WorldWideScience

Sample records for public good government

  1. Public Records and Archives as Tools for Good Governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public Records and Archives as Tools for Good Governance: Reflections Within the ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... It demonstrates that whereas records and archives are useful tools for ...

  2. Government Service as a Public and Personal Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, Barbara K.

    2016-01-01

    The concerted, strategic efforts of government leaders can create rapid accelerations in knowledge and the application of that knowledge for the public good. Government service can represent part or all of one's career. Working at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) early in my career helped me develop a macro-level understanding of how the…

  3. Good Governance in Public Procurement: A South African Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Roos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article good governance in public procurement, with particular reference to accountability is discussed. The principle of providing adequate remedies in public procurement is put under the spotlight. This is done with reference to the decision in Steenkamp NO v Provincial Tender Board, Eastern Cape. In this case the Constitutional Court had to consider whether an initially successful tenderer could lodge a delictual claim for damages to compensate for expenses incurred after conclusion of a contract, which was subsequently rendered void on an application for review of the tender award. The applicable principles of good governance and the applicable provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement and the WTO plurilateral Government Procurement Agreement are analysed. This is done to enable an evaluation of the decision by the Constitutional Court in the above case. It is concluded that the South African public procurement system does in this instance comply with the basic principles of good governance with regard to accountability.

  4. The global public good concept: a means of promoting good veterinary governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloit, M

    2012-08-01

    At the outset, the concept of a 'public good' was associated with economic policies. However, it has now evolved not only from a national to a global concept (global public good), but also from a concept applying solely to the production of goods to one encompassing societal issues (education, environment, etc.) and fundamental rights, including the right to health and food. Through their actions, Veterinary Services, as defined by the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), help to improve animal health and reduce production losses. In this way they contribute directly and indirectly to food security and to safeguarding human health and economic resources. The organisation and operating procedures of Veterinary Services are therefore key to the efficient governance required to achieve these objectives. The OIE is a major player in global cooperation and governance in the fields of animal and public health through the implementation of its strategic standardisation mission and other programmes for the benefit of Veterinary Services and OIE Member Countries. Thus, the actions of Veterinary Services and the OIE deserve to be recognised as a global public good, backed by public investment to ensure that all Veterinary Services are in a position to apply the principles of good governance and to comply with the international standards for the quality of Veterinary Services set out in the OIE Terrestrial Code (Section 3 on Quality of Veterinary Services) and Aquatic Animal Health Code (Section 3 on Quality of Aquatic Animal Health Services).

  5. Good Governance in Public Procurement: A South African Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... for damages to compensate for expenses incurred after conclusion of a contract, ... The applicable principles of good governance and the applicable provisions ...

  6. Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S de la Harpe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (PELJ is entirely dedicated to the concept of good governance. It is the outcome of the first Summer/Winter school on Good Governance which was held at North-West University, Potchefstroom (SA in January 2006 and at Tilburg University, Tilburg (NL in January 2007. This Summer/Winter school has now become a yearly event with a bi-annual theme. Academic staff from both universities collaborate in teaching this course. Students from the two universities who participate in the Summer/Winter school have the unique possibility to deepen their knowledge on a particular subject while enjoying a cross-cultural learning environment. The subject of good governance was not selected by chance but was chosen because of its impact in many fields and the many ways in which the concept is used. It was time for a deeper insight into this multiple role of the concept of good governance. The contributions to this journal are the analytical outcome of the research done in preparation for the lectures given during the Summer/Winter school. As the contributions directly apply the good governance concept to various specific fields of expertise, this introduction will be used to give a short reflection on the concept as such.

  7. Tourism as a Public Good – Local Government Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kopczewska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of tourism should be based on common participation of local governments, enterprises and communities. Strong impulse for building and enlargement of infrastructure and tourism service was given by European funds, for which local governments and firms can apply. This support should be analyzed two-fold: subjective „who” and geographical „where” funds were used and what is their potential. The article presents spatial analysis of tourism development in Poland from the perspective of public sector.

  8. The Public Good in English Private School Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    There exist some rare private schools that attempt to mitigate the anti-democratic qualities of the private schooling sector in England. This article reports on a study of private schools that aim to promote equality and participation through some aspects of their operations. It considers to what extent the governance structures within the schools…

  9. The Public Good in English Private School Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    There exist some rare private schools that attempt to mitigate the anti-democratic qualities of the private schooling sector in England. This article reports on a study of private schools that aim to promote equality and participation through some aspects of their operations. It considers to what extent the governance structures within the schools…

  10. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  11. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  12. Good legal governance in authoritative public-private partnerships. Conceptualising legitimate partnerships with public authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, M.A.; Sanders, M.P.T.

    2013-01-01

    The discourse on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) is focused most on Procurement or on what we name ‘Market-PPP’. Placing PPP in the shift from government to governance calls for attention especially to those PPP, which are geared to exercise public legal powers. These ‘Authoritative PPP’ are most

  13. Good legal governance in authoritative public-private partnerships. Conceptualising legitimate partnerships with public authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Sanders, Maurits

    2013-01-01

    The discourse on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) is focused most on Procurement or on what we name ‘Market-PPP’. Placing PPP in the shift from government to governance calls for attention especially to those PPP, which are geared to exercise public legal powers. These ‘Authoritative PPP’ are most

  14. Public Goods and Public Interests: Scholarly Communication and Government Documents in Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Sarah; Sare, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates requiring that publicly funded research be made openly accessible recast scholarly information as public information and provide an impetus to join the efforts of scholarly communication and government information programs in United States research libraries. Most major research libraries are long-standing participants in the…

  15. A More Accurate Measure of Local Public Goods: Overlapping Government Combinations as Units of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel B. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study posits and tests the viability of a new unit of analysis for local public goods in metropolitan areas: overlapping government combinations (OGCs. Counties, municipalities, school districts, and other special districts operate simultaneously within the same space, each providing their own set of local public goods. Residents of the same city can live within the boundaries of different counties, school districts and other special districts and thus receive (and pay for very different quantities and qualities of public goods. Though there is a great deal of literature devoted to the variation of local public goods in a fragmented metropolitan region, there is none that cumulates the different local government types into units that represent the true bundles of local public goods that are provided to citizens and property owners. This study tackles this problem through the application of geographic information systems (GIS to stack counties, municipalities, and school districts in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington CMSA into unique OGCs. The unique OGCs are compared to their underlying component governments with respect to property tax rates and school performance and are found to be statistically distinct.

  16. Good governance and public contracts. A comparative perspective on the balance between public and private law in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zigirinshuti, F.

    2013-01-01

    The central focus of this study is an analysis of the law of public contracts in Rwanda with a view to placing it within the normative framework of legality supplied by the principles of good governance. From a comparative examination of the public contracts law in countries of divergence (Rwanda, F

  17. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  18. Good Governance: The Storybook Children

    OpenAIRE

    Prijono Tjiptoherijanto

    2012-01-01

    Good governance is an important issue over the last two decades. The concept of 'good governance' has some of the following effective dimension, wich are among all, nemely : public accountability and transparencey, the role of law, anti-corruption measures, civil society participation in development, and overall respect to human right. Therefore, in the implementation, a good governance concept sholud involves the active cooperation of three elements, wich are : government, civil society, and...

  19. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response.

  20. Coordination between veterinary services and other relevant authorities: a key component of good public governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemain, V

    2012-08-01

    Coordination between Veterinary Services and other relevant authorities is a key component of good public governance, especially for effective action and optimal management of available resources. The importance of good coordination is reflected in the World Organisation for Animal Health'Tool forthe Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services', which includes a critical competency on coordination. Many partners from technical, administrative and legal fields are involved. The degree of formalisation of coordination tends to depend on a country's level of organisation and development. Contingency plans against avian influenza led to breakthroughs in many countries in the mid-2000s. While interpersonal relationships remain vital, not everything should hinge on them. Organisation and management are critical to operational efficiency. The distribution of responsibilities needs to be defined clearly, avoiding duplication and areas of conflict. Lead authorities should be designated according to subject (Veterinary Services in animal health areas) and endowed with the necessary legitimacy. Lead authorities will be responsible for coordinating the drafting and updating of the relevant documents: agreements between authorities, contingency plans, standard operating procedures, etc.

  1. Does the mixture of policy instruments matter? An empirical test of government support for the private provision of public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mulder (Arjen)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGovernments wishing to encourage the private sector provision of a public good can choose amongst a wide variety of economic instruments. This paper analyses how governments in the EU(15) countries have succeeded in stimulating investment in wind turbines between 1985 and 2000, using nat

  2. Governance Frameworks for International Public Goods: The Case of Concerted Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Thomas; Formica, Piero

    2007-01-01

    In the "participation age", emerging cross-border, transnational communities driven by innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives--in short, international entrepreneurial communities--give impetus to the rise of international public goods. With varying intensity, a non-voting international mobile public--still a small but an increasing fraction…

  3. MOVING THE SIGNPOST: GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC ACCESS TO INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Bjola

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In both economic and political terms, Romania lags behind most of the CEE developing countries. This situation deteriorates on a constant basis and is largely accounted for by very poor governance practices. The solution proposed by this study consists of recommending the implementation of a reformist agenda of e-governance based on two pillars: robust development of public sector information and large-scale application of Information and Communication Technologies. In conceptual terms, this strategy is assumed to produce a gradual shift from the citizen-as-customer to the more participative citizen-as-shareholder model of governance. In concrete terms, the medium-term benefits of this policy are political (enhancing the democratization process, increasing political accountability, and improving the tattered government-citizen relationship, economic (combating corruption, creating a transparent and competitive economic environment, and speeding up standard administrative processes for citizens and business, and social (restoring public trust, rebuilding social capital, and increasing the transparency, quality and efficiency of public services.

  4. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  5. Entrenching Good Government Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2011-01-01

    Those concerned with enumerated powers, the Tenth Amendment, and limited governance have many questions about current trends in U.S. governance: Has the federal government grown too large? Is it doing too much? Has it transgressed lawful limits? Is the federal‐state relationship out of balance? Assuming that the federal government has gotten too large, what can you do about it? Or, more generally, what can you do if you think that the federal government is too big, or too small, or is doin...

  6. Bank Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance And Company Values in Banking Companies Go Public in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24 banks or 72 observations during 2011-2013. The results showed that 23 banks had low risk and low to moderate risk, and only one bank had moderate risk. The results also showed that inherent risk profile rating is equivalent to capital adequacy. In other words, inherent risk profile of these banks have complied with Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012. Furthermore, this study indicated that GCG has significant and positive influence on the company value, while the inherent risk has no influence on the company value. Overall, this study suggest that go public banks in Indonesia are one of good alternative means of investment for its soundness as reflected by the fulfillment of minimum capital ratio required by the regulator.

  7. Critical success factors for governing farmer-managed public goods in rural areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, Greet; Korevaar, Hein; Stuiver, Marian; Groot, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional land use has become a widely supported pathway for Europe's countryside. Brussels and the national governments stimulate farmers to integrate primary production with non-agricultural practices from which they can also benefit. In favour of this development different stakeholders a

  8. Business Climate and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besmira Manaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect the development product of Albania, not only as a concept, and a principle but mostly as a sensitive aspect in the integration process. There are some interpretations of this concept, but I intend to analyze the key factors and actors, their cooperation and concrete production in society. Improving governance is necessary to have an integrated long term strategy based upon a continuous cooperation between institutions and citizens. But in developing countries like Albania there are some important questions such as: How can we measure the improvement of Good Governance through policies? Has Good Governance indicated an effective way for the sustainable development? (Meisel, 2008, 6. These question give us the orientation to reflect about the process of development, social economic political behavior and how this multidimensional is transformed in product of good governance. The business cycle is strongly connected with many aspects of political-, social-, juridical aspects and good governance. Despite attempts to draft law regulations, the level of corruption and informality in Albania continues to be a major obstacle. The credibility level in the implementation of law is an indicator that affects democratization and institutional integration. At present, different reports of international institutions, define Albania as the country with the highest level of Corruption in the Balkans, which is a key factor influencing business. The ways with

  9. Good Governance, Welfare, and Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Wagener

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Market conforming institutions are a precondition for a thriving and stable economy. This is the upshot of the Washington consensus or, of somewhat earlier origin, the “Eucken hypothesis”. Another hypothesis of Eucken has it that market conforming institutions are the product of a strong state. However, more general and more important than the strong state is good governance. In this paper I refer to it as the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”. The paper tries to figure out the mechanisms by which good governance and economic order influence economic outcome. Then the two hypotheses are tested for two aspects of economic outcome: productivity as measured by GNP per capita over a wide range of countries and transformation success as measured by GNP growth over the European transformation countries. The tests confirm the theoretical expectation that good governance is more important than good order

  10. Modern approaches regarding public goods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This article is trying to present general elements regarding public goods. It is presenting also all types of public goods and optimum provision of public goods. Public Goods designate goods, benefits which belong to all citizens, or community. Four categories of goods can be delimited Public goods; Private goods; Common goods; Taxable goods. We also introduce two new concepts of public goods: “Club Goods” and “Joint” Goods.

  11. Private Money, Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  12. Private Money, Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  13. Public goods and procreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomaly, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Procreation is the ultimate public goods problem. Each new child affects the welfare of many other people, and some (but not all) children produce uncompensated value that future people will enjoy. This essay addresses challenges that arise if we think of procreation and parenting as public goods. These include whether individual choices are likely to lead to a socially desirable outcome, and whether changes in laws, social norms, or access to genetic engineering and embryo selection might improve the aggregate outcome of our reproductive choices.

  14. Cultural Interest Goods as Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Vargas-Ayala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the debate regarding the nature of goods of cultural interest as public goods, discussion until now overlooked by the legal doctrine in Administrative Law. Through the exam of judicial decisions, it seeks to question their inalienable character, and their aptitude to be acquired by the State, case in which they shift their nature into public goods.

  15. Alternative Funding For Public Goods Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Kodrat Wibowo

    2002-01-01

    Finding alternatives in public good financing is one of the most recent issues in the government sector. Tax-financed for pure public good is well known results further problems like externalities and economic inequity. This paper only addresses the qualitative analysis in discussing benefits and costs of the society in applying some alternatives in funding public good provisions, pure and impure one.

  16. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  17. Kong Zi on Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Aaron T. Angeles

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will delve into the problem of Good Governance in the light of Kong Zi. What makes up a Just State? What are the elements that constitute a prosperous Kingdom? What principles of Confucianism can we employ to achieve a just and humane society? These are the primary questions that we will try to investigate as we go along. The paper will be thus divided into three essential parts: The Notion of Li and the Sovereign, The ConfucianMoral Ideal, and lastly, The Great Commonwealth.

  18. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  19. Invisible colleges, private patronage and commercial profits versus public goods, government funding and 'crowding-out': Terence Kealey on the motivations and incentives driving science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-02-01

    What kind of a thing is science and how does it work? [Kealey T. Sex, science and profits: In a recent book (Sex, science and profits: how people evolved to make money. London: William Heinemann; 2008) (p. 455)] Terence Kealey argues persuasively that the motivations driving science are widely misunderstood. Science is often assumed to be useful to the public but an economic loser for the scientist and his or her paymasters - in other words, science is supposed to be a 'public good'. The public good argument is used to support large-scale government funding of science, on the basis that if government does not fund science it will not be funded adequately. But Kealey argues that most science is profitable to commercial organizations, and other types of worthwhile science will be supported by private patronage. Yet excessive government funding tends to 'crowd-out' potential private sources of funding - both by replacing and by deterring private investment. And scientists are not primarily motivated by money, but instead by striving for status within the 'invisible college' of active researchers in their field. Kealey's take-home message is that overall and in the long-term, science neither requires nor benefits from government funding. Scientific research would be better-served by private funding from commercial organizations that are seeking profit, combined with patronage from charities and foundations that regard science as intrinsically valuable.

  20. Veterinary service missions and good governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2012-08-01

    The rationale for the existence of official Veterinary Services (VS) has seldom been under such intensive public scrutiny as over the past two decades when the world has been confronted with outbreaks of major animal diseases that have posed a potential threat not only to human health but also to animal health and national food security. The mere existence of VS is not enough. The mission statement of the VS can no longer be cast in stone but needs to adapt and be amended continually to cope with new demands. The ability to ensure not only acceptance but also sustainability of the delivery of VS as a global public good, thereby demonstrating good governance, is becoming and will remain a challenge in terms of keeping it a non-rivalrous and non-excludable service to a demanding public clientele. Mission statements to improve the health and welfare of animals will, however, remain no more than noble normative statements of intent if further refinement on how this should be done and governed is not encompassed in the strategic plans, vision and goals of the Veterinary Authority. They will also remain but noble statements if cognisance is not taken of the increased sensitivity, nationally and internationally, around animal welfare issues during transport, movement, housing, treatment and slaughter of animals and if this sensitivity is not reflected or addressed in national animal health and veterinary public health legislation. The author describes some of the ways in which currently accepted critical functions of the VS need to change to demonstrate good governance and respond to the challenges of new or amended missions in order to meet the demands of an ever-changing VS environment.

  1. Methodological and ideological options. Global governance for sustainable energy: the contribution of a global public goods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.; Staudt, L.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a sustainable energy future requires a revolution in the energy system. At the heart of such a transformation lies strong and coherent governance at all political levels, including the global level. While the need for global governance is taken for granted in a number of issue areas such a

  2. Good veterinary governance: definition, measurement and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A

    2012-08-01

    Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary

  3. Public-private or private-private energy partnerships? Toward good energy governance in regional and local green gas projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, M.A.; Sanders, M.P.T.; Harmsen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background An important avenue toward a proper ‘energy transition’ through regional and local projects is for government to collaborate with private sector organizations. In the energy sector, these latter organizations are often already involved in private-private partnerships for collaboration tow

  4. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  5. Provincial Reconstruction Teams and Good Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    Preparedness and Response High High High Public Administration High High High Property Records and Control Low Low High Public Finance High High High...pillars are public administration, property records and control, public finance , civil information, and historical, cultural, and recreational services...in Civil Information. The Afghanistan PRT does not contain the necessary structure to support the pillar. public finance The CA governance

  6. Why governance? A challenge to good governance of biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Katharine

    2015-12-01

    In this commentary on Karla Stroud and Kieran O'Doherty's 'Ethically Sustainable Governance in the Biobanking of Eggs and Embryos for Research' (2015) I call into question the need for good governance to overcome the challenges facing biobanking of eggs and embryos. I argue that the principles of good governance for biobanking that Stroud and O'Doherty outline come up short in providing concrete normative guidance to resolve the challenges associated with a biobank for eggs and embryos.

  7. Public Goods and State Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova T.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that state services are classified into two groups depending on the level of market mechanism use: public services and private services. These services have different characteristics: individual choice of consumption, type and quality of goods, financing, institutional regulation, decision-making subject, external effects, opportunity of effects control. The mechanism of public state services regulation is based on the influence on formal institutes, while the mechanism of private state services regulation is based on informal institutes. Joint mechanism of both types of state services provision includes the procedures of standartization and regulatory activity implying the provision of services by “one stop” principle and minimization of consumer - agent contacts. The optimization of services rendering process and their quality improvement are ensured by administrative regulations which establish strict standards of public service provided by the bodies of executive power and subordinate organizations The means of institutional regulation allow inclusion of market elements but on the condition of state control that ensures stimulation of public institutes. During the process of market institutes initialization in the sphere of state services rendering to government bodies, it is necessary to consider their dependence on marginal profits of one or another institute. In the long-term prospect those institutes got a foothold in the market that strengthen and encompass marginal effect for all individuals under the growth of individuals who observe the rules and restrictions. The activities organized by these institutes deserve positive response on behalf of the majority of individuals and, therefore there is no need in enforcement and violence in order to keep rules and restrictions. In the sphere of state and municipal services we can find the example of services provided in the scope of free contraction, in particular the

  8. A Model for Good Governance of Healthcare Technology Management in the Public Sector: Learning from Evidence-Informed Policy Development and Implementation in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houngbo, P. Th.; Zweekhorst, M.; De Cock Buning, Tj.; Medenou, D.; Bunders, J. F. G.

    2017-01-01

    Good governance (GG) is an important concept that has evolved as a set of normative principles for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to strengthen the functional capacity of their public bodies, and as a conditional prerequisite to receive donor funding. Although much is written on good governance, very little is known on how to implement it. This paper documents the process of developing a strategy to implement a GG model for Health Technology Management (HTM) in the public health sector, based on lessons learned from twenty years of experience in policy development and implementation in Benin. The model comprises six phases: (i) preparatory analysis, assessing the effects of previous policies and characterizing the HTM system; (ii) stakeholder identification and problem analysis, making explicit the perceptions of problems by a diverse range of actors, and assessing their ability to solve these problems; (iii) shared analysis and visioning, delineating the root causes of problems and hypothesizing solutions; (iv) development of policy instruments for pilot testing, based on quick-win solutions to understand the system’s responses to change; (v) policy development and validation, translating the consensus solutions identified by stakeholders into a policy; and (vi) policy implementation and evaluation, implementing the policy through a cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. The policy development process can be characterized as bottom-up, with a central focus on the participation of diverse stakeholders groups. Interactive and analytical tools of action research were used to integrate knowledge amongst actor groups, identify consensus solutions and develop the policy in a way that satisfies criteria of GG. This model could be useful for other LMICs where resources are constrained and the majority of healthcare technologies are imported. PMID:28056098

  9. A Model for Good Governance of Healthcare Technology Management in the Public Sector: Learning from Evidence-Informed Policy Development and Implementation in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houngbo, P Th; Coleman, H L S; Zweekhorst, M; De Cock Buning, Tj; Medenou, D; Bunders, J F G

    2017-01-01

    Good governance (GG) is an important concept that has evolved as a set of normative principles for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to strengthen the functional capacity of their public bodies, and as a conditional prerequisite to receive donor funding. Although much is written on good governance, very little is known on how to implement it. This paper documents the process of developing a strategy to implement a GG model for Health Technology Management (HTM) in the public health sector, based on lessons learned from twenty years of experience in policy development and implementation in Benin. The model comprises six phases: (i) preparatory analysis, assessing the effects of previous policies and characterizing the HTM system; (ii) stakeholder identification and problem analysis, making explicit the perceptions of problems by a diverse range of actors, and assessing their ability to solve these problems; (iii) shared analysis and visioning, delineating the root causes of problems and hypothesizing solutions; (iv) development of policy instruments for pilot testing, based on quick-win solutions to understand the system's responses to change; (v) policy development and validation, translating the consensus solutions identified by stakeholders into a policy; and (vi) policy implementation and evaluation, implementing the policy through a cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. The policy development process can be characterized as bottom-up, with a central focus on the participation of diverse stakeholders groups. Interactive and analytical tools of action research were used to integrate knowledge amongst actor groups, identify consensus solutions and develop the policy in a way that satisfies criteria of GG. This model could be useful for other LMICs where resources are constrained and the majority of healthcare technologies are imported.

  10. 118 CONSTITUTIONALISM AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Concentration of governmental powers in the hands of one individual is the very .... resources.39 The idea of good or bad governance is an ethical one. ... Despite the fact that on the face value, the constitution proclaims constitutionalism, the actions.

  11. 'Good Governance', Daya Saing dan Investasi Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Soedjais

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The on going process of globalization leaves no room for Indonesian access to global investment unless the country manage to ensure the competitivess its system. Improving institutional capacity to be able of delivering good governance and good corporate governenve are inevitable. The challenge is how to allow the market to perform optimally.

  12. Local government on the way to good governance

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thi Thanh Van

    2012-01-01

    Bad governance causes economic, social, developmental and environmental problems in many developing countries. Developing countries have adopted a number of reforms that have assisted in achieving good governance. The success of governance reform depends on the starting point of each country – what institutional arrangements exist at the out-set and who the people implementing reforms within the existing institutional framework are. This dissertation focuses on how formal institutions (laws a...

  13. Depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Li, Yu-Jian; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-10-01

    In real situations, the value of public goods will be reduced or even lost because of external factors or for intrinsic reasons. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation by considering the effect of depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games on a square lattice. It is assumed that each individual gains full advantage if the number of the cooperators nc within a group centered on that individual equals or exceeds the critical mass (CM). Otherwise, there is depreciation of the public goods, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r to (nc/CM)r. It is shown that the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for CM > 1 even at small values of r, and a global cooperative level is achieved at an intermediate value of CM = 4 at a small r. We further study the effect of depreciation of public goods on different topologies of a regular lattice, and find that the system always reaches global cooperation at a moderate value of CM = G - 1 regardless of whether or not there exist overlapping triangle structures on the regular lattice, where G is the group size of the associated regular lattice.

  14. GOOD GOVERNANCE: NORMATIVE VS. DESCRIPTIVE DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian IFTIMOAEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “good governance” was used for the first time in the 1989 World Bank Report – Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Growth. A Long-Term Perspective Study – and has already made history in international studies, especially after the breakdown of the communist regimes. The governance has to do with authority, decision-making and accountability.The good governance is defined as the capacity of the government to manage a nation’s affaires, to provide economic development, welfare for citizens, and social protection for the poor. In this article,the concept of good governance is analysed according to two main dimensions: the normative dimension which comprises principles, values and norms that are guiding the international community and the governments in the management of policymaking process;the descriptive dimension which refers to the practical aspects of implementing the good governance’s standards as policies, programmes and structural reforms with the aim of solving or ameliorating the problems of developing countries.

  15. Religiosity as a public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Richard

    2008-09-01

    Public Goods can be seen as one important way in which societies sustain themselves over time. These are part of the puzzle of the development of political order. Public goods like the rule of law are non-substractable and non-excludable . For economists the classic textbook examples are national defense and police protection. In this paper I argue that religiosity can function like police protection, a means of sustaining order through fear of punishment from a transcendent source. As a means of reducing defection from social norms it has a role to play as a public good. But religion cannot at the same time be seen as the source of such norms or dissention will undermine the very order that punishment seems to reinforce.

  16. The Good Society: Lessons for Integrated Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neesham C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that philosophies of the good society can inform theories of integrated governance in two significant ways. Firstly, they can provide a reasonable foundation for legitimating forms of authority to govern a society across the government, corporate and civil sector. Secondly, they promote value systems that can be constitutive of a normative theory of integrated governance. In developing this argument, I explore conceptions of the good society put forward by Marquis de Condorcet, Adam Smith and Karl Marx, and evaluate the modalities in which the social projects proposed by these authors involve issues of integrated governance. For this purpose, I examine the three theories in relation to three questions: (1 What goals (or objectives should social action be directed to? (2 What should be the scope and limits of social responsibility lying behind the social authority of each sector (government, market or civil society? (3 How is social authority to be exercised beyond legislation? What source(s of legitimacy should one appeal to? Although Condorcet’s idea of the natural social order, Smith’s system of natural liberty and Marx’s political economy of human value have all received their fair share of criticism from empirical theories of society, I suggest that these conceptions are still useful to us today as radical normative experiments. These experiments can have guiding value in formulating models of integrated governance. However, the fundamental differences displayed by these three conceptions reveal the importance of determining whether one can develop models of integrated governance that would accommodate plural, incompatible, or unknown conceptions of the good society.

  17. Nudge for (the public) good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Piovesan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast...... majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider...

  18. Cape Verde: Marketing Good Governance Kap Verde: Die Vermarktung von Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Baker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a lack of natural resources Cape Verde has made good governance one of its most marketable products. Running parallel to the institutionalisation of democratic politics there has been an overhaul and growing sophistication in public administration, though certain weaknesses persist. This report argues that it is reform and improvement in this area in particular that has enabled this small island state to punch above its weight and achieve remarkable social, economic and political results. But will the successful formula of the past decade prove sufficient for the future? Poverty and unemployment have by no means been conquered. Much of the economic growth has been based in the tourist sector and the government is well aware of the dangers of over-reliance on a single industry. Cape Verde’s midway location between South America and Europe and its increasing international transport connections will continue to offer advantages to drug traffickers. The next few years of the world financial crisis will show whether marketing good governance is enough and whether this is the model for small resource developing states. Der Inselstaat Kap Verde hat seine Anstrengungen zu guter Regierungsführung (Good Governance erfolgreich demonstriert. Parallel zur Institutionalisierung demokratischer Regierungsstrukturen wurde die Verwaltung reformiert und modernisiert, wenn auch immer noch Problembereiche erkennbar sind. Der Autor sieht insbesondere in den politischen und administrativen Reformen den Hintergrund für die erfolgreiche soziale, wirtschaftliche und politische Entwicklung dieser kleinen Inselrepublik. Aber wird dieses Rezept, das im vergangenen Jahrzehnt seine Wirksamkeit beweisen konnte, auch in Zukunft ausreichend sein? Armut und Unterbeschäftigung sind keineswegs besiegt. Ein Großteil des Wirtschaftswachstums basiert auf dem Tourismussektor; die Regierung ist sich der Gefahr wohl bewusst, die in zu großer Abhängigkeit von einem

  19. Challenges in developing e-government for good governance in North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, AY

    2017-01-01

    E-government as one form of public administration reform in Indonesia is increasingly related to the pursuance of good governance. This paper examines the relationship between of e-government and good governance by utilizing the case study design on the implementation of e-procurement in North Sumatra. It reveals centrality of local politics and business culture in understanding resistances of both local government officials and local business which creates loopholes’ for the practice of ‘bad governance’ in all phases of e-procurement in North Sumatra province. Data transparency does not equate and guarantee the realization of good governance. Public knowledge and understanding on government decision making processes and accountability (process and policy transparency) are central to achieve good governance through e-procurement. E-procurement system does not automatically change organizational and working culture of the implementers and suppliers. This paper provides insight to the attitude and the perception of private sector engage in e-procurement towards government in implementing e-government. Resistance, digital divide and local politics interrelatedly obstruct the realization of pursuing good governance through e-procurement.

  20. Nudge for (the public) good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Piovesan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider...... default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default....

  1. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same ba...... of optimal provision are different, and the modified Samuelson rule is likely to lead to underprovision...

  2. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing strong assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its emphasis...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  3. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing any separability assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  4. Nudge for (the public) good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Piovesan, Marco

    majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where there default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free...... rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default....

  5. Corporate governance and public corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance in the private sector and corruption are important for economic development and private sector development. This paper investigates how corporate governance in private-sector media companies can affect public corruption. The analytical framework, based on models of corporate governance, identifies two channels through which media ownership concentration affects corrupt...

  6. Patriotic values for public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    The natural environment is central to human well-being through its role in ecosystem service (ES) provision. Managing ES often requires coordination across international borders. Although this may deliver greater conservation gains than countries acting alone, we do not know whether the public...... supports such an international approach. Using the same questionnaire in three countries, we quantified public preferences for ES in home countries and across international borders. In all three countries, the people were generally willing to pay for ES. However, our results show that there is a limit...... to the extent that environmental goods can be considered global. ES with a use element (habitat conservation, landscape preservation) attracted a patriotic premium, such that the people were willing to pay significantly more for locally delivered services. Supranational management of ES needs to be balanced...

  7. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  8. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA CORNELIA STOICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, information, goods, people circulate and brew. The evolution of science and technology, market and capital dynamics, the generalization of models of development and living, these changes affect the relationship with the biosphere and threaten its balance at the same time the one becomes aware of the complexity and probably their fragility. Governance, from local to global, is at the heart of those quantitative but also qualitative changes. Governance is the complex regulator system of the human society which manages both the internal and relations with the outside world, which at the same time guarantees the stability and allows adaptation. Governance is an architecture, a set of practices born of practical challenges that societies face, forming a system that allows to formulate general principles. Stating general principles of good governance will help to build a stable and sustainable society, the common frame of reference against which one can lie and act within and outside the public service. Thus, the governance is based on a territorial approach and the principle of active subsidiarity. Governance been based on a universal ethic of responsibility, it puts the economy in its place and defines what is the market and what does not belong, defines the cycle of development, implementation and monitoring of public policies, organizes cooperation and synergies between actors.

  9. Professionals and Public Good Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Walker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Martha Nussbaum (2011 reminds us that, all over the world people are struggling for a life that is fully human - a life worthy of human dignity. Purely income-based and preference-based evaluations, as Sen (1999 argues, do not adequately capture what it means for each person to have quality of life. There are other things that make life good for a person, including access to publicly provided professional services. The question then is what version of education inflects more towards the intrinsic and transformational possibilities of professional work and contributions to decent societies? This paper suggests that we need a normative approach to professional education and professionalism; it is not the case that any old version will do. We also need normative criteria to move beyond social critique and to overcome a merely defensive attitude and to give a positive definition to the potential achievements of the professions. Moreover universities are connected to society, most especially through the professionals they educate; it is reasonable in our contemporary world to educate professional graduates to be in a position to alleviate inequalities, and to have the knowledge, skills and values to be able to do so. To make this case, we draw on the human capabilities approach of Sen (1999, 2009 and Nussbaum (2000, 2011 to conceptualise professional education for the public good as an ally of the struggles of people living in poverty and experiencing inequalities, expanding the well-being of people to be and to do in ways they have reason to value – to be mobile, cared for, respected, and so on. In particular we are interested in which human capabilities and functionings are most needed for a professional practice and professionalism that can contribute to transformative social change and how professional development is enabled via pedagogical arrangements.

  10. INCORPORATING GOOD LAND GOVERNANCE IN THE DISASTER REGION OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land is one of the most major capitals in our life. Without it, sustainability of human existence is very impossible. Unfortunately, land problems in Indonesia have unique challenges compared to other countries. Many of kinds of challenges are in the form of the natural disasters. This paper is going to measure how well the principles of good governance has been incorporated in the Yogyakarta Special Region Land administration System generally by studying on the Merapi Disaster Mitigation, particularly in how  land planning for the Merapi Disaster’s victims is performed. The research methodology employs a combined research method, it means that fundamental principles in process and its output of both the doctrinal and non doctrinal approaches is synergized to based on the research’s activity unites. Configuration of  the land administration systems in achieving people prosperity has been affected by evolution of political, cultural, and legal awareness of local communities and central government policy. To conclude, incorporating a disaster response based land policy principles requires an integrated law and policy making system among parties through the implementation of good governance principle in the record of public participation voices and sustainable development interests. Notable reports illustrate that the good land governance incorporation encouraged and inspired land planning system to be more efficient and effective. Particularly in the natural disaster mitigation and reconstruction, incorporating good land governance principles furthermore encourages land policy makers to achieve the responsive land management in line with social demands and sustainable development programs.

  11. Anti-Corruption Parties and Good Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bågenholm, Andreas; Charron, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    position to enrich themselves at the expense of the society at large? The answer from research, so far, is through formal and informal institutional constraints, which in different ways alter incentives at the top. This edited volume contributes to the knowledge of the interaction between elites......, institutions and other constraints and how this affects corruption and other forms of bad government. It problematizes the incentives for elites and masses to fight grand and petty corruption, respectively, and demonstrates the importance of elite constraints for good societies, where infant mortality is low...... incite elites to behave either in line with their immediate self-interests or with the interest of the society at large. Taking a step further, it considers different ways in which elites' preferences are more closely aligned with the general interest when, for example, monitoring mechanisms...

  12. Participatory health councils and good governance: healthy democracy in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Martinez, Martha Gabriela

    2015-02-19

    The Brazilian Government created Participatory Health Councils (PHCs) to allow citizen participation in the public health policy process. PHCs are advisory bodies that operate at all levels of government and that bring together different societal groups to monitor Brazil's health system. Today they are present in 98% of Brazilian cities, demonstrating their popularity and thus their potential to help ensure that health policies are in line with citizen preferences. Despite their expansive reach, their real impact on health policies and health outcomes for citizens is uncertain. We thus ask the following question: Do PHCs offer meaningful opportunities for open participation and influence in the public health policy process? Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews with health council members were conducted. Data from these interviews were analyzed using a qualitative interpretive content analysis approach. A quantitative analysis of PHC data from the Sistema de Acompanhamento dos Conselhos de Saude (SIACS) database was also conducted to corroborate findings from the interviews. We learned that PHCs fall short in many of the categories of good governance. Government manipulation of the agenda and leadership of the PHCs, delays in the implementation of PHC decision making, a lack of training of council members on relevant technical issues, the largely narrow interests of council members, the lack of transparency and monitoring guidelines, a lack of government support, and a lack of inclusiveness are a few examples that highlight why PHCs are not as effective as they could be. Although PHCs are intended to be inclusive and participatory, in practice they seem to have little impact on the health policymaking process in Brazil. PHCs will only be able to fulfil their mandate when we see good governance largely present. This will require a rethinking of their governance structures, processes, membership, and oversight. If change is resisted, the PHCs will remain largely

  13. Structure and Evolution of Government Functions---From the Perspective of the Supply of Public Goods%政府职能的结构与演化--基于公共产品供给的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丙涛; 潘美薇

    2016-01-01

    政府职能的转型迟缓正在成为中国进一步发展的瓶颈,而现有的讨论多集中在形而下的执行层面,难免出现头疼医头的痼疾。将政府视为公共产品的提供者,从公共产品需求结构变迁的角度厘清政府职能的发展脉络,特别是强调公共产品需求结构决定政府职能的原则。市场实际上是制度构建的产物,是典型的政府提供的公共产品,因此,政府与市场之间不是同一层面的相互替代的关系,而是上下游的供给与支持的关系。在市场经济发展初期,政府就应该积极提供发展型公共产品,推动市场机制的形成与发展;但当市场经济发展到一定程度之后,当弱势群体的生存成为主要的公共产品需求时,政府的主要职能就是社会保障体系的构建,因此,一个理想的现代政府职能结构应该以兼顾生存与发展的双元财政模式为基础。%Delayed transformation of government functions is becoming a bottleneck to the further de-velopment of China,and the existing discussions mostly focus on the implementation of policy.In this paper,we regarded the government as a supplier of public goods,and investigated the history of the de-velopment of government functions from the view of the demand structure of public goods,especially emphasized the principle of public product demand structure determining the function of the govern-ment.The market is actually a product of the institution construction,is a typical public goods provided by the government;therefore,the government and the market are not in the same level of mutual sub-stitution relationship,but the relationship between supply and support of the upstream and down-stream.Secondly,in the early stage of the development of market economy,the government should pro-vide developmental public goods,and promote the formation and development of the market mechanism. However,in a developed market economy,when the demand

  14. Conspicuous Public Goods and Leadership Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, C.; Roelfsema, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    If voters care for the relative supply of public goods compared to otherjurisdictions, decentralized provision of public goods will be too high.Potentially, centralization internalizes the negative externalities fromthe production of these `conspicuous' public goods. However, in amodel of strategic

  15. Privatization and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  16. Higher Education and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  17. Integrated Reporting for a Good Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobitan Roxana-Ioana

    2017-01-01

    This help a company to reporting how its governance structure supports the organization’sability to create the value in the short, medium and long term and the integrated report can be usedas a corporate governance tool. The aim of this discussion paper is to describe these new conceptsand also, relationship between these.

  18. Good e-Governance and Cadastral Innovation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Hull

    development, e-government and e-governance, and a study of global cadastral and land ... electronic, parcel-based land tenure information system (LTIS) that combines the roles of the .... In this article the authors have embraced the need for.

  19. Government Public Service Advertising Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Ganjar Runtiko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Public service advertising is one of the government strategies to promote the development program. At the national level, the government prefers television as a medium for advertising. As for the local level, the government usually tend to choose lower-cost ads. In Banyumas, many public service announcements using outdoor media such as billboards, banners, or posters. Characteristics of outdoor media that promotes design in attracting the attention of an audience became a challenge for designers. On the other hand, the messages also require the space in public service announcements. This study wants to know about how the execution of the design of outdoor advertising services in the community in efforts to combine the design with a message to be delivered. The study, sought to examine aspects of the design using the composition interpretation methods and verbal composition of outdoor advertising with discourse analysis methods.This research concludes that the government public service announcements desain still needs to be improved according to the rules of visual communication design.

  20. Result-Based Public Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    the performance measure that guides the inspectors’ inspection (or nudging) of the businesses. The analysis shows that although a result-based governance system is advocated on a strategic level, performance measures which are not ‘result-based’ are developed and used in the daily coordination of work. The paper......Within the public sector, many institutions are either steered by governance by targets or result-based governance. The former sets up quantitative internal production targets, while the latter advocates that production is planned according to outcomes which are defined as institution......-produced effects on individuals or businesses in society; effects which are often produced by ‘nudging’ the citizenry in a certain direction. With point of departure in these two governance-systems, the paper explores a case of controversial inspection of businesses’ negative VAT accounts and it describes...

  1. A conceptual device for spreading (good) territorial governance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cotella, Giancarlo; Janin Rivolin Yoccoz, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible to spread good territorial governance in Europe and, if so, in which ways can such aim be achieved? This paper presents a conceptual device, developed within the ESPON project TANGO (Territorial Approaches for New Governance), usable to manage the spread of examples or "features" of good territorial governance in Europe. It is worth clarifying that this paper does not face the issues of defining what is "good" in territorial governance, nor of what can or should be transferred ...

  2. Reframing Public Education as a Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    In his 1847 "Report on a System of Public Elementary Instruction for Upper Canada", Egerton Ryerson stated that public education was created in Canada to ensure that youth were prepared for their "appropriate duties and employments of life … as persons of business, and also as members of the civil community in which they live."…

  3. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  4. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  5. Private Goods and Public Bads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Edward F.

    1975-01-01

    The author of this article has developed a simple economic growth model which suggests that public concern for the environment increases as the quality of the environment, for any number of reasons, becomes worse. Using this model, the author believes that Earth Day, 1970, could have been predicted. (MA)

  6. Research on Effective Supply Mode of Rural Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of definition and classification of rural public goods, this paper analyses the status quo of public goods supply in vast rural areas of China, and it indicates that the electricity and communication facility in rural areas have not yet been popularized; the culture and education facility is critically backward; the medical care and social warfare institutions are short. It points out the rational supply model of public goods as follows: the government plays dominant role in the public goods supply with a large amount of investments, related to the quality of living and production of multitudinous farmers; small wieldy quasi-public goods that can be easily supplied and marginalized public goods can introduce multiplex supply main body under the framework of government guidance. According to this model, corresponding policy suggestions are put forward as follows: increase financial inputs, and perfect local financial system; actively encourage the majority of farmers in rural areas to participate in public goods supply mechanism, so that the supply has pertinence; vigorously develop multiplex supply system of rural public goods, to ensure effective supply.

  7. Good Governance Connects Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    Owen-Smith et al. (this issue) answer the question about expanding funding for human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) research decisively and emphatically. They conclude that the U.S. federal government should expand funding in volume and scope, and stabilize it through regularity. According to Hurlbut and Robert, If the clear goal of policy should…

  8. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  9. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  10. Page | 69 ENSURING GOOD GOVERNANCE THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Though there is a general consensus on the primary function of the ... WAHAB, Ph.D, Sociology Department, International Islamic University, Malaysia, Email: ...... Auditor-General's Report are required to be examined by the public account ...

  11. El buen gobierno de los servicios de salud de producción pública: ideas para avanzar Good governance of publicly-produced health services: ideas for moving forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El buen desempeño de servicios de salud de producción pública tiene importancia vital, más allá del sector salud. Se aborda su buen gobierno y gestión a partir del marco conceptual de los valores e ideas del buen gobierno y de la experiencia de países más ejemplares, como referente práctico de buen desempeño. Se parte de la gran complejidad de los servicios públicos de salud, por su carácter público y su naturaleza profesional, y se identifican siete nudos gordianos de los servicios públicos de salud en España e Iberoamérica. Del concepto de buen gobierno se toma su carácter de referente ético y normativo y su potencial para renovar y dinamizar el gobierno de lo público. Del análisis comparado de los servicios de salud de producción pública se extraen ocho características que contribuyen a su buen desempeño. Se concluye con una reflexión sobre la importancia de compensar la posible hostilidad corporativa y gremial a un impulso reformista del statu-quo con alianzas que refuercen la confianza pública y el contrato social entre profesionales y ciudadanos en torno a los valores de los sistemas públicos de salud.The good performance of publicly-produced health services is of vital importance, well beyond the health sector. Taking into account the great complexity of the health services in the public sector due both to their public and professional nature, we identify seven Gordian Knots as being responsible for the most frequent problems of publicly produced health services in Spain and Latin America. From the concept of good governance we take its character as a normative and ethical benchmark and its potential to renew and invigorate the government of the public sector. From comparative analysis of publicly-produced health services in the best performing countries, we extract eight characteristics which contribute significantly to good performance. A final reflection is on the relevance of the importance of offsetting the

  12. Open Government Data Publication Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Public sector bodies hold a significant amount of data that might be of potential interest to citizens and businesses. However the re-use potential of this data is still largely untapped because the data is not always published in a way that would allow its easy discovery, understanding and re-use. Open Government Data (OGD initiatives aim at increasing availability of machine-readable data provided under an open license and therefore these initiatives might facilitate re-use of the government data which in turn might lead to increased transparency and economic growth. However the recent studies show that still only a portion of data provided by the public sector bodies is truly open. Public sector bodies face a number of challenges when publishing OGD and they need to address the relevant risks. Therefore there is a need for best practices and methodologies for publication of OGD that would provide the responsible persons with a clear guidance on how the OGD initiatives should be implemented and how the known challenges and risks should be addressed.

  13. How nurse leaders can foster a climate of good governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of four examining the components of good corporate governance. Poor governance can result in patients receiving poor quality care; all healthcare professionals, therefore, have a role in ensuring effective governance. This article discusses how an organisation's culture and leadership can contribute to good corporate governance. Nurse leaders can influence the culture of effective governance by building trust and respect and challenging the behaviours that led to poor quality care. The next article in this series will look at how an organisation's systems and processes can affect the effectiveness of its governance.

  14. Good Corporate Governance di Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syukron

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengelaborasi pengetahuan tentang bagaimana implementasi GCG pada perbankan syariah. Dari sisi regulasi, penerapan GCG pada perbankan syariah telah tertuang dalam pasal 34 Undang-undang No 21 tahun 2008 tentang perbankan syariah, di mana GCG pada perbankan syariah tidak saja menitikberatkan pada implementasi prinsip-prinsip dasar GCG, tetapi pelaksanaan GCG di dalam perbankan syariah harus memenuhi prinsip syariah, sehingga implementasi GCG pada bank syariah akan mampu menciptakan iklim usaha yang sehat dan berkesinambungan, mewujudkan perusahaan yang lahir dari budaya governance yang berdasar pada akhlak al-karimah dan  memberikan kemaslahatan yang lebih luas.

  15. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public goods game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one...

  16. Replicator dynamics for optional public good games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauert, C.; De Monte, Silvia; Hofbauer, J.;

    2002-01-01

    The public goods game represents a straightforward generalization of the prisoner's dilemma to an arbitrary number of players. Since the dominant strategy is to defect, both classical and evolutionary game theory predict the asocial outcome that no player contributes to the public goods....... In contrast to the compulsory public goods game, optional participation provides a natural way to avoid deadlocks in the state of mutual defection. The three resulting strategies-collaboration or defection in the public goods game, as well as not joining at all-are studied by means of a replicator dynamics...... participation makes cooperation feasible. But for each strategy, the average payoff value remains equal to the earnings of those not participating in the public goods game....

  17. What's at Stake? History Wars, the NMA and Good Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Marcus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available I want to place the fate of the National Museum of Australia (NMA in the context of some of the political strategies that underpin the electoral placidity and public acceptance of a government so radically reshaping Australian democratic institutions. A national museum that reaches and engages with a national constituency can be an important place for the vigorous public debate that democracy requires. In such a place, political doctrines and dogmas, cultural fantasies and assumptions, historical interpretations and good old common-sense may all be scrutinised as well as confirmed. Such a place sits beside schools and universities, public libraries and art galleries and festivals, each of which provides the opportunity for reflection as well as for congratulation. As with the other publicly funded but independent sites of public reflection, the National Museum is to be reined in and redirected. It is to become ‘balanced’. Nothing could more surely ring its death knell. In future, the museum’s visitors will reflect along the narrow and limited lines of carefully delineated ‘alternatives’ that in fact confine and constrain rather than enlarge understanding.

  18. Governs in the Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maccarone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas corporate governance theory is not as spread in Argentina as in its countries of origin, and least of all in its application to the public and the education sectors, it is nonetheless interesting its possible application to this kind of institution.This work is based on the hypothesis that it is possible to propose a management model for universities applying the concepts of corporate governance as an umbrella for management mechanisms, and in particular for the theory of agency applied to all stakeholders’ relationships. The target of this paper is to answer what would be the agency relationships present in college and what elements should be analyzed to use in future research? How to group agency relations so as to consider the effectiveness of the university at the light of the current demands of the national Ministry of Education?The working method is based mainly in secondary information about universities, the adaptation of corporate governance and agency theories adequate to the direction and control of an organization (Larcker & Tayan, 2011, p. 8, which impact becomes relevant from a management perspective due to its theoretical and practical usefulness.Theoretical, because from Economic Sciences basis, the Agency Theory, can propound an application in the university field. And Practical because, interviews methodology was applied to different actors of interest in order to find out the differences that set the current corporate governance model apart from the theoretical one, and accordingly  recommendations were suggested about how to change it. Keywords: corporate governance - agency – university

  19. Public goods dilemma in asexual ant societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2013-10-01

    Cooperation in biological, social, and economic groups is underpinned by public goods that are generated by group members at some personal cost. Theory predicts that public goods will be exploited by cheaters who benefit from the goods by not paying for them, thereby leading to the collapse of cooperation. This situation, described as the "public goods dilemma" in game theory, makes the ubiquity of cooperation a major evolutionary puzzle. Despite this generalization, the demonstration of genetic background and fitness effects of the public goods dilemma has been limited to interactions between viruses and between cells, and thus its relevance at higher levels of organismal complexity is still largely unexplored. Here we provide experimental evidence for the public goods dilemma in a social insect, the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus. In this species, all workers are involved in both asexual reproduction and cooperative tasks. Genetic cheaters infiltrate field colonies, reproducing more than the workers but shunning cooperative tasks. In laboratory experiments, cheaters outcompeted coexisting workers in both survival and reproduction, although a group composed only of cheaters failed to produce offspring. The operations of the public goods dilemma in P. punctatus showed a remarkable convergence with those in microbial societies, not only in fitness consequences but also in behavioral mechanisms. Our study reinforces the evolutionary impact of cheaters on diverse cooperative systems in the laboratory and in the field.

  20. Public Goods Games on Adaptive Coevolutionary Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Avi M

    2016-01-01

    Productive societies feature high levels of cooperation and strong connections between individuals. Public Goods Games (PGGs) are frequently used to study the development of social connections and cooperative behavior in model societies. In such games, contributions to the public good are made only by cooperators, while all players, including defectors, can reap public goods benefits. Classic results of game theory show that mutual defection, as opposed to cooperation, is the Nash Equilibrium of PGGs in well-mixed populations, where each player interacts with all others. In this paper, we explore the coevolutionary dynamics of a low information public goods game on a network without spatial constraints in which players adapt to their environment in order to increase individual payoffs. Players adapt by changing their strategies, either to cooperate or to defect, and by altering their social connections. We find that even if players do not know other players' strategies and connectivity, cooperation can arise ...

  1. Spatial dilemmas of diffusible public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Gore, Jeff; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-12-17

    The emergence of cooperation is a central question in evolutionary biology. Microorganisms often cooperate by producing a chemical resource (a public good) that benefits other cells. The sharing of public goods depends on their diffusion through space. Previous theory suggests that spatial structure can promote evolution of cooperation, but the diffusion of public goods introduces new phenomena that must be modeled explicitly. We develop an approach where colony geometry and public good diffusion are described by graphs. We find that the success of cooperation depends on a simple relation between the benefits and costs of the public good, the amount retained by a producer, and the average amount retained by each of the producer's neighbors. These quantities are derived as analytic functions of the graph topology and diffusion rate. In general, cooperation is favored for small diffusion rates, low colony dimensionality, and small rates of decay of the public good. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01169.001.

  2. UN Peacekeepinig in Africa and Good Governance: Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W van Genugten

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available While UN peacekeeping operations are in most cases confronted with a multitude of intertwined problems, this seems to be even worse in Africa. Operations on African soil have to react more than averagely to inter- as well as intrastate conflicts based upon ethnic tension, to conflicts starting from extreme poverty or the abuse of natural resources, and to situations in which governments are failing to do what governments should do. In the paper the mandates of the six ongoing UN peacekeeping operations in Africa – as of 1 May 2007, that is, in the Western Sahara, Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan – are analysed from the perspective of their (desired contribution to the establishment of good governance structures. That analysis is followed by some observations upon the changing nature of peacekeeping operations. This includes the need to react to the specificity of African conflicts – which are often characterised by the combination of poverty, weak public institutions, a small private sector, high illiteracy, a narrow skills base, and limited capabilities for guaranteeing security – and the more general move towards 'peace building', which is in so many ways similar to a 'good governance' approach. The paper concludes by formulating a few lessons. These relate to such things as the need for UN peace keepers to take care of the economic root causes of the conflicts they have to deal with, as well as the task to invest systematically in building up governmental structures and legal institutions, while at the same time training police, army and judiciary staff in respect for human rights and in notions such as trying to solve conflicts without the use of violent means. The paper ends by underlining the necessity of a good interplay between the UN peace keepers and all state and non-state actors involved, from land lords and associations of farmers to regional intergovernmental

  3. Social science knowledge as a public good

    OpenAIRE

    Dalrymple, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter provides some notions and information that could help stimulate a more widespread awareness of social science knowledge as a public good. It starts from the point of view of economics and then moves to some other components of the social sciences. The characteristics of public social science research, the funding and prioritization of public social science research, and some implications for social research at the CGIAR, are discussed. (CAB Abstract)

  4. public participation, good environmental governance and fulfilment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    rights, particular attention is paid to environmental rights as autonomous ... of Namibia, 1990 in art 95(1) refers to the right of people to have policies implemented ... the constitutions of, ia, India, the Philippines, Colombia, the United States, Peru, ... argues that each function is an integral part of planning and decision-making.

  5. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  6. The perspective of christian moral education for good governance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perspective of christian moral education for good governance in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... infrastructure in education and hospital sectors, power outage and ethno-religious conflicts are still prevalent.

  7. Democracy, political participation and good governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare E. Arowolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of democracy in Nigeria over a decade ago has not yielded much needed good governance. This is because democracy is practiced in such a way that responsible and competent people are scared away. Scholars and keen observers have attempted at unraveling the factors militating against translating democracy into good governance. The paper revealed that democratisation in Nigeria is pervaded by electoral violence, manipulation of election results and political participation constraints. These identified challenges have made it impossible to attain consolidated democracy that can, in turn, facilitate good governance. Democracy is a catalyst for accountability, transparency and responsive government which brings about good governance. The paper insisted that governance collapse in Nigeria is reflexive of the perfunctory role of the political actors and it adopted elite theory to reinforce this argument. The paper adopted content analysis as a means of data gathering. It dwelt extensively on the synergy between democracy, political participation and good governance but queried the artificial gulf between them in Nigeria. It concluded by putting forth viable and pragmatic way forward.

  8. GOOD DRUG POLICY IS GOOD PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction At present, there is a myriad of contradictions between international illicit drug policy and good, evidence-based public health policy. Largely to blame are the unrealistic goals which policymakers set themselves ten years ago when Pino Arlacchi, the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), announced plans to create a drug-free world' and to eliminate or significantly reduce the illicit cultivation of the coca bush, the cannabis plant and the opium poppy by the year 2008[1].

  9. Ecological public goods games: cooperation and bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauert, Christoph; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Doebeli, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The Public Goods Game is one of the most popular models for studying the origin and maintenance of cooperation. In its simplest form, this evolutionary game has two regimes: defection goes to fixation if the multiplication factor r is smaller than the interaction group size N, whereas cooperation goes to fixation if the multiplication factor r is larger than the interaction group size N. Hauert et al. [Hauert, C., Holmes, M., Doebeli, M., 2006a. Evolutionary games and population dynamics: Maintenance of cooperation in public goods games. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 273, 2565-2570] have introduced the Ecological Public Goods Game by viewing the payoffs from the evolutionary game as birth rates in a population dynamic model. This results in a feedback between ecological and evolutionary dynamics: if defectors are prevalent, birth rates are low and population densities decline, which leads to smaller interaction groups for the Public Goods game, and hence to dominance of cooperators, with a concomitant increase in birth rates and population densities. This feedback can lead to stable co-existence between cooperators and defectors. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the dynamics of the Ecological Public Goods Game, showing that the model exhibits various types of bifurcations, including supercritical Hopf bifurcations, which result in stable limit cycles, and hence in oscillatory co-existence of cooperators and defectors. These results show that including population dynamics in evolutionary games can have important consequences for the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation.

  10. The Supply-Demand Analysis and Mechanism Innovation of Chinese Rural Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The connotation of rural public goods is expounded.The rural public goods refer to the products and labors that satisfy the production and living of rural residents,economic growth and social progress.The rural public goods is characterized by non-excludability,non-competitiveness and indispensability of other general public goods.The supply situation of Chinese government to rural public goods is analyzed,as well as the demand situation of rural public goods,which includes farmers’ demand on training,the assistance demand of rural weak groups,farmers’ demand on comfortable living conditions and farmers’ demand on "soft" public goods.The paths for innovating the supply mechanism of rural public goods are put forward,which cover perfecting the decision mechanism of public goods supply;scientifically distributing the supply responsibility of rural public goods;facilitating the reform of each supporting equipment and exploring the multiple capital collecting channels of rural public goods.

  11. Genetically modified foods as global public goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Herrero Olarte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Genetically modified (GM food has become very important in the field of research, as a result of its expansion in recent decades. As the right to food is a human right, it cannot be left in the hands of private sector developments exclusively, due to the capacity of the public sector to limit or drive it, and in any case, contributing to food safety. To achieve this, and for its cross-border development, GM needs to be treated as Global Public Goods (GPG, defined as pure or impure public goods that cannot be provided or regulated from a national or regional level, but from a global perspective. Its definition as GPG, and the fact of being public goods, assumes greater involvement by the public sector for its supply or regulation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the positive and negative externalities generated by transgenic foods becoming public goods, but from a global perspective. The difficulty is, that according to the author, GMs are positive or negative, so that there is no consensus to restrict and even prevent them or encourage them. But, there is a consensus on some key issues of GM food, such as improving productivity, contributing to the reduction of the species, the dependence of farmers, or monopoly companies with the patent. Identifying these issues can serve to initiate the appropriate regulation."

  12. Paying for international environmental public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, Rodrigo; Perrings, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Supply of international environmental public goods must meet certain conditions to be socially efficient, and several reasons explain why they are currently undersupplied. Diagnosis of the public goods failure associated with particular ecosystem services is critical to the development of the appropriate international response. There are two categories of international environmental public goods that are most likely to be undersupplied. One has an additive supply technology and the other has a weakest link supply technology. The degree to which the collective response should be targeted depends on the importance of supply from any one country. In principle, the solution for the undersupply lies in payments designed to compensate local providers for the additional costs they incur in meeting global demand. Targeted support may take the form of direct investment in supply (the Global Environment Facility model) or of payments for the benefits of supply (the Payments for Ecosystem Services model).

  13. Representing Others in a Public Good Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Evelyn Hauge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In many important public good situations the decision-making power and authority is delegated to representatives who make binding decisions on behalf of a larger group. The purpose of this study is to compare contribution decisions made by individuals with contribution decisions made by group representatives. We present the results from a laboratory experiment that compares decisions made by individuals in inter-individual public good games with decisions made by representatives on behalf of their group in inter-group public good games. Our main finding is that contribution behavior differs between individuals and group representatives, but only for women. While men’s choices are equally self-interested as individuals and group representatives, women make less self-interested choices as group representatives.

  14. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public goods game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one-shot ...... in a referendum, because voting may facilitate coordination due to signaling and commitment effects. We find that voting does have signaling and commitment effects but they are not strong enough to significantly improve the efficiency of thresholds....

  15. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public-good game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one-shot e...... is approved in a referendum, because voting may facilitate coordination due to signaling and commitment effects. We find that voting does have signaling and commitment effects, but they are not strong enough to significantly improve the efficiency of thresholds....

  16. Framing and misperception in public good experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    in misperceptions are linked to the framing effect on subjects' cooperation behavior. When we do not control for the different levels of misperceptions between frames, we observe a significant framing effect on subjects’ cooperation preferences. However, this framing effect becomes insignificant once we remove......Earlier studies have found that framing has substantial impact on the degree of cooperation observed in public good experiments. We show that the way the public good game is framed affects misperceptions about the incentives of the game. Moreover, we show that such framing-induced differences...

  17. Food Science for the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cassandra

    If you are interested in food science, looking for a meaningful career path, and are motivated by the desire to make a difference, you may find that a career working for the public good can be very rewarding. Often, such opportunities address issues of social responsibility, sustainability, public health, and/or economic development. Food scientists who choose this path typically have an interest in social and public health issues, and are usually driven by the achievement of some sort of social, health, or societal gain. As food science in itself is a very broad discipline, applying this knowledge for the public good can also take a variety of paths. Whether you're interested in manufacturing, food safety, nutrition, food policy, product development, quality control, marketing and sales, or any other discipline that makes up the diverse field of food science, various opportunities exist to make a difference to society.

  18. Good Governance and Successful Development: Cross Countries Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabthip Kraipornsak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance is one of the essential factors of success in business as well as in a country’s development. This study aimed at examining the role of good governance and the success of the development. The comparable per head GDP measured in PPP (purchasing power parity was used as the proxy of the successful economic development of countries in the study. Four out of total six factors (indicators being the good governance and the other two being social environmental factors were employed in the investigation following concept of the role of external business environmental factors so called “PESTLE or Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legislative or Legal, and Eco-environmental analysis”. These four indicators of good governance are political stability, control of corruption, rule of law, and voice and accountability which are available from the World Bank’s governance project data base. In addition, the other two indicators, country’s openness and size of population, are the major social variables included in the study which can also affect the success. The total six indicators are taken to examine with the GDP per head to see whether these factors can help countries achieve higher levels of income per head. The study indicates connection between the levels of success with these four indicators of the good governance and the two external social variables. For Thailand, the political instability was found to be a problem of the progress of development among those six indicators.

  19. 公共产品供给民营化背景下的政府规制研究%The Study on Government Regulation of Public Goods Under the Background of Privatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂永有; 王振坤

    2012-01-01

    20世纪90年代开始,我国启动了公用事业市场化改革,民营资本特别是外资流向自来水供给、污水处理、城市生活垃圾收集与处理、燃气供应等行业.私人部门的介入激活了公共产品供给市场,有利于社会福利的增进,但也招致了诸多问题.公共产品供给民营化,并不意味着政府的完全退出,政府始终负有向社会公众提供公共产品或服务的原始责任,民营化只是在提供的形式上完成了向私人部门的转移,政府应完成从公共产品直接提供者向规制者的角色转换.本文以城市生活垃圾产业为例,进行了系统的分析.认为有效的规制应建立在真实的规制环境上,在城市生活垃圾产业民营化的规制中,面临着现有规制者与合约方一体、规制机构与企业信息不对称、政府部门承诺有限等规制约束.基于目前的规制环境,我国城市生活垃圾产业在推进民营化的同时,应建立起独立的规制机构,加强监管,逐步纵向一体民营化以降低交易成本,在合约中采用指数化价格分享企业租金.%The public utilities marketization was initiated in China at the beginning of 1990' s. Private capital, especially the foreign fund, floated to the industries, such as tap water supply, sewage disposal, urban waste collection and disposal, and gas supply, etc. The private sector interference activated the public product supply market. This increased the social welfare. However, a lot of problems have appeared. Privatization of public good does not mean government's complete exit. Actually government always takes the original responsibility to provide public product or service for the society. Privatization only has achieved the transformation to the private sector. It is the government that converts the role of public product supplier to regulator. Effective regulation is based on the authentic environment. Some constraints exist in the regulating process of urban

  20. Study on the Strategy of Providing Rents of Governments in Public Goods Technology Innovation%公共产品技术创新研发阶段政府提供租金的策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海江涛; 仲伟俊

    2014-01-01

    In the development stage of public goods technological innovation, the government will adopt different R&D contest to encourage enterprises to obtain the required technology and increase social welfare surplus. Taki-ng three participating enterprises for example, we compare completely biased single award competition, completely biased multi-award competition, incompletely biased single award competition and incompletely biased multi-award competition to comprehend the effect of the required technology. The conclusion has a certain theoretical and prac-tical significance to the understanding of public goods technology innovation.%在公共产品技术创新的研发阶段,政府部门会选用不同的竞争方式激励企业投入研发,以保证获取所需的技术,增加社会福利。以三个参与企业为研究对象,比较了完全偏袒条件下的单奖励竞赛、完全偏袒条件下的多奖励竞赛、不完全偏袒条件下的单奖励竞赛和不完全偏袒条件下的多奖励竞赛四种不同的竞赛方式对政府实际技术获取效果的影响,研究结论对认识公共产品技术创新有着一定的理论和现实意义。

  1. Higher Education for the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angel B.

    2012-01-01

    In his 1988 article, Nathaniel Jackson inspired NACAC with four objectives to meet the challenge of leading the charge in minority students access. In this article, the author discusses three more that he believes will challenge colleges in the decades ahead: (1) Focus on the Public Good; (2) Honor Transparency; and (3) Measure Collective Success.…

  2. Spatial dynamics of ecological public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Nowak, Martin A; Hauert, Christoph

    2009-05-12

    The production, consumption, and exploitation of common resources ranging from extracellular products in microorganisms to global issues of climate change refer to public goods interactions. Individuals can cooperate and sustain common resources at some cost or defect and exploit the resources without contributing. This generates a conflict of interest, which characterizes social dilemmas: Individual selection favors defectors, but for the community, it is best if everybody cooperates. Traditional models of public goods do not take into account that benefits of the common resource enable cooperators to maintain higher population densities. This leads to a natural feedback between population dynamics and interaction group sizes as captured by "ecological public goods." Here, we show that the spatial evolutionary dynamics of ecological public goods in "selection-diffusion" systems promotes cooperation based on different types of pattern formation processes. In spatial settings, individuals can migrate (diffuse) to populate new territories. Slow diffusion of cooperators fosters aggregation in highly productive patches (activation), whereas fast diffusion enables defectors to readily locate and exploit these patches (inhibition). These antagonistic forces promote coexistence of cooperators and defectors in static or dynamic patterns, including spatial chaos of ever-changing configurations. The local environment of cooperators and defectors is shaped by the production or consumption of common resources. Hence, diffusion-induced self-organization into spatial patterns not only enhances cooperation but also provides simple mechanisms for the spontaneous generation of habitat diversity, which denotes a crucial determinant of the viability of ecological systems.

  3. Country Size and Public Good Provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Staal (Klaas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the equilibrium size of countries. Individuals in small countries have greater influence over the nature of political decision mak- ing while individuals in large countries have the advantage of more public goods and lower tax rates. The model implies that (i) there ex

  4. Public goods games on adaptive coevolutionary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Elgar; Shapiro, Avi M.

    2017-07-01

    Productive societies feature high levels of cooperation and strong connections between individuals. Public Goods Games (PGGs) are frequently used to study the development of social connections and cooperative behavior in model societies. In such games, contributions to the public good are made only by cooperators, while all players, including defectors, reap public goods benefits, which are shares of the contributions amplified by a synergy factor. Classic results of game theory show that mutual defection, as opposed to cooperation, is the Nash Equilibrium of PGGs in well-mixed populations, where each player interacts with all others. In this paper, we explore the coevolutionary dynamics of a low information public goods game on a complex network in which players adapt to their environment in order to increase individual payoffs relative to past payoffs parameterized by greediness. Players adapt by changing their strategies, either to cooperate or to defect, and by altering their social connections. We find that even if players do not know other players' strategies and connectivity, cooperation can arise and persist despite large short-term fluctuations.

  5. Global Public Goods and The Role of Emerging Power: Considering the Concept of Impure Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rieshøj Yi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing analysis of global public goods over-emphasizes the significance of public. Great power as a main provider has played an active role in these strategic initiatives, which may be ignored. In fact, main power has thought about the possible free-riders when providing public goods and making its foreign strategic plan. China’s announcement to “welcome the neighbouring countries to be a free-rider and benefit from China’s rise” is a good example. It is necessary to think about the theory of public goods and take another look at the free-riding phenomenon. The concept of impure public goods may be useful and effective when we understand the reason why global public goods are being provided and are relatively efficient. As an emerging power, China should have a clear strategy on global public goods with a possible “marketing” viewpoint, including more initiatives and specific measures, so that the global public goods provision may be more diverse and well-planned.

  6. What's so Good About a Wise and Knowledgeable Public?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    that the public tends to be largely ignorant on the issues relevant to governance. To make matters worse, social psychological research on how ignorance tends to breed overconfidence gives us reason to believe that the public will not only lack knowledge on the relevant issues, but also wisdom, in the Socratic......—irrespective of what account of wisdom available in the literature we opt for. In fact, it might just be that what the public needs is nothing but the most basic epistemic good: true belief....

  7. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is critical for…

  8. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  9. Money and Finance as Global Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Montani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2008 financial crisis caused not only a dramatic fall in global output and employment but also a serious deterioration of public indebtedness for many governments, forced to rescue the banking system from failure. The crisis showed that national governments are not able to regulate the global market by means of the traditional instruments of political economy. The aim of this article is to identify new supranational instruments of economic policy. As a first step, to avoid a new financial crisis, it is necessary to understand the intimate connection between the international monetary system, founded on the dollar as key currency, and the international financial system. Only some economists were able to see the causes of the recent crisis as a by-product of an asymmetric monetary system. In this article, after having discussed the monetary roots of the financial crisis, the discussion is focused on monetary sovereignty, financial sovereignty, and fiscal sovereignty as the main economic responsibilities of a national government, to show that, today, a supranational economic government should have similar powers. An appendix (disposable on the website of the author on “Global imbalances: A false objective of economic policy” shows how the balance of payments imposes wrong goals to national economic policies. The discussion is focused on (a the neo-Ricardian theory of economic integration, (b financial capital flows, and (c the Keynesian equations of an open economy.

  10. Fra New Public Management til New Public Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Konturerne i New Public Governance ikke er skarpt optegnede og dets gennemslag i praksis er uforudsigelig. I dette kapitel sættes New Public Governance i relation til New Public Management og kravet om evidensbasering af offentlige ydelser. Samskabelse præsenteres som nyt centralt begreb....

  11. Convergence of Corporate and Public Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Hirigoyen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the differences between the corporate and public governance, theoretical and empirical research seems to indicate that the two domains of governance are far too different to share any common aspect. However, in this particular research, it has been argued that public governance is an application of corporate governance. Thus, the research question entails the description and analysis of this possible convergence of the two. Extensive research from literature on corporate governance has been undertaken to establish a relationship between the boards process and the roles that acts as a framework to bridge the gap separating corporate governance from public governance. Corporate governance, at a global level, exists in the for-profit as well as nonprofit organizations. Thus, the definition of this concept needs to be viewed from “an innovative” eye, considering the relationship between the process of the board and roles as characteristic of the public organization and private ones. As the private as well as public organizations are an application of corporate governance, the difference between the two gets narrowed. For the purpose of this research, the case of the French hospitals’ board has been taken into consideration. The members of the public board have been considered for the board process to perform their roles.

  12. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of the depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the depreciation effect of public goods is considered in the public goods games, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r of each group as r‧=r( (β≥0). It is assumed that each individual enjoys the full profit r of the public goods if all the players of this group are cooperators. Otherwise, the value of public goods is reduced to r‧. It is found that compared with the original version (β=0), the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for β>0, and there exist intermediate values of β inducing the best cooperation. Particularly, there exists a range of β inducing the highest cooperative level, and this range of β broadens as r increases. It is further presented that the variation of cooperator density with noise has close relations with the values of β and r, and cooperation at an intermediate value of β=1.0 is most tolerant to noise.

  14. Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2013-02-07

    The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms.

  15. PRINSIP - PRINSIP GOOD GOVERNANCE DI DINAS KEPENDUDUKAN DAN CATATAN SIPIL KOTA PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Dailiati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Public agencies that provide public services accountable, transparent, accessible, easily accessible information is a public instasi some traits that have applied the principles of good governance. Office of Population and Civil Registration Pekanbaru is the public agency that organizes public services in the field of population and civil registration, including the service of National Identity Card, Family Card, registration and issuance of birth certificates and death. This study aims to determine how the Principles of good governance. This research is a qualitative descriptive study. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling technique. Data collection technique used observation and interview and questionnaire. The data used in this study is the apparatus of the state and civil society is managing the administration. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive analysis technique that consists of data reduction, data presentation and conclusion.Based on the research that the application of the principles of good governance is good but there are some that need to be improved. Namely, equality and the supremacy of law. For that we need an improvement in some aspects.  Keywords: Principles, Good Governance , Public Agencies  ABSTRAK Instansi publik yang memberikan pelayanan publik yang akuntabel, transparan, mudah dijangkau, informasi mudah diakses merupakan beberapa ciri instasi publik yang telah menerapkan prinsip good governance. Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kota Pekanbaru merupakan instansi publik yang menyelenggarakan pelayanan publik dibidang kependudukan dan pencatatan sipil, diantaranya adalah pelayanan Kartu Tanda Penduduk, Kartu Keluarga, pencatatan dan penerbitan akta kelahiran serta kematian.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana prinsip -prinsip good governance.Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif.Teknik sampling yang digunakan adalah teknik purposive sampling

  16. Money as a Global Public Good

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Liliana; POPESCU Alexandra-Codruta

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss a complex and yet not taken in consideration global public good: money. Money is a social convention created and accepted by people in order to facilitate economic transactions, being a symbol, without an intrinsic value (fiduciary money). It is universally used and it has value only in connection with the products and services that can be acquired, based on people’s consent and their psychological acceptance. In other words, its value lies in th...

  17. Punishment in optional public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2010-11-01

    In this work, the optional public goods games with punishment are studied. By adopting the approximate best response dynamics, a micro model is given to explain the evolutionary process. Simultaneously, the magnitude of rationality is also considered. Under the condition of bounded rationality which provides a light to interpret phenomena in human society, the model leads to two types of equilibriums. One is the equilibrium without punishers and the other is the equilibrium including only punishers and cooperators. In addition, the effects of rationality on equilibriums are briefly investigated.

  18. Punishment in optional public goods games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Xu Zhao-Jin; Zhang Lian-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the optional public goods games with punishment are studied. By adopting the approximate best response dynamics, a micro model is given to explain the evolutionary process. Simultaneously, the magnitude of rationality is also considered. Under the condition of bounded rationality which provides a light to interpret phenomena in human society, the model leads to two types of equilibriums. One is the equilibrium without punishers and the other is the equilibrium including only punishers and cooperators. In addition, the effects of rationality on equilibriums are briefly investigated.

  19. 42 CFR 137.95 - May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Acquisition of Goods and Services from the Ihs § 137.95 May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe...

  20. Mixed strategy under generalized public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Wu, Te; Chen, Xiaojie; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2013-10-07

    The relationship between group's contribution and public goods produced often exhibits nonlinearity, which constitutes the generalized public goods game. Far less attention has been paid to how the mixed strategy evolves in such generalized games. Here, we study the effects of nonlinear production functions on the evolution of the mixed strategy in finite populations for the first time. When the group size and the population size are comparable, cooperation is doomed irrespective of the production function. Otherwise, nonlinear production functions may induce a convergent evolutionary stable strategy (CESS) or a repeller, but cannot yield the evolutionary branching. Moreover, we particularly consider three representative families of production functions, intriguingly which all display the hysteresis effect. For two families of production functions including concave and convex curves, a unique CESS or a unique repeller may occur even if the group size is two. Whereas for the third class encompassing symmetrically sigmoidal and inverse sigmoidal curves, the coexistence of a CESS and a repeller only occurs if group size is above two, and two saddle-node bifurcations appear. Our work includes some evidently different results by comparing with the evolution of continuous investment or binary strategy.

  1. Stomach Infrastructure: Lessons for Democracy and Good Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a new paradigm shift occurred in Nigeria which defiled the expectation of many social and political analysts. This paradigm was later titled ‘Stomach Infrastructure’ – a concept of inducing potential voters to support a particular candidate in an election, creating thus a new barometer for measuring good governance. To understand the concept of stomach infrastructure, this study makes a graphical comparison between stomach infrastructure and physical infrastructure, as they are both ...

  2. The Challenges of Good Governance, Accountability of Governmental Agencies and Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. GBEREVBIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some scholars have argued that the enhanced performance of governmental agencies in any nation is a product of good governance, accountability, transparency and trust, which in turn brings about the improvement in the living standard of the people. The implication of this position is that where good governance is absent, accountability of governmental agencies and development in such a society is likely to be affected negatively. With the analysis of secondary data, the paper examines the challenges of good governance, accountability of governmental agencies and development in Nigeria. It observes the manifestation of unethical behaviour amongst public officials as the major challenge hindering development in the country. It therefore recommend among others the need for the government to strengthen the existing anti-corruption agencies to enable them enforce proper ethical standard.

  3. Government and Happiness in 130 Nations: Good Governance Fosters Higher Level and More Equality of Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J C

    2011-05-01

    There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in particular to 'technical' quality. Once a minimum level is reached, rising technical quality boosts average happiness proportionally. Good governance does not only produce a higher level of happiness, but also lowers inequality of happiness among citizens. The relation between good governance and inequality of happiness is not linear, but follows a bell shaped pattern, inequality of happiness being highest in nations where the quality of government is at a medium level. The relation between the size of government and average happiness depends heavily on the quality of government; good-big government adds to happiness but bad-big government does not. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.

  4. Institutional Impacts of the Local Government Reform Program on Good Local Governance in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface E.S. Mgonja

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the early 1990s, Tanzania’s government has embarked upon ambitious and far-reaching reform programs to improve the socioeconomic condition of the country. Among them was the development of anti-corruption strategies and the local government reform program. Overall, these reform programs were expected to improve good governance through reformed and autonomous local institutions. As such, this paper provides a detailed analysis of two reform initiatives, namely, anti-corruption strategies and LGRP based on their main policy goals as well as impacts on the overall institutional performance of local institutions in Tanzania. Drawing upon review of some empirical studies, the paper discusses what is seen as major structural concerns in the workings of these reforms in their entirety. This paper builds on the proposition that, unless someone addresses “institutional shortfalls” within the greater system of governance, any policy or reform initiative aimed at improving good governance will ultimately fail to deliver.

  5. Good governance and good health: The role of societal structures in the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon-Johansson Anatole S

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only governments sensitive to the demands of their citizens appropriately respond to needs of their nation. Based on Professor Amartya Sen's analysis of the link between famine and democracy, the following null hypothesis was tested: "Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevalence is not associated with governance". Methods Governance has been divided by a recent World Bank paper into six dimensions. These include Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and the Control of Corruption. The 2002 adult HIV prevalence estimates were obtained from UNAIDS. Additional health and economic variables were collected from multiple sources to illustrate the development needs of countries. Results The null hypothesis was rejected for each dimension of governance for all 149 countries with UNAIDS HIV prevalence estimates. When these nations were divided into three groups, the median (range HIV prevalence estimates remained constant at 0.7% (0.05 – 33.7% and 0.75% (0.05% – 33.4% for the lower and middle mean governance groups respectively despite improvements in other health and economic indices. The median HIV prevalence estimates in the higher mean governance group was 0.2% (0.05 – 38.8%. Conclusion HIV prevalence is significantly associated with poor governance. International public health programs need to address societal structures in order to create strong foundations upon which effective healthcare interventions can be implemented.

  6. Open Access: (Social Sciences as Public Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mruck

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to provide open access to articles published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals is becoming apparent to researchers as well as the non-scientific public as a result of "Budapest Open Access Initiative," the "Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities" and other initiatives. The core question that concerns open access is the following: since scientific information is usually financed by public funding, and therefore a public good, shouldn't the access be free of cost to all interested parties. Currently the open access movement is encountering the movement against the "Digital Divide," and therefore it is not surprising that the demand for open access has extended to a political level as reflected in the "WSIS Declaration of Principles" and the "WSIS Plan of Action." This article begins by providing a brief summary of the historical background of the open access movement and its major aims (Section 2. It then lists examples that explain possible links between the open access movement and the initiatives against the "Digital Divide" (Section 3. Section 4 considers some important barriers responsible for the fact that open access publishing is still not part of the everyday scientific publishing practices. This has various consequences. Selected consequences concerning the recent debate on redistribution processes between "information poor" and "information rich" are summarized in Section 5. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402141

  7. Benefits of tolerance in public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-10-01

    Leaving the joint enterprise when defection is unveiled is always a viable option to avoid being exploited. Although loner strategy helps the population not to be trapped into the tragedy of the commons state, it could offer only a modest income for nonparticipants. In this paper we demonstrate that showing some tolerance toward defectors could not only save cooperation in harsh environments but in fact results in a surprisingly high average payoff for group members in public goods games. Phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal the high complexity of evolving states where cyclic dominant strategies or two-strategy alliances can characterize the final state of evolution. We identify microscopic mechanisms which are responsible for the superiority of global solutions containing tolerant players. This phenomenon is robust and can be observed both in well-mixed and in structured populations highlighting the importance of tolerance in our everyday life.

  8. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Spraggon, John M; Denny, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance.

  9. Benefits of tolerance in public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Leaving the joint enterprise when defection is unveiled is always a viable option to avoid being exploited. Although loner strategy helps the population not to be trapped into the tragedy of the commons state, it could offer only a modest income for non-participants. In this paper we demonstrate that showing some tolerance toward defectors could not only save cooperation in harsh environments, but in fact results in a surprisingly high average payoff for group members in public goods games. Phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal the high complexity of evolving states where cyclic dominant strategies or two-strategy alliances can characterize the final state of evolution. We identify microscopic mechanisms which are responsible for the superiority of global solutions containing tolerant players. This phenomenon is robust and can be observed both in well-mixed and in structured populations highlighting the importance of tolerance in our everyday life.

  10. Public Goods, Environmental Protection,and the Development Paradigm in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhou

    2004-01-01

    Ecological environment protection will and should not stop as regional public goods;instead, it has been gradually regarded as global public goods. That is why the responsibility of environment protection belongs to public institutions: government organizations (GO) and non-government organizations (NGO). The ecological environment protection problems in China's rural areas stem from the absence of government responsibilities with regard to consensuses on issues of rural public goods that are basically sourced from two superstitions on the government's development paradigm: one is attaching too much importance on economic growth; the other is relying entirely on market resource-allocation capacity. These two superstitions of China "s government obviously lead to the shortage of public goods in rural areas. It is necessary that GO's and NGO's clearly define their specific responsibilities, reflect on the development paradigm; establish a more scientific development model and take concrete actions based on it.

  11. Research Ethics, Governance, Oversight And Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Suleiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A better educated public has started to challengethe way decisions are made in medical research activities.Although Institutional and National Guidelines onResearch are in place, there are fears that InstitutionalReview Boards (IRBs and funding agencies are only fairlyactive in scientific and ethical reviews of research proposalsbut not on oversight of projects after their initiation. Theseissues are integral to good research governance andresearchers and custodians of research ethics must ensurethat public interest is not compromised. Medical progress is based on research including humanexperimentation carried out according to guidingprinciples as enunciated in the Declaration of Helsinki(2000, but the quality of compliance with theDeclaration is an important issue. Better choice and appropriate training of members of IRBsto improve the quality of decision making and governanceprocesses are urgently needed. Competency in evaluationof proposals requires not only the appropriate scientificknowledge but also access to relevant preclinical andother data. Unfortunately, the completeness and quality ofsuch data may not be adequate. Public interest demands that injury to trial subjects inclinical trials is minimized if not avoided completely.Unfortunately this is not always possible with trialswhere novel biological modes of action are tested.A more robust evaluation mechanism for projectapproval may minimize but not completely avoid injuryto subjects; thus insurance cover to provide care andcompensation to subjects must be compulsory.The decision to approve or reject a project must bebased on the balance of potential risks and benefits,taking into consideration justifiable distributive risks totarget communities and populations. Economicconsiderations should never be the primary focus,especially when there are real concerns that themigration of early phase clinical trials including vaccinetrials to developing countries is based on the perceivedless

  12. A Public Governance Look at CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Natural resource exploitation in the Arctic generally does not encounter the problems associated with weak public governance that have marred several resource-rich countries elsewhere in the world and led to calls for CSR as private governance. This paper posits that in Arctic states CSR offers...... interesting potential for public regulators to steer private/public-private resource exploitation towards increased contributions to public sustainability and welfare state objectives. The significance of CSR policies and practices as private governance modalities towards risk management and as competition...... parameters combine with normative guidance based on CSR norms (e.g. the UN Global Compact, OECD’s Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the UN Guidelines on Business and Human Rights). Focusing on debates concerning resource extraction operations in Greenland and the pertinent policy framework...

  13. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  14. ANALISIS GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DI SEKTOR MANUFAKTUR: PENGARUH PENERAPAN GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, RETURN ON ASSET, DAN UKURAN PERUSAHAAN TERHADAP NILAI PASAR PERUSAHAAN

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfikar Zulfikar

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to test empirically the impact of implementation good corporate governance on the market value of firms. The Good Corporate Governance Perception Index (IICG) used in this study developed by KNKCGI (2001). Moreover, this study also investigated whether investors also consider other Good Corporate Governance variables. This study examines twenty-eight companies that implemented Good Corporate Governance in Jakarta Stocks Exchange during 2001 to 2002. Regression ...

  15. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  16. Stomach Infrastructure: Lessons for Democracy and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, a new paradigm shift occurred in Nigeria which defiled the expectation of many social and political analysts. This paradigm was later titled ‘Stomach Infrastructure’ – a concept of inducing potential voters to support a particular candidate in an election, creating thus a new barometer for measuring good governance. To understand the concept of stomach infrastructure, this study makes a graphical comparison between stomach infrastructure and physical infrastructure, as they are both dividends of democracy. But to sum it up, stomach infrastructure is, first and foremost about the people’s survival. It is a living and stress-free man that can enjoy the benefit of a modern city or world class physical infrastructures. Thus, building stomach infrastructure is about following the natural sequence of actions in governance. It is about understanding the bottom-top, gradual approaches in developmental strides. It is about carrying everybody along, everyone at his own pace.

  17. Demand of Rural Public Goods in Western Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Development of the West Regions and the construction of new countryside,on the basis of defining the concept of public goods,this article analyzes the status quo and layers of demand of rural public goods in western ethnic minority areas:the demand of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas shows "pyramid" structure,that is,the most basic layer is production-based rural public goods,followed by life-based rural public goods and democratic-management-based rural public goods.Finally the countermeasures for achieving effective demand of rural public goods are put forward as follows:adhere to customers(farmers)-oriented principle;innovate upon the rural residents’ demand expression mechanism of public goods in ethnic minority areas;achieve diversification of supply subject of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas.

  18. Governance and innovation in public sector services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Zanfei, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the co-evolution of public governance and innovation, and proposes an adaptation of Hartley's model to take into consideration such co-evolution. This model is then applied to a longitudinal case study of the digitalization of Roskilde University Library. The theoretical...... and empirical analysis yields four main results. First, it is shown that the transition from a New Public Management approach towards a Networked Governance mode implies a greater distribution of knowledge and innovation across different organisational levels within public administrations. Interactions between...... such organisational levels crucially affect the development of new public services. Second, a more articulated view of users in public sector innovation is developed. It is argued that: (i) users play distinct roles at different stages in innovation processes, with relatively greater involvement in minor incremental...

  19. Effect of depreciation of the public goods in spatial public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, depreciated effect of the public goods is considered in the public goods games, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r of each group as r' = r(nc/G)^beta (beat>= 0). It is assumed that each individual enjoys the full profit of the public goods if all the players of this group are cooperators, otherwise, the value of the public goods is reduced to r'. It is found that compared with the original version (beta = 0), emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for beta > 0, and there exit optimal values of beta inducing the best cooperation. Moreover, the optimal plat of beta broadens as r increases. Furthermore, effect of noise on the evolution of cooperation is studied, it is presented that variation of cooperator density with the noise is dependent of the value of beta and r, and cooperation dominates over most of the range of noise at an intermediate value of beta = 1.0. We study the initial distribution of the multiplication factor at beta = 1.0, and find that all the di...

  20. HUBUNGAN GOOD UNIVERSITY GOVERNANCE TERHADAP KINERJA MANAJEMEN KEUANGAN PERGURUAN TINGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahyudin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of financial management institution had to be accountable as one indicator of university management assessment as a whole. This study examined the management of higher education in terms of the implementation of Good University Governance (GUG. GUG concept was adopted from the concept of good corporate governance. The samples were state universities in Central Java and Yogyakarta using purposive sampling technique. Data analysis used was Structural Equation Model (SEM analysis based on Path Analysis. The results showed that GUG directly influenced the Cultural Organization (CO, and Organizational Structure (OS affected the Financial Management Performance (FMP. However, GUG did not directly influence FMP, OS, and PM (Planning Management. PM and OS were proven not directly influence the FMP. Other evidence found was the indirect effect of GUG to FMP through OS, PM, and CO. The conclusions of this research were GUG would increase CO and OS and would further increase FMP. Thus, universities should consider the implementation of GUG to increase the performance of financial management. Pengelolaan keuangan yang akuntabel merupakan salah satu indikator yang baik untuk menilai pengelolaan perguruan tinggi secara keseluruhan. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengelolaan perguruan tinggi yang ditinjau dari Implementasi Good University Governance (GUG yang merupakan adopsi konsep Good Corporate Governance di sektor korporasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel Peguruan Tinggi Negeri di Jawa Tengah dan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta dengan menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Analisis data menggunakan model Structural Equation Model (SEM berbasis Analisis Jalur (Path Analysis untuk menjawab tujuan dan hipotesis penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan variabel GUG terbukti berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap struktur organisasi, manajemen perencanaan, dan kinerja manajemen keuangan. Variabel struktur organisasi dan manajemen perencanaan juga terbukti

  1. Veterinary education: a basis for good governance leading to effective veterinary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, E A; DeHaven, W R

    2012-08-01

    Veterinary education serves as the foundation on which a country can build effective Veterinary Services (VS). In addition, an appropriately well-educated animal health workforce will be better poised to actively participate in and advance good governance practices. Good governance, in turn, will lead to improved animal and veterinary public heath infrastructures and help advance economic development across the globe. A crucial first step in establishing a strong educational foundation is to define minimum competencies for both public- and private-practice veterinarians to perform veterinary service tasks. Defining minimum competencies will also assist veterinary education establishments (VEEs) in developing and implementing curricula to allow graduates to achieve those competencies. Incorporating veterinary educational prerequisites and requirements into governance documents that regulate VS will help to ensure that those who deliver VS have an adequate knowledge and skills base to do so. Public-private partnerships may be particularly effective in designing and implementing curricula that address defined minimum competencies and assure the quality of VEEs. Through these partnerships, a system of continuous quality improvement is established that embodies the qualities essential to good governance practices. Such practices will ultimately strengthen national VS, better protect animal and public health, and ensure food security.

  2. THE PUBLIC PENSION POINT - A GOVERNMENT BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA TOMESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Each of us pays every month a percentage of his/her salary for receiving a public pension after a certain age. As a percentage, this amount of money varies depending of salary. But retirement means a number of pension points. Where is the business? Pension point is determined by the Government as a percent of medium salary. This article aims to make an analysis of pension point as a government business.

  3. Does Filial Piety Make a Good Government Official?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FILIAL piety has been an essential element of traditional Chinese culture since the time of Confucius and is all about the way Chinese relate to their parents and other family members.Now the concept has found its way into the workplace.Recently this virtue was introduced as one of the criteria for selecting government officials,leading to a flurry of debate among the public. In Weixian County,north China’s Hebei Province,Qi Jinghai, Secretary of the Weixian Committee of the Communist Party of China,introduced a regulation stating that candidates applying

  4. Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏承遗; 张娟娟; 王祎玲; 王劲松

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of cooperation with evolutionary public goods games based on finite populations, where four pure strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishers and loners who are unwilling to participate are considered. By adopting approximate best response dynamics, we show that the magnitude of rationality not only quantitatively explains the experiment results in [Nature (London) 425 (2003) 390], but also it will heavily influence the evolution of cooperation. Compared with previous results of infinite populations, which result in two equilibriums, we show that there merely exists a special equilibrium cooperation. In addition, we characterize that loner's and the relevant high value of bounded rationality will sustain payoff plays an active role in the maintenance of cooperation, which will only be warranted for the low and moderate values of loner's payoff. It thus indicates the effects of rationality and loner's payoff will influence the cooperation. Finally, we highlight the important result that the introduction of voluntary participation and punishment will facilitate cooperation greatly.

  5. Emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

    2009-04-07

    Evolution of cooperation has been a major issue in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is observed not only in dyadic interactions, but also in social interactions involving more than two individuals. It has been argued that direct reciprocity cannot explain the emergence of cooperation in large groups because the basin of attraction for the 'cooperative' equilibrium state shrinks rapidly as the group size increases. However, this argument is based on the analysis of models that consider the deterministic process. More recently, stochastic models of two-player games have been developed and the conditions for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation in finite populations have been specified. These conditions have been given as a mathematically simple expression, which is called the one-third law. In this paper, we investigate a stochastic model of n-player games and show that natural selection can favour a reciprocator replacing a population of defectors in the n-player repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We also derive a generalized version of the one-third law (the {2/[n(n+1)]}1/(n-1) law). Additionally, contrary to previous studies, the model suggests that the evolution of cooperation in public goods game can be facilitated by larger group size under certain conditions.

  6. Cooperation transition of spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Wen; Nie, Sen; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-12-01

    In the public goods games, players attempt to optimize their payoffs, following as fair, generous, and extortionate rules according to the pattern needed for obtaining their expected profits compared to those of their opponents. In first type of rule (the fair one), players seek equal profits of the opponent, and the generous rule induces to lower payoff than that of opposite players, while the extortionate rule leads to higher payoffs than that of their opponents. To model the three types of behaviors, we introduce a conditional strategy with a parameter χ, which control conditions of existence of the three behaviors. Therefore, players may contribute in a group, but may not contribute in the other group, because it depends on conditions of their opponents. Simulation results show that there exists a pure cooperation state when parameter χ is moderate, even for a lower multiplication factor. Because conditional players cautiously contribute they can form compact clusters to prevent the invasion of defection and finally spread the cooperation when defectors die out.

  7. Governance and Investment of Public Pension Assets : Practitioners' Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The impact of good governance on investment management and performance is immense. Several key factors contribute to good governance within pension funds, appropriate governance structures; well-defined accountabilities, policies, and procedures; and suitable processes for the selection and operation of governing bodies and managing institutions. Not surprisingly, good governance requires ...

  8. Business Environment and Corporate Governance in Public Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nicolaescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For several years, private business has adopted corporative governance on the grounds of national and international codes to enhance investor confidence in companies and economic entities, especially those that are listed on the stock exchanges. The business environment for the public sector has not benefited from corporate governance due to certain bureaucratic, but logical reasons, such as the fact that the representatives of the State/Government/local authority apply the shareholder’s decisions without considering any other principles, procedures or rules reflecting the organization and the operation of the public entity. Economic and social reality has shown that many public entities have been confronting with different issues in making managerial decisions and obeying managerial principles of neutrality when appointing directors or establishing their remuneration, without prejudice to the objectives of those entities, many of them with losses and arrears that could generate bankruptcy to a private entity. More in-depth relations of Romania with the European Union and international financial organizations have imposed the importance of the corporate governance in public sector business environment as well, which the Government settled with the adoption of specific legal rules. A general appreciation implies that the decisions made are important, but entirely efficient, many of them being simple statements without concrete effects on the organization and the improvement of managerial work. Consequently, certain corrections are expected and a series of future developments of corporate governance aspects should be examined in private business. The codes of corporate governance in the private sector should be taken as such and as for the public economic environment, additional provisions relating to the applicability of public patrimony administration should be considered while recognising the specific characteristics of each economic entity

  9. A social dilemma structure in diffusible public goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Ryo; Tanimoto, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Encouraged by the interaction between two species of microbes, in which one species is capable of replenishing the public resources and the other is not, the dilemma structure (the long-term sustainability of the population) hidden in a system where public goods are defined as diffusible was examined. In a series of simulations in which the three major parameters governing the dynamics of the system were varied, following the effect of the spatial structure that results from resource diffusion and distribution, the dynamics show a rich diversity, including cooperator-dominated, extinct, and coexistent results. If the dilemma is strong, the chance of surviving cooperators is small and the population tends to extinction even though coexistence is possible. By contrast, if a weak dilemma is given, the affluent resources make cooperators dominant over defectors.

  10. Governance and Innovation in Public sector Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Zanfei, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal case study of virtual library development, we highlight three important aspects that characterize the links between governance and innovation in public sector innovation. First, the examined case shows that the organizational complexities have increased in the transition f...

  11. Governance and Innovation in Public sector Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Zanfei, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal case study of virtual library development, we highlight three important aspects that characterize the links between governance and innovation in public sector innovation. First, the examined case shows that the organizational complexities have increased in the transition...

  12. Public Sector Information and Open Government Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adly Talaat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the distinguished case studies of some countries in the domains of Public Sector Information (PSI and Open Government Data (OGD, and demonstrates the current situation of Egypt related to them. The paper shows as well why the OGD is needed and its benefits on the political, economic, social, and international readiness axes

  13. Pure Redistribution and the Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study pure redistribution as a device to increase cooperation and efficiency in the provision of public goods. Experimental subjects play a two-stage game. The first stage is the standard linear public goods game. In the second stage, subjects can redistribute payoffs among other subjects...... cooperation in the provision of public goods...

  14. PRINSIP GOOD FINANCIAL GOVERNANCE DALAM PENGELOLAAN KEUANGAN NEGARA DALAM RANGKA MEWUJUDKAN CLEAN GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, Indonesia’s development depends on how the management of the state budget Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara. The ideal management of state budget should be based on good governance principal (this principle has become a dynamic pattern of the state enforcement, towards the democracy evolvement around the world today which is consistent with the good financial governance principle. The implementation of good financial governance into regulations related to state financial management will be able to produce a clean governance. As the implementation of the legality and legal certainty principle, the imposition of sanctions related to state financial management irregularities must be based on the provisions of laws and regulations which is featuring respect for human rights. Besides, the sanction should be granted by the competent authorities after following some certain procedures and monitoring inspection conducted by the Badan Pemeriksaan Keuangan and Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat who hold the supervisory function of state budgeting and finance monitoring as stated in the Law No. 15/2004 about Audit, Management and Financial Responsibility of State and also Law No. 15/2006 about State Audit Board.

  15. A general model of the public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven A

    2010-06-01

    An individually costly act that benefits all group members is a public good. Natural selection favours individual contribution to public good [corrected] only when some benefit to the individual offsets the cost of contribution. Problems of sex ratio, parasite virulence, microbial metabolism, punishment of noncooperators, and nearly all aspects of sociality have been analysed as public goods shaped by kin and group selection. Here, I develop two general aspects of the public goods problem that have received relatively little attention. First, variation in individual resources favours selfish individuals to vary their allocation to public goods. Those individuals better endowed contribute their excess resources to public benefit, whereas those individuals with fewer resources contribute less to the public good. Thus, purely selfish behaviour causes individuals to stratify into upper classes that contribute greatly to public benefit and social cohesion and to lower classes that contribute little to the public good. Second, if group success absolutely requires production of the public good, then the pressure favouring production is relatively high. By contrast, if group success depends weakly on the public good, then the pressure favouring production is relatively weak. Stated in this way, it is obvious that the role of baseline success is important. However, discussions of public goods problems sometimes fail to emphasize this point sufficiently. The models here suggest simple tests for the roles of resource variation and baseline success. Given the widespread importance of public goods, better models and tests would greatly deepen our understanding of many processes in biology and sociality.

  16. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  17. Good Corporate Governance in Manufacturing Companies Tax Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uun Sunarsih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of good corporate Governance against tax avoidance peroxided by the book tax gap and corporate governance is peroxided by institutional ownership, managerial ownership, independent board, audit committee and audit quality. This study was performed on companies listed on the Stock Exchange on the observation period 2011-2014. The method used is purposive sampling and obtained a sample of 10 companies. The data used is secondary data that can be downloaded through www.idx.co.id and www.sahamok.com.  The results showed that the variables of the board of managerial ownership, independent directors, audit committee, and audit quality effect on tax avoidance while institutional ownership variable has no effect on tax avoidance. It is suspected that institutional ownership as a monitoring tool in any decision taken by the manager does not support an optimal oversight of management performance related to tax evasion.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3541

  18. Critical mass of public goods and its coevolution with cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the enhancing parameter represented the value of the public goods to the public in public goods game, and was rescaled to a Fermi-Dirac distribution function of critical mass. Public goods were divided into two categories, consumable and reusable public goods, and their coevolution with cooperative behavior was studied. We observed that for both types of public goods, cooperation was promoted as the enhancing parameter increased when the value of critical mass was not very large. An optimal value of critical mass which led to the best cooperation was identified. We also found that cooperations emerged earlier for reusable public goods, and defections became extinct earlier for the consumable public goods. Moreover, we observed that a moderate depreciation rate for public goods resulted in an optimal cooperation, and this range became wider as the enhancing parameter increased. The noise influence on cooperation was studied, and it was shown that cooperation density varied non-monotonically as noise amplitude increased for reusable public goods, whereas decreased monotonically for consumable public goods. Furthermore, existence of the optimal critical mass was also identified in other three regular networks. Finally, simulation results were utilized to analyze the provision of public goods in detail.

  19. Good Governance as Regional Public Goods:A Case Study of Japan’s “One Village One Product” Movement%作为区域公共产品的善治经验--对日本“一村一品”运动的案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺平

    2015-01-01

    “一村一品”运动是20世纪80年代之后日本开展地方外交和对外援助的重要案例。作为一种区域公共产品,“一村一品”运动的推广是日本在国家建设、社会治理、经济发展中成功经验的外化,即善治理念和实践从地方到全国再到国际的不断拓展的过程。作为“内生发展理论”的具体实践,“一村一品”运动在泰国等国因地制宜,有所修正和创新。通过动态调整和双向学习,“一村一品”运动对于促进当地经济社会发展起到了一定的作用。当然,其在自身发展和对外推广的过程中所面临的问题和困境也值得进一步总结和反思。%Since the 1980s, the international promotion of “One Village One Product” movement has been an important case in Japan’s local diplomacy and foreign aid strategy. As a special kind of regional public goods, the introduction of this movement is the externalization of Japan’s successful experience of state building, social governance and economic development, namely the expansion of the concept and practice of good governance from local level to national level and ifnally to the international level. Based on the “endogenous development theory”, this movement undergoes constant revision and innovation in line with local conditions in other countries like Thailand. Through dynamic adjustment and two-way learning, it plays a positive role in promoting local economic and social development. At the same time, the problems and dilemmas it faces during its own development and external promotion process are also worthy of further summary and review.

  20. Nanny or steward? The role of government in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochelson, Karen

    2006-12-01

    The past year has witnessed contentious debates about public health in England around smoking bans, alcohol licencing, food labelling and junk food advertising. Some people argue that any government intervention in these areas is 'nanny statist'--an unnecessary intrusion into people's lives and what they do, eat and drink. Others argue that only the state can alter the environment that shapes people's decisions and behaviour. This paper suggests that there is a strong argument to be made for government intervention to safeguard public health. Legislation brings about changes that individuals on their own cannot, and sets new standards for the public good. Rather than condemning such activity as 'nanny statist', it might be more appropriate to view it as a form of 'stewardship'. The paper draws on international evidence about alcohol use, smoking and road safety to show how taxation, advertising bans, regulations proscribing behaviour and education create a public health framework and shape individual choices towards healthier and safer behaviour.

  1. 76 FR 12549 - Public Availability of Government Accountability Office Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... / Tuesday, March 8, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE 4 CFR Part 81 Public Availability of Government Accountability Office Records AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... clarify procedures to obtain Government Accountability Office (GAO) documents. Published GAO...

  2. 75 FR 71567 - Public Availability of Government Accountability Office Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...; ] GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE 4 CFR Part 81 Public Availability of Government Accountability Office Records AGENCY: Government Accountability Office. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: These proposed revisions would clarify procedures to obtain Government Accountability Office (GAO) documents. Published...

  3. Take Good Care of Public Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 金业祥

    2004-01-01

    However,it is a great pity that in many places,some of the public facilities have been purposely damaged.Some electric bulbs were smashed; some traffic signs were damaged beyond recognition,some public telephones cannot work; some statues stand there without an arm or a leg.What's worse,some people even stole the covers of the sewers.

  4. Analisis Pengaruh Penerapan Good Corporate Governance terhadap Kinerja Perusahaan

    OpenAIRE

    Rio Novianto Rossi; Rosinta Ria Panggabean

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the relationship between corporate governance with corporate performance and learns about the development and implementation of GCG in Indonesia. This study uses regression analysis to determine whether corporate governance has a positive influence. Sampling of Corporate Governance Perception Index (CGPI) for 2006 to 2009 from The Indonesian Institute for Corporate Governance (IICG) was used to measure the influence of corporate governance with Tobin’s Q on the performanc...

  5. Centralized versus Decentralized Provision of Local Public Goods: a Political Economy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy J.; Coate, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    This paper takes a fresh look at the trade-off between centralized and decentralized provision of local public goods. The point of departure is to model a centralized system as one in which public spending is financed by general taxation, but districts can receive different levels of local public goods. In a world of benevolent governments, the disadvantages of centralization stressed in the existing literature disappear, suggesting that the case for decentralization must be driven by politic...

  6. Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the concept of human security and its link to energy and energy governance, particularly global energy governance. Through this focus emerges the need to look at the links between the concept of public goods and energy. Our starting argument is that conventional notions

  7. Adaptive governance of riverine and wetland ecosystem goods and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptive governance and adaptive management have developed over the past quarter century in response to institutional and organizational failures, and unforeseen changes in natural resource dynamics. Adaptive governance provides a context for managing known and unknown consequenc...

  8. 农村公共产品治理机制研究——基于用水协会的个案分析%Study on Rural Public Goods' Governance Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永新

    2012-01-01

    Based on the case analysis of Water User Association, using the method of institutional analysis, the establishment of the existing Water Users Associations and the problems in them were dissected, and pointed out that based on the perfection of the existing autonomy organizations, we should set up the Rural Public Affairs Associations which included other rural infrastructures and have the characteristics of property right clarified, strong autonomy, sound institutions, stock cooperation and legal person. At the same time, government must transfer its functions, take the right steps and give institutional support for the Famer' s Self-organizations. Only through this means, the rural public affairs can be sustainably developed.%基于用水协会的个案分析,运用制度分析方法,对我国现有用水协会成立及存在的问题进行剖析,指出要在完善现有自治组织的基础上,建立包括其他农村基础设施在内的产权明晰、自治性强、机构完善的股份合作制、法人型的农村公共事务治理协会.同时,政府要转变职能,采取正确的措施给予农民自治组织以制度上的支持,以促进农村公共事业的可持续发展.

  9. Men behaving nicely: public goods as peacock tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Mark; Iredale, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    Insights from sexual selection and costly signalling theory suggest that competition for females underlies men's public good contributions. We conducted two public good experiments to test this hypothesis. First, we found that men contributed more in the presence of an opposite sex audience, but there was no parallel effect for the women. In addition, men's public good contributions went up as they rated the female observer more attractive. In the second experiment, all male groups played a five round public good game and their contributions significantly increased over time with a female audience only. In this condition men also volunteered more time for various charitable causes. These findings support the idea that men compete with each other by creating public goods to impress women. Thus, a public good is the human equivalent of a peacock's tail.

  10. Does Good Corporate Governance Lead to Stronger Productivity Growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeke, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of corporate governance and product market competition on total factor productivity growth in Germany and the UK.For Germany, the prototype of a bank-based governance system, productivity grows faster in firms controlled by financial institutions (in particular, ba

  11. African Union: Towards Good Governance, Peace and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    and be bold enough to isolate that particular ruling clique where its political and corporate governance standards are sub par. The AU, just like...terms. In the long term, there is need for universal efforts toward Africa’s democratic and corporate governance for its stability and prosperity

  12. Does Good Corporate Governance Lead to Stronger Productivity Growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeke, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of corporate governance and product market competition on total factor productivity growth in Germany and the UK.For Germany, the prototype of a bank-based governance system, productivity grows faster in firms controlled by financial institutions (in particular, ba

  13. Analisis Pengaruh Penerapan Good Corporate Governance terhadap Kinerja Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Novianto Rossi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between corporate governance with corporate performance and learns about the development and implementation of GCG in Indonesia. This study uses regression analysis to determine whether corporate governance has a positive influence. Sampling of Corporate Governance Perception Index (CGPI for 2006 to 2009 from The Indonesian Institute for Corporate Governance (IICG was used to measure the influence of corporate governance with Tobin’s Q on the performance of the enterprise market and Return On Equity (ROE was used to measure the operational performance of the company. This study used a sample of 40 companies surveyed by IICG from 2006 to 2009 and included in the top 10 corporate governance ranking index released by IICG and the companies’ financial reporting are also listed on the BEI (Bursa Efek Indonesia as well. The sampling method is purposive sampling. The result of this study indicate that there is no significant relationship between corporate governance with Tobin’s Q (market performance but there is a significant positive relationship between corporate governance with ROE (operational performance.

  14. What Are the Components of "Good Government" of Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    Governments must govern; they must strike the balance between representing the diverse wishes of the people whilst also taking society forwards. Without maps of the future, they must choose which of various possible paths to follow. Only hindsight exposes the difference between visionary leadership and misguided fixation, and then only rarely.…

  15. Club Efficiency and Lindahl Equilibrium with Semi-Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Gilles, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    Limit core allocations are the ones that remain in the core of a replicated economy. An equivalent notion for economies with public goods is Schweizer's club efficiency. We extend this notion to economies with goods that have a semi-public nature. The notion encompasses purely private as well as

  16. Universities, the Public Good and Professional Education in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Linda; Stokes, Rebecca; Walker, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, questions of the purpose and value of higher education come to the fore. Such questions have particular relevance when directed towards the preparation of professionally qualified graduates who might be expected to contribute to the public good. However, definitions of the public good are contested and the role of…

  17. Club Efficiency and Lindahl Equilibrium with Semi-Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Gilles, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    Limit core allocations are the ones that remain in the core of a replicated economy. An equivalent notion for economies with public goods is Schweizer's club efficiency. We extend this notion to economies with goods that have a semi-public nature. The notion encompasses purely private as well as pur

  18. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  19. The Contest for Olympic Succes as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study considers the performance of countries at the Olympic Games as a public good. Firstly, it is argued that, at the national level, Olympic success meets the two key conditions of a public good: non-rivalry and non-excludability. Secondly, it is demonstrated that standard income inequality m

  20. Pure redistribution and the provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    We show that a simple redistribution scheme can increase the provision of public goods and that the scheme is popular. This suggests that imposed redistribution as in the mechanism by Falkinger [Falkinger, J., 1996. Efficient private provision of public goods when deviations from average...

  1. Democracy, redistributive taxation and the private provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition the private provision of public goods embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on production of public goods, to which Olson (1965) pointed, is weakened...

  2. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965...

  3. Explaining contributions to public goods : Formalizing the social exchange heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    The public good game is a popular model of cooperation problems. Rational egoism predicts that in finitely repeated public good games no contributions are made. At least 4 observations are inconsistent with this prediction: contributions (i) are frequently positive, (ii) increase in the marginal

  4. Privatization and the Public Good: Public Universities in the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    "Public education is in crisis--and it has been for some time. The problem is, no one can agree on the problem, and when there is no agreement on the problem, developing solutions is nearly impossible." Thus writes Matthew T. Lambert in this study of present-day public higher education, which is currently plagued by momentous challenges.…

  5. Information Strategies for Open Government: Challenges and Prospects for Deriving Public Value from Government Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon S. Dawes; Helbig, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Information-based strategies to promote open government offer many opportunities to generate social and economic value through public use of government information. Public and political expectations for the success of these strategies are high but they confront the challenges of making government data "fit for use" by a variety of users outside the government. Research findings from a study of public use of land records demonstrates the inherent complexity of public us...

  6. In the shadow of good governance : an ethnography of civil service reform in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anders, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    In the shadow of good governance traces the implementation of the good governance agenda in Malawi from the loan documents signed by the representatives of the governement and the Bretton Woods institutions to the individual experiences of civil servants who responded in unforeseen ways to the refor

  7. Coexistence of cooperation and defection in public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2011-04-01

    The production of public goods by the contribution of individual volunteers is a social dilemma because an individual that does not volunteer can benefit from the public good produced by the contributions of others. Therefore it is generally believed that public goods can be produced only in the presence of repeated interactions (which allow reciprocation, reputation effects and punishment) or relatedness (kin selection). Cooperation, however, often occurs in the absence of iterations and relatedness. We show that when the production of a public good is a Volunteer's Dilemma, in which a fixed number of cooperators is necessary to produce the public good, cooperators and defectors persist in a mixed equilibrium, without iterations and without relatedness. This mixed equilibrium is absent in the N-person Prisoner's Dilemma, in which the public good is a linear function of the individual contributions. We also show that the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Volunteer's Dilemma are the two opposite extremes of a general public goods game, and that all intermediate cases can have a mixed equilibrium like the Volunteer's Dilemma. The coexistence of cooperators and defectors, therefore, is a typical outcome of most social dilemmas, which requires neither relatedness nor iterations.

  8. Denmark's Master of Public Governance Program: Assessment and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Carsten; Pedersen, Anne Reff

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on Denmark's Master of Public Governance and its assessments and lessons learned. Denmark is seen to have an efficient economy and public sector, a digitalized public service delivery system, and an advanced work-life balance. The Danish government invested substantial resources into developing a Master of Public Governance…

  9. The Good Governance Option to Youth Socio-Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    is further exacerbated by the high incidence of state failure and the crisis of governance ... institutions, pervasive poverty, corruption and the near total collapse of moral .... Official rate of inflation jumped from 7.4% in 1990 to 44.6% in 1992.

  10. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965......) pointed to, is weakened and might even be reversed in this context. Also, the median voter may choose a negative tax rate, even if he is poorer than the mean, in order to stimulate public goods production. The relevance of the model is illustrated with an application to the finance of higher education....

  11. E's Are Good: Standards of Quality in Public Administration as Reflected in Discourse on Canadian Public Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dana Lee; Miller, Audrey Anna; Bratton, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Promoting understanding of quality in the context of good governance can be a challenging classroom exercise not only because of the potential for hijacking politicization of the discussion, but also because of the variety of ways in which public sector goals can be defined, even in the context of a single policy. Standards of quality in the…

  12. E's Are Good: Standards of Quality in Public Administration as Reflected in Discourse on Canadian Public Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dana Lee; Miller, Audrey Anna; Bratton, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Promoting understanding of quality in the context of good governance can be a challenging classroom exercise not only because of the potential for hijacking politicization of the discussion, but also because of the variety of ways in which public sector goals can be defined, even in the context of a single policy. Standards of quality in the…

  13. Ostracism and the provision of a public good

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Rigaud, Frank P.; Martinsson, Peter; Staffiero, Gianandrea

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the effects of ostracism on cooperation in a linear public good experiment. Our results show that introducing ostracism increases contributions. Despite reductions in group size due to ostracism, the net effect on earnings is positive and significant.

  14. Framing and misperceptions in a public good experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    Earlier studies have found that a substantial part of the contributions in public good games can be explained by subjects misperceiving the game's incentives. Using a large-scale public good experiment, we show that subtle changes in how the game is framed substantially affect such misperceptions...... and that this explains major parts of framing effect on subjects' behavior. When controlling for the different levels of misperception between frames, the framing effect on subjects' cooperation preferences disappears.......Earlier studies have found that a substantial part of the contributions in public good games can be explained by subjects misperceiving the game's incentives. Using a large-scale public good experiment, we show that subtle changes in how the game is framed substantially affect such misperceptions...

  15. Private Financing of Public Goods by Means of 'Eco-Goods' Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueda, Yoshifumi; Wegener, Andreas; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2010-01-01

    With a view to applying to the problem of collective action for the global commons, we analyze a three-stage game model where public goods are provided by the costly leadership of a social entrepreneur for undertaking 'eco-goods' scheme. We derive (i) the conclusion that the social entrepreneur can...

  16. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-02-06

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation.

  17. The Contest for Olympic Succes as a Public Good

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, L.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study considers the performance of countries at the Olympic Games as a public good. Firstly, it is argued that, at the national level, Olympic success meets the two key conditions of a public good: non-rivalry and non-excludability. Secondly, it is demonstrated that standard income inequality measures, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index, can be successfully applied to the distribution of Olympic success. The actual distribution of Olympic success is compared with alternative hyp...

  18. Replicator dynamics in public goods games with reward funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Unemi, Tatsuo

    2011-10-21

    Which punishment or rewards are most effective at maintaining cooperation in public goods interactions and deterring defectors who are willing to freeload on others' contribution? The sanction system is itself a public good and can cause problematic "second-order free riders" who do not contribute to the provisions of the sanctions and thus may subvert the cooperation supported by sanctioning. Recent studies have shown that public goods games with punishment can lead to a coercion-based regime if participation in the game is optional. Here, we reveal that even with compulsory participation, rewards can maintain cooperation within an infinitely large population. We consider three strategies for players in a standard public goods game: to be a cooperator or a defector in a standard public goods game, or to be a rewarder who contributes to the public good and to a fund that rewards players who contribute during the game. Cooperators do not contribute to the reward fund and are therefore classified as second-order free riders. The replicator dynamics for the three strategies exhibit a rock-scissors-paper cycle, and can be analyzed fully, despite the fact that the expected payoffs are nonlinear. The model does not require repeated interaction, spatial structure, group selection, or reputation. We also discuss a simple method for second-order sanctions, which can lead to a globally stable state where 100% of the population are rewarders.

  19. Group-size diversity in public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    Public goods games are models of social dilemmas where cooperators pay a cost for the production of a public good while defectors free ride on the contributions of cooperators. In the traditional framework of evolutionary game theory, the payoffs of cooperators and defectors result from interactions in groups formed by binomial sampling from an infinite population. Despite empirical evidence showing that group-size distributions in nature are highly heterogeneous, most models of social evolution assume that the group size is constant. In this article, I remove this assumption and explore the effects of having random group sizes on the evolutionary dynamics of public goods games. By a straightforward application of Jensen's inequality, I show that the outcome of general nonlinear public goods games depends not only on the average group size but also on the variance of the group-size distribution. This general result is illustrated with two nonlinear public goods games (the public goods game with discounting or synergy and the N-person volunteer's dilemma) and three different group-size distributions (Poisson, geometric, and Waring). The results suggest that failing to acknowledge the natural variation of group sizes can lead to an underestimation of the actual level of cooperation exhibited in evolving populations.

  20. Public goods games with reward in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Peter A I; Hauert, Christoph

    2011-07-01

    Public goods games paraphrase the problem of cooperation in game theoretical terms. Cooperators contribute to a public good and thereby increase the welfare of others at a cost to themselves. Defectors consume the public good but do not pay its cost and therefore outperform cooperators. Hence, according to genetic or cultural evolution, defectors should be favored and the public good disappear - despite the fact that groups of cooperators are better off than groups of defectors. The maximization of short term individual profits causes the demise of the common resource to the detriment of all. This outcome can be averted by introducing incentives to cooperate. Negative incentives based on the punishment of defectors efficiently stabilize cooperation once established but cannot initiate cooperation. Here we consider the complementary case of positive incentives created by allowing individuals to reward those that contribute to the public good. The finite-population stochastic dynamics of the public goods game with reward demonstrate that reward initiates cooperation by providing an escape hatch out of states of mutual defection. However, in contrast to punishment, reward is unable to stabilize cooperation but, instead, gives rise to a persistent minority of cooperators.

  1. Good Corporate Governance dan Ukuran Perusahaan Pengaruhnya Pada Tax Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Adeyani Tandean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine empirically the effect of the application of GCG and the size of the company on tax avoidance. This study was performed on companies listed on the Stock Exchange 2010-2013. Variables used are institutional ownership, the independence of auditors, the audit committee, and the size of the company as an independent variable and tax avoidance as the dependent variable. The research sample 84 manufacturing companies. The sampling technique using judgment sampling. Testing data using multiple regression analysis. The test results showed that only affects the audit committee on tax avoidance. Keywords: Corporate governance, size, tax avoidance

  2. Less Government is Good Government? Deregulation as an Undermining Principle of Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Engartner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since liberalization became the dominant global narrative the stock response to market shortcomings has been to “slim down” the state and deregulate. In most countries the slogan of “less government is good government” has become a constitutive feature of economic policy since the 1980s. Markets lie at the heart of every successful economy, and despite not necessarily working well on their own, the economic policy of deregulation has been one of the most persistent currents in the global economy. Based as it is on classical liberalism and – at least in its origins and leanings – neoclassical theory, deregulation aims to minimize the influence of the state. But in the context of the current financial and economic meltdown – the worst economic dislocation since the Great Crash of 1929-32 – “downsizing” the state causes growing turmoil. Global networking has made financial markets much more volatile and therefore much more susceptible to crisis.

  3. Diclosure and transparency in public sector: an analysis of convergence of the principles of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Zorzal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on disclosure of private institutions are common, but do not occur when it comes to public institutions, where the disclosure of management is still very limited. Purpose: The article is part of doctorate research in Information Science in progress and investigates the principles of disclosure and transparency in the light of good governance practices applied to the public sector, to reduce information asymmetry and presents part of this research. Methodology: The methodological procedures were performed literature search and content analysis to identify the principles and standards of good governance practices recommended for public administration, aiming to systematize these recommendations as instruments of governance and verify the convergence of the principles of disclosure and transparency. Results: Partial results show convergence of disclosure and transparency principles. Conclusions: Indicate that public institutions should worry about performing the practices of good governance as a way to mitigate the informational asymmetry.

  4. A Unique Pedagogical Approach to Voting and Public Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Douglas A.; Chappell, Matthew; Baggett, L. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Fourth grade students at a public elementary school in Houston, Texas, participated in a one-week exercise intended to mimic the process of creating a public good through a democratic process. The exercise involved students in four separate classes designing a class party with different characteristics (theme, music, and food) through a voluntary…

  5. Denmark’s Master of Public Governance Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten; Pedersen, Anne Reff

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on Denmark’s Master of Public Governance and its assessments and lessons learned. Denmark is seen to have an efficient economy and public sector, a digitalized public service delivery system, and an advanced work–life balance. The Danish government invested substantial resources...... into developing a Master of Public Governance program – a flexible and modular program for public managers to take over a period of up to six years. The paper focuses on the Copenhagen version of the Master of Public Governance program. More than 1000 public managers from central, regional and local government...... are now active in pursuing an executive public management education through this program. The development, structure, content and the innovative teaching ideas are presented. The available data, including an official evaluation of the MPG program, is used to assess the program and present some lessons...

  6. Devolution and grant-in-aid design for the provision of impure public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

    2016-01-01

    Traditional fiscal federalism theory postulates that devolution for the provision of local public goods increases welfare. However, most of the services offered at local level are local impure public goods whose characteristics may prevent devolution from being efficient. Our paper shows that devolution is the optimal choice only for local impure public goods. For an environment characterised by coordination and asymmetry of information problems, we propose the optimal grants-in-aid formula that Central Government should use to reduce welfare losses and we compare it with what suggested by the mainstream literature. Finally, we show under which conditions devolution should be preferred to a centralised solution. From a policy point of view, our paper may explain the heterogeneity in the choices made by countries in terms of devolution in the provision of merit and impure public goods.

  7. Government Research Services in the Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Robert I.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Government Information Service of Florida's Palm Beach County Library System (PBCLS). Highlights include models for service, the need for specialized government services, costs versus benefits, the Question-Response Service and Government Web site, and keys to success. (AEF)

  8. Government and Public Awareness of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2011-07-01

    Solar cycle 24 continues to provide confusion in its start and its unsteady rise toward an uncertain maximum. Nevertheless, many entities, including the popular press and influential government agencies, are becoming more aware of the effects of the Sun and the near-Earth space environment on essential modern-day technologies. Within the past 6 months, news articles in the printed and digital press have included such headlines as "Solar storm delivers glancing blow to Earth—and a warning" (Christian Science Monitor, 9 June 2011), "Magnetic north pole shifts, forces runway closures at Florida airport" (http://FoxNews.com, 6 January 2011), "Major solar flare erupts, may make auroras visible in northern U.S." (SPACE.com, 10 March 2011, but picked up by FoxNews.com and Yahoo News), and "As the sun awakens, the power grid stands vulnerable" (Washington Post, 20 June 2011). All such news stories for the general public are a welcome recognition that weather in space can have important implications for human activities, including the performance—and even survivability—of some technologies.

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Achieving Good Governance at Open and Distance Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a good governance architecture framework that would bring significant improvements in the overall working of open and distance learning institutions in a well-structured and systematic way. The good governance framework is articulated with seven basic principles which are performance, transparency, accountability,…

  10. IMPLEMENTASI KEBIJAKAN REKRUITMEN CALON PEGAWAI NEGERI SIPIL DALAM PERSPEKTIF GOOD GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirullah - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   This research is conducted to figure out how the process implementation of recruitment policy of civil servant candidate which is frequently in conduction become public focus because the impression a rouse is it become a place for corruption, collusion and nepotism  practice. This kind of impression will always emerge activity of levying of civil of public servant candidate it not conducted transparently and accountability. So the principle of openness become very urgent representing one of point in good governance. The main problems taken as focus in this research are: (1 The role of actor in implementation of recruitment policy of civil public  servant  candidate covering: announcement, registration, administrative selection, academic test, academic test result inspection, determination the pass of  participants  and placement. (2 Supporting factor and barrier factor in the implementation of recruitment policy civil public servant candidate. (3 The taken by Government of Enrekang Regency in realizing good governance connection to the recruitment process of civil public servant candidate covering: transparency, information and accountability. The study used qualitative research method. Data collection using interview technique, and the documentation, with informant selected is local Secretary, for example as the chief of selection committee civil public servant candidate in Enrekang Regency and all off committee members directly involved in committee, Data analysis using interactive analysis model  from Milis and Hubermen. The results obtained in this research are: The role actor in implementing the recruitment policy civil public servant candidate, but in Enrekang Regency. The announcement. The execution still not yet fully transparent or still in limited scale, the deadline of registration which should be 15 days were in fact only 13 days. The lack of clearness of the contain of the announcement caused 353 applicants, do not

  11. An overview of European good practices in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement has always been a major source of corruption in Europe, as acknowledged by national and European officials, by NGOs and by representatives of civil society. Too often, public procurement serves the personal interests of corrupt officials rather than the best interest of the community. During the last decade, anti-corruption efforts have increasingly focused on public procurement corruption. Most European countries, including European Union members, have tried to eliminate public procurement corruption by implementing new legal rules to ensure compliance with public procurement standards and by prosecuting offenders. After surveying a variety of good practices for eliminating corruption in public procurement in Europe, this paper concludes that the new rules have produced mixed results, with the most unfavourable outcomes occurring in Central and Eastern European countries where public procurement corruption is more virulent than elsewhere in Europe.

  12. Different goods, different effects: Exploring the roles of generalized trust in public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim

    This paper tests the hypothesis that generalized trust helps solve large-n collective action problems in a rationalistic framework. A rigors test is employed in that the hypothesis is tested in two different choice situations; a pure public good situation (whether to recycle or not) and a joint...... week positive effect on organic food consumption. Hence, generalized trust only affects public good provision when a collective action problem is present. The analyses thus sustain the hypothesis. It is furthermore concluded that the effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior...

  13. DETERMINATION OF INVESTMENT APPEAL OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semidotsky V. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Russian industry is almost completely exhausted the potential for extensive growth model. Due to this background, the increasing the importance of improving the efficiency of the companies in the industry, which by definition involves the need to increase investment activity in the industrial business becomes very important. The problem arises due to identifying the elements of investment attractiveness for further exposure to the companies in the sector and attracting investment capital. This article is devoted directly to the issues of determining factors of investment attractiveness of an industrial company. The emphasis in the article has been made on the allocation of domestic and foreign investment attractiveness, each of which is formed by a number of aspects. Also, it has identified and characterized the key elements that make up the internal and external investment attractiveness. Thus, the investment attractiveness of the internal environment of an industrial company is represented as a top-management, quality of personnel, quality of business processes, the quality of sales and quality of the financial system. Investment attractiveness of the environment can be formed by conjuncture target markets, the availability of capital, public policy, competition, barriers to entry, innovative pressure locally limited preferential treatment. The article also gives a brief description of how each of the elements mentioned above influence the integrated investment attractiveness

  14. PENGARUH GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP LUAS PENGUNGKAPAN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Iskandarsjah Zulkarnaen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pengungkapan Intellectual Capital merupakan pengungkapan unsur neraca berdasar pada item berbasis ilmu pengetahuan yang dimiliki perusahaan dan menghasilkan manfaat pada masa depan perusahaan. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah perusahaan publik yang terdaftar dalam indeks LQ 45 di BEI, dengan populasi yang berjumlah 45 perusahaan. Pemilihan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling dengan hasil sampel berjumlah 37 perusahaan. Berdasar pada hasil penelitian, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat pengaruh baik secara simultan maupun secara parsial antara komisaris independen, direksi independen dan komite audit terhadap luas pengungkapan Intellectual Capital. Intellectual Capital disclosure is a disclosure of elements in the balance sheet based on the science-based items owned by a company.It generates benefits for the company’s future.The population in this study is 45 public companies listed on the Stock Exchange LQ 45 index. In selecting the sample, purposive sampling is used; and it results 37 companies. Based on the study done, it can be concluded that there are not any simultaneous and partial influences between independent commissioner, independent director and audit committee to the disclosure of Intellectual Capital

  15. New public management reforms in Nigerian democratic governance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New public management reforms in Nigerian democratic governance: issues and challenges. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... of the philosophy of administration broadly called “New Public Management” (NPM) in an effort to ...

  16. PROGRAM APRESIASI BAGI PEMERINTAH DAERAH (PEMDA DALAM MELAKSANAKAN TATA KELOLA (GOOD GOVERNANCE GUNA MEMAJUKAN KEPARIWISATAAN DI DAERAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayanti Ismayanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The success of region is largely determined by the commitment of the local government in the development of tourism. Good governance will certainly provide prosperity for the community. This first year multi-disciplinary research has a purpose: to design blueprint appreciation program for local governments that are committed in developing regions of Tourism through good governance and delivering award of appreciation to the government. This study examines several aspects of appreciation  through commitment identification and governance survey using analytical methods of AHP. Tourism appreciation blueprint is implemented with program testing. The results achieved is the publication and implementation of the blueprint of appreciation in cooperation with the Eljohn Publishing through Travel Club Tourism Award 2012 from the magazine Travel Club. The results is 40 nominees from the provincial governments, district and city governments. From the nominees, it is determined the winner of the provincial government consisting of 3 province, 9 city and 13 district government. Positive implications occurs after administration of appreciation and local prideness increases when each winner received awars and regional leaders gave speech in front of live audience and broadcasting live all over Indonesia. Besides these, dignity of each government showed in local and national publications in the electronic media and print media. Of these positive implications, it is recommended to conduct a similar program on a regular basis and measured the impact of the annual tribute to the development of tourism in the area so that the program becomes one measure the progress of regional tourismDOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1962

  17. Universities and Industry: Does the Lambert Code of Governance Meet the Requirements of Good Governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The Lambert Model Code of Governance proposes to institutionalise the dominance of governors from commercial and industrial organisations as core members of compact and effective boards controlling UK universities. It is the latest expression of a fashion for viewing university governance as an overly-simple example of an obsolete system, where…

  18. Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lizzie Melby; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Fog, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic...... such uses in organic farming, as examples, the positive and negative contributions of organic farming in relation to selected public goods were analysed. The contributions of organic farming to Nature and Biodiversity and Human and Animal Health and Welfare are mainly positive compared to conventional...... to the public goods Energy and Climate, which at present are not addressed in the EU Organic Regulation. Moreover, some organic farming requirements and practices cause dilemmas; e.g. more space per animal and outdoor access improves Animal Health and Welfare but at the same time has negative effects...

  19. A tale of two contribution mechanisms for nonlinear public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Fu, Feng; Wu, Te; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    Amounts of empirical evidence, ranging from microbial cooperation to collective hunting, suggests public goods produced often nonlinearly depend on the total amount of contribution. The implication of such nonlinear public goods for the evolution of cooperation is not well understood. There is also little attention paid to the divisibility nature of individual contribution amount, divisible vs. non-divisible ones. The corresponding strategy space in the former is described by a continuous investment while in the latter by a continuous probability to contribute all or nothing. Here, we use adaptive dynamics in finite populations to quantify and compare the roles nonlinearity of public-goods production plays in cooperation between these two contribution mechanisms. Although under both contribution mechanisms the population can converge into a coexistence equilibrium with an intermediate cooperation level, the branching phenomenon only occurs in the divisible contribution mechanism. The results shed insight into understanding observed individual difference in cooperative behavior.

  20. Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Ternovski, John; Yoeli, Erez

    2016-05-10

    People contribute more to public goods when their contributions are made more observable to others. We report an intervention that subtly increases the observability of public goods contributions when people are solicited privately and impersonally (e.g., mail, email, social media). This intervention is tested in a large-scale field experiment (n = 770,946) in which people are encouraged to vote through get-out-the-vote letters. We vary whether the letters include the message, "We may call you after the election to ask about your voting experience." Increasing the perceived observability of whether people vote by including that message increased the impact of the get-out-the-vote letters by more than the entire effect of a typical get-out-the-vote letter. This technique for increasing perceived observability can be replicated whenever public goods solicitations are made in private.

  1. Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lizzie Melby; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Fog, Erik

    2017-01-01

    to the public goods Energy and Climate, which at present are not addressed in the EU Organic Regulation. Moreover, some organic farming requirements and practices cause dilemmas; e.g. more space per animal and outdoor access improves Animal Health and Welfare but at the same time has negative effects......The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic...... such uses in organic farming, as examples, the positive and negative contributions of organic farming in relation to selected public goods were analysed. The contributions of organic farming to Nature and Biodiversity and Human and Animal Health and Welfare are mainly positive compared to conventional...

  2. Hygiene and good manufacturing practice in terms of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel CEVİZCİ; Önal, Ayşe Emel

    2009-01-01

    With globalization, presenting service and product which have good quality and conformity with hygienic regulations, have become more important in health, pharmacy and food sectors. That’s why the quality control and documentation systems which are also considerable in terms of public health, were about to change. Today, lots of companies especially in health sector, prefer “Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)”- including a developed quality-hygiene control and documentation method - that they...

  3. Solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Knut; Nadell, Carey D.; Stone, Howard A.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by non-producing cells. The means by which public-good-producing bacteria avert exploitation in biofilm environments are largely unknown. Using experiments with Vibrio cholerae, which secretes extracellular enzymes to digest its primary food source, the solid polymer chitin, we show that the public goods dilemma may be solved by two very different mechanisms: cells can produce thick biofilms that confine the goods to producers, or fluid flow can remove soluble products of chitin digestion, denying access to non-producers. Both processes are unified by limiting the distance over which enzyme-secreting cells provide benefits to neighbors, resulting in preferential benefit to nearby clonemates and allowing kin selection to favor public good production. Our results demonstrate new mechanisms by which the physical conditions of natural habitats can interact with bacterial physiology to promote the evolution of cooperation.

  4. Solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Knut; Nadell, Carey D; Stone, Howard A; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2014-01-06

    Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms [1-4]. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment [5]. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by nonproducing cells [6-11]. The means by which public-good-producing bacteria avert exploitation in biofilm environments are largely unknown. Using experiments with Vibrio cholerae, which secretes extracellular enzymes to digest its primary food source, the solid polymer chitin, we show that the public goods dilemma may be solved by two very different mechanisms: cells can produce thick biofilms that confine the goods to producers, or fluid flow can remove soluble products of chitin digestion, denying access to nonproducers. Both processes are unified by limiting the distance over which enzyme-secreting cells provide benefits to neighbors, resulting in preferential benefit to nearby clonemates and allowing kin selection to favor public good production. Our results demonstrate new mechanisms by which the physical conditions of natural habitats can interact with bacterial physiology to promote the evolution of cooperation.

  5. Horizontal gene transfer in osmotrophs: playing with public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    Osmotrophic microorganisms, such as fungi and oomycetes, feed by secreting depolymerizing enzymes to process complex food sources in the extracellular environment, and taking up the resulting simple sugars, micronutrients and amino acids. As a consequence of this lifestyle, osmotrophs engage in the acquisition and protection of public goods. In this Opinion article, we propose that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a key part in shaping both the repertoire of proteins required for osmotrophy and the nature of public goods interactions in which eukaryotic microorganisms engage.

  6. Public Goods and Voting on Formal Sanction Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Kamei, Kenju

    the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. But despite uniform money payoffs implying common interest in those parameters, voting patterns suggest significant influence of cooperative orientation, political......The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support public goods provision has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable both of resolving and of exacerbating...

  7. The impact of market exposure on public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shami, Mahvish

    Low levels of public goods provision in many developing countries’ rural communities often force the poor to approach someone with considerable command over both financial and social resources to act as their patron. However engaging with the patron – typically a landlord – does not guarantee...... to pressurize their patron to broker public goods for them, by increasing their alternative options through connectivity. In order to empirically test the viability of this solution the paper makes use of a natural experiment found in the construction of a motorway in Pakistan. Using household-level data...... public provision, as inequality and lack of alternative options considerably weakens peasants’ bargaining power, thus enabling the landlord to use peasant’ votes to secure public resources for his own benefit. This paper proposes to increase peasants’ bargaining power, and thus their ability...

  8. The Governance in the Development of Public Universities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines institutional governance of the public university in China, investigating the extent to which government has sponsored the autonomy of universities since the inception of the opening up reforms of 1978. The paper sets out to explain how the party governance system of China is interconnected with aspects of the university's…

  9. Mobile Communication, Public Participation and E-Governance in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun; Zhao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    and took various civic actions again them. A rare sense of participation in public affairs is fostered through the use of mobile communication technology. The government must figure out how to improve the effective and regular information exchange and feedback top down and bottom up to raise the awareness...... and understanding among higher decision making agencies, government and the public....

  10. 75 FR 22165 - Publication of Open Government Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Publication of Open Government Directive AGENCY: U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: NOTICE: Solicitation of public comment. SUMMARY: On April 7, 2010, the U.S. Merit Systems...

  11. PENGARUH GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & KINERJA KEUANGAN TERHADAP NILAI PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardoyo -

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruh Good Corporate Governance (GCG, yang diukur dari jumlah dewan komisaris, indepedensi dewan komisaris, ukuran dewan direksi, dan jumlah anggota komite audit, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR dan kinerja perusahaan (ROA dan ROE terhadap nilai perusahaan. Objek penelitian adalah seluruh perusahaan perbankan go public yang berjumlah 29 bank. Berdasarkan kelengkapan data hanya 24 bank yang menjadi sampel dengan periode pengamatan 2008-2010. Variabel independen adalah GCG, CSR dan kinerja perusahaan. Variabel dependen adalah nilai perusahaan yang diukur dengan Tobin’s Q. Analisis data yang digunakan terdiri dari analisis korelasi, determinasi, uji t, uji f, dan regresi linier berganda. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ukuran dewan direksi, ROA dan ROE memiliki pengaruh secara signifikan terhadap nilai perusahaan, sedangkan ukuran dewan komisaris, independensi dewan komisaris, jumlah anggota komite audit dan CSR tidak memiliki pengaruh secara signifikan terhadap nilai perusahaan. The purpose of this study is to know and analyze the effect of Good Corporate Governance (by looking at the number of commissioners, the independence of commissioners board, board size, and the number of audit committee members, corporate social responsibility and corporate performance (ROA and ROE on firm value. The objects of study are all of go public banking companies. There are 29 banks actually. However, the samples are only 24 banks. They were chosen based on  the observation of data completeness done from 2008 to 2010. The independent variables are GCG, CSR, and corporate performance, while the dependent variable is firm value which is measured by using Tobin’s Q. The data analysis applied for this study is correlation analysis, determination analysis, t test, f test, and multiple linear regression analysis. The result shows that the size of directors board, ROA and ROE have

  12. [Social medicine, public health and governance for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holčík, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.

  13. Value orientations, expectations and voluntary contributions in public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.J.S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Sonnemans, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods is presented. Independent information is obtained on individual value orientation and expectations about the behavior of other subjects using incentive compatible mechanisms. The effects of increasing payoffs for

  14. Value Orientations, Expectations and Voluntary Contributions in Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Schram, A.; Offermans, T.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods is presented. Independent information is obtained on individual value orientation and expectations about the behavior of other subjects using incentive compatible mechanisms. The effects of increasing payoffs for

  15. Rational bandits: Plunder, public goods, and the Vikings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    stationary banditry profitable. The most efficient bandits monopolize violence, begin to tax and provide some amounts of public goods in order to stimulate economic growth. The analysis demonstrates how the Vikings' activities and settlements are consistent with such an explanation, with the dynamics...

  16. Negotiating Whose Property It Is, for the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyzes collective bargaining agreements in 4-year institutions of higher education, examining language surrounding ownership, use, and distribution of the proceeds of intellectual property in distance education, and identifying ways in which the public good can be, and occasionally is, built in to contractual provisions.

  17. The role of noise in the spatial public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Battiston, Federico

    2016-07-01

    In this work we aim to analyze the role of noise in the spatial public goods game, one of the most famous games in evolutionary game theory. The dynamics of this game is affected by a number of parameters and processes, namely the topology of interactions among the agents, the synergy factor, and the strategy revision phase. The latter is a process that allows agents to change their strategy. Notably, rational agents tend to imitate richer neighbors, in order to increase the probability to maximize their payoff. By implementing a stochastic revision process, it is possible to control the level of noise in the system, so that even irrational updates may occur. In particular, in this work we study the effect of noise on the macroscopic behavior of a finite structured population playing the public goods game. We consider both the case of a homogeneous population, where the noise in the system is controlled by tuning a parameter representing the level of stochasticity in the strategy revision phase, and a heterogeneous population composed of a variable proportion of rational and irrational agents. In both cases numerical investigations show that the public goods game has a very rich behavior which strongly depends on the amount of noise in the system and on the value of the synergy factor. To conclude, our study sheds a new light on the relations between the microscopic dynamics of the public goods game and its macroscopic behavior, strengthening the link between the field of evolutionary game theory and statistical physics.

  18. The impact of market exposure on public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shami, Mahvish

    Low levels of public goods provision in many developing countries’ rural communities often force the poor to approach someone with considerable command over both financial and social resources to act as their patron. However engaging with the patron – typically a landlord – does not guarantee...

  19. A public goods approach to major evolutionary innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, D H

    2015-07-01

    The history of life is marked by a small number of major transitions, whether viewed from a genetic, ecological, or geological perspective. Specialists from various disciplines have focused on the packaging of information to generate new evolutionary individuals, on the expansion of ecological opportunity, or the abiotic drivers of environmental change to which organisms respond as the major drivers of these episodes. But the critical issue for understanding these major evolutionary transitions (METs) lies in the interactions between environmental, ecologic, and genetic change. Here, I propose that public goods may serve as one currency of such interactions: biological products that are non-excludable and non-rivalrous. Such biological public goods may be involved in either the generation of new evolutionary variation, as with genetic sequences that are easily transferred between different microbial lineages, or in the construction of new ecological niches, as with the progressive oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere. Attention to public goods emphasizes the processes by which organisms actively construct their own evolutionary opportunities. Such public goods may have facilitated some METs.

  20. The social evolution of dispersal with public goods cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T B; Rodrigues, A M M; Gardner, A; Buckling, A

    2013-12-01

    Selection can favour the evolution of individually costly dispersal if this alleviates competition between relatives. However, conditions that favour altruistic dispersal also mediate selection for other social behaviours, such as public goods cooperation, which in turn is likely to mediate dispersal evolution. Here, we investigate - both experimentally (using bacteria) and theoretically - how social habitat heterogeneity (i.e. the distribution of public goods cooperators and cheats) affects the evolution of dispersal. In addition to recovering the well-known theoretical result that the optimal level of dispersal increases with genetic relatedness of patch mates, we find both mathematically and experimentally that dispersal is always favoured when average patch occupancy is low, but when average patch occupancy is high, the presence of public goods cheats greatly alters selection for dispersal. Specifically, when public goods cheats are localized to the home patch, higher dispersal rates are favoured, but when cheats are present throughout available patches, lower dispersal rates are favoured. These results highlight the importance of other social traits in driving dispersal evolution.

  1. Teaching Public Goods Theory with a Classroom Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author extends the work of Holt and Laury (1997) on a simple noncomputerized card game for teaching the essential aspects of public goods theory. He suggests a course of several lectures and discusses the behavior of subjects in various game sessions. Among other things, the results provide experimental evidence with respect to the private…

  2. How insurance affects altruistic provision in threshold public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan; Cao, Ming

    2015-03-13

    The occurrence and maintenance of cooperative behaviors in public goods systems have attracted great research attention across multiple disciplines. A threshold public goods game requires a minimum amount of contributions to be collected from a group of individuals for provision to occur. Here we extend the common binary-strategy combination of cooperation and defection by adding a third strategy, called insured cooperation, which corresponds to buying an insurance covering the potential loss resulted from the unsuccessful public goods game. Particularly, only the contributing agents can opt to be insured, which is an effort decreasing the amount of the potential loss occurring. Theoretical computations suggest that when agents face the potential aggregate risk in threshold public goods games, more contributions occur with increasing compensation from insurance. Moreover, permitting the adoption of insurance significantly enhances individual contributions and facilitates provision, especially when the required threshold is high. This work also relates the strategy competition outcomes to different allocation rules once the resulted contributions exceed the threshold point in populations nested within a dilemma.

  3. Gender Beliefs and Cooperation in a Public Goods game Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); E-M. Sent (Esther-Mirjam); J. Vyrastekova (Jana)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the role of gender beliefs for cooperation in a public goods game experiment. Controlling for risk preferences and for subjects’ unconditional willingness to cooperate, we find that gender beliefs affect behavior in homogenous groups where the group composition was announced.

  4. Optimal Provision of Public Goods with Rank Dependent Expected Utility.

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Erling

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the theory of rank-dependent expected utility (RDEU) is substituted for the theory of expected utility (EU) in a model of optimal provision of public goods. The substitution generalizes the Samuelson rule, previously modified to include deadweight loss and tax evasion loss.

  5. Efficacy, Beliefs, and Investment in Step-Level Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Oude Mulders, J.

    2014-01-01

    behavior in terms of increasing group well-being. We report a decision and game theoretical analysis of efficacy in step-level public goods (SPGs). Previous research shows a positive relation between efficacy and contributions to SPGs and explains this relation by a purely motivational account. We s

  6. Rational bandits: Plunder, public goods, and the Vikings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper applies and extends insights from Mancur Olson's study of state making to the Vikings. In a world of roving bandits, a sub-optimal provision of public goods exists, most notably of security. Roving banditry leads to over-plundering and zero profits for the plunderers, which makes...

  7. Negative regulation of bacterial quorum sensing tunes public goods cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Schuster, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) often coordinates the expression of other, generally more costly public goods involved in virulence and nutrient acquisition. In many Proteobacteria, the basic QS circuitry consists of a synthase that produces a diffusible acyl-homoserine lactone and a cognate receptor that activates public goods expression. In some species, the circuitry also contains negative regulators that have the potential to modulate the timing and magnitude of activation. In this study, we experimentally investigated the contribution of this regulatory function to the evolutionary stability of public goods cooperation in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We compared fitness and public goods expression rates of strains lacking either qteE or qscR, each encoding a distinct negative regulator, with those of the wild-type parent and a signal-blind receptor mutant under defined growth conditions. We found that (1) qteE and qscR mutations behave virtually identically and have a stronger effect on the magnitude than on the timing of expression, (2) high expression in qteE and qscR mutants imposes a metabolic burden under nutrient conditions that advance induction and (3) high expression in qteE and qscR mutants increases population growth when QS is required, but also permits invasion by both wild-type and receptor mutant strains. Our data indicate that negative regulation of QS balances the costs and benefits of public goods by attenuating expression after transition to the induced state. As the cells cannot accurately assess the amount of cooperation needed, such bet-hedging would be advantageous in changing parasitic and nonparasitic environments.

  8. Government Dilemmas in the Private Provision of Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mulder (Arjen)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFollowing his graduation, Arjen Mulder (1970, MSc Erasmus University)has worked as an energy sector economist at the Netherlands Economic Institute (NEI, nowadays Ecorys). At NEI, he became more and more interested in industrial organisation and market working. He started lecturing at

  9. Managing public records in Zimbabwe: the road to good governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIA

    Technology and Department of Information. Science, University of ... manuals, disaster preparedness, records management training .... management unit personnel are not motivated to do their ..... Centres. The interviews were also done with three former NAZ archivists. The total ..... Research Service, Library of. Congress,.

  10. Government Dilemmas in the Private Provision of Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mulder (Arjen)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFollowing his graduation, Arjen Mulder (1970, MSc Erasmus University)has worked as an energy sector economist at the Netherlands Economic Institute (NEI, nowadays Ecorys). At NEI, he became more and more interested in industrial organisation and market working. He started lecturing at th

  11. A Framework for Good Corporate Governance and Organisational Learning – An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WD Kearney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of applying good governance principles has grown over the past decade and many studies have been performed to investigate the role and impact of such principles. One of the difficulties in the governance arena is to provide sufficient empirical evidence that good corporate governance and good governance of information technology is beneficial. This paper describes a framework, based on a value-focused approach, which is used to identify unique dimensions for evaluation in a large organisation. Following the evaluation a practical phishing experiment was used to show how a learning process can be initiated through security incidents and how organisational learning can be used to focus on the improvement of specific governance areas.

  12. Grounds for dispensing with public tender procedures in Government Contracting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa1 provides that organs of state must comply with five principles when procuring goods or services: procurement procedures must be fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective. In short, this means that organs of state should make use of competition when procuring goods or services. They should shop around and attract the maximum number of contractors who will participate in such competition. The aim should be the attainment of value for money, meaning, public money should be spent in an effective and efficient manner. Those who participate in competitions should also be treated fairly and without bias. In principle, no preferences should be afforded to different contractors; all contracting parties should have equal access to competition; some contractors should not be afforded more time for the preparation and submission of quotes or tenders than others; and the same information should be made available to all contracting parties. Government procurement procedures should further be transparent, meaning public or open. Thus, organs of state should not contract behind closed doors – government contracts should, as a rule, be advertised. Depending on the nature and value of a particular contract, the use of a public call for tenders is generally the best way to ensure compliance with the principles in the Constitution. By nature, a pubic call for tenders is open, it assists in the prevention of fraud and favouritism, and it ensures that the maximum number of contractors is approached to compete for a contract.Organs of state can also compare prices and quality and can contract with whoever offers the best deal. Most legislation therefore proceeds on the basis that procurement takes place by way of tendering. Generally, contracts above R200 000 are subject to public tender procedures. In certain instances, however, a public call for tenders may be inappropriate regardless of the high

  13. The world trade organisation and Human Rights: The role of principles of Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Denkers

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to determine the role of principles of good governance in the discussion regarding the World Trade Organisation (WTO and its human rights accountability. It shows that the WTO as an organisation cannot be compared to other international organisations that are more autonomous such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF or the World Bank. This does not mean, however, that the WTO has no autonomous powers at all. This contribution attempts to make clear what these activities are and how they may affect the protection of human rights. The implementation of good governance principles in international organisations can be considered a sine qua non for the realisation of human rights. Therefore, it will be examined what role the principles of good governance plays within the WTO. More specifically, the focus will be on how the good governance principles of transparency and participation can contribute to sensitising the organisation for human rights considerations.

  14. Physical solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Knut; Nadell, Carey; Stone, Howard; Wingreen, Ned; Bassler, Bonnie

    2013-11-01

    Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by non-producing cells. The means by which public good producing bacteria avert exploitation in biofilm environments are largely unknown. Using experiments with Vibrio cholerae, which secretes extracellular enzymes to digest its primary food source, the solid polymer chitin, we show that the public goods dilemma may be solved by two dramatically different, physical mechanisms: cells can produce thick biofilms that confine the goods to producers, or fluid flow can remove soluble products of chitin digestion, denying access to non-producers. Both processes limit the distance over which enzyme-secreting cells provide a benefit to neighbors, resulting in preferential benefit to nearby clonemates. Our results demonstrate how bacterial physiology and environmental conditions can interact with social phenotypes to influence the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation within biofilms.

  15. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mackey, Tim Ken; Ovtcharenko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Background Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key...

  16. Democracy, Good Governance and Nation Building: A Multi-Dimensional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Atake, O. J.; Dodo, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    This research reinforced the multi-disciplinary approach tothe study of democracy, good governance and nation buildingthrough the application of systems and integration theoriesand structural functional approach. Indeed, this is a variantof sociological and political knowledge that wouldrevolutionalize democracy, good governance and nationbuilding in Nigeria and Africa. The inter-relatedness ofhuman and material resources as well as their interactionsis reflected in systems and integration th...

  17. Good Governance of land and natural resources : Balancing local and global interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.; Roo, de N.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results of a seminar on ‘good governance of land and natural resources; balancing local and global interests’. Three case studies were presented on large-scale land acquisitions, biofuels – fuelling development in Brazil and governance of the mineral sector in Eastern DRC.

  18. Good Governance of land and natural resources : Balancing local and global interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.; Roo, de N.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results of a seminar on ‘good governance of land and natural resources; balancing local and global interests’. Three case studies were presented on large-scale land acquisitions, biofuels – fuelling development in Brazil and governance of the mineral sector in Eastern DRC. P

  19. Organizational interoperability in e-government lessons from 77 European good-practice cases

    CERN Document Server

    Kubicek, Herbert; Scholl, Hans Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 77 cases of good practice in e-government in Europe, this volume details the technical, organizational and legal aspects of using the internet to make government more user-friendly, providing insights into key strategic decisions.

  20. Explaining diversity in the worldwide diffusion of codes of good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Haxhi; H. van Ees

    2010-01-01

    Extending earlier literature on diffusion of codes of good governance (CGGs) by integrating the effect of national culture, this study offers a novel perspective on cross-national diversity in the worldwide diffusion of corporate governance best practices. We argue that particular cultural dimension

  1. Fostering Good Governance at School Level in Honduras: The Role of Transparency Bulletin Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Frédéric; Caprio, Temby

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is at the core of weak governance. In the education sector, corruption is a threat to the quality of and access to education. Although the diagnosis is straightforward, effective reforms are more difficult to implement. The principles of good governance (transparency, participation, accountability, and integrity) provide us guidance,…

  2. Studi atas Akuntansi Universitas sebagai Organisasi Nirlaba: Menuju Good University Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Windarti Hastuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As one of the non-profit organizations, the College became one of the entities of interest to be discussed, because it may just be a rarity that write about the institution of this one. In PSAK 45 published Bond Akuntan Indonesia (2010 submitted thatthe characteristics of different non-profit entities with business entities. The fundamental difference lies in the way the non-profit entity acquiring the resources neededto perform a variety of activities. As one of the non-profit organizations, the Collegebecame one of the entities of interest to be discussed, because it may just be a rarity that write about the institution of this one. Higher education institutions have long experienced the pendikotomian into the universities, private colleges and non-governmental and non-profit organization. Therefore, this paper tries to discuss about the treatment of accounting for the University as one of the non-profit organizations in order to achieve transparency and accountability towards the public, be it government-owned universities, or private and toward a new concept of the currently vigorous proclaimed, i.e. Good University Governance.

  3. Promotion of the good life by public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uosukainen, L M

    2001-01-01

    The question of what is the good life has been discussed by philosophers since antiquity. The good of an individual and of a community is complicated. Communities influence an individual's experiences and world views, which are always individual. Public health nurses promoting the good life need multidisciplinary knowledge, as well as other skills such as personal competence and qualifications. The focus of the theoretical framework of promotion of the good life is based on models of health promotion and sustainable development. Working with different clients requires nursing theories, other theories, and multidisciplinary models in practice. Continual quality improvement is needed in order to increase customer satisfaction. This article discusses a doctoral thesis that consists of three empirical studies. The theoretical framework for promotion of the good life as the work of public health nurses is outlined, and the outcomes of the first study, the qualifications concerning health, and the environment are described. In the other parts of the study, curriculum building using future methodology and evaluation with concept maps is reported.

  4. A Framework for Project Governance in Major Public IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter Georg; Riis, Eva

    2016-01-01

    such a framework. It was developed from the literature on major and mega-projects, both public and private, that concern infrastructure, engineering and IT. The proposed framework for project governance comprises six major elements: governance structure, management approach, stakeholders, value, systems......The rising number of major public IT projects is mirrored by a growing research interest in the management of such projects. Both can benefit from a more complete understanding of project governance that should lead to a practical framework for project governance. The present paper proposes...

  5. A Framework for Project Governance in Major Public IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Eva; Harboe, Peter Georg

    2016-01-01

    The rising number of major public IT projects is mirrored by a growing research interest in the management of such projects. Both can benefit from a more complete understanding of project governance that should lead to a practical framework for project governance. The present paper proposes...... such a framework. It was developed from the literature on major and mega-projects, both public and private, that concern infrastructure, engineering and IT. The proposed framework for project governance comprises six major elements: governance structure, management approach, stakeholders, value, systems...... important questions relating to stakeholders and dynamic complexity needed greater attention for the project to be successful....

  6. Collaborative Public Management and Collaborative Governance: Conceptual Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Kapucu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest among Public Administration scholars in collaborative public management and governance. However, there is a need for conceptual analysis of the two terms which share common aspects and differ essentially in scope and substance. We found that collaborative public management has a more local approach and focuses on the substance of collaboration practiced to solve societal problems and reach community goals at the organizational level. On the other hand, widely researched in management, political science, and public administration disciplines, collaborative governance has a global scope and focuses on both substance and process of collaboration in effectively solving societal problems with improved structures of nonhierarchical and decentralized institutions and mechanisms of citizen participation both through partnership projects and e-governance tools. The paper contributes to the better understanding of collaborative public management and collaborative governance with implications for both future research and practice.

  7. Public Service Broadcasting as a Public Good: Challenges in the Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Andrijašević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the most important standpoints of the economic debate about public service broadcasting as a public good, and its provision in both the analogue and digital age of broadcasting. Due to frequent technological developments, which heavily influence the broadcasting sector, this debate, initiated in 1958 by American economist Paul A. Samuelson, has continued up to the present day. It also reflects on the concept of PSM as a public good in a globalizing, multi-platform, usergenerated content infused media landscape. Finally, it ponders the future developments of PSM as a public good in the digital era of broadcasting.

  8. Sociality as a natural mechanism of public goods provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Elliot T; Lukinova, Evgeniya; Menshikov, Ivan; Myagkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    In the recent literature, several hypotheses have been offered to explain patterns of human behavior in social environments. In particular, these patterns include 'prosocial' ones, such as fairness, cooperation, and collective good provision. Psychologists suggest that these prosocial behaviors are driven not by miscalculations, but by salience of social identity, in-group favoritism, emotion, or evolutionary adaptations. This paper imports psychology scholarship into an economic model and results in a sustainable solution to collective action problems without any external enforcement mechanisms. This natural mechanism of public goods provision is created, analyzed, and observed in a controlled laboratory environment using experimental techniques.

  9. Government and Happiness in 130 Nations: Good Governance Fosters Higher Level and More Equality of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in…

  10. Government and Happiness in 130 Nations: Good Governance Fosters Higher Level and More Equality of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in…

  11. Public Choice, Market Failure, and Government Failure in Principles Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Rosemarie; Gwartney, James

    2015-01-01

    Public choice uses the tools of economics to analyze how the political process allocates resources and impacts economic activity. In this study, the authors examine twenty-three principles texts regarding coverage of public choice, market failure, and government failure. Approximately half the texts provide coverage of public choice and recognize…

  12. Public Choice, Market Failure, and Government Failure in Principles Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Rosemarie; Gwartney, James

    2015-01-01

    Public choice uses the tools of economics to analyze how the political process allocates resources and impacts economic activity. In this study, the authors examine twenty-three principles texts regarding coverage of public choice, market failure, and government failure. Approximately half the texts provide coverage of public choice and recognize…

  13. KNOWLEDGE FROM RESEARCH AS A QUASI-PUBLIC GOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila György

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a special quasi-public good which is delivered by several types of institutions, including public and private universities. Knowledge to be produced in bigger quantities, the state should contribute with budgetary financial support as subsidies or grants to cover a part of expenses. States are supporting research from public resources, especially the basic research which enjoy a smaller interest from the private research units due its small potential to be implemented and recovered throughout price. Public co-founding of research generates problems regarding the regime of patents’ ownership because financing bodies have divergent opinion regarding the utility of research in society’s development. There are different approaches offered in solving this problem, taking into account the forms of realizing this quasi-public good, approaches based especially on different type of joint-ventures. Academic research, perceived as a very important and income generating activity, is done in a very large scale of combinations between universities and private entities. These complicated relations generates information asymmetry specific to principal-agent relations in economy. The control of information asymmetry level is important because a high level corresponds to inefficient use of funds and smaller satisfaction of general needs.

  14. Intergroup information exchange drives cooperation in the public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, C; Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Floría, L M; Moreno, Y

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we explore the onset of cooperative traits in the public goods game. This well-known game involves N-agent interactions and thus reproduces a large number of social scenarios in which cooperation appears to be essential. Many studies have recently addressed how the structure of the interaction patterns influences the emergence of cooperation. Here we study how information about the payoffs collected by each individual in the different groups it participates in influences the decisions made by its group partners. Our results point out that cross-information plays a fundamental and positive role in the evolution of cooperation for different versions of the public goods game and different interaction structures.

  15. Culture and cooperation in a spatial public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, Alex; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kirley, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We study the coevolution of culture and cooperation by combining the Axelrod model of cultural dissemination with a spatial public goods game, incorporating both noise and social influence. Both participation and cooperation in public goods games are conditional on cultural similarity. We find that a larger "scope of cultural possibilities" in the model leads to the survival of cooperation, when noise is not present, and a higher probability of a multicultural state evolving, for low noise rates. High noise rates, however, lead to both rapid extinction of cooperation and collapse into cultural "anomie," in which stable cultural regions fail to form. These results suggest that cultural diversity can actually be beneficial for the evolution of cooperation, but that cultural information needs to be transmitted accurately in order to maintain both coherent cultural groups and cooperation.

  16. Rewards and the evolution of cooperation in public good games

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Properly coordinating cooperation is relevant for resolving public good problems such as clean energy and environmental protection. However, little is known about how individuals can coordinate themselves for a certain level of cooperation in large populations of strangers. In a typical situation, a consensus-building process hardly succeeds due to lack of face and standing. The evolution of cooperation in this type of situation is studied using threshold public good games in which cooperation prevails when it is initially sufficient, or otherwise, it perishes. While punishment is a powerful tool to shape human behaviours, institutional punishment is often too costly to start with only a few contributors, which is another coordination problem. Here we show that whatever the initial conditions, reward funds based on voluntary contribution can evolve. The voluntary reward paves the way for effectively overcoming the coordination problem and efficiently transforms freeloaders to cooperators with a perceived smal...

  17. Directional learning and the provisioning of public goods

    CERN Document Server

    Nax, Heinrich H

    2015-01-01

    We consider an environment where players are involved in a public goods game and must decide repeatedly whether to make an individual contribution or not. However, players lack strategically relevant information about the game and about the other players in the population. The resulting behavior of players is completely uncoupled from such information, and the individual strategy adjustment dynamics are driven only by reinforcement feedbacks from each player's own past. We show that the resulting "directional learning" is sufficient to explain cooperative deviations away from the Nash equilibrium. We introduce the concept of k-strong equilibria, which nest both the Nash equilibrium and the Aumann-strong equilibrium as two special cases, and we show that, together with the parameters of the learning model, the maximal k-strength of equilibrium determines the stationary distribution. The provisioning of public goods can be secured even under adverse conditions, as long as players are sufficiently responsive to ...

  18. Rewards and the evolution of cooperation in public good games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Properly coordinating cooperation is relevant for resolving public good problems, such as clean energy and environmental protection. However, little is known about how individuals can coordinate themselves for a certain level of cooperation in large populations of strangers. In a typical situation, a consensus-building process rarely succeeds, owing to a lack of face and standing. The evolution of cooperation in this type of situation is studied here using threshold public good games, in which cooperation prevails when it is initially sufficient, or otherwise it perishes. While punishment is a powerful tool for shaping human behaviours, institutional punishment is often too costly to start with only a few contributors, which is another coordination problem. Here, we show that whatever the initial conditions, reward funds based on voluntary contribution can evolve. The voluntary reward paves the way for effectively overcoming the coordination problem and efficiently transforms freeloaders into cooperators with a perceived small risk of collective failure. PMID:24478200

  19. Solving Optimization Problems by the Spatial Public Goods Game

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method based on the spatial Public Goods Game for solving optimization tasks. In particular, we focus on the Traveling Salesman Problem, i.e., a problem whose search space exponentially grows increasing the number of cities, then becoming NP-hard. The proposed method considers a population whose agents are provided with a random solution to the given problem. Then, agents interact by playing the Public Goods Game using the fitness of their solution as currency of the game. In doing so, agents with better solutions provide higher contributions, while agents with lower ones tend to imitate the solution of richer agents to increase their fitness. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method allows to compute exact solutions, and suboptimal ones, in the considered search spaces. As result, beyond to propose a new heuristic for combinatorial optimization tasks, our work aims to highlight the potentiality of evolutionary game theory outside its current horizons.

  20. A comment on framing effects in linear public good games

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Edward

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent papers have looked at framing effects in linear public good games. In this comment, I argue that, within this literature, the distinction between give-take and positive–negative framing effects has become blurred, and that this is a barrier towards understanding the experimental evidence on framing effects. To make these points, I first illustrate that frames can differ along both an externality and choice dimension. I then argue that the existing evidence is consistent wit...

  1. Organizing public good provision: Lessons from managerial accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Arruñada, Benito; Hansen, Stephen Eliot

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies ideas and findings from Managerial Accounting to the problem of public good provision. It first links the problems of traditional bureaucracies with those of "discretionary expense centers", which are characterized by poor user and supplier incentives as well as overproduction. It then describes alternative hybrid organizations that delegate authority and provide incentives on some dimensions, while maintaining control on others. Finally, it illustrates the ideas with sever...

  2. Adaptation to public goods cheats in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Siobhán; Luján, Adela M; Paterson, Steve; Cant, Michael A; Buckling, Angus

    2017-07-26

    Cooperation in nature is ubiquitous, but is susceptible to social cheats who pay little or no cost of cooperation yet reap the benefits. The effect such cheats have on reducing population productivity suggests that there is selection for cooperators to mitigate the adverse effects of cheats. While mechanisms have been elucidated for scenarios involving a direct association between producer and cooperative product, it is less clear how cooperators may suppress cheating in an anonymous public goods scenario, where cheats cannot be directly identified. Here, we investigate the real-time evolutionary response of cooperators to cheats when cooperation is mediated by a diffusible public good: the production of iron-scavenging siderophores by Pseudomonas aeruginosa We find that siderophore producers evolved in the presence of a high frequency of non-producing cheats were fitter in the presence of cheats, at no obvious cost to population productivity. A novel morphotype independently evolved and reached higher frequencies in cheat-adapted versus control populations, exhibiting reduced siderophore production but increased production of pyocyanin-an extracellular toxin that can also increase the availability of soluble iron. This suggests that cooperators may have mitigated the negative effects of cheats by downregulating siderophore production and upregulating an alternative iron-acquisition public good. More generally, the study emphasizes that cooperating organisms can rapidly adapt to the presence of anonymous cheats without necessarily incurring fitness costs in the environment they evolve in. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Evolution of optimal Hill coefficients in nonlinear public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2016-10-07

    In evolutionary game theory, the effect of public goods like diffusible molecules has been modelled using linear, concave, sigmoid and step functions. The observation that biological systems are often sigmoid input-output functions, as described by the Hill equation, suggests that a sigmoid function is more realistic. The Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, however, predicts a concave function, and while mechanistic explanations of sigmoid kinetics exist, we lack an adaptive explanation: what is the evolutionary advantage of a sigmoid benefit function? We analyse public goods games in which the shape of the benefit function can evolve, in order to determine the optimal and evolutionarily stable Hill coefficients. We find that, while the dynamics depends on whether output is controlled at the level of the individual or the population, intermediate or high Hill coefficients often evolve, leading to sigmoid input-output functions that for some parameters are so steep to resemble a step function (an on-off switch). Our results suggest that, even when the shape of the benefit function is unknown, biological public goods should be modelled using a sigmoid or step function rather than a linear or concave function.

  4. PENGARUH ASIMETRI INFORMASI TERHADAP MANAJEMEN LABA DENGAN GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE SEBAGAI VARIABEL MODERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Veno

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect on earnings management information asymmetry, which was moderated by good corporate governance in 43 companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI. To 43 companies such as sample in this study included the top 10 best Corporate Governance Perception Index (CGPI during the period 2004 - 2013. The sampling technique is purposive sampling. Earnings management as independent variables proxy through Short Term Discretionary Accruals (STDA and Long Term Discretionary Accruals (LTDA, while moderating variable is a proxy through Corporate Governance Corporate Governance Perception Index (CGPI. This analysis using multiple linear regression that was previously done through classical assumption test. The results of multiple linear regression analysis on the model of the Short Term Discretionary Accruals (STDA showed that the asymmetry of information and good corporate governance significantly positive effect on earnings management. The results of multiple linear regression analysis on the model of the Long-Term Discretionary Accruals (LTDA showed that the asymmetry of information and good corporate governance significantly negative effect on earnings management. While variable existing office Good Governance can moderate the effect of asymmetry in earnings management in Short-Term Discretionary Accruals (STDA and Long Term Discretionary Accruals (Ltda.

  5. Cloud Computing Architecture: The Improved Strategy for Good E-Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. P. Singh Rajendra Singh Thapa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing provides a great opportunity for governments across the globe, to provide reliable E-Governance quickly, at lower costs. Cloud computing features like application virtualization, end-to-end service management, instant deployment and ease of maintenance are catalysts that jumpstart application deployment on the Cloud. With proper planning, execution, training and good management, the Cloud infrastructure can greatly reduce overall costs for government departments maintaining and managing E-Services for E-Governance, and help in efficiently utilization.

  6. KARAKTERISTIK PERUSAHAAN TERHADAP ENVIRONMENTAL DISCLOSURE DENGAN GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE SEBAGAI PEMODERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faris Arifianata

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh bukti mengenai pengaruh ukuran perusahaan, tipe industri, dan umur perusahaan terhadap environmental disclosure dengan good corporate governance sebagai variabel moderating. Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan yang terdaftar sebagai peserta Corporate Governance Perception Index (CGPI award tahun 2009-2013 sejumlah 58 perusahaan. Teknik pemilihan sampel dengan purposive sampling. Sampel yang masuk kriteria sebanyak 11 perusahaan dengan 55 unit analisis. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi nilai selisih mutlak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ukuran perusahaan dan tipe industri berpengaruh positif terhadap environmental disclosure. Umur perusahaan tidak berpengaruh terhadap environmental disclosure. Good corporate governance tidak memoderasi hubungan antara pengaruh tipe industri terhadap environmental disclosure. Good corporate governance memoderasi hubungan antara pengaruh ukuran perusahaan dan umur perusahaan terhadap environmental disclosure. Penelitian selanjutnya agar menambah variabel yang dapat mempengaruhi environmental disclosure, dan menggunakan objek lain untuk sampel penelitian. This research was conducted to obtain evidence about the influence of company size, industry type, and company age on the environmental disclosure using good corporate governance as moderating variable. The research’s population is companies that are registered as a participant of Corporate Governance Perception Index (CGPI award from 2009 to 2013 with total number of 58 companies. The sampling technique used in this research is purposive sampling. There are 11 companies that qualified as sample with 55 unit of analyse. The analysis technique used is absolute difference value regression analysis. The results showed that the size of company and the type of industry give positive effect to environmental disclosure. The age of company does not give any effect to the environmental disclosure

  7. Governance and Innovation in Public sector Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Zanfei, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    from what could be considered as a spurious New Public Management approach, which incorporates elements of the traditional hierarchical model and elements of market-like competition, towards a “networked model” implying more emphasis on bottom-up decision making and a greater involvement of end users...

  8. Implementation of a public-private partnership in local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of a public-private partnership in local government in Ghana: A study of Ga West ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... selected from the two study areas and primary data collected using one-on-one indepth interviews.

  9. Cooperation, Trust, and Antagonism: How Public Goods Are Promoted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Craig D; Joireman, Jeff; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-12-01

    One of the most continually vexing problems in society is the variability with which citizens support endeavors that are designed to help a great number of people. In this article, we examine the twin roles of cooperative and antagonistic behavior in this variability. We find that each plays an important role, though their contributions are, understandably, at odds. It is this opposition that produces seeming unpredictability in citizen response to collective need. In fact, we suggest that careful consideration of the research allows one to often predict when efforts to provide a collectively beneficial good will succeed and when they will fail. To understand the dynamics of participation in response to collective need, it is necessary to distinguish between the primary types of need situations. A public good is an entity that relies in whole or in part on contributions to be provided. Examples of public goods are charities and public broadcasting. Public goods require that citizens experience a short-term loss (of their contribution) in order to realize a long-term gain (of the good). However, because everyone can use the good once it is provided, there is also an incentive to not contribute, let others give, and then take advantage of their efforts. This state of affairs introduces a conflict between doing what is best for oneself and what is best for the group. In a public goods situation, cooperation and antagonism impact how one resolves this conflict. The other major type of need situation is a common-pool resource problem. Here, a good is fully provided at the outset, and citizens may sample from it. The resource is usually, but not necessarily, partially replenished. Examples of replenished resources are drinking water and trees; examples of resources that are functionally not replenished are oil and minerals. Common-pool resources allow citizens to experience a short-term gain (by getting what they want in the early life of the resource) but also present

  10. Public and Private Sector IT Governance: Identifying Contextual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar managerial-level IT issues and challenges, we argue that there are systemic differences between private and public sector organizations suggesting that a one size fits all approach to IT Governance may not apply.

  11. Lalu Fadlurrahman 93 Promoting Democratization and Good Governance: Rifka Annisa Women Crisis Center Yogyakarta PROMOTING DEMOCRATIZATION AND GOOD GOVERNANCE: RIFKA ANNISA WOMEN CRISIS CENTER YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Fadlurrahman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the reformation era in 1998, the number of No n-Governmental Organizations in Indonesia is exploding and their impact on Governance growing. D ecentralization Policy has supported this trend with its goal to enhance development in the regions , requiring more active involvement of the people in formulating their interests. Organizations can p lay an important role in the regions as a bridge between the people and the government. In order to strengthen that role, Non-Governmental Organizations must have a solid organisational fund ament and political strategies to get actively involved in the policy making process. An addition al stronger legal fundament for such an active role could force the government agencies to include NGOs in the part a policy process. This paper delivers a case study on the actual performance of a local Non-Governmental Organization in the field of Gender Politics and Good Governance. Organisational set up and results of attempts to play an active role in articulating the interests of people it rep resents are reviewed and lead to suggestions for improvement of performance, that can work as guidel ine for other NGOs in Indonesia who want to contribute to local Governance

  12. Changing Governance and Authority Relations in the Public Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Major changes in the governance of higher education and the public sciences have taken place over the past 40 or so years in many OECD countries. These have affected the nature of authority relationships governing research priorities and the evaluation of results. In particular, the increasing exogeneity, formalisation and substantive nature of…

  13. Public Access to Government Electronic Information. Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This policy framework provides guidelines for federal agencies on public access to government electronic information. Highlights include reasons for disseminating information; defining user groups; which technology to use; pricing flexibility; security and privacy issues; and the private sector and state and local government roles. (LRW)

  14. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  15. Corruption and Public Governance: Implication for Customer Due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Key Words: Corruption, Public Governance, Customer Due Diligence ... Corruption is being addressed by financial institutions, government agencies, bilateral .... National Petroleum Corporation, and the arrest of seven judges recently among others. .... behaviour (e.g. by corporate purchasing agents, or in job recruitment).

  16. Evidence on the relation between public capital and government efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes de Oliveira, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to contribute to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the relation between public capital stock and government efficiency. We present some objective indicators fo government efficiency and explore the mentioned relation. we find a positive and significant relation between both variables that survives the introduction of controls and robustness checking.

  17. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  18. From Good Governance to Developmental Governance - How Policies, Institutions and Politics Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2012-01-01

    The present global financial and economic crisis offers an opportunity to rethink the relative roles of state and market as well as of globalisation and national development strategies in the political economy of development. It has become more difficult to argue that globalisation has rendered...... national development strategies and in particular industrial policies superfluous. The crisis also calls for a rethinking of the prevailing standard recipes for development and of the ‘institutional therapy’ that has been driven by the international development establishment. The article seeks to identify...... and outline a heterodox view on how policies, institutions and politics matter for latecomer development, and does that by juxtaposing it with the orthodox view. The central argument of the article is that the orthodox view has serious weaknesses, and that a heterodox approach – developmental governance...

  19. Emerging theoretical understanding of pluricentric coordination in public governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reff Pedersen, Anne; Sehested, Karina; Sørensen, Eva

    2011-01-01

    institutionally or functionally demarcated units that follows a specific pregiven rational logic of consequentiality. This view is apparent in public administration theory, organization theory, and planning theory. In recent years, this unitary, rationalist understanding of coordination has been challenged...... processes in which public authorities seek to govern their subjects. In the new theories, one of the main questions is how to get a better hold of this new understanding of coordination in processes of public governance. The article aims to do so by bringing together insights from three theoretical strands......: public administration theory, organizational theory, and planning theory to show how each of them are currently contributing to the development of what we define as a theory of pluricentric coordination in public governance....

  20. Pengelolaan Manajemen Modern dalam Mewujudkan Good Corporate Governance: Optimalisasi Pencapaian Tujuan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Edward Riantono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation and management of good corporate governance, better known by the term Good Corporate Governance, is a concept that emphasizes the importance of shareholders to obtain true, accurate, and punctual information. In this era of global competition state borders are no longer a barrier to competition; only companies that implement good corporate governance (GCG are capable of winning the competition. GCG is a must in order to establish conditions of tough and sustainable company. GCG is necessary to create a system and a strong corporate structure so as to become world class company. Good Corporate Governance is basically a system (input, process, and output and a set of rules that govern the relationship between various parties (stakeholders; especially in the narrow sense, the relationship between the shareholders, the board of commissioners, and the board of directors in order to achieve corporate objectives. Good Corporate Gorvernance encloses to regulate these relationships and prevent significant errors in the company's strategy and to ensure the errors occur can be improved immediately.

  1. Hygiene and good manufacturing practice in terms of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel CEVİZCİ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available With globalization, presenting service and product which have good quality and conformity with hygienic regulations, have become more important in health, pharmacy and food sectors. That’s why the quality control and documentation systems which are also considerable in terms of public health, were about to change. Today, lots of companies especially in health sector, prefer “Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP”- including a developed quality-hygiene control and documentation method - that they can easily adapt to their operation system. Food industry is the first application area and contains hygiene and quality management systems. In recent years, conscious of prevention of human health started to reflect on every stages of production of goods and services. In conclusion, GMP came into use in different sectors and demanded in international business trade as a reference. The aim of this review is to present some information about importance and concept of GMP to prevent of public health and to examine its use of areas in various sectors.

  2. Directional learning and the provisioning of public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nax, Heinrich H; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-26

    We consider an environment where players are involved in a public goods game and must decide repeatedly whether to make an individual contribution or not. However, players lack strategically relevant information about the game and about the other players in the population. The resulting behavior of players is completely uncoupled from such information, and the individual strategy adjustment dynamics are driven only by reinforcement feedbacks from each player's own past. We show that the resulting "directional learning" is sufficient to explain cooperative deviations away from the Nash equilibrium. We introduce the concept of k-strong equilibria, which nest both the Nash equilibrium and the Aumann-strong equilibrium as two special cases, and we show that, together with the parameters of the learning model, the maximal k-strength of equilibrium determines the stationary distribution. The provisioning of public goods can be secured even under adverse conditions, as long as players are sufficiently responsive to the changes in their own payoffs and adjust their actions accordingly. Substantial levels of public cooperation can thus be explained without arguments involving selflessness or social preferences, solely on the basis of uncoordinated directional (mis)learning.

  3. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  4. TOWARDS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP SUCCESSOR'S ATTRIBUTES MODEL AND GOOD GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Zuhair Alsarhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual model that explains the relationship between Islamic leadership successionpersonalityattributes and good governance. The paper sources information from an extensive search of literature to design a conceptual model of Islamic leadership succession (personal attributes & governmental characteristics of Succession and good governance. The model will provide an integration of relationships that will add valuable insights into improved leadership succession theory in the related literature. The paper may assist particularly policy makers and strategists to focus on new possibilities of leadership successors attributes that will lead to improved governance as well as government performance in the world in general, and the Palestine community, in particular.

  5. Zero-Determinant Strategies in Iterated Public Goods Game

    OpenAIRE

    Liming Pan; Dong Hao; Zhihai Rong; Tao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Press and Dyson have proposed a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies for the two-player iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma, so-called zero-determinant strategies. A player adopting zero-determinant strategies is able to pin the expected payoff of the opponents or to enforce a linear relationship between his own payoff and the opponents’ payoff, in a unilateral way. This paper considers zero-determinant strategies in the iterated public goods game, a representative multi-pl...

  6. Maintenance of cooperation induced by punishment in public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Huang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we study the public goods games with punishment by adopting the well-known approximate best response dynamics. It shows that the evolution of cooperation is affected by two aspects when other parameters are fixed. One is the punishment mechanism which can avoid the dilemma of lacking investment, and the other is the degree of rationality. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that the existence of punishment mechanism and distribution of rationality are the keys to the enhancement of cooperation level. We also testify that they can heavily influence the payoffs of system as well. The findings in this paper may provide a deeper understanding of some social dilemmas.

  7. Reward and cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2010-01-01

    The promise of punishment and reward in promoting public cooperation is debatable. While punishment is traditionally considered more successful than reward, the fact that the cost of punishment frequently fails to offset gains from enhanced cooperation has lead some to reconsider reward as the main catalyst behind collaborative efforts. Here we elaborate on the "stick versus carrot" dilemma by studying the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, where besides the traditional cooperators and defectors, rewarding cooperators supplement the array of possible strategies. The latter are willing to reward cooperative actions at a personal cost, thus effectively downgrading pure cooperators to second-order free-riders due to their unwillingness to bear these additional costs. Consequently, we find that defection remains viable, especially if the rewarding is costly. Rewards, however, can promote cooperation, especially if the synergetic effects of cooperation are low. Surprisingly, moderate reward...

  8. Developing Good Governance, Management and Leadership in Universities and Degree Awarding Institutions (DAIs: A Case of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher education is the most important component for the development of a nation. Unfortunately, in Pakistan this realization was not only late but the pace of development is very slow as well. Developing nations have been working to uplift their educational standard since last decade but there are many obstacles and hurdles that are emerging. This paper investigates the relationship between the good governance and management. For this time series data of period 1992 to 2010 is studied as a sample. Regression analysis and co integration are tested to explore the relationship among the variables. Literacy rate is used as the proxy of the good governance and enrolment in higher education, number of teachers in higher education and numbers of universities (public and private are used as independent variables. The results of regression analysis showed significant positive relationship among all the variables, which confirms the hypothesis that good governance and management have positive relation. The government of Pakistan needs to increase the spending on the education sector (which is significantly low to 2.5%1 for the development of the country, as educated labor force influences the growth.

  9. State-civil society relations in Syria: EU good governance assistance in an authoritarian state

    OpenAIRE

    Spitz, René

    2014-01-01

    The EU's good governance policy considers civil society an actor promoting development as well as political accountability of governments, thus contributing to the democratisation of political systems. This study argues that the EU's policy is based on questionable assumptions with respect to the nature of civil society, as well as the willingness of state and civil society to cooperate. Syria, as an extreme case of authoritarianism, is taken as an example. The connotation attached by the EU ...

  10. Open government in public libraries: strategic planning and public value

    OpenAIRE

    Voutssás Lara, Jennifer Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Information has changed in diferent ways throught ICT in the last years. Although the society itself constantly changes into new models of social relationshps under the influence of these innovations. With these changes, public institutions had to replan their work in regard of the supply of services for the citizens. A resent model was taken from practices of private corporations in management and has been transfered to the public sector for a better performance for the citizens. These resea...

  11. On the Supply Efficiency of Public Goods%公共物品供给效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洁

    2014-01-01

    充足的公共物品供给在经济建设中有重大意义。文章分析了公共物品的性质及其供给模式,运用博弈论对公共物品的市场供给和政府供给效率进行了比较,认为我国应该构建多元的公共物品供给模式,推进服务型政府改革,明确政府和市场边界,减少公共物品供给中寻租行为。%Sufficient supply of public goods to society is of great significance in economic construction.Based on the analysis of the property and modes of public goods supply,and comparison on the efficiency of public goods supply in the market mode and the government mode by the method of Game Theory,the author thinks that (1 )China should adopt a multiple mode of public goods supply,(2)the construction of service-oriented government should be continued,(3)the distinguish between market and government made clear in public goods supply,(4)and the rent-seeking behavior in the supply of public goods reduced.

  12. PERAN INTERNAL AUDIT DALAM UPAYA MEWUJUDKAN GOOD UNIVERSITY GOVERNANCE DI UNNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirman -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan utuk melihat pengaruh peranan internal auditor dalam upaya mewujudkan Good University Governance (GUG, Studi Kasus pada Badan Audit Internal (BAI Universitas Negeri Semarang (Unnes.  Sampel penelitian adalah Dekan, Pembantu Dekan Bidang Umum dan Administrasi, Kepala Bagian, Kasubbag Akuntansi dan Keuangan, Kepala Biro, Kepala UPT, Ketua Lembaga, Ketua Badan di lingkungan unit kerja Unnes, dengan  menggunakan Regresi Linier Berganda. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan antara peran auditor internal terhadap Good University Governance. Jadi dapat dikatakan bahwa peningkatan peran auditor internal akan mempengaruhi tata kelola suatu institusi pendidikan. This research aims to analyze the internal auditor’s role to realize the Good Univercity Governance (GUG., case Studies in Audit nternal Departement of Semarang State Univercity (Unnes. The sample of this research are The Deans, Administration Vice Dean, Head of Departement, and o Chief of Accounting and Financial Departement in Semarang Satet Univercity with multiple linear regression too. The result shows that there is a signifikant influence of internal aufitor’s role to Good Univercity Governance. The increasing of internal auditor’s role affect to educational institution’s governance.

  13. PENGARUH KINERJA KEUANGAN, GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP NILAI PERUSAHAAN FOOD AND BEVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Kartika Pertiwi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze financial performance as measured by Return on Assets (ROA on firm value as measured by Tobin's Q as well as to analyze the Good Corporate Governance as a moderating variable. The research objects were food and beverage firms. The technique analysis was multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that financial performance was influenced on the value of firms, while the Good Corporate Governance was not a moderating variable of the relationship between the financial performance and the firm value.

  14. Are Public Employees in Romania Prepared for eGovernment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Calin Velicu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient administration can not be conceived without the advantages offered by the use of IT&C in the development of public services. However, once new technologies are adopted, the accumulation of specific capabilities by the public employees is mandatory. Guidelines in drawing up an eGovernment training plan were formulated herein using skill-sets detailed by the European Public Administration Network and the U.S. Information Technology Management Reform Act.

  15. From Adam Smith to Ronald Reagan: Public Libraries as a Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Miriam

    1982-01-01

    Contrasts the arguments of economists who measure the value of library services to society by business standards with the criteria of "the public good" which predominated during the development of public libraries and argues that libraries must continue to serve the whole community. Twenty references are cited. (RAA)

  16. Good Governance and Doing Business: Evidence from a Cross-Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BOŢA-AVRAM

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-country empirical analysis is to investigate the relationship between good governance, measured through six clusters of governance developed by the World Bank, and the quality of business environment, captured through the ranking on the ease of doing business, also assessed by the World Bank. This paper analyzes the influence of governance indicators on the ease of doing business using a classification of economies of all countries with population of more than 30,000 citizens, divided on income groups such as low income, lower middle income, upper middle income, high income non-OECD and high income OECD. The findings show the significant influence of some governance indicators such as ‘government effectiveness’ or ‘regulatory quality’ on the ease of doing business, for all countries, while ‘the rule of law’ and ‘control of corruption’ are very determining factors for the business environment especially for countries classified in high income categories. Moreover, this paper could represent an argument for the relevance of governance quality for the ease of doing business, highlighting the necessity to pay enough attention to ensuring good governance in order to provide effective development outcomes.

  17. Analysis of good practice of Public Health Emergency Operations Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Xu; Shi-Xue Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the public health Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs)in the US, the European Union, the UK and Australia, and summarize the good practice for the improvement of National Health Emergency Response Command Center in Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission.Methods:Literature review was conducted to explore the EOCs of selected countries.Results:The study focused on EOC function, organizational structure, human resources and information management. The selected EOCs had the basic EOC functions of coordinating and commanding as well as the public health related functions such as monitoring the situation, risk assessment, and epidemiological briefings. The organizational structures of the EOCs were standardized, scalable and flexible. Incident Command System was the widely applied organizational structure with a strong preference. The EOCs were managed by a unit of emergency management during routine time and surge staff were engaged upon emergencies. The selected EOCs had clear information management framework including information collection, assessment and dissemination.Conclusions:The performance of National Health Emergency Response Command Center can be improved by learning from the good practice of the selected EOCs, including setting clear functions, standardizing the organizational structure, enhancing the human resource capacity and strengthening information management.

  18. Hierarchical Prisoner's Dilemma in Hierarchical Public-Goods Game

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    The dilemma in cooperation is one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public-goods game, each individual pays a cost for cooperation, or to prevent defection, and receives a reward from the collected cost in a group. Thus, defection is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individual players also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical public-goods (HPG) game in which two groups compete for finite resources by utilizing costs collected from individuals in each group. Analyzing this HPG game, we found a hierarchical prisoner's dilemma, in which groups choose the defection policy (say, armaments) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group's benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual within a group, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical d...

  19. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species.

  20. Competition of tolerant strategies in the spatial public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-08-01

    Tolerance implies enduring trying circumstances with a fair and objective attitude. To determine whether evolutionary advantages might be stemming from diverse levels of tolerance in a population, we study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to cooperators, defectors, and loners, tolerant players are also present. Depending on the number of defectors within a group, a tolerant player can either cooperate in or abstain from a particular instance of the game. We show that the diversity of tolerance can give rise to synergistic effects, wherein players with a different threshold in terms of the tolerated number of defectors in a group compete most effectively against defection and default abstinence. Such synergistic associations can stabilise states of full cooperation where otherwise defection would dominate. We observe complex pattern formation that gives rise to an intricate phase diagram, where invisible yet stable strategy alliances require outmost care lest they are overlooked. Our results highlight the delicate importance of diversity and tolerance for the provisioning of public goods, and they reveal fascinating subtleties of the spatiotemporal dynamics that is due to the competition of subsystem solutions in structured populations.

  1. Biological Invasion Risks and the Public Good: an Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Shogren

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We postulate that the causes of the problem of invasive alien species are primarily economic and, as such, require economic solutions. Invasive alien species are of increasing concern for four reasons. First, introductions are increasing sharply, while mechanisms for excluding or eradicating alien species have been either withdrawn or progressively weakened. Both trends are due to the liberalization of and increase in international travel and trade, an economic phenomenon. Second, the costs of invasions are rising rapidly due partly to increasing human population density, and partly to increasing intensity of production in genetically impoverished agricultural systems. Third, biological invasions are associated with a high degree of uncertainty both because they involve novel interactions, and because invasion risks are endogenous. Actual risks depend on how people react to the possibility of invasions. Fourth, the exclusion and control of invasive species is a "weakest-link" public good. This places the well-being of society in the hands of the least effective provider. We argue that an economic solution to the problem of invasive species has two components. One is to use incentives to change human behavior so as to enhance protection against the introduction, establishment, and spread of invasive behavior. The other is to develop institutions that support the weakest members of global society, converting a "weakest-link" to a "best-shot" public good.

  2. The Role of Noise in the Spatial Public Goods Game

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this work we aim to analyze the role of noise in the spatial Public Goods Game, one of the most famous games in Evolutionary Game Theory. The dynamics of this game is affected by a number of parameters and processes, namely the topology of interactions among the agents, the synergy factor, and the strategy revision phase. The latter is a process that allows agents to change their strategy. Notably, rational agents tend to imitate richer neighbors, in order to increase the probability to maximize their payoff. By implementing a stochastic revision process, it is possible to control the level of noise in the system, so that even irrational updates may occur. In particular, in this work we study the effect of noise on the macroscopic behavior of a finite structured population playing the Public Goods Game. We consider both the case of a homogeneous population, where the noise in the system is controlled by tuning a parameter representing the level of stochasticity in the strategy revision phase, and a heterog...

  3. Controllership as a Governance Instrument in the Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Clark Nunes Cavalcante

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Controllership is considered a Corporate Governance instrument, to the extent that it can contribute to reduce information asymmetry ad conflicts of interest, deriving from agency problems between organizational owners and managers, by making available information that permit valuing the organization and the extent to which its goals are achieved. Disclosure and accountability are basic pillars of Corporate Governance as well as Controllership. The Public Sector Committee (PSC of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC developed a study on governance for the public context, considering that governance principles should be present in public entities, reflected in four dimensions, two of which related to control and to the availability of external reports (Federação Internacional dos Contadores [IFAC] (2001. The main goal in this research is to identify which information the Office of the Comptroller General (CGU makes available on its website comply with the type and contents of IFAC recommendations for control and external reports, as governance dimensions in the public sector. Through a bibliographic and documentary research, it was verified that only information related to budgetary and financial reports comply with the type and contents recommended by IFAC. The research also revealed that information related to internal audit and annual Government accountability partially address the contents recommended by IFAC.

  4. Conflict and Sustainable Democratic Good Governance in Nigeria: A Theoretical and Philosophical Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke, G. O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a cordial relationship between good governance and the existence of peace and stability in the society. When the leaders and the led are treated with equity to the socio-economic resources of the state, the state is run as an organic whole, and there will be peace and stability in the society. This paper argues that in Nigeria the contrary is the case, even under democratic regime, which is expected to be harbinger of economic prosperity for the people, thus violent reactions from the citizenry Is a coping strategy against the misrule of the leaders as it has brought a lot of poverty amidst plenty to the average Nigerians. The paper suggests that one of the ways out of the problem is adoption of dialogue and mutual understanding between the leaders and the led, based on the provision of good governance by the government and co-operation with the government by the citizens for Nigeria to attain sustainable democratic good governance.

  5. River Basin Muti-Stakeholder Platforms: the practice of 'good water governance' in Afghanistan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, V.; Warner, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes local realities and contextual circumstances in Afghanistan which are infuencing cooperation on water sharing during dry years. The contribution assesses the performance of multi-stakeholder platforms for water management as a ‘good' water governance model promoted by the Europ

  6. Some considerations on Transparency, Accountability and Good Governance in Church Finances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2013-01-01

    Also churches and religious communities need to be accountable for the ressources they are taking care of. Transparency and accountability both internally and externally seems inescapable, but also dimensions of good governance are relevant unless freedom of religion sets clear boundaries...

  7. Middle Level Managers' Quality of Leadership and Good Governance, and Organizational Performance of Wolaita Sodo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibru, Sintayehu; Bibiso, Mesfin; Ousman, Kedir

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between middle level managers' quality of leadership and good governance, and organization performance of Wolaita Sodo University. The study employed descriptive survey method and used quantitative approach. College/school Deans, Department heads and Coordinators were source of data.…

  8. Good governance and virtue in South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burmeister, O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Good governance from an ethical perspective in cyberdefence policy has been seen in terms of duty and consequentialism. Yet the negotiated view of virtue ethics can also address how nation states mitigate the risks of a cyber attack...

  9. Transparency of Accounting Information in Achieving Good Corporate Governance. True View and Fair Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Man

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the key factors affecting the efficient use of resources, the increase of shareholders confidence in the managers of the company, the success in achieving objectives and economic efficiency is the system of corporate governance by which a company is managed and controlled. We cannot talk about a culture of corporate governance without thinking of the criteria of transparency, of responsibility in ensuring the accuracy of data from financial reports. Transparency is a prerequisite of good communication between the company and the interested parties. This paper examines the concepts of true image and fair value as premises of transparency of the accounting information in order to accomplish good corporate governance.

  10. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  11. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool-punishment

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool-punishers as the three competing strategies. Fine and cost of pool-punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects its payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool-punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer-punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-pape...

  12. Public trust in government concerning tobacco control in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayachi, Kazuya; Cvetkovich, George

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated public trust and its determinants concerning the government's control of tobacco in Japan. We focused on the two issues of government policies to ban smoking by minors and increase taxes on tobacco. We conducted a questionnaire survey in which respondents were asked to assess their trust in the government, the government's fairness and competency, and their value similarity with the government. One thousand three hundred and ninety-four respondents agreed to participate in the survey out of 2,600 randomly sampled adults over 20 years old from all over Japan. The results of multiple regression analysis confirmed that value similarity is the strongest predictor of public trust in the government. On the affirmatively supported issue of prohibiting smoking among minors, the results further indicated that assessment of competency is a stronger predictor than assessment of fairness. In contrast, assessment of fairness is a stronger predictor than assessment of competency for the still divided issue of increasing tobacco tax. Respondents who had low concern and had not formed clear opinions on the issues showed a weak link between assessment of value similarity and trust. Based on these findings, we considered the implications for the government's implementation of tobacco controls.

  13. Of Coordinators and Dictators: A Public Goods Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Fleiß

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigate whether human subjects are willing to give up individual freedom in return for the benefits of improved coordination. We conduct a modified iterated public goods game in which subjects in each period first decide which of two groups to join. One group employs a voluntary contribution mechanism, the other group an allocator contribution mechanism. The setup of the allocator mechanism differs between two treatments. In the coordinator treatment, the randomly selected allocator can set a uniform contribution for all group members, including herself. In the dictator treatment, the allocator can choose different contributions for herself and all other group members. We find that subjects willingly submit to authority in both treatments, even when competing with a voluntary contribution mechanism. The allocator groups achieve high contribution levels in both treatments.

  14. Competition of tolerant strategies in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance implies enduring trying circumstances with a fair and objective attitude. To determine whether evolutionary advantages might be stemming from diverse levels of tolerance in a population, we study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to cooperators, defectors, and loners, tolerant players are also present. Depending on the number of defectors within a group, a tolerant player can either cooperate in or abstain from a particular instance of the game. We show that the diversity of tolerance can give rise to synergistic effects, wherein players with a different threshold in terms of the tolerated number of defectors in a group compete most effectively against defection and default abstinence. Such synergistic associations can stabilise states of full cooperation where otherwise defection would dominate. We observe complex pattern formation that gives rise to an intricate phase diagram, where invisible yet stable strategy alliances require outmost care lest they are overlooked. Our results high...

  15. Zero-Determinant Strategies in Iterated Public Goods Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liming; Hao, Dong; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-21

    Recently, Press and Dyson have proposed a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies for the two-player iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, so-called zero-determinant strategies. A player adopting zero-determinant strategies is able to pin the expected payoff of the opponents or to enforce a linear relationship between his own payoff and the opponents' payoff, in a unilateral way. This paper considers zero-determinant strategies in the iterated public goods game, a representative multi-player game where in each round each player will choose whether or not to put his tokens into a public pot, and the tokens in this pot are multiplied by a factor larger than one and then evenly divided among all players. The analytical and numerical results exhibit a similar yet different scenario to the case of two-player games: (i) with small number of players or a small multiplication factor, a player is able to unilaterally pin the expected total payoff of all other players; (ii) a player is able to set the ratio between his payoff and the total payoff of all other players, but this ratio is limited by an upper bound if the multiplication factor exceeds a threshold that depends on the number of players.

  16. Personal Leadership Development within Master of Public Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Frank; Tangkjær, Christian

    2013-01-01

    , participating in a one year Personal Leadership Development course within a Master of Public Governance 2009 – 2012. The context of the study is the accelerated changes in Danish Public Sector, and how these changes impact managers and their organisations under dominant management discourses, New Public...... Management and New Public Governance etc. The empirical analysis – initiated in this paper - explore if a žižekian approach can make sense of the managers ‘fantastic’ reliance on leadership and management tools and concepts to complete the (likewise) fantastic promises of organisational change brought...... in from the above. The originality of the project (in total) stems partly from the unique and rather massive data material, partly from the introduction of žižekian concepts into leadership research....

  17. Causes and Consequences of Public Service Motivation: Governance Interventions and Performance Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy

    Finding ways to ensure higher public service performance is a key task for scholars and practitioners alike. This dissertation focuses on individuals’ motivation to do good for others and society through public service – public service motivation (PSM). The dissertation examines governance...... are based on combinations of survey and administrative data and the dissertation employs a variety of designs such as repeated measures across time and an experiment to advance insights into the effects of organizational leadership and national policies on individuals’ PSM and the behavioral implications...... of PSM for the provision of public services to citizens. The dissertation disentangles causes and consequences of PSM and is of interest to people who wish to understand how governance interventions (including policies and leadership) can influence employee public service motivation and how this kind...

  18. Private Giving Crowding Government Funding in Public Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thomas Sav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Private giving and government funding are critical revenue sources for public colleges and universities. If increased private giving reduces government funding, then that type and extent of crowding out carries important managerial and public policy implications. Approach: The study used a government funding reaction function and an instrumental variable approach to empirically estimate the potential for crowding out. Results: The study examined the extent to which private giving reduces or crowds out state government funding of public colleges and universities. Government free riding was at question and investigated to determine how active it is in terms of private donations partially or wholly displacing state government funding. The findings suggested that the rate of crowding out was 43% on the dollar. That compares to the 45% political substitution of the 1960’s but is much diminished from the 1980’s dollar for dollar crowding out. Those are aggregate comparisons for all public institutions. A disaggregated approach in this study additionally revealed that doctoral universities were victims of the same 43% crowd out but that at two other levels, master degree granting and associate degree granting colleges, there was the opposite effect of crowding in. Those colleges received state funding augmentations of 32-92% on their dollar of privately provided donations. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study’s finding of the existence of both crowding out and crowding in can carry important policy implications for college and university funding. Future managerial and public policy decision making should take that into account. However, political sustainability and economy wide and localized effects over time of crowding out and in could prove fruitful avenues of inquiry for future research.

  19. Neoliberalism revised? A critical account of World Bank conceptions of good governance and market friendly intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, R

    1998-01-01

    This article examines recent World Bank reports on the role of the state in the development process, with particular reference to the rise of the East Asian newly industrializing countries and the crisis of "governance" in sub-Saharan Africa. The concepts of market friendly intervention and good governance are critically discussed, and are found to be inadequate as explanations for East Asian "success" and African "failure." The author presents an alternative explanation for the rise of the newly industrializing countries, which draws out some of the implications for the developing world.

  20. How do governments support the development of Public Private Partnerships?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhoest, Koen; Petersen, Ole Helby; Scherrer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Taking an institutional perspective, in this article we develop an index of the governmental support for public private partnership (PPP) — a ‘PPP Governmental Support Index’ (GSI) — which aims to measure the extent to which national governments provide an institutional framework that is either...

  1. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  2. Effect on Value Earnings Management Company with Good Corporate Governance Practices as Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Emylia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Firm value reflects the size of the stock market reaction to the company. Increasing the value of the company is an achievement that suitable with the desire of the owner, because as the value of the company increasing as well the welfare of the owner. Earnings management has an influence on the value of the company. Good Corporate Governance to be one way to eliminate the management engineering efforts specifically to make regulations with the requirement for the companies to disclose certain information mandatorily and voluntarily. This research will discuss the influence of earnings management on company value, the effect of Corporate Governance on company value directly, and the effect of Corporate Governance as a moderating variable from the influence of earnings management and firm value. Data analysis technique used in this research is a descriptive data analysis method, analysis model and classical assumption check because this research aims to determine the effect of earnings management, company value and Corporate Governance on Enterprise State-owned Enterprises listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results of this study are earnings management negatively affect the value of the company, corporate governance itself has no effect on firm value, but as a moderating variable of corporate governance affect earnings management effect on firm value.

  3. Evaluating 'good governance': The development of a quantitative tool in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisingo, Alex; Rollins, Rick; Murray, Grant; Dearden, Phil; Clarke, Marlea

    2016-10-01

    Protected areas (PAs) can provide important benefits to conservation and to communities. A key factor in the effective delivery of these benefits is the role of governance. There has been a growth in research developing frameworks to evaluate 'good' PA governance, usually drawing on a set of principles that are associated with groups of indicators. In contrast to dominant qualitative approaches, this paper describes the development of a quantitative method for measuring effectiveness of protected area governance, as perceived by stakeholders in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem in Tanzania. The research developed a quantitative method for developing effectiveness measures of PA governance, using a set of 65 statements related to governance principles developed from a literature review. The instrument was administered to 389 individuals from communities located near PAs in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem. The results of a factor analysis suggest that statements load onto 10 factors that demonstrate high psychometric validity as measured by factor loadings, explained variance, and Cronbach's alpha reliability. The ten common factors that were extracted were: 1) legitimacy, 2) transparency and accountability, 3) responsiveness, 4) fairness, 5) participation, 6) ecosystem based management (EBM) and connectivity, 7) resilience, 8) achievements, 9) consensus orientation, and 10) power. The paper concludes that quantitative surveys can be used to evaluate governance of protected areas from a community-level perspective.

  4. THE FISCAL FEDERALISM AND THE GOOD ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives aim to analyze the advantages and the disadvantages of the fiscal federalism, in order to identify the model of economic governance that will increase the quality and efficiency in public intervention. The fiscal federalism could have an important impact on the economic and political level in EU, but mostly in member states, in order to obtain a better administration and more responsible governance for the resources allocation, income distribution and fiscal consolidation. Fiscal federalism can bring to Romania advantages towards accessing more European funds and achieving budgetary discipline, and the last but not the least for stimulating economic growth.

  5. Evaluasi Penerapan Internal Control dan Pelaksanaan Good Corporate Governance pada PT PLN (Persero Distribusi Jakarta Raya dan Tangerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PT. PLN (Persero Distribusi Jakarta Raya dan Tangerang have implemented Internal Control and Good Corporate Governance. The research would like to evaluate the implementation of Internal Control accordance with COSOs criteria (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and KNKGs criteria (Komite Nasional Kebijakan Governance. Based on research found that five components of COSO such as control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication, monitoring have been implemented but unfortunately one of the component such as control activities not yet implemented properly accordance with COSOs criteria. The company also have been imlemented GCG accordance with KNKGs criteria but still need development through internalization GCGs spirit among the employees because some employees still have different perception related to GCG. For example from employee stand point theres no problem receive special gift or receive special payment from customer and have a conflict of interest when deal with public accountant.

  6. GENERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT AND PUBLIC DEBT IN EU MEMBER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is the presentation and the attempt to analyse such phenomena as: an excessive general government deficit and public debt in EU Member States over the past 3 years. For the European Union the years 2008-2010 were the time when public finances of most member countries worsened dramatically. The average budget deficit in the EU increased during that period to a value of almost 7% compared to gross domestic product and public debt reached almost 80% of GDP. Referring the ...

  7. Study on Problems and Countermeasures of Rural Public Goods Supplying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hua

    2006-01-01

    In current China, the main problem existing in the rural public goods supplying system is the unbalanced condition of public goods supply, and the chief reason for which is unitary system of supply main body.Thus the leading countermeasure for corner of public goods supply is to reform the present unitary rural public goods supplying system, to strengthen functional transfer of rural grass-roots directive organization, to adopt diversified mode and provide public goods on the base of overall planning of urban and rural areas and to implement unitary and diversified supplying strategy. In this way, supplying efficiency of the rural public goods will be improved.

  8. The publics and the government of life in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Mota

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is an analysis of the relationship between the publics, analyzed by Gabriel Tarde and the government of practices of life, studied by Michel Foucault in the context of social networks, making a comparison between the practices of this kind of social grouping in the early twentieth century with its update in the social networks context in the twenty-first century. Initially we investigate the relationship between a private company with its public, identifying the salient elements of the first moments of this type of social grouping. Then the practices of control of life are identified in the context of the early twentieth century and then their transformation in the context of the social networks. The conclusion points out how the publics have become components of the government of life in the context of social networks in their articulation with contemporary neoliberalism.

  9. Power from the Trees: How Good Forest Governance can Help Reduce Poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayers, James; Vermeulen, Sonja

    2002-09-15

    Forestry is no magic bullet for poverty eradication any more than any other sector is on its own. But good forestry does offer some high-potential routes out of rural poverty. Forestry can contribute to food security, provide resource safety nets and sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else exists. Forests have also proven to be fertile ground for pioneering good local governance. What is needed is for national and international governance frameworks to take a lead from local initiative and convert laudable intentions into some practical action. It is time to remove the barriers that prevent forests and trees from contributing to the livelihoods of poor people and to support emerging opportunities for sustainable local forestry enterprises.

  10. Pengaruh Good Corporate Governance Terhadap Kinerja Keuangan pada Perusahaan Perkebunan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Hernita

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to know whether good corporate governance affect to the financial performance of plantation companies were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). The independent variables consist of board of commissioners, board of directors, nomination and remuneration committee, and risk management committee. Dependent variable is financial performance as measured by Return On Assets (ROA). The method used to analyst data for this research is quantitative method with do testin...

  11. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ozono

    Full Text Available Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner's dilemma (PD experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR, which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy. We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system.

  12. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  13. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-22

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  14. Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Kai; Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Ando, Juko

    2015-01-01

    Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games using a strategy method. In two experiments (Study 1 and Study 2), twin participants were asked to indicate (1) how much they would contribute to a group when they did not know how much the other group members were contributing, and (2) how much they would contribute if they knew the contributions of others. Overall, the heritability estimates were relatively small for each type of decision, but heritability was greater when participants knew that the others had made larger contributions. Using registered decisions in Study 2, we conducted seven Monte Carlo simulations to examine genetic and environmental influences on the expected game payoffs. For the simulated one-shot game, the heritability estimates were small, comparable to those of game decisions. For the simulated iterated games, we found that the genetic influences first decreased, then increased as the numbers of iterations grew. The implication for the evolution of individual differences in prosociality is discussed.

  15. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Hiroki; Kamijo, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner's dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system.

  16. Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eHiraishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games using a strategy method. In two experiments (Study 1 and Study 2, twin participants were asked to indicate 1 how much they would contribute to a group when they did not know how much the other group members were contributing, and 2 how much they would contribute if they knew the contributions of others. Overall, the heritability estimates were relatively small for each type of decision, but heritability was greater when participants knew that the others had made larger contributions. Using registered decisions in Study 2, we conducted five Monte Carlo simulations to examine genetic and environmental influences on the expected game payoffs. For the simulated one-shot game, the heritability estimates were small, comparable to those of game decisions. For the simulated iterated games, we found that the genetic influences first decreased, then increased as the numbers of iterations grew. The implication for the evolution of individual differences in prosociality is discussed.

  17. Tolerance-based punishment in continuous public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia; Li, Zhi; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2012-08-01

    Altruistic punishment for defectors is considered as a key motive for the explanation of cooperation. However, there is no clear border between the cooperative and defective behaviors in a continuous strategy game. We propose a model to study the effect of punishment on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods game, wherein individuals have the traits to punish the co-players based on social tolerance. We show that a reasonable punishment with a uniform tolerance can spur individuals to make more investments. Additionally, for a fixed punishment cost and a fixed fine, a moderate value of tolerance can result in the best promotion of cooperation. Furthermore, we investigate the coevolutionary dynamics of investment and tolerance. We find that the population splits into two branches: high-tolerance individuals who make high investments and low-tolerance individuals who make low investments. A dynamic equilibrium is achieved between these two types of individuals. Our work extends punishment to continuous cooperative behaviors and the results may enhance the understanding of altruistic punishment in the evolution of human cooperation.

  18. e-Government – Assisting Reformed Public Administration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GATMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of web-based technologies in order to deliver government services has become a global trend in public administration. e-Government also means that governments have to act as a private entity and compete for best delivered services towards citizens due to the societal challenges and shifting relations. But such transformation has significant implications, such as answering in a collaborative, intelligent manner to the needs and demands of the citizens, to the different categories of users including the elderly, women, men, youngsters, or disadvantaged groups. The construction and management of the virtual space becomes an essential element of modern public administration. The assumption is that Governments become more efficient in an electronic “version”. In order to evaluate their e-Government projects governments’ need to point towards the value added that technology is bringing in terms of impact. To conduct such an evaluation one needs to include also the effort put forth in such projects - in terms of financial, human resources, and policy. All three dimensions are equally important and complementary.

  19. The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Jenks

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

  20. FIGHTING AGAINST EVASION AND FRAUD IN THE FIELD OF ASSESSMENTS, TAXES AND CONTRIBUTIONS BY PROMOTING A GOOD FISCAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SĂLCEANU ALEXANDRU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nobody doubts anymore about the indispensable role of assessments, taxes and contributions in providing the necessary resources for financing public interest activities, that represent at the same time, through tax policies, an important lever used to mitigate circumstancial fluctuations on the market, in order to achieve macroeconomic objectives. Given this context, tax evasion and fraud represent major threats that hinder the completion of the state’s functions in good conditions, as well as the achievement of some performance criteria imposed by the quality of Romania as an European Union member. That is why, in order to counteract such negative phenomena, decisive actions are necessary towards a good tax governance that can help us to protect the fairness of our tax system, to promote competitiveness, ensuring thus Romania's progress.

  1. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  2. Public Interest and Public Governance%公共利益与公共治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成福; 李丹婷

    2012-01-01

    公共治理是实现公共利益的核心途径。公共利益在公共治理中具有的重大功能可以从政治、经济、法律、社会和文化四个方面得以体现。公共利益所反映的是,在多元社会的治理过程中,政府与利益相关者在利益和利益分配问题上所达成的共识。在公共治理的过程中,如何体现和实现公共利益,以下几个方面是重要的:公共治理是否尊重了人的尊严和保护了公民的权利;公共治理是否体现了大多数人的利益和弱势群体利益优先;公共治理是否超越了特殊利益集团、部门、地方和短期的利益;公共治理是否尊重了科学与理性;公共治理的过程是否开放和尊重了民意、遵循了正当程序和社会公认的伦理和道德标准。%Public governance is the crucial way to realize public interest. The importance of public in terest for public governance mainly represents in the fields of polity, economy, society and law. It is believed that the public interest is a consensus between the government and stakeholders on the interest and the interest distribution in a pluralistic society. In the process of public governance, the following aspects are significant to achieve public interest: public governance whether or not respects human dig nity and protects civil rights; public governance whether or not reflects the majority's interest and takes the disadvantaged groups' interest as a superior valueorientation; public governance whether or not goes beyond the special interest group, sectorial, local and the shortterm interest public govern ance whether or not respects rationality; the process of public governance whether or not opens to the public and responds people's needs, adheres to the democratic and legal process, and the ethical as well as moral standard deemed by the society.

  3. Group-size effects on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.047102

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on the square lattice, focusing on the effects that are brought about by different sizes of groups where individuals collect their payoffs and search for potential strategy donors. We find that increasing the group size does not necessarily lead to mean-field behavior, as is traditionally observed for games governed by pairwise interactions, but rather that public cooperation may be additionally promoted by means of enhanced spatial reciprocity that sets in for very large groups. Our results highlight that the promotion of cooperation due to spatial interactions is not rooted solely in having restricted connections amongst players, but also in individuals having the opportunity to collect payoffs separately from their direct opponents. Moreover, in large groups the presence of a small number of defectors is bearable, which makes the mixed phase region expand with increasing group size. Having a chance of exploiting distant players, however, offers de...

  4. Good practices in Local Government - A first overview of Portuguese reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhosa, P.; Portela, F.; Machado, J.; Santos, M. F.; Abelha, A.

    2017-03-01

    Good practices in eGov are being increasingly used by Local Governments being that it is considered by them as an advantage. The main goal is providing to the town hall a differentiation point and approximate their services to the citizens. For this, it is necessary to define and apply innovative strategies in order to increase the use of services by the citizens. This paper is framed in a research work and it presents a first overview of the existing good practices in eGov, taking in consideration the Portuguese’s reality. The good practices identified were distinguished with many awards and with a positive response from the target audience. The use of digital marketing strategies aims to increase their membership and coming closer the municipalities of its citizens through the dissemination of the good practices. At this moment the data collected are almost exclusively of good practice in Portugal, however some international practices were also identified. As a result of this study the community has a list of good practices that can be applied in their municipalities.

  5. Governance Factors Affecting Community Participation In Public Development Projects In Meru District In Arusha In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Estomih Muro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman Village Executive Officers Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.

  6. Public Good and the Nexus of Social Justice, Feminism, and Rock "n" Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    This essay was developed from a talk delivered during the Public Good Conference at the University of Denver (October 2008). The theme of the conference was "Making Public Good Work." Conference speakers were asked to address questions about how we make public good work in both teaching and research. In particular, what inspires us to do this…

  7. Put your money where your mouth is : Reciprocity, social preferences, trust and contributions to public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is argued that trust and positive social preferences promote public goods production. However, public goods produced by any in-group may have favourable or unfavourable consequences for out-groups (called benign' and malignant' public goods, respectively). I develop a theoretical model of heterog

  8. How Can ABER Serve the Public Good? A Critical Brechtian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld-Jones, Donald

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how ABER work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each author will conceptualize her/his…

  9. Doing Arts-Based Educational Research for the Public Good: An Impossible Possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Donal

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how arts-based educational research (ABER) work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each…

  10. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  11. The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Using good and Cooperative Governance to improve Environmental Governance of South African World Heritage sites: A Case Study of the Vredefort Dome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kotzé

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa became a signatory to and ratified the World Heritage Convention, 1972 (WHC in 1997. It thereby voluntarily agreed to identify and conserve world heritage areas of universal value for the benefit of mankind. This article presents a case study of the Vredefort Dome, one of South Africa's World Heritage Sites (WHS and specifically its governance strategies to ensure proper and sustainable governance. Firstly, the issue of fragmentation of the environmental governance regime applicable to WHS is discussed, and in doing so, refers to the various legislative and common law responsibilities and institutional structures related to environmental governance of WHS. Secondly, it briefly discusses the concept of good governance and the concept of cooperative governance as a sub-component of good governance. Finally it comprehensively proposes various strategies to ameliorate the current fragmented and unsustainable environmental governance effort relating to WHS.

  12. Governance in managing public health resources in Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, George; Barberia, Lorena G; Biderman, Ciro

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the health governance discussion by presenting a new data set that allows for comparisons of the management of health resources among Brazilian municipalities. Research on Brazil is particularly important as the provision of health services was decentralized in 1988 and since then municipalities have been given greater responsibilities for the management of fiscal resources for public health service provision. Based on detailed information on corruption practices (such as over-invoicing, illegal procurement and fake receipts) from audit reports of health programmes in 980 randomly selected Brazilian municipalities, this study deepens understanding of the relationship between health governance institutions and the incidence of corruption at the local level by exploring the extent to which horizontal and vertical accountabilities contribute to reducing the propensity of municipal government officials to divert public health resources for private gain. The results of our multiple regression analysis suggest that the experience of health municipal councils is correlated with reductions in the incidence of corruption in public health programmes. This impact is significant over time, with each additional year of health council experience reducing corruption incidence levels by 2.1% from baseline values. The findings reported in this study do not rely on the subjectivity of corruption measures which usually conflate the actual incidence of corruption with its perception by informants. Based on our results, we provide recommendations that can assist policy makers to reduce corruption.

  13. Governance and mental health: contributions for public policy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. METHODS In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. RESULTS We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. CONCLUSIONS The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. PMID:28146159

  14. EL BUEN GOBIERNO CORPORATIVO EN LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS/GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISE

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    Raquel PUENTES POYATOS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de mostrar cómo el buen gobierno de las sociedades se ha de dirigir hacia un modelo de gobierno corporativo stakeholders, donde las sociedades cooperativas pueden servir de referencia en la medida que este modelo de gobierno corporativo es intrínseco a su razón de ser. Pondremos de manifiesto, cómo los Códigos de buen gobierno publicados hasta el momento en España no se ajustan a este enfoque stakeholders y no son de aplicación plena a sociedades no mercantiles, como las sociedades cooperativas./This article aims to show how the governance of societies has been directed toward a model of corporate governance stakeholders, where cooperative societies can serve as a reference to the extent that this model of corporate governance is intrinsic to its purpose. I will be shown how the codes of good governance published so far in Spain are not in line with this approach and stakeholders are not fully applied to non-market societies, such as cooperative societies.

  15. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities.

  16. Characteristics utilization of public space in Padang City based on good public space index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriawan, T.

    2017-06-01

    Padang is a metropolitan city which has 40 units of open space like plansum park, playground, and sports park with 10,88 hectar of total area. These open spaces are publics’, but not all of them are able to use as active public open spaces it caused by some of the parks are dormant parks beacuse they only for planted ground not for public activites.This study conducted to assess the quality of public space that exsist in Padang; Imam Bonjol park (representing of city open space (go-green)), H. Agus Salim sport center ( representing of sports park) and Pantai Muaro Padang area (representing of recreation/tourism).The method of this research conducted in several stages, first was the identification toward space’s function (Carmona,2008) and assess the space utilization index based approach to public space index (Metha,2007). The spaced quality is measured based on variable in Good Public Space Index which is the intensity of use, social activities, duration of activities, variation and pattern of use. The urgency of this research related to the effort to evaluate the policy of space arrangement and space control through the assessment of the use of existed spaces, until it can be references to Padang goverment in improving and increasing the quality of space thorugh development of spaces that have high quality.The assesment of quality of public open spaces in Padang conducted by assessed five space quality variables, result of analysis, utilization of public space was 0.69. based on the result it can be concluded the quality of public space in some parks in Padang has moderate index quality. This is caused by the time differentiation of the society, there is no interaction among society, and short time duration of the society in visiting the public space.

  17. 全球公共品供给的筹资分析%Analysis on Financing of Global Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦彦

    2013-01-01

      传统理论将国内公共品的供给机制分为市场供给、政府供给和自愿供给三种。现有的全球公共品供给的分析基本上是沿传统的国内公共品供给理论展开的,但这种推演却因全球公共品与国内公共品间的些许差异而在理论上陷入困境。全球公共品供给呈现新的特征,即特定条件下的市场供给和很多情况下的自愿供给。%The traditional theory of public goods supply mechanism is divided into market supply, government supply and voluntary supply. The analysis of the existing supply of global public goods is basically carried out along the traditional theory of domestic public goods supply, but this deduction because of the small differences between the global public goods and domestic public goods. The supply of global public goods presents new characteristics, that is, under certain conditions, the market supply and many cases of voluntary supply.

  18. Government databases and public health research: facilitating access in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed.

  19. LOCAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONAL INACTION AND THE TRAGEDY OF LOCAL PUBLIC GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo CANNARELLA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Empirical observation can confirm that not all rural communities enjoy an optimal level of local public goods: some public goods are provided more often and in a better quality than others. Given the vital importance of public goods for the welfare of local communities (among which the management of the local natural resource base for sustainable development plays a relevant role, the relation between existing local political institutions and their competences represents a critical issue for the concrete possibilities to properly produce, manage and provide local public goods. A better understanding of the nature of local public goods may increase the awareness of interdependence between local economic, environmental and social development not only in order to stop their continuing eroding but also to increase the possibility to produce local public goods and to design the institutional setting to overcome generic problems of public goods provision.

  20. IMPLEMENTASI GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE SEBAGAI UPAYA MEMINIMALKAN EKSPROPRIASI DALAM MENINGKATKAN KINERJA PERUSAHAAN

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    Dito Rinaldo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze does good corporate governance mechanism had a good function in order to solve the agents problem in Indonesia such as the ekspropriation to minority share holders through panel data regression. The result of this research is institutional and managerial ownership had a positive influence to MLO but not to NPM. Meanwhile, the institutional ownership had a negative influence to PP, this result has a justification that there had been an expropriation in the company. The managerial ownership variable had a positive influence to PP, this result shown that the debt establishment had pushed the company to incrase the income for paying the fixed cost such as interest. DOI: 10.15408/etk.v11i2.1889

  1. What Colleges Must Do to Keep the Public's Good Will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Patrick; Immerwahr, John

    2008-01-01

    Colleges have lived a charmed life. According to the public-opinion studies that the authors have conducted over the past 15 years, many fields--athletics, accounting, politics--have lost the public's trust, but higher education continues to receive praise for its accomplishments, while criticisms usually fail to stick. The honeymoon may be slowly…

  2. The Impact Of Good Corporate Governance To Manufacturing Firm’s Profitability And Firm’s Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Sumarno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the behavior of management toward the implementation of Good Corporate Governance in Indonesia to determine whether it has any influence towards profitability and its implication to the Manufacturing Firms’ value publicly listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange. There were 41 corporations who met the criteria of the survey. The data were analyzed using Panel Regression with fixed effects Model. The empirical findings show that the implementation of Corporate Governance in Indonesia has a positive, significant and direct impact toward firms’ profitability and firms’ value. Corporate Governance principles based on OECD principles that have positive and significant impact to both profitability and Firms’ Valueis Rights of Shareholders, Role of Stakeholders, Responsibilities of the Board Commissioners and Board of Directors. The principles that have significance and negative impact towards corporate profitability and value, are: Equitable treatment of shareholders and Disclosure and Transparencies. The most significant principle influencing profitability and firms’ value is Disclosure and Transparencies. Profitability plays a greater role in influencing Manufacturing Firms’ value in Indonesia. DOI: DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v5i2.3542

  3. Steps toward a shared governance response for achieving Good Environmental Status in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cinnirella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is of fundamental importance to Europe given its strategic position. The responsibility for its overall ecosystem integrity is shared by European Union Member States (EU-MS and other Mediterranean countries. A juxtaposition of overlapping governance instruments occurred recently in the region, with the implementation of both the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD for EU-MS and the Ecosystem Approach Strategy (ECAP for all Mediterranean countries, including EU-MS. Both MSFD and ECAP are structured around vision-driven processes to achieve Good Environmental Status and a Healthy Environment, respectively. These processes have clear ecosystem-based, integrated policy objectives to guarantee the preservation and integrity of Mediterranean marine ecosystem goods and services. However, adoption of these instruments, especially those related to the new EU-MS directives on marine policy, could result in a governance gap in addition to the well-known economic gap between the EU and the non-EU political blocs. We identify two complementary requirements for effective implementation of both MSFD and ECAP that could work together to reduce this gap, to ensure a better alignment between MSFD and ECAP and better planning for stakeholder engagement. These are key issues for the future success of these instruments in a Mediterranean region where discrepancies between societal and ecological objectives may pose a challenge to these processes.

  4. The Impact of Sustainable Tourism and Good Governance on Biodiversity Loss in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Badariah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of forest in providing the natural habitat for plants and animals; storing hundreds of billions of tons of carbon; buffering against flood and drought; stabilizing soils, influencing climate change and providing food and home for the indigenous people has led the international community to protect them from further destruction in the future. In addition, the sustainable tourism is a key source of income and employment for local communities, which, in turn, provide strong incentives to protect biodiversity. For such reasons, and given the capacity limits of environmental resources coupled with the quantitative growth of tourism, there is an urgent need for the development of tourism to take biodiversity seriously. In this study we investigate the impact of sustainable tourism and good governance indicators on biodiversity loss in Malaysia for the period 1996 to 2012. In this study we employed the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Dynamic OLS (DOLS and Fully-Modified OLS (FMOLS which is efficient in small sample to estimate the long-run model of biodiversity loss proxy by deforestation rates . Interestingly, our results found that good governance and sustainable tourism do contribute in mitigating biodiversity loss in Malaysia.

  5. INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC ASSOCIATION IETF AS ACTOR OF INTERNET GOVERNANCE

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    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a result of research of role played by an international public associa­tion “Internet Engineering Task Force” in international Internet governance sys­tem. The object of the research is a process of construction of a system of institu­tions which coordinate development of Internet. In the article, potential of non­governmental actors in this area is assessed. The article highlights causes and possi­ble effects of IETF activities as the most highly respected nongovernmental associa­tions which try to solve one of the urgent problems of world politics – transforma­tion of an existing approach to Internet governance. IETF approach is compared with approaches of other nongovernmental organizations and public associations such as ICANN, W3C and WaSP. The conclusion is made that authority of IETF in the community of Internet projects developers enables this public association to de­fine the key characteristics of technological policy in Internet evolution. Thus, IETF is considered as one of the key actors of international system of Internet gover­nance. Also, the importance of IETF-like associations has been underestimated by governmental actors yet. This underestimation determines Russian, Chinese and Iranian attacks on ICANN. These states support a project of full internationaliza­tion of Internet governance and consider ICANN as an organization which controls the Internet for the benefit of the United States of America.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-28

  6. 76 FR 18757 - Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... AGENCY Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory... Advisory Committee Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Local Government Advisory Committee's... the Local Government Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  7. Competition of individual and institutional punishments in spatial public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Czako, Lilla

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of strategies in spatial public goods games where both individual (peer) and institutional (pool) punishments are present beside unconditional defector and cooperator strategies. The evolution of strategy distribution is governed by imitation based on random sequential comparison of neighbors' payoff for a fixed level of noise. Using numerical simulations we have evaluated the strategy frequencies and phase diagrams when varying the synergy factor, punishment cost, and fine. Our attention is focused on two extreme cases describing all the relevant behaviors in such a complex system. According to our numerical data peer punishers prevail and control the system behavior in a large segments of parameters while pool punishers can only survive in the limit of weak peer punishment when a rich variety of solutions is observed. Paradoxically, the two types of punishment may extinguish each other's impact resulting in the triumph of defectors. The technical difficulties and suggested meth...

  8. Good governance and tourism development in protected areas: The case of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hübner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are increasingly expected to serve as a natural income-producing resource via the exploitation of recreational and touristic activities. Whilst tourism is often considered a viable option for generating income which benefits the conservation of a protected area, there are many cases in which insufficient and opaque planning hinder sustainable development, thereby reducing local benefit sharing and, ultimately, nature conservation. This article delineated and examined factors in governance which may underlie tourism development in protected areas. Based on Graham, Amos and Plumptre’s five good governance principles, a specific analysis was made of the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park in central Vietnam, which highlighted challenges in the practical implementation of governing principles arising for nature conservation, sustainable tourism development and complex stakeholder environments. Despite the limited opportunity of this study to examine the wider national and international context, the discussion facilitated an overview of the factors necessary to understand governance principles and tourism development. This article could serve as a basis for future research, especially with respect to comparative analyses of different management structures existing in Vietnam and in other contested centrally steered protected area spaces. Conservation implications: This research has shown that tourism and its development, despite a more market-oriented and decentralised policymaking, is a fragmented concept impacted by bureaucratic burden, lack of institutional capacities, top-down processes and little benefit-sharing. There is urgent need for stakeholders – public and private – to reconcile the means of protected areas for the ends (conservation by clarifying responsibilities as well as structures and processes which determine decision-making.

  9. Influence of the Good-Practice Principles and Codes in the Corporate Governance upon the Quality of the Financial-Accounting Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Niculae

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This hereby works tries to identify the principles regarding the corporate governance and analyze the way in which such corporate governance templates influence the qualitative characteristics of the financial information. The execution of the governance means the obligation to implement the processes and structures corresponding to the management and the administration of the business and company’s operations, to provide their good operation. The final scope of the good corporate governance is to provide the efficiency, credibility and reliability of the organization. Solid governance means the settlement of certain fundamental principles defining the relationships between different actors clearly tracks the responsibilities and provides a correct operation of the decision making processes. Starting from the statement according to which the transparency and the quality of the corporate governance system are two concepts coexisting and relating intensively, associations among the characteristics of the shareholding and the information transparency level can be identified in the activity of the public interest entities. The relationships with the current or future investors, with the financers, with the investment analysts, with the media are of great importance for the accomplishment of the scopes related to the image and credibility of the public interest entity and mean a correct and fluent communication.

  10. Professionals and Public-Good Capabilities Melanie Walker1 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    combined the theoretical resources of the capabilities approach with empirical data and ... including sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction ... events of one's own choice, religious, literary, musical, and so forth. ...... This publication is covered by a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 ...

  11. Changing Public Perception in Wisconsin: Manufacturing a "Good Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2006-01-01

    Careers in manufacturing are high-wage and high-tech. Yet, a future workforce shortage may be on the horizon. It appears a negative public perception--one that brings to mind low wages, assembly-line work and lay-offs--is thwarting young adults from pursuing manufacturing careers across the country. This article describes how the Wisconsin…

  12. The Grail of Goodness: The Effective Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Thomas; Van House, Nancy A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a national survey aimed at defining effectiveness for public libraries that asked 7 constituent groups (library managers, staff, trustees, users, friends of the library, local officials, and community leaders) to rate the importance of 61 effectiveness indicators. The complex and multidimensional nature of the results is discussed and…

  13. Introduction The 'Missing' Concept: What is the 'Public Sphere' Good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... discourse and practice in the 1980s, following the collapse of the nationalist ... concept of civil society, and not that of public sphere. Implicit in the neo- .... improve current economic and political policy making processes in Africa. .... sphere may be useful, indeed important, in the analysis of African history,.

  14. Corporate Entrepreneurship at Public Service Sector: Measurement and the Influence toward Government Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Ghina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to build conceptual model of corporate entrepreneurship within the public service sector as a baseline to improve government performance in order to provide the best service toward society. The study is based on questionnaires sent to the public service employees of Pelayanan Perizinan Terpadu Satu Pintu (PPTSP at Bandung City and Regency. The relationship between the constructs is analyzed through path analysis. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial leadership on job satisfaction and society satisfaction. It means that the higher of entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial leadership then the higher of government performance, evaluated from job satisfaction and society satisfaction. According to Entrepreneurial Orientation Survey (EOS and Entrepreneurial Leadership Questionnaire (ELQ results, there was a significant difference in characteristics between PPTSP at Bandung City and Regency, evaluated from entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial leadership, job satisfaction and society satisfaction. This research will help management within civil government organization regarding any things that should be done to provide the best practice toward employees and public society. This research also helps the top leaders to conduct change which is encouraging corporate entrepreneurial mindset in order to create good governance.

  15. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  16. ASSESSMENT AND GOVERNANCE OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: FIRST INSIGHTS FROM LIFE+ MAKING GOOD NATURA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Marino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 network is the cornerstone of EU Biodiversity Strategy aiming at halting the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems to human populations. Member States are mainly responsible to implement conservation strategies through management plans or conservation measures, but in many cases the level of development and execution of these instruments is very low and management effectiveness is rarely achieved. The project LIFE+ “Making Good Natura” aims to provide a governance tool for an efficient management of Natura 2000 sites based on the qualitative and quantitative valuation of ES and innovative models of self-financing by Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES or other mechanisms. A qualitative assessment of ES was obtained through maps and stakeholder perceptions. These first insights are the basis for integrating the ES approach within conservation strategies of Natura 2000 sites.

  17. Social Conflicts in Arrow Of God: Lessons in Flexibility and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaso George Nworah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinua Achebe’s second novel, Arrow of God, is concerned with the theme of conflict. According to Holman C. Hugh (1960, there are four basic levels of conflict: struggle between the protagonist and the antagonist, the protagonist with the society, struggle in the mind of the protagonist or the protagonist struggling with fate, destiny or force of nature. Conflicts in Arrow of God delineate three of these struggles in a concentration of events leading to the destruction of the social order in the community (Umuaro. However, the conflicts are linked with colonialism which is at the root of the conflict. In this view, the novel is to some extent, a protest against colonialism and the suffering that it brought to the colonised people generally and the Igbo specifically. Arising from the above, this paper draws some implications from the actions of the protagonist to reveal the connection between a leader’s flexibility and good governance as reflected in the life of the old chief priest (Ezeulu. The novel made its debut in 1964, symbolically marking a year since Nigeria’s adoption of Republican Constitution. The connection between Umuaro’s institution of Ulu and its priest as source of law and order with Nigeria’s adoption of the republican constitution is made obvious in this study. Through this, the nexus between literature and reality is thus reinforced. Keywords: Colonialism, Conflict, Myth, Protest, Governance, Republicanism

  18. Governance of Public Service Media in Poland: The Role of the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Glowacki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of the public in governance processes in public service media (PSM in Poland in the post mass-media era, characterized by participatory culture and network practices. Referencing the findings of the “Democratization of media policy in the digital ecosystems” (2014–2015 research project, the study aims to map the effectiveness of existing tools, practices and attitudes toward opening-up Polish public media enterprises to the public. Examination of media regulation, grey literature (corporate documentation, strategies, reports and civil society initiatives are likely to indicate the ways and extent to which members of the public might currently participate in the decision-making and control. On the basis of hypotheses that public media enterprises in Poland are not fully prepared for the multi-stakeholder and advanced model of PSM, the study takes into account potential systemic/regulatory, organizational and social barriers for change. The salient questions to be addressed are: What are the strategies and practices through which members of civil society might get involved? At what stages are the publics able to engage? How can PSM take advantage of the development of online tools offering space for interaction and collaboration? How is it possible to make the public more active and interested in governance and participation?

  19. Governance of Public Service Media in Poland: The Role of the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Glowacki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of the public in governance processes in public service media (PSM in Poland in the post mass-media era, characterized by participatory culture and network practices. Referencing the findings of the “Democratization of media policy in the digital ecosystems” (2014–2015 research project, the study aims to map the effectiveness of existing tools, practices and attitudes toward opening-up Polish public media enterprises to the public. Examination of media regulation, grey literature (corporate documentation, strategies, reports and civil society initiatives are likely to indicate the ways and extent to which members of the public might currently participate in the decision-making and control. On the basis of hypotheses that public media enterprises in Poland are not fully prepared for the multi-stakeholder and advanced model of PSM, the study takes into account potential systemic/regulatory, organizational and social barriers for change. The salient questions to be addressed are: What are the strategies and practices through which members of civil society might get involved? At what stages are the publics able to engage? How can PSM take advantage of the development of online tools offering space for interaction and collaboration? How is it possible to make the public more active and interested in governance and participation?

  20. ATTITUDE OF CORPORATE MANAGERS AND STOCKHOLDERS WITH RESPECT TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: A CASE STUDY OF BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Z. Mamun; Mohammad Aslam

    2005-01-01

    This study showed the perceptional differences between corporate managers1 and stockholders2 regarding good governance. The study is conducted among 25 pairs of senior managers and stockholders from 25 randomly chosen corporations3 in Bangladesh. Different statistical tools like numeric scale, discriminant analysis, descriptive analysis, t-test, F-test were used for the comparative analysis. Regarding good governance, it is found that the corporate managers and stockholders possess opposing v...

  1. Evaluasi Penerapan Internal Control dan Pelaksanaan Good Corporate Governance pada PT PLN (Persero Distribusi Jakarta Raya dan Tangerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Iswandi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. PLN (Persero Distribusi Jakarta Raya dan Tangerang have implemented Internal Control and Good Corporate Governance. The research would like to evaluate the implementation of Internal Control accordance with COSO’s criteria (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and KNKG’s criteria (Komite Nasional Kebijakan Governance. Based on research found that five components of COSO such as control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication, monitoring have been implemented but unfortunately one of the component such as control activities not yet implemented properly accordance with COSO’s criteria. The company also have been imlemented GCG accordance with KNKG’s criteria but still need development through internalization GCG’s spirit among the employees because some employees still have different perception related to GCG. For example from employee stand point there’s no problem receive special gift or receive special payment from customer and have a conflict of interest when deal with public accountant.

  2. Good Corporate Governance and Predicting Financial Distress Using Logistic and Probit Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniarti Juniarti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to prove whether good corporate governance (GCG is able to predict the probability of companies experiencing financial difficulties. Financial ratios that traditionally used for predicting bankruptcy remains used in this study. Besides, this study also compares logit and probit regression models, which are widely used in research related accounting bankruptcy prediction. Both models will be compared to determine which model is more superior. The sample in this study is the infrastructure, transportation, utilities & trade, services and hotels companies experiencing financial distress in the period 2008-2011. The results show that GCG and other three variables control i.e DTA, CR and company category do not prove significantly to predict the probability of companies experiencing financial difficulties. NPM, the only variable that proved significantly distinguishing healthy firms and distress. In general, logit and probit models do not result in different conclusions. Both of the models confirm the goodness of fit of models and the results of hypothesis testing. In terms of classification accuracy, logit model proves more accurate predictions than the probit models.

  3. Corporate Boards and Ownership Structure as Antecedents of Corporate Governance Disclosure in Saudi Arabian Publicly Listed Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bassam, Waleed M.; Ntim, Collins G.; Opong, Kwaku K.; Downs, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigate whether and to what extent publicly listed corporations voluntarily comply with and disclose recommended good corporate governance (CG) practices, and distinctively examine whether the observed cross-sectional differences in such CG disclosures can be explained by ownership and board mechanisms with specific focus on Saudi Arabia. Our results suggest that corporations with larger boards, a big-four auditor, higher government ownership, a CG committee and higher institut...

  4. Civil Justice and Public Governance%公民正义与公共治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨盛军

    2015-01-01

    Public governance as a new social governance model,To reach a consensus and achieve good governance based on the government,institutions and citizens by negotiations and dialogue.Among them,civil justice is a very important virtue.It advocates that citizen can consciously follow the social system of justice and the social consensus by dialogue,and take the initi-ative to participate in public and political life in order to obtain the consensus of the community,and rational criticism and to a-mend the lack of rationality of the public policy,the ultimate realization of the justice of both citizens and public governance.%公共治理作为新的社会治理模式,需要政府、机构与公民通过商谈与对话达成共识最终实现善治。其中,公民正义是一种极为重要的德性,它主张公民既能自觉地遵循正义的社会制度以及出于对话而达成的社会共识,又能主动地参与公共政治生活以获得社会共识,以及理性地批评与修正缺乏合理性的公共政策,最终实现公民与公共治理的双重正义。

  5. Crime and punishment: is "justice" good public policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, George C; Nygaard, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunctional features of American penology are mitigated somewhat by the application (though uneven) of modern science. Unfortunately, these advances do not address major flaws in the ideas on which the system is erected. These include retribution, proportional punishment, and all-or-none notions of criminal responsibility. We propose abandoning retribution for its own sake; making punishment proportional to its effectiveness for behavior change rather than to the indignation evoked by the offense; and incorporating punishment into sentences based on the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the offender, including containment as necessary for public safety. Every offender would be held responsible, but the meaning and consequences thereof would change. The proposed changes could only occur incrementally. New systems of oversight and accountability would be required. Legislative bodies could provide guidelines, and courts could oversee, but neither could micromanage. Few are better qualified to work toward these goals than readers of this journal.

  6. Analysis of Public Goods Supply of New Generation Migrant Workers’ Urban and Rural Double Marginalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Status quo of urban and rural public goods supply in China is analyzed.Firstly,public goods supply in rural areas is inadequate,for example,inadequate supply of agricultural infrastructure,lack of expenditure in agricultural science and technology,problems of rural drinking water safety,problems of rural roads and transportation,low levels of health care,weak rural public culture,short supply of farmers’ education.Secondly,the system and level of urban public goods provision can’t meet migrant workers’ demand,for example,less migrant workers are employed by the governments’ direction;migrant workers are isolated by urban housing project and these workers have difficulty in receiving city social security.One reason of new generation migrant workers facing the double marginalization of rural and urban crisis is that urban and rural public goods supply are different in particular the inadequate supply of public goods in rural areas.Three countermeasures are put forward in order to relieve new generation migrant workers’ double marginalization of urban and rural,which include increasing financial input in rural areas in order to achieve equalization of urban and rural public goods,perfecting the preferential agricultural policy to increase rural public goods supply,making urban public goods supply as a guide to promote the new generation migrant workers into the city.

  7. 构建并完善电子政务安全的有益思考%Establishment and Improvement of E-government Security Good Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方友军

    2012-01-01

    随着信息时代的到来和网络的普遍应用,电子政务应运而生。网络的出现为政务信息的公开提供了良好的平台,同时电子政务更加有利于人民群众参与民主决策。随之电子政务的发展,电子政务的安全隐患也频频出现,影响电子政务信息的真实性和有效性。本文通过针对电子政务中存在的安全问题进行分析思考,并提出了一些解决电子政务安全问题的对策。%with the advent of the information age and the universal application of the network, the electronic government affairs emerge as the times require. The emergence of the network for the government information publicity provides a good platform for e-government, and more conducive to people's participation in democratic decision-making. With the development of e-government, e-government security risks are also frequently occur, affecting e-government information authenticity and validity. This article through to the E-government security problems in the analytical thinking, and puts forward some solving e-government security problem countermeasure.

  8. Social Scientists and Public Administration in the Lula Silva Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celina D’Araujo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We focus here on a new theme among studies on the Social Sciences in Brazil, namely, the presence of social scientists in high-level office in the federal government, whether as directors or advisers. In general, studies on the social sciences in Brazil are devoted to examining the academic profile of their founders, the contents prioritized in the disciplines, processes of institutionalization and methodologies adopted, among other aspects. However, there has never been an examination of the place of the social scientist in the division of labour of the state bureaucracy, in the market and close to those in power. By means of empirical research, we have ascertained that individuals with this academic background have a notable presence in the Lula da Silva government (2003-2006; 2007- . Our hypothesis is that this presence cannot be explained chiefly by the specificity of the knowledge produced by this set of disciplines. Instead, one has to look at other variables, especially social scientists’ link with the public service.

  9. Housing in China: State Governance, Market and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese house prices have been receiving huge coverage in both the domestic and the international media. Although the Chinese government has implemented many policies to control house prices, especially in the big cities, it is obvious that there is disequilibrium between demand for and supply of houses. Even though numerous housing policies have been put in place to overcome that, house prices in China are still rising. Many Chinese citizens from the low- and middle-incomes group find it difficult to purchase a house in the cities due to high house prices. This paper covers the current situation of the house prices in China, introduces the existing state of affairs about the Chinese housing market, explores a series of important reasons for high house prices, examines various public policies the Chinese government is using to control real estate, as well as reveals the citizens’ perceptions related to rising house prices. To gauge citizens’ perception of the current state of affairs in this regard, a questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information with a final sample of 256 respondents from more than ten cities of different tiers in the different regions of China.

  10. Public service performance and trust in government: the problem of causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); G. Bouckaert (Geert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractConcerns for restoring citizens’ trust in government are at the core of public sector modernization. Public distrust is often blamed on the bad functioning of public services, and in political discourse well-functioning public services are said to create trust in government. This is a ve

  11. Lindahl Equilibrium and Schweitzer's Open Club Model Semi-Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Gilles, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Limit core allocations are the ones that remain in the core of a replicated economy.An equivalent notion for economies with public goods is Schweizer s concept of club e ciency under a variable number of economic agents.We extend this notion to economies with goods that have a semi-public nature.We

  12. The evolution of altruism in spatial threshold public goods games via an insurance mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of cooperation in public goods situations has become an important puzzle for researchers. This paper considers the threshold public goods games where the option of insurance is provided for players from the standpoint of diversification of risk, envisaging the possibility of multiple

  13. A Critical Exploration of Changing Definitions of Public Good in Relation to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between higher education (HE) and public good can be traced to Kant's argument that universities critically held society to account. Mill, Newman and Arnold suggested knowledge itself was a public good. In the twentieth century, economists argued education could drive national technological progress. More recently…

  14. Student Learning in Guatemala: An Untenured Faculty Perspective on International Service Learning and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I explain how I combined service learning, public-good work, and research in Guatemala. This path has not been easy. Indeed, it has been risky because the time invested in public-good work and teaching field classes could have detracted from research productivity. Taking a risk under the current and traditional academic model at…

  15. Cooperation versus Free Riding in a Threshold Public Goods Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melanie; Lehr, David; Brastow, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a classroom public goods experiment on the basis of a provision-point mechanism (PPM), where subjects must make an all or nothing decision about providing the public good. As a teaching tool, this design is superior to traditional prisoner's dilemma games because it creates multiple equilibrium in which individual financial…

  16. Lindahl Equilibrium and Schweitzer's Open Club Model Semi-Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Gilles, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Limit core allocations are the ones that remain in the core of a replicated economy.An equivalent notion for economies with public goods is Schweizer s concept of club e ciency under a variable number of economic agents.We extend this notion to economies with goods that have a semi-public nature.We

  17. Leading by Example in a Public Goods Experiment with Heterogeneity and Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, M. Vittoria; Sutter, Matthias; van der Heijden, Eline

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of leadership on the private provision of a public good when group members are heterogeneously endowed. Leadership is implemented as a sequential public goods game where one group member contributes first and all the others follow. Our results show that the presence of a leader increases average contribution levels but less so…

  18. A Critical Exploration of Changing Definitions of Public Good in Relation to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between higher education (HE) and public good can be traced to Kant's argument that universities critically held society to account. Mill, Newman and Arnold suggested knowledge itself was a public good. In the twentieth century, economists argued education could drive national technological progress. More recently…

  19. Leading by Example in a Public Goods Experiment with Heterogeneity and Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, M. Vittoria; Sutter, Matthias; van der Heijden, Eline

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of leadership on the private provision of a public good when group members are heterogeneously endowed. Leadership is implemented as a sequential public goods game where one group member contributes first and all the others follow. Our results show that the presence of a leader increases average contribution levels but less so…

  20. Cooperation and Noise in Public Goods Experiments: Applying the Contribution Function Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Schram, A.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a new design for experiments with the voluntary contributions mechanism for public goods. Subjects report a complete con-tri-bution function in each period, i.e., a contribution level for various marginal rates of transformation between a public and a private good. The results show that

  1. Does insurance against punishment undermine cooperation in the evolution of public goods games?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chu, Tianguang; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In a public goods game, cooperation can be a stable outcome if defectors are facing efficient punishment. In some public goods systems, punishment is undermined by an insurance system where speculators buy a policy that sequentially covers all punishment costs. Here, we study a simple model to inves

  2. Board of Commisioner Duality Role, Governance and Earnings Management of Initial Public Offerings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Prasetiawati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public firm is required to implement good corporate governance as assurance to reduce information asymmetry between firm and its stockholders. Corporate governance mechanism should be able to limit any improper actions of the firm’s management. This study investigates whether the duality role of the board affects earnings management practice of firms making initial public offering at Indonesian Stock Exchange. The study also examines other corporate governance mechanism factors, namely the number of board of commission-ners, the proportion of independent board of commissioners, size of firm, financial leverage, and profitability. Earnings management was measured using Cross-Sectional Modified Jones model. The study employs a total of 60 firms that went public from 2000 to 2006. The results show that duality status of board of commissioners positively and significantly affects earnings management in IPO firms. This could be interpreted that board of directors with duality role had a lower function in monitoring the firms’ performance so that management have opportunity to manage reported earnings. When board of commissioners have dual role, the level of earnings management is getting intense, and vice versa. Size of board of commissioners and profitability are positively related to earnings management.

  3. Resource supply and the evolution of public-goods cooperation in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racey Dan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Explaining public-goods cooperation is a challenge for evolutionary biology. However, cooperation is expected to more readily evolve if it imposes a smaller cost. Such costs of cooperation are expected to decline with increasing resource supply, an ecological parameter that varies widely in nature. We experimentally tested the effect of resource supply on the evolution of cooperation using two well-studied bacterial public-good traits: biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens and siderophore production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The frequency of cooperative bacteria increased with resource supply in the context of both bacterial public-good traits. In both cases this was due to decreasing costs of investment into public-goods cooperation with increasing resource supply. Conclusion Our empirical tests with bacteria suggest that public-goods cooperation is likely to increase with increasing resource supply due to reduced costs of cooperation, confirming that resource supply is an important factor in the evolution of cooperation.

  4. Electronic Governance: Myth or Opportunity for Nigerian Public Administration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Olufemi Fatile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have changed the process of governance in the world. To manage government affairs for the benefits of citizens, governments have adopted e-governance technologies in service delivery. The objectives of this study are to provide a comprehensive review of e-governance in order to give it a sound framework, assess the levels of e-governance implementation, and evaluate critical success factors of e-governance implementation. The analysis of the impact of e-governance in service provision Nigeria is also provided. It notes that Nigeria is facing a number of challenges in the introduction of e-Governance. Given the importance of the successful implementation of electronic governance services and from a practical perspective, the paper suggests that government should take a positive position towards the factors which will bring about effective and efficient e-governance in Nigeria. Government should declare access to ICT services as fundamental human right of every Nigerian and to establish a timetable and guarantee enabling environment for attracting the right level of investments. The paper concludes that there is a lot of hope on the potential of e-governance to transform the internal efficiency of government and the relationship of government with citizens.

  5. Good Governance in Action: Pakistani Muslim Law on Human Rights and Gender-Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility and pluralism of Islamic law could be used for democratization and good governance, in almost total contradiction to the essentialized stereotypical portrayal of Islamic law. Thanks to the practice of precedent in Pakistan, the lower courts are bound by the decisions of the higher courts but the higher courts are free to resort to ijtihad for deriving new rules from the Qur'an and Sunnah. The Supreme Court of Pakistan and the Federal Shariat Court significantly contributed to the expansion of human rights in Pakistan for they have developed a human-rights friendly approach. They have interpreted the constitutional commitment to injunctions of Islam to mean conformity with general principles of Islamic law such as equality, justice (adl, and welfare (maslaha rather than with concrete provisions of traditional Muslim law. Contrary to the stereotypical image of Islamic law as being opposed to women's rights, the constitutionalization of Islam in Pakistan has helped women in a predominantly Muslim society where traditional patriarchal norms prevail and work against women. In order to help women, Pakistani judiciary has directly appealed to the Qur'an and Sunnah and has employed an interpretative strategy by using a combination of constitutional rights, Islamic law and international human rights in order to advance women's rights. The courts have only maintained differences on the basis of sex when they are favorable to women.

  6. The macroeconomic analysis of public goods and their influence in the region of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPÍŠIL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the region of Czech Republic, the provision of public goods is one of the State’s most important activities with society-wide impacts. Therefore, the debate on the structure and scope of public budgets is legitimate and ongoing on a society-wide scale. Mainstream fiscal theory considers public goods to be one of the failures of market equilibrium, classifying them as being close to positive externalities. In this case, the activity of the State brings benefits to other entities that are not involved in this activity and do not even directly pay for it. The main characteristics of these goods include irreducibility of their amount in society, non-excludability and non-rivalry. There are a number of goods between purely private and purely public goods which, to varying extents, exhibit both elements. Today, the majority of goods provided by the public sector are of such a nature; as a result, the form of allocation and the subsequent redistribution of resources are crucial when analysing public goods. The present paper analyses public goods in the Czech Republic from an economic and legal perspective using Cost-Benefit Analysis, including their efficiency and society-wide benefits.

  7. 77 FR 33019 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 41st session of the United...

  8. 77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 42nd session of the United...

  9. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 38th session of the United...

  10. 76 FR 25774 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 39th session of the United...

  11. 75 FR 19671 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Administration International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting...

  12. 76 FR 68829 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 40th session of the United...

  13. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  14. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  15. How Do Local Governments Decide on Public Policy in Fiscal Federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments influences the way local governments...... toward local governments and, thereby, enable a more precise characterization of local government behaviour in fiscal federalism....

  16. How Taxes Can Contribute to The Implementation of The Public Governance Strategy? – An Analysis for Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a short literature review regarding the public governance concept in the EU approach and its methods for establishing a common way to manage different situations for all member states; we discovered that the problems they confront with have to do with good governance and qualitative public administration. In the second part, we developed an econometric model for three Eastern European countries and we found a strong correlation between the total revenues from taxes and social contributions and total gross debt in 2002-2014 period. We ended the paper by emphasizing the conclusions obtained.

  17. Governance and mental health: contributions for public policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    2017-01-30

    To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. Analizar la conceptualización del término gobernanza en las políticas de salud mental. En esta revisión sistemática se analizó literatura científica publicada en el ámbito internacional durante 15 años (de 2000 hasta 2015). Las bases de datos analizadas fueron: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO y PubMed. Los descriptores fueron gobernanza y salud mental. Fueron incluidos artículos relevantes de acuerdo a nuestro objeto de estudio y niveles de análisis: (i) concepto de gobernanza en salud mental; (ii) proceso y espacios de decisión; (iii) actores estratégicos y de interés que intervienen en el funcionamiento del sistema de salud, y (iv) normas sociales. Se excluyeron cartas al editor, noticias, comentarios y reporte de caso

  18. A Case Study of Institutional Visioning, Public Good, and the Renewal of Democracy: The Theory and Practice of Public Good Work at the University of Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretz, Eric; Cutforth, Nick; Nicotera, Nicole; Thompson, Sheila Summers

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, the University of Denver included language in its vision statement that committed the institution to becoming "a great private university dedicated to the public good." This essay (1) explains how the development of an institutional visioning statement led to the implementation of a series of campus dialogues and action steps…

  19. Towards a government public cloud model: The case of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, PS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available the government to benefit from other cloud computing advantages. However, modelling a multidimensional social problem as complex as the public cloud for a national government requires time, knowledge and experience from a wide range of specialization disciplines...

  20. Incentive Mechanism Design for Public Goods Provision: Price Cap Regulation and Optimal Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jun; YIN Hong; WANG Xian-jia

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanism design that induces firms to provide public goods under two regulatory means: price cap regulation and optimal regulation, respectively. We first outline two models of monopoly regulation with unobservable marginal costs and effort, which can be regard as an optimal problem with dual restrictions. By solving this problem, we get the two optimal regulatory mechanisms to induce the provision of public goods. Further, by comparative statics, the conclusion is drawn that the welfare loss associated with price cap regulation, with respective to optimal regulation, increases more with increase of the expense of public goods.

  1. Corporate governance and regulation: can there be too much of a good thing?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Valentina G.; Claessens, Stijn

    2006-01-01

    For a large number of companies from different countries, we analyze how company corporate governance practices and country regulatory regimes interact in terms of company valuation. We confirm that corporate governance plays a crucial role in efficient company monitoring and shareholder protection, and consequently positively impacts valuation. We find substitution in valuation impact between corporate governance measures at the company and country level, with a possibility of over-regulatio...

  2. Survey on Public Awareness On AIDS- Role Of Government And Non Government Agencies In A Rural South Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balagnesh G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of Public awareness on AIDS in a rural community and to what extent the government and non-government agencies have played their role in creating the awareness? Objectives: (i To study the public awareness on AIDS in a rural community (ii To Study role of government and non-government agencies in creating the awareness on AIDS. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Rural area under S. V. Medical College Triputi (AP Participants: 100 males (15-45 yrs and 100 females (15-45 yrs. Study variables: Awareness on AIDS, Government and non-government agencies. Statistical Analysis: Percentages Results: Most of the persons interviewed had minimal knowledge on AIDS. Quite a large section of the ‘ study population was ignorant over the safety offered by condoms in preventing AIDS. Doordarshan and Newspaper agencies played much role in creation the awareness on AIDS, while the non-government agencies like Lions’ Club, Rotary Club. Indian Junior Chamber etc. played no role in creating the awareness on AIDS in the study area. Recommendations: Government health sector should take more responsibility in educating the people and creating adequate awareness on AIDS. Non-government agencies should involve themselves in creating awareness on AIDS.

  3. PPP as a modern concept for providing public goods and services and its application in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drljača-Kanazir Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (hereinafter: PPP is an unconventional and modern pattern used to finance the construction and exploitation of public goods, which introduces the market based principles of operation in the public sector in the leading word economies as a result of market deregulation and liberalization. The purpose of this paper is to present the basic PPP characteristics, models of funding, and to highlight that this concept of financing the public goods and services is not sufficiently used in Serbia despite the fact that the necessary legal framework and educated staff in the public private and financial sectors, and active promotion of the concept as such are in place. This paper is intended to point that PPP is the only sustainable model of public infrastructure development (roads, tunnels, bridges, power generation plants, etc. in Serbia which is struggling with the significant budget deficit, huge public debt, high unemployment rate and a stagnating economy.

  4. The Theoretical Foundation and its Mode Transformation of Rural Public Goods Supply in the Perspective of Organizational Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical expositions of public goods supply by the liberalism,new institutionalism and the school of public choice are conducted in the perspective of organizational competition.And the theoretical foundation of rural public goods is put forward.Then,the changes of the supply mode of rural public goods are discussed before and after the tax reform,that is,the "Community Cooperation" supply mode of rural public goods before the tax reform and the "Organization Cooperation" supply mode of rural public goods after the tax reform.Finally,the diversification of rural public goods supply in China in future is forecasted.

  5. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014, 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  6. Stimulating Contributions to Public Goods through Information Feedback: Some Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marco A; Lee, Allen; Sundaram, Hari

    2016-01-01

    In traditional public good experiments participants receive an endowment from the experimenter that can be invested in a public good or kept in a private account. In this paper we present an experimental environment where participants can invest time during five days to contribute to a public good. Participants can make contributions to a linear public good by logging into a web application and performing virtual actions. We compared four treatments, with different group sizes and information of (relative) performance of other groups. We find that information feedback about performance of other groups has a small positive effect if we control for various attributes of the groups. Moreover, we find a significant effect of the contributions of others in the group in the previous day on the number of points earned in the current day. Our results confirm that people participate more when participants in their group participate more, and are influenced by information about the relative performance of other groups.

  7. Corporate Governance and Regulation: Can There Be Too Much of a Good Thing?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Valentina G.; Claessens, Stijn

    2006-01-01

    For a large number of companies from different countries, the authors analyze how company corporate governance practices and country regulatory regimes interact in terms of company valuation. They confirm that corporate governance plays a crucial role in efficient company monitoring and shareholder protection, and consequently positively impacts valuation. They find substitution in valuati...

  8. Pengaruh Good Corporate Governance dan Ukuran Perusahaan terhadap Manajemen Laba pada Perusahaan Manufaktur yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Syakfianto, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This research aim is to analyze how are the effects of good corporate governace and firm size to earning management of registered mining company in Indonesian Stock Exchange 2010-2013. good corporate governance which is proxied by managerial ownership, board of commisioner and comitee audit This is a causal research. The hypothesis of this research is analyzed using multiple linear regressions. Total numbers of samples of this research are 31 companies, which data collection are taken using l...

  9. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustai...

  10. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  11. Evaluation on the Efficiency and Fairness of Coordinating Public Goods Supply in Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan; YU; Zhongmin; DING

    2015-01-01

    By setting the urban-rural public goods supply model,this paper evaluates the effects of coordinating supply public goods on resource allocation and welfare from efficiency and fairness,and examines the necessity and possibility of coordinating public goods supply in urban and rural areas. The model assumes that the population size of urban and rural areas is different,and the population can not flow freely between urban and rural areas; there are different degrees of spillover in the public goods supply. Model results show that coordinating public goods supply in urban and rural areas is the result of optimizing resource allocation efficiency,but the residents’ individual utility level will not necessarily improve,so residents’ willingness to support coordinated urban-rural supply is different,and public goods spillover and different tax systems are the factors that affect the residents’ utility level. Finally,this paper uses the practice of coordinating urban and rural compulsory education in Chengdu City to confirm the above conclusions.

  12. Evolution of staying together in the context of diffusible public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarz, Jason W; Nowak, Martin A

    2014-11-07

    We study the coevolution of staying together and cooperation. Staying together means that replicating units do not separate after reproduction, but remain in proximity. For example, following cell division the two daughter cells may not fully separate but stay attached to each other. Repeated cell division thereby can lead to a simple multi-cellular complex. We assume that cooperators generate a diffusible public good, which can be absorbed by any cell in the system. The production of the public good entails a cost, while the absorption leads to a benefit. Defectors produce no public good. Defectors have a selective advantage unless a mechanism for evolution of cooperation is at work. Here we explore the idea that the public good produced by a cooperating cell is absorbed by cells of the same complex with a probability that depends on the size of the complex. Larger complexes are better at absorbing the public goods produced by their own individuals. We derive analytical conditions for the evolution of staying together, thereby studying the coevolution of clustering and cooperation. If cooperators and defectors differ in their intrinsic efficiency to absorb the public good, then we find multiple stable equilibria and the possibility for coexistence between cooperators and defectors. Finally we study the implications of disadvantages that might arise if complexes become too large.

  13. Review: Game theory of public goods in one-shot social dilemmas without assortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2012-04-21

    We review the theory of public goods in biology. In the N-person prisoner's dilemma, where the public good is a linear function of the individual contributions, cooperation requires some form of assortment, for example due to kin discrimination, population viscosity or repeated interactions. In most social species ranging from bacteria to humans, however, public goods are usually a non-linear function of the contributions, which makes cooperation possible without assortment. More specifically, a polymorphic state can be stable in which cooperators and non-cooperators coexist. The existence of mixed equilibria in public goods games is a fundamental result in the study of cooperation that has been overlooked so far, because of the disproportionate attention given to the two- and N-person prisoner's dilemma. Methods and results from games with pairwise interactions or linear benefits cannot, in general, be extended to the analysis of public goods. Game theory helps explain the production of public goods in one-shot, N-person interactions without assortment, it leads to predictions that can be easily tested and allows a prescriptive approach to cooperation.

  14. Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-09-01

    Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).

  15. The Rural Elite and the Supply of Public Goods in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu-peng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of collective action and social capital theory,social capital is introduced into the game analysis of the supply of public goods between the rural elite and ordinary villagers.I establish the income model of public goods utility concerning the rural elite and ordinary villagers;research the incentive of social capital for the rural elite and villagers,and impact of social capital on the rural elite and villagers.Three inferences can be drawn from the model:the precondition for the elite to prompt the collective cooperation is having " good reputation" ;" good reputation" of the elite in the supply of public goods can abate farmers’ motive of " free rider" ;the role of the elite in organizing the supply of public goods can save the transaction costs in the process of collective action.Taking the case of Shunhe Village,Panyu District,Guangzhou City,I explain this model.Finally,some policy recommendations are put forth as follows:rebuilding the community credit;giving full play to the role of the rural elite in the supply of public goods in rural areas.

  16. Seller's liability for conformity of the goods with public law standards: Frozen pork case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When the goods are exported from one country to another an important question arises - do the goods have to comply with the public law requirements of the seller's country, buyer's country or even with the rules in effect in some third country. The question is of high importance because the public law requirements, including standards established by environmental law, can have decisive impact on the possibility to use the goods. In order to avoid potential disputes parties should explicitly or implicitly stipulate the qualities of the goods and applicable public law standards. In case law, there are no uniform standards for determination and application of criteria for assessment whether the goods are in conformity with public law requirements. The best solution is to follow the rules established in Mussels case and to consider every case separately. Finally, according to our opinion, fitness for the purpose for which the goods would ordinarily be used does not imply the obligation of the seller to deliver the goods conforming to the public law standards of the import country, unless he knew or ought to have known of such standards. On the other hand, legal standards in effect in buyer's place or in the place of destination will be relevant when requirements for application of the Art. 35(2(b are fulfilled i.e. when particular purpose was expressly or impliedly made known to the seller and when the buyer relied on the seller's skill and judgment.

  17. Governance and Performance: Publicly Listed Companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cyril H. Ponnu; Sarimah Ramthandin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between corporate governance practice (as indicated by corporate governance disclosure) and company’s financial performance. Certain corporate structures and practices were examined to determine if they have any effect on company’s performance. Corporate governance practices were assessed based on the level of disclosure made in the companies’ annual reports. For financial performance, stock price performance and return on equity (ROE) were used as pro...

  18. Education as a Global Public Good: The Applicability and Implications of a Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a growing literature on global public goods theory, in particular the use of this framework to promote the equitable provision of goods and social services, such as basic education, on an international scale. Due to a lack of research into this theory's applicability to education, the author aims to discern how such a…

  19. Governing how we care: contesting community and defining difference in U.S. public health programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Susan J., Dr

    2012-01-01

    "As local governments and organizations assume more responsibility for ensuring the public health, identity politics play an increasing yet largely unexamined role in public and policy attitudes toward local problems...

  20. Orienting to the Public Good: Developing a Moral Self in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ann Marie R.; Roney, Kathleen; Power, F. Clark

    2008-01-01

    This study takes up the challenge of middle level researchers to investigate the extent to which schools prepare young adolescents to commit themselves to serve the public interest. One way of assessing the orientation of children and adolescents to the public good is through their emerging self-understanding. This study analyzes middle school…

  1. When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer…

  2. Making Governance "Good": The Production of Scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Governance of the Salween River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lamb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments (EIAs are generally considered an important component of formal decision-making processes about development, serving to ensure that a project′s environmental impacts are considered in decisions about whether and how it will proceed. Scale is an important part of the narrative built into the assessment. Building on a rich literature at the intersection of human geography and political ecology, I focus on the way that scale is remade through the environmental impact assessment process for the Hatgyi hydroelectric dam proposed on the Salween River. Proposed near the stretch of the river that makes up the Thai-Burma border, the scales of governance for this cross-border project challenge assumed definitions of ′local′ impacts for ′national′ decision-making. By illustrating how scale-making is accomplished through producing and mobilising ecological knowledge, I illustrate how the scale of the local and the nation are at stake in these projects.

  3. Switchmen of Reform: Competing Conceptions of Public Higher Education Governance in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marta A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic leaders and government officials in Poland differ in their notions of good university governance, and sought to uncover how these notions intersect with global trends in higher education governance. The research objective was to identify the criteria that determine what reforms of university…

  4. Influencing public policies: Two (very good) reasons to look toward scientific knowledge in public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, François; Bellefleur, Olivier

    2014-07-11

    The healthy public policy movement rests on the belief that a range of public policies should be at least partly informed by evidence demonstrating the positive effects of these policies on population health, health inequalities and their determinants. In order to address certain difficulties that the movement faces, knowledge produced in various scientific disciplines regarding public policies may provide some valuable guidance. In this short commentary, we examine how knowledge from the scientific disciplines investigating public policies makes it possible to address two difficulties in the development of healthy public policies: 1) adequately anticipating the effects of public policies, and 2) assessing the political viability of the policies being promoted. Since urban traffic policies are of interest to most of the other contributors to this supplement, we use examples from this field to illustrate some of our points.

  5. Studies on Government Publications' Use, 1990-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Thomas Reed

    1997-01-01

    This literature review examines nine studies within a seven-year time period (1990-1996) concentrating on the use and users of government-produced information. Parallels are drawn in current status of knowledge, but limitations are pointed out in what is becoming an abandoned form of research in government documents librarianship. (Author/AEF)

  6. Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational governance since the demise of professional accountability in the mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic accountability. (Contains 1 figure and 125 references.)(PKP)

  7. Public Deliberation on Government-managed Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zhu, Demi

    2017-01-01

    Governments' increasing presence on social media enables a wide range of new modes of interaction that go beyond government information and service provision to include the key social media capability of user-to-user interactions. These interactions can either contribute to deliberative practices......-managed social media accounts. Drawing on a survey of 417 users of the Chinese social media platform Weibo, our findings show that interactions on social media are mostly non-dialogical and non-creative in nature, and characterised by homophily and polarisation, even though users perceive their interactions...... as deliberative. Moreover, interactions on government-managed social media are less deliberative than on other platforms. Our findings contribute to research on government social media from the user side, and to practice of government social media management aimed at citizen engagement....

  8. Organic farming and the prospects for stimulating public goods under the CAP 2014-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Stolze, Matthias; Sanders, Jürn; Kasperczyk, Nadja; Madsen, Gudula

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for the 2014–2020 period aimed to be a flagship initiative for the delivery of more environmental and climate friendly agriculture, encapsulated in the slogan "public money for public goods”. To achieve its environmental and climate change goals, the EU uses key instruments of Pillars 1 and 2 to provide more public goods from EU agriculture. Organic farming is recognised under both instruments for the first time in terms of its contribut...

  9. Aspiration dynamics and the sustainability of resources in the public goods dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2016-04-01

    How to exploit public non-renewable resources is a public goods dilemma. Individuals can choose to limit the depletion in order to use the resource for a longer time or consume more goods to benefit themselves. When the resource is used up, there is no benefit for the future generations any more, thus the evolutionary process ends. Here we investigate what mechanisms can extend the use of resources in the framework of evolutionary game theory under two updating rules based on imitation and aspiration, respectively. Compared with imitation process, aspiration dynamics may prolong the sustainable time of a public resource.

  10. From the Classics to the Cuts: Valuing Teaching Public Administration as a Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Rory; Howell, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    This article intends to raise a number of issues regarding teaching public administration in the higher education sector and the value it has for individuals and society. The article explores the issue of value with reference to the teaching and learning of Public Administration as a discipline in the wider societal context. The article argues…

  11. On the evaluation of cultural and environmental public goods, and its implications for social innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffeo, Michele; Bonini, Nicolao

    2013-01-01

    Public goods (e.g., parks) and welfare services (e.g., garbage disposal and transportation policies) are extremely important for the citizens' well-being but in the complex modern societies their influence and effectiveness are affected by the citizens' support. For this reason, it is crucial to understand which are the factors that influence the citizens' perception of the benefits, costs, and risks associated to public goods and welfare services. In this chapter, we describe some psychological variables that are relevant for the evaluation process of the public goods, but that are not considered by the standard economic models. At the same time, we show that some variables of central importance for the economic models do not significantly affect the citizens' evaluations. Finally, we discuss the concept of Nudge, a policy-making approach that suggests the use of psychological mechanisms to increase the citizens' support to public provision of welfare services.

  12. US Government Information: Selected Current Issues in Public Access vs. Private Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the dissemination of government information focuses on the debate concerning public versus private access to government information; efforts of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS); electronic access and the need for printed documents; and joint efforts between government agencies and the private sector to charge for…

  13. Governing Boards in Public Higher Education Institutions: A Perspective from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James S.; Machado, Maria de Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    Governing boards have a long tradition and prominent role in U.S. higher education. The diversity of institutional types, and thus governing boards, represents a multifaceted tapestry of functions, roles, and responsibilities. This paper will attempt to define the parameters of public higher education governing boards in the USA and offer critical…

  14. On China's Protection of Citizens' Right to Be Informed and Construction of Government Information Publicity System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ZHENGQUN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.The Unfolding Situation of the Philosophy of Right to Be Informed in China and Early Construction of Government Information Publicity System The origin of the thought, known as China's protection of right to be informed and the construction of government information publicity system, at least can be traced to the first decade after reform and opening up.

  15. 19 CFR 148.89 - Property of public international organizations and foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property of public international organizations and... Personnel of Foreign Governments and International Organizations and Special Treatment for Returning Individuals § 148.89 Property of public international organizations and foreign governments. (a)...

  16. A business model for a South African government public cloud platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available of public services is conducted. This paper designs a cloud business model that suits South Africa’s perspective. The idea is to model a government public cloud which does not interfere with the secured business functions of the government but find a...

  17. [Transparency and good healthcare governance: an aid to overcoming the crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneu, Ricard; Ortún, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Countries thrive on an economic foundation capable of facilitating the fulfillment of human potential in a society that does not renounce major achievements such as the welfare state. A necessary condition is that the "rules of the game", formal and informal institutions, make what is socially desirable individually attractive. Improving health governance, including its dimension of controlling corruption, and helping Spain out of the current economic crisis are two sides of the same coin. Characterization of health system governance in Spain and analysis of the impact of this governance on health policy, management of healthcare organizations and clinical practice allows an ambitious and feasible agenda to be drawn up of the remaining tasks that health professionals -broadly defined- and social actors should undertake with the support of citizens.

  18. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman-House, Alison

    2014-06-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods.

  19. NEW TRENDS IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF PUBLIC SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmin Sandu Badele; Daniela Fundeanu

    2014-01-01

    In Romania, rebuilding the system of corporate governance has been a major component of the reform, although its awareness developed gradually and relatively late, driven on one hand by the accumulation of evidence of inefficiency of the system of corporate governance of state-owned enterprises, and on the other hand by the increased activism of shareholders. Corporate management is a multi-tiered approach on the relationships between interest groups (employees, managers, shareholders, busine...

  20. Harnessing opportunities for good governance of health impacts of mining projects in Mongolia: results of a global partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Michaela; Vanya, Delgermaa; Davison, Colleen; Lkhagvasuren, Oyunaa; Johnston, Lesley; Janes, Craig R

    2017-06-27

    The Sustainable Development Goals call for the effective governance of shared natural resources in ways that support inclusive growth, safeguard the integrity of the natural and physical environment, and promote health and well-being for all. For large-scale resource extraction projects -- e.g. in the mining sector -- environmental regulations and in particular environmental impact assessments (EIA) provide an important but insufficiently developed avenue to ensure that wider sustainable development issues, such as health, have been considered prior to the permitting of projects. In recognition of the opportunity provided in EIA to influence the extent to which health issues would be addressed in the design and delivery of mining projects, an international and intersectoral partnership, with the support of WHO and public funds from Canadian sources, engaged over a period of six years in a series of capacity development activities and knowledge translation/dissemination events aimed at influencing policy change in the extractives sector so as to include consideration of human health impacts. Early efforts significantly increased awareness of the need to include health considerations in EIAs. Coupling effective knowledge translation about health in EIA with the development of networks that fostered good intersectoral partnerships, this awareness supported the development and implementation of key pieces of legislation. These results show that intersectoral collaboration is essential, and must be supported by an effective conceptual understanding about which methods and models of impact assessment, particularly for health, lend themselves to integration within EIA. The results of our partnership demonstrate that when specific conditions are met, integrating health into the EIA system represents a promising avenue to ensure that mining activities contribute to wider sustainable development goals and objectives.