended by stakeholders, who conduct HiAP work at supranational level, thus negotiating space for public health within the competitive, globalized policy space. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  5. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...

  6. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  7. Health care quality improvement publication trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gordon H; MacEachern, Mark P; Perla, Rocco J; Gaines, Jean M; Davis, Matthew M; Shrank, William H

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the extent of academic interest in quality improvement (QI) initiatives in medical practice, annual publication trends for the most well-known QI methodologies being used in health care settings were analyzed. A total of 10 key medical- and business-oriented library databases were examined: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ABI/INFORM, and Business Source Complete. A total of 13 057 articles were identified that discuss at least 1 of 10 well-known QI concepts used in health care contexts, 8645 (66.2%) of which were classified as original research. "Total quality management" was the only methodology to demonstrate a significant decline in publication over time. "Continuous quality improvement" was the most common topic of study across all publication years, whereas articles discussing Lean methodology demonstrated the largest growth in publication volume over the past 2 decades. Health care QI publication volume increased substantially beginning in 1991.

  8. Rural Print Media and a Tailored Advocacy Intervention for Smoke-Free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Kolpek, Jeslyn K; Lee, Erin; Record, Rachael; Wiggins, Amanda T; Butler, Karen M; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2017-01-01

    To examine frequency, prominence, and content of local print media after a 4-year policy advocacy intervention. This was a controlled community-based trial. The study took place in 39 rural counties (22 intervention, 17 comparison). Subjects consisted of 2525 newspaper articles monitored over 18 quarters (July 2007 to December 2011). One key element of the tailored policy advocacy intervention delivered by community advisors was building demand for smoke-free policy via media advocacy strategies. Media clips were coded to assess number of articles; percent of tobacco-related articles on the front page or bold heading section; percent of pro-health articles; and percent of articles with secondhand smoke (SHS)-relevant topics or themes. Coded data were entered into Atlas.ti software. Article frequencies and attributes were compared between groups and over time using negative binomial regression for longitudinal data, with county-level demographics as covariates. In the last 3 years, there were approximately twice as many articles in intervention than in comparison counties. Media clips from newspapers in intervention counties were between 1.4 and 2 times more likely to have front page placement and percent of relevant topic or theme than were those in comparison counties. There was no difference in rate of pro-health articles by group. The policy advocacy intervention to promote smoke-free policy increased media attention to SHS and may have increased public awareness of issues related to smoke-free policy.

  9. Religion and health: public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, L M

    2000-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Systematic programs of research investigate religious phenomena within the context of coherent theoretical and conceptual frameworks that describe the causes and consequences of religious involvement for health outcomes. Recent research has validated the multidimensional aspects of religious involvement and investigated how religious factors operate through various biobehavioral and psychosocial constructs to affect health status through proposed mechanisms that link religion and health. Methodological and analytical advances in the field permit the development of more complex models of religion's effects, in keeping with proposed theoretical explanations. Investigations of religion and health have ethical and practical implications that should be addressed by the lay public, health professionals, the research community, and the clergy. Future research directions point to promising new areas of investigation that could bridge the constructs of religion and health.

  10. Contributions of Public Health to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Káren Mendes Jorge de; Seixas, Clarissa Terenzi; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal; Costa, Aline Queiroz da

    2017-01-01

    Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care. Analisar as percepções de alunos do curso de bacharelado em Enfermagem acerca das contribuições da Saúde Coletiva para o trabalho de enfermeiros no Sistema Único de Saúde. Estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada mediante a técnica da entrevista semidirigida com 15 alunos. O material de linguagem foi analisado segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo temático-categorial. Foram produzidas as categorias temáticas "Percepções acerca da Saúde Coletiva" e "Contribuição da Saúde Coletiva ao trabalho do enfermeiro no Sistema Único de Saúde". As percepções sobre a Saúde Coletiva são plurais, mas convergem para o reconhecimento desse campo como base de sustentação da formação de enfermeiros habilitados a trabalhar no SUS com competência técnica, autonomia e com foco na integralidade do cuidado em saúde.

  11. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  12. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  13. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  14. Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  15. Public trust in Dutch health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed,or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used in

  16. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used i

  17. The public health impact of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the Netherlands,

  18. [The interface between public health and cyberculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Eduardo Jorge Sant Ana

    2014-02-01

    This is an opinion piece that proposes a reflection on the current status of the interface between cyberculture and public health and its use as a means for research, not as a mere tool. Cyberculture thus represents a new form of interface between people. And it is precisely "through" and "by means of" social relations that individuals acquire skills and communication techniques. The forms and the means of the relationship alters, but the ends remain unchanged, namely to be in contact with other humans. In recent decades, with the advent of computers, the Internet and all the technological apparatus, human relationships are dependent on them, which is the modern so-called cyberculture. This now affects all areas of activity, and public health cannot be left behind, taking advantage of it and its benefits for its development. It is necessary to keep abreast of these changes and raise them from the theoretical to the practical plane, not only implementing public health policies but also taking the socio-virtual aspects into consideration. It is also necessary for the professionals involved to be updated on new forms of communication, interaction, research methodology, preparation of instruments, sampling approaches and all other phenomena arising from cyberculture that will work in partnership with public health.

  19. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  20. Multilevel modelling and public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multilevel modelling is a statistical technique that extends ordinary regression analysis to the situation where the data are hierarchical. Such data form an increasingly common evidence base for public health policy, and as such it is important that policy makers should be aware of this

  1. Multilevel modelling and public health policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyland, A.H.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multilevel modelling is a statistical technique that extends ordinary regression analysis to the situation where the data are hierarchical. Such data form an increasingly common evidence base for public health policy, and as such it is important that policy makers should be aware of this

  2. EDITORIAL PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE HEALTH PROFESSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DSB

    recent times, health professionals have opened up to the public and no longer feel offended if a ... A tourist from Europe visited an ... The tourist, reluctant to consult local doctors, decided to cut short his holiday and fly back home to consult his ...

  3. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalid BOUTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....

  4. Developing public sociology through health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth

    2008-11-01

    The renewed interest in 'public sociology' has sparked debate and discussion about forms of sociological work and their relationship to the State and civil society. Medical sociologists are accustomed to engaging with a range of publics and audiences inside and outside universities and are in a position to make an informed contribution to this debate. This paper describes how some of the debates about sociological work are played out through a 'health impact assessment' of a proposed housing renewal in a former coal mining community. We explore the dynamics of the health impact assessment process and relate it to wider debates, current in the social sciences, on the 'new knowledge spaces' within which contentious public issues are now being discussed, and the nature of different forms of expertise. The role of the 'public sociologist' in mediating the relationships between the accounts and interpretations of lay participants and the published 'evidence' is described as a process of mutual learning between publics, professionals and social scientists. It is argued that the continued existence and development of any meaningful 'professional sociology' requires an openness to a 'public sociology' which recognises and responds to new spaces of knowledge production.

  5. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  6. Media, racism and public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Raymond; Pega, Frank; McCreanor, Tim; Rankine, Jenny; Barnes, Angela

    2006-03-01

    International literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing, adversely affecting physical and psychological health. Numerous studies have shown that media contribute marginalizing particular ethnic and cultural groups depicting them primarily as problems for and threats to the dominant. This articles frames media representations of, and their effect on, the indigenous Maori of Aotearoa, New Zealand within the ongoing processes of colonization. We argue that reflects the media contribution to maintenance and naturalisation of colonial relationships and seek to include critical media scholarship in a critical public health psychology.

  7. Remote sensing and urban public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  8. [Suggestions for the upcoming public health law in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanos, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming public health law must serve as the basis for public health reform. The text of the law should allow public health structures to be modernized and adapted to the country's new needs. A broader concept of public health and a redefinition of its functions and basic services are required. Some of the main suggestions for the upcoming law are the establishment of a Spanish Agency for Public Health and a Public Health Council, the design of a Spanish Strategy of Public Health, and reform of professional training.

  9. Public health and business: a partnership that makes cents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2006-01-01

    Historically, public health agencies have had relatively few formal partnerships with private business. However, both groups share an interest in ensuring a healthy population. Businesses have a financial interest in supporting organized public health efforts; in turn, business partnerships can increase the reach and effectiveness of public health. This paper makes the case for the business sector's participation in the broad public health system and its support of governmental public health agencies. Examples of past and current partnerships exemplify how public health efforts benefit business and suggest opportunities for future collaboration to improve the public's health.

  10. The Implementation, Promotion and Evaluation of the International Health Communication Hotline as a Tool for Interdisciplinary Networking and Disciplinary Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assante, Leonard E.; Schrader, Stuart M.

    The International Health Communication Hotline (InHealth) represents an attempt to firmly establish, develop and promote a new Communication Studies subdiscipline in the academic and health care arenas via computer networking. If successful, the project will demonstrate the power of computer networking as an agent of change. Health communication…

  11. [Policy counselling through public health reporting?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, H; Michelsen, K

    2007-10-01

    For about 20 years public health reporting has increasingly been developed as a resource in health policy counselling. Both with regard to its use as well as its further development it is important to reflect on the possibilities and limits of this resource. A basis for this is provided by theories, models and hypotheses derived from the discussion about scientific policy counselling. In early conceptual reflections on the organisation of health reporting a technocratic use was rejected. This is reflected by the ideas and views about the institutional embedding of health reporting activities. Against the background of diverging opinions about the political dimensions of health reporting activities, reflections were guided by the decisionistic and pragmatic model of the "scientification of politics". Public health reporting must provide the possibility for being used in a flexible way in order to add a pragmatistic component to its decisionistic and strategic uses. For action-oriented, pragmatistic and scientific policy counselling through the health reporting discipline it is important to link "information about politically relevant facts" with the "targeted processing of knowledge geared towards problems in the field of decision-making processes" (expertise).

  12. Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-12-16

    Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  13. Genetics in public health: Rarely explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability and the integration of genetic information into our understanding of normal and abnormal growth and development are driving important changes in health care. These changes have fostered the hope that the availability of genetic information will promote a better understanding of disease etiology and permit early, even pre-symptomatic diagnosis and preventive intervention to avoid disease onset. Hence, our aim was to review and provide the insight into the role of genetics in public health and its scope as well as barriers. The use of genetics along with their goals and essential public health functions are discussed. From the era of eugenics to the present era, this area has seen many turns in which geneticists have put through their effort to tie together the strings of both molecular genetics and public health. Though still the dark clouds of eugenics, the predictive power of genes, genetic reductionism, non-modifiable risk factors, individuals or populations, resource allocation, commercial imperative, discrimination and understanding and education are hanging above. The technological and scientific advances that have fundamentally changed our perception of human diseases fuel the expectations for this proactive health.

  14. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  15. Big Social Data in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kjeld S.; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the notion of “Socially Shared Health Information” (SSHI) referring to the phenomena of users and health organizations explicitly sharing health related information on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. In order to investigate the phenomena of SSHI, in this paper, we...... present a multi-method case study of the organizational strategies for and user engagement with the Facebook page of the official portal for the public Danish Healthcare Services (Sundheds.dk). We analysed qualitative data in the form of a semi-structured interview with the social media editor of Sundhed.......dk and netnographic observations, and quantitative data from the full historic fetch of the official Facebook wall. Our results show a good alignment between the organizational and social media strategies of the public Danish Healthcare Services but point out the lack of domain-specific metrics to measure its...

  16. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  17. Acne as a public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Semyonov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although acne is the most common skin disorder, epidemiological data on this condition are scarce. The social and economic effects of acne are mostly related to the high prevalence of this pathology, so much so that we can consider acne as a public health problem. Our proposal is to realize a computerized case sheet for each acne sufferer based on a minimum data set. This should include: patient’s age, sex, clinical form of acne and grade of severity. This information should then be introduced into a database management system. Examining the data collected we hope to contribute to the efficient use of health care resources and to improve management of public health problems highlighted in prior epidemiological investigations.

  18. Public Health Offices, Public Health Agencies - county, name, address, contact info, email, website, Published in 2007, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Health Offices dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'Public Health Agencies -...

  19. Intercultural competency in public health: a call for action to incorporate training into public health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFleckman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultural roles needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. In focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  20. Strategic communications in oral health: influencing public and professional opinions and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Margo; Fulwood, Charles

    2002-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, US Surgeon General Dr. David Satcher convened a meeting of national experts to recommend strategies to promote equity in children's oral health status and access to dental care. The meeting was planned by a diverse group of health professionals, researchers, educators, and national organizations and by several federal agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Center on Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health. This paper was commissioned by the meeting planners to introduce basic principles of social marketing and strategic communications. Many participants were academic researchers, practicing pediatric dentists and pediatricians, dental educators, policy analysts, and industry representatives, and most had no previous experience with public education or communications campaigns. Other participants were communications professionals, journalists, and community organizers without previous experience in oral health care or financing issues. Thus, the paper also served to introduce and illustrate basic ideas about oral health and general health, racial and ethnic disparities in health, and access to care. Through their interactions, the participants developed a series of recommendations to increase public awareness, build public support, improve media coverage, improve care coordination, expand the workforce, and focus the attention of national, state, and local policymakers on legislative and financing initiatives to expand access to dental care. Future coalitions of health professionals working with the policy, research, advocacy, and business communities may find this paper useful in implementing the action steps identified by the Surgeon General's report, "Oral Health in America."