WorldWideScience

Sample records for public geologic core

  1. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  2. OPERATION OF A PUBLIC GEOLOGIC CORE AND SAMPLE REPOSITORY IN HOUSTON TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott W. Tinker

    2003-06-01

    In the spring of 2002, the Department of Energy provided an initial 1-year grant to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). The grant covered the one-year operational expenses of a worldclass core and cuttings facility located in Houston, Texas, that BP America donated to the BEG. The DOE investment of $300,000, matched by a $75,000 UT contribution, provided critical first-year funds that were heavily leveraged by the BP gift of $7.0 million in facilities and cash. DOE also provided a one-month extension and grant of $30,000 for the month of May 2003. A 5-year plan to grow a permanent endowment in order to manage the facility in perpetuity is well under way and on schedule. The facility, named the Houston Research Center, represents an ideal model for a strong Federal, university, and private partnership to accomplish a national good. This report summarizes the activities supported by the initial DOE grant during the first 13 months of operation and provides insight into the activities and needs of the facility in the second year of operation.

  3. Publications - Geospatial Data | Alaska Division of Geological &

    Science.gov (United States)

    from rocks collected in the Richardson mining district, Big Delta Quadrangle, Alaska: Alaska Division Island 2009 topography: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Miscellaneous Publication , Geologic map of portions of the Livengood B-3, B-4, C-3, and C-4 quadrangles, Tolovana mining district

  4. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging

  5. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothro, L.B.; Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1

  6. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  7. Migration: a core public health ethics issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, V; Dawson, A

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we outline the link between migration, public health and ethics. Discussing relevant arguments about migration from the perspective of public health and public health ethics. Critical review of theories and frameworks, case-based analysis and systematic identification and discussion of challenges. Migration is a core issue of public health ethics and must take a case-based approach: seeking to identify the specific ethical dimensions and vulnerabilities in each particular context. Public health as a practice, built upon the core value of justice, requires the protection and promotion of migrants' well-being (even if this produces tension with immigration services). Ethical analysis should take all phases of migration into account: before, during and after transit. We argue that migration policies, at least as they relate to migrants' well-being, should be founded upon a shared humanity, respect for human rights and on the idea that effective public health cannot and should not be confined within the borders and to the citizens of any host country. We make the case for migration to be seen as a core issue of public health ethics. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Explanation of ICRP publication 81 in consideration of geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection which has published various recommendations on the radiation protection describes the system of radiation protection on the disposal of radioactive waste in Publication 46, 77 and 81. Especially, Publication 81, Radiation Protection Recommendations as Applied to the Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste, was published in order to supplement, update and clarify the material in Publication 46 published in 1985 in consideration of the recent international progress in the disposal of radioactive waste. At present, the study is in progress to materialize the concept and the safety regulation of geologic disposal in Japan, and it is important to reflect appropriately these international publications. This paper explains each paragraph in Publication 81 in order to understand the system of radiation protection on the geologic disposal fully and concretely, paying attention to the mutual relationship among each paragraph, the development of ICRP recommendations and the relationship to other publications. (author)

  9. Science strategy for Core Science Systems in the U.S. Geological Survey, 2013-2023

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, R. Sky; Euliss, Ned H.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Burkardt, Nina; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Gesch, Dean B.; McCallum, Brian E.; Miller, David M.; Morman, Suzette A.; Poore, Barbara S.; Signell, Richard P.; Viger, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Core Science Systems is a new mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that grew out of the 2007 Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges: U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007–2017.” This report describes the vision for this USGS mission and outlines a strategy for Core Science Systems to facilitate integrated characterization and understanding of the complex earth system. The vision and suggested actions are bold and far-reaching, describing a conceptual model and framework to enhance the ability of USGS to bring its core strengths to bear on pressing societal problems through data integration and scientific synthesis across the breadth of science.The context of this report is inspired by a direction set forth in the 2007 Science Strategy. Specifically, ecosystem-based approaches provide the underpinnings for essentially all science themes that define the USGS. Every point on earth falls within a specific ecosystem where data, other information assets, and the expertise of USGS and its many partners can be employed to quantitatively understand how that ecosystem functions and how it responds to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Every benefit society obtains from the planet—food, water, raw materials to build infrastructure, homes and automobiles, fuel to heat homes and cities, and many others, are derived from or effect ecosystems.The vision for Core Science Systems builds on core strengths of the USGS in characterizing and understanding complex earth and biological systems through research, modeling, mapping, and the production of high quality data on the nation’s natural resource infrastructure. Together, these research activities provide a foundation for ecosystem-based approaches through geologic mapping, topographic mapping, and biodiversity mapping. The vision describes a framework founded on these core mapping strengths that makes it easier for USGS scientists to discover critical information, share and publish

  10. University of TX Bureau of Economic Geology's Core Research Centers: The Time is Right for Registering Physical Samples and Assigning IGSN's - Workflows, Stumbling Blocks, and Successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, A.; DeJarnett, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The University Of Texas Bureau Of Economic Geology (BEG) serves as the geological survey for Texas and operates three geological sample repositories that house well over 2 million boxes of geological samples (cores and cuttings) and an abundant amount of geoscience data (geophysical logs, thin sections, geochemical analyses, etc.). Material is accessible and searchable online, and it is publically available to the geological community for research and education. Patrons access information about our collection by using our online core and log database (SQL format). BEG is currently undertaking a large project to: 1) improve the internal accuracy of metadata associated with the collection; 2) enhance the capabilities of the database for both BEG curators and researchers as well as our external patrons; and 3) ensure easy and efficient navigation for patrons through our online portal. As BEG undertakes this project, BEG is in the early stages of planning to export the metadata for its collection into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and have IGSN's (International GeoSample Numbers) assigned to its samples. Education regarding the value of IGSN's and an external registry (SESAR) has been crucial to receiving management support for the project because the concept and potential benefits of registering samples in a registry outside of the institution were not well-known prior to this project. Potential benefits such as increases in discoverability, repository recognition in publications, and interoperability were presented. The project was well-received by management, and BEG fully supports the effort to register our physical samples with SESAR. Since BEG is only in the initial phase of this project, any stumbling blocks, workflow issues, successes/failures, etc. can only be predicted at this point, but by mid-December, BEG expects to have several concrete issues to present in the session. Currently, our most pressing issue involves establishing the most

  11. Know your audience: public perception of geology from anecdote to evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel

    2015-04-01

    One of the basic strategies of science communication is to 'know your audience' (Nerlich et al, 2010), yet often scientists are communicating to a distant and diffuse audience that cannot be seen or directly engaged with. Both traditional written reports and emerging online media provide limited or no opportunity to engage audiences in dialogues with the communicator that can convey the public's own levels of knowledge. In those circumstances it becomes almost impossible to know your audience. For geoscientists, this decoupling from the intended audience is made more problematic when conveying new technical issues such as carbon capture and storage or deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, which are rooted in the unfamiliar subsurface (Sharma et al, 2007; Ashworth et al, 2009). Those geologists who have engaged with the public in these novel realms often have fashioned informal ways to overcome their audience's geological unfamiliarity based on the trial-and-error of personal experience, but such anecdotal lessons are rarely applicable to wider communities of practice. In recent years, however, our ad hoc intuitive ideas about how to comprehend public perceptions of geology have gained rigour from evidence-based theory (Singleton et al, 2009). This presentation highlights one example of this, using an ongoing study into the public understanding of the geological subsurface in south west England. Results from a combination of interviews and questionnaires were assessed using the established psychological technique: 'mental models' (Morgan et al, 2002). The work demonstrates how a mixed method approach can move geoscience communication beyond casual assumptions and individual rules of thumb to a more robust scientific way of thinking.

  12. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    This publication identifies conditions which affect (either increase or decrease) public concern for and political acceptance of the development and implementation of programmes for geological disposal of long lived radioactive waste. It also looks at how interested citizens can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input enriches the outcome of a more socially robust and sustainable solution. The publication also considers how to optimize risk management, addressing the needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. Factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified for the different stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realization of the repository itself. Further, they are described and analysed through case studies from several countries, illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight into value judgements.This report focuses on a geological disposal approach that consists of isolating radioactive wastes deep underground in a mined repository. It is not suggested here that geological disposal is the sole strategy that may be chosen or carried out by a country for managing high level radioactive waste, long lived waste or spent nuclear fuel. However, the geological disposal approach is favoured in principle by many countries for it is seen to offer advantages in terms of safety and security of this category of radioactive materials, and as a way to address ethical concerns. This report is meant for decision makers and others with a role in bringing forward a national programme to manage radioactive waste. Through different case studies, this report describes how programme acceptance has been fostered or hindered in different countries. It reviews factors that may affect whether a programme to develop and implement geological disposal strategy gains (or does not gain) societal

  13. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  14. Contribution of public Geological Survey to prevention and mitigation of geohazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Komac

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From the early history of civilisation societies have been exposed to external factors. Probably no other factorshave influenced the development of societies and cultures more than geologically driven hazards or geohazards.With the evolvement of societies also the approaches to solving problems, related to geohazard, have developed.The complexity of mitigation and response measurements that tackle the contemporary geohazard problems demandsa long-term strategic approach that has to incorporate all segments of the society, from stake-holders andend-user groups to the experts. The management of geohazards is a public good and as such needs to be governedby a non-profit public body. The common mission of almost all geological surveys is to gather, manage and interpretgeologically related data for a wider public welfare. Geological surveys as public institutions represent a key rolein almost all components of the geohazard management process, from education and research, to data acquisition,processing, interpretation and decision support issues. With its knowledge regarding natural processes gatheredthrough decades GSO offers reliable and independent support in assessing and describing the phenomena (seismicactivities, mass wasting, water and soil pollution, excess or lack of trace elements in the soil, ground subsidence orheave, gaseous emanations and more, understanding the processes of activation, dynamics, transport, interactionwith media and living organisms, and predicting the possible scenarios in the future with emphasis on human exposureto given phenomena. Despite the fact that the value of the knowledge of the dynamic environment we live in isbeing tested literally on daily basis in Slovenia, its inclusion in everyday practice is still relatively negligible.

  15. Public values: core or confusion? Introduction to the centrality and puzzlement of public values research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck Jørgensen, T.; Rutgers, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public administration

  16. Core rotational dynamics and geological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greff-Lefftz; Legros

    1999-11-26

    A study of Earth's fluid core oscillations induced by lunar-solar tidal forces, together with tidal secular deceleration of Earth's axial rotation, shows that the rotational eigenfrequency of the fluid core and some solar tidal waves were in resonance around 3.0 x 10(9), 1.8 x 10(9), and 3 x 10(8) years ago. The associated viscomagnetic frictional power at the core boundaries may be converted into heat and would destabilize the D" thermal layer, leading to the generation of deep-mantle plumes, and would also increase the temperature at the fluid core boundaries, perturbing the core dynamo process. Such phenomena could account for large-scale episodes of continental crust formation, the generation of flood basalts, and abrupt changes in geomagnetic reversal frequency.

  17. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander public health: online and integrated into core Master of Public Health subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnell Angus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Master of Public Health (MPH is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project.

  18. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delrive, C.

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10 -5 SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm 2 pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends

  19. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  20. Geologic columns for the ICDP-USGS Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Impactites and crystalline rocks, 1766 to 1096 m depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Gibson, R.L.; Reimold, W.U.; Wittmann, A.; Gohn, G.S.; Edwards, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville drill cores from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure provide one of the most complete geologic sections ever obtained from an impact structure. This paper presents a series of geologic columns and descriptive lithologic information for the lower impactite and crystalline-rock sections in the cores. The lowermost cored section (1766-1551 m depth) is a complex assemblage of mica schists that commonly contain graphite and fibrolitic sillimanite, intrusive granite pegmatites that grade into coarse granite, and local zones of mylonitic deformation. This basement-derived section is variably overprinted by brittle cataclastic fabrics and locally cut by dikes of polymict impact breccia, including several suevite dikes. An overlying succession of suevites and lithic impact breccias (1551-1397 m) includes a lower section dominated by polymict lithic impact breccia with blocks (up to 17 m) and boulders of cataclastic gneiss and an upper section (above 1474 m) of suevites and clast-rich impact melt rocks. The uppermost suevite is overlain by 26 m (1397-1371 m) of gravelly quartz sand that contains an amphibolite block and boulders of cataclasite and suevite. Above the sand, a 275-m-thick allochthonous granite slab (1371-1096 m) includes gneissic biotite granite, fine- and medium-to-coarse-grained biotite granites, and red altered granite near the base. The granite slab is overlain by more gravelly sand, and both are attributed to debris-avalanche and/or rockslide deposition that slightly preceded or accompanied seawater-resurge into the collapsing transient crater. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  1. Kincardine deep geologic repository proposal and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, T.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' In 2002, the Municipality of Kincardine and OPG signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) regarding the long-term management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The purpose of the MOU was for OPG, in consultation with Kincardine, to develop a plan for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste at OPG's Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) located on the Bruce site. An independent assessment, which included geotechnical feasibility and safety analyses, a community attitude survey and interviews with local residents, businesses and tourists, and economic modeling to determine the potential benefits and impacts, was completed in February 2004. Ultimately, Kincardine Council endorsed a resolution (Kincardine Council no. 2004-232) to: 'endorse the opinion of the Nuclear Waste Steering Committee and select the 'Deep Rock Vault' option as the preferred course of study in regards to the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste'. The surrounding municipalities of Saugeen Shores, Brockton, Arran-Elderslie, and Huron-Kinloss expressed their support for the Deep Geologic Repository proposal. This presentation discusses the history, major steps and public processes surrounding the Kincardine Deep Geologic Repository proposal. (author)

  2. Teaching Environmental Geology in the 21St Century: A Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Wiese, K.; Castendyk, D.; McDaris, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental Geology encompasses a range of topics that include geohazards, natural resources, issues such as climate change, human health, and environmental policy. Instruction in Environmental Geology provides students the opportunity to address the grand challenges facing humanity regarding how to live sustainably and responsibly on Earth. Instruction in Environmental Geology ranges from dedicated introductory courses, instructional modules in upper division Earth Science "core" classes, to courses in related disciplines such as environmental science, ecology, and the social and political sciences. To explore the opportunities of teaching Environmental Geology in all these contexts, the On the Cutting Edge program convened a workshop in June 2012 to bring together instructors representing a diversity of instructional settings. The goals of the workshop were to: 1) Share innovative teaching methods, approaches, and activities for teaching Environmental Geology and share ideas on how to teach in various contexts. 2) Examine where and how environmental geology topics are taught in the geoscience curriculum from introductory courses for non-majors to "core" geoscience courses for majors. 3) Consider the ways that Environmental Geology courses and topical materials can contribute to public science literacy, particularly how to make personal and societal decisions about the range of issues facing humanity and to live responsibly and sustainably on this planet. 4) Develop a list of best practices for integrating emerging environmental issues, recent natural disasters, and issues related to natural resources into course work and identifying how scientific data and research outcomes can inform public discourse on topical issues. 5) Develop strategies to reach under-represented groups and expand the diversity of students who enroll in our courses. 6) Identify topics of high interest and need for future development as teaching modules and courses. The workshop program

  3. Natural analogue of nuclear waste glass in a geologic formation. Study on long-term behavior of volcanic glass shards collected from drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yui, Mikazu; Futakuchi, Katsuhito; Hiroki, Minenari

    2005-01-01

    Alteration of the volcanic glass in geologic formation was investigated as one of the natural analog for a glass of high-level nuclear waste in geological disposal. We analyzed some volcanic glasses included in the core sample of the bore hole and estimated the history of its burying and observed its alteration using the polarizing microscope. Some information at the piling up temperature and the piling up time was collected. (author)

  4. From theory to practice: what drives the core business of public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tina Anderson; Minyard, Karen J; Parker, Christopher A; Van Valkenburg, Rachel Ferencik; Shoemaker, John A

    2007-01-01

    In 1994, the Public Health Functions Steering Committee proffered a description of the Essential Public Health Services (Essential Services). Questions remain, however, about the relationship between the roles defined therein and current public health practice at state and local levels. This case study describes the core business of public health in Georgia relative to the theoretical ideal and elucidates the primary drivers of the core business, thus providing data to inform future efforts to strengthen practice in the state. The principal finding was that public health in Georgia is not aligned with the Essential Services. Further analysis revealed that the primary drivers or determinants of public health practice are finance-related rather than based in need or strategy, precluding an integrated and intentional focus on health improvement. This case study provides a systems context for public health financing discussions, suggests leverage points for public health system change, and furthers the examination of applications for systems thinking relative to public health finance, practice, and policy.

  5. Columbia Public Health Core Curriculum: Short-Term Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Melissa D; Fried, Linda P; Glover, Jim W; Delva, Marlyn; Wiggin, Maggie; Hooper, Leah; Saxena, Roheeni; de Pinho, Helen; Slomin, Emily; Walker, Julia R; Galea, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated a transformed core curriculum for the Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health (New York, New York) master of public health (MPH) degree. The curriculum, launched in 2012, aims to teach public health as it is practiced: in interdisciplinary teams, drawing on expertise from multiple domains to address complex health challenges. We collected evaluation data starting when the first class of students entered the program and ending with their graduation in May 2014. Students reported being very satisfied with and challenged by the rigorous curriculum and felt prepared to integrate concepts across varied domains and disciplines to solve public health problems. This novel interdisciplinary program could serve as a prototype for other schools that wish to reinvigorate MPH training.

  6. Displays for promotion of public understanding of geological repository concept and the spatial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Kashiwazaki, Hiroshi

    2003-05-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institutes (JNC) has a few thousands of short term visitors to Geological Isolation Basic Research Facility of Tokai works in every year. From the viewpoint of promotion of the visitor's understanding and also smooth communication between researchers and visitors, the explanation of the technical information on geological disposal should be carried out in more easily understandable methods, as well as conventional tour to the engineering-scale test facility (ENTRY). This paper reports on the background information and the appearance of displays, which were installed at ENTRY, to promote public understanding of geological repository concept and the spatial scale. They have been practically used as one of the explanation tools to support visitor's understanding. (author)

  7. The Folding and Fracturing of Rocks: A milestone publication in Structural Geology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, Richard; Bastida, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    In the field of structural geology, the textbook written by John G Ramsay in 1967, reprinted in 2004 and translated into Spanish and Chinese, is the one that has made the greatest research impact. With citations exceeding 4000 (Google Scholar) it far surpasses books by other authors on the subject, with this figure only being approached by his later book Modern Structural Geology (Ramsay and Huber 1983). In this paper we consider the factors that account for the book's success despite the fact that it is a research-level text beyond the comfort zone of most undergraduates. We also take stock of other measures of the book's success; the way it influenced the direction subsequent research effort. We summarize the major advances in structural geology that were prompted by Ramsay's book. Finally we consider the book's legacy. Before the publication of the book in 1967 structural geology had been an activity that had concentrated almost exclusively on geological mapping aimed at establishing the geometrical configuration of rock units. In fact, Ramsay himself has produced beautiful examples of such maps. However, the book made us aware that the geometrical pattern is controlled by the spatial variation of material properties, the boundary conditions, the deformation environment and the temporal variation of stresses. With the arrival of the book Structural Geology came of age as a modern scientific discipline that employed a range of tools such as those of physics, maths and engineering as well as those of geology.

  8. GIS of selected geophysical and core data in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Winters, William J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1982 the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected a large amount of surficial and shallow subsurface geologic information in the deep-water parts of the US EEZ in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These data include digital sidescan sonar imagery, digital seismic-reflection data, and descriptions and analyses of piston and gravity cores. The data were collected during several different projects that addressed surficial and shallow subsurface geologic processes. Some of these datasets have already been published, but the growing interest in the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico warrants integrating these existing USGS datasets and associated interpretations into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide regional background information for ongoing and future gas hydrate research. This GIS is organized into five different components that contain (1) information needed to develop an assessment of gas hydrates, (2) background information for the Gulf of Mexico, (3) cores collected by the USGS, (4) seismic surveys conducted by the USGS, and (5) sidescan sonar surveys conducted by the USGS. A brief summary of the goals and findings of the USGS field programs in the Gulf of Mexico is given in the Geologic Findings section, and then the contents of each of the five data categories are described in greater detail in the GIS Data Catalog section.

  9. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure. ...

  10. U.S. Geological Survey core science systems strategy: characterizing, synthesizing, and understanding the critical zone through a modular science framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, R. Sky; Euliss, Ned H.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Burkardt, Nina; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Gesch, Dean B.; McCallum, Brian E.; Miller, David M.; Morman, Suzette A.; Poore, Barbara S.; Signell, Richard P.; Viger, Roland J.

    2013-01-01

    Core Science Systems is a new mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that resulted from the 2007 Science Strategy, "Facing Tomorrow's Challenges: U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017." This report describes the Core Science Systems vision and outlines a strategy to facilitate integrated characterization and understanding of the complex Earth system. The vision and suggested actions are bold and far-reaching, describing a conceptual model and framework to enhance the ability of the USGS to bring its core strengths to bear on pressing societal problems through data integration and scientific synthesis across the breadth of science. The context of this report is inspired by a direction set forth in the 2007 Science Strategy. Specifically, ecosystem-based approaches provide the underpinnings for essentially all science themes that define the USGS. Every point on Earth falls within a specific ecosystem where data, other information assets, and the expertise of USGS and its many partners can be employed to quantitatively understand how that ecosystem functions and how it responds to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Every benefit society obtains from the planet-food, water, raw materials to build infrastructure, homes and automobiles, fuel to heat homes and cities, and many others, are derived from or affect ecosystems. The vision for Core Science Systems builds on core strengths of the USGS in characterizing and understanding complex Earth and biological systems through research, modeling, mapping, and the production of high quality data on the Nation's natural resource infrastructure. Together, these research activities provide a foundation for ecosystem-based approaches through geologic mapping, topographic mapping, and biodiversity mapping. The vision describes a framework founded on these core mapping strengths that makes it easier for USGS scientists to discover critical information, share and publish results, and identify potential

  11. Geological controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate from core, downhole log, and seismic data in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiujuan Wang,; ,; Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun; Wu, Shiguo

    2014-01-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection data, well logs, and recovered sediment cores have been used in this study to characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Shenhu area of the South China Sea. The concept of the "gas hydrate petroleum system" has allowed for the systematic analysis of the impact of gas source, geologic controls on gas migration, and the role of the host sediment in the formation and stability of gas hydrates as encountered during the 2007 Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey Gas Hydrate Expedition (GMGS-1) in the Shenhu area. Analysis of seismic and bathymetric data identified seventeen sub-linear, near-parallel submarine canyons in this area. These canyons, formed in the Miocene, migrated in a northeasterly direction, and resulted in the burial and abandonment of canyons partially filled by coarse-grained sediments. Downhole wireline log (DWL) data were acquired from eight drill sites and sediment coring was conducted at five of these sites, which revealed the presence of suitable reservoirs for the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate accumulations. Gas hydrate-bearing sediment layers were identified from well log and core data at three sites mainly within silt and silt clay sediments. Gas hydrate was also discovered in a sand reservoir at one site as inferred from the analysis of the DWL data. Seismic anomalies attributed to the presence of gas below the base of gas hydrate stability zone, provided direct evidence for the migration of gas into the overlying gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary sections. Geochemical analyses of gas samples collected from cores confirmed that the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Shenhu area is controlled by the presence thermogenic methane gas that has migrated into the gas hydrate stability zone from a more deeply buried source.

  12. Definition imaging of anomalous geologic structure with radio waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Diamond core drilling from the surface and access drifts are routinely used in acquiring subsurface geologic data. Examination of core from a constellation of drillholes enables the characterization of the prevailing geology in the deposit. Similar geologic members in adjacent drillholes suggest that layered rock continuity exists between drillholes. Mineralogical and physical examination of core along with computer generated stratigraphic cross sections graphically represents the correlation and classification of the rock in the deposit. CW radio waves propagating on ray paths between drillholes have been used to validate the stratigraphic cross section and image anomalous geologic structure between drillholes. This paper compares the crosshole radio wave tomography images of faults in a nuclear waste repository site and a coal seam with the in-mine mapping results

  13. The Importance of Mars Samples in Constraining the Geological and Geophysical Processes on Mars and the Nature of its Crust, Mantle, and Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    iMOST Team; Herd, C. D. K.; Ammannito, E.; Anand, M.; Debaille, V.; Hallis, L. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Schmitz, N.; Usui, T.; Weiss, B. P.; Altieri, F.; Amelin, Y.; Beaty, D. W.; Benning, L. G.; Bishop, J. L.; Borg, L. E.; Boucher, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Busemann, H.; Campbell, K. A.; Carrier, B. L.; Czaja, A. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dixon, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farmer, J. D.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Fogarty, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Grady, M. M.; Harrington, A. D.; Hausrath, E. M.; Horgan, B.; Humayun, M.; Kleine, T.; Kleinhenz, J.; Mangold, N.; Mackelprang, R.; Mayhew, L. E.; McCoy, J. T.; McLennan, S. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Moser, D. E.; Moynier, F.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Ori, G. G.; Raulin, F.; Rettberg, P.; Rucker, M. A.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Sephton, M. A.; Shaheen, R.; Shuster, D. L.; Siljestrom, S.; Smith, C. L.; Spry, J. A.; Steele, A.; Swindle, T. D.; ten Kate, I. L.; Tosca, N. J.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Wadhwa, M.; Werner, S. C.; Westall, F.; Wheeler, R. M.; Zipfel, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    We present the main sample types from any potential Mars Sample Return landing site that would be required to constrain the geological and geophysical processes on Mars, including the origin and nature of its crust, mantle, and core.

  14. Transporting TMI-2 core debris to INEL: Public safety and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.; Young, W.R.; Hamric, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken by the US Department of Energy to ensure that public safety is maintained during transport of core debris from the Unit-2 reactor at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID. It provides up-to-date information about public response to the transport action and discusses DOE's position on several institutional issues. The authors advise that planners of future transport operations be prepared for a multitude of comments from all levels of federal, state, and local governments, special interest groups, and private citizens. They also advise planners to keep meticulous records concerning all informational transactions. 3 figs

  15. Geological exploration of Angola from Sumbe to Namibe: A review at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Pierre; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Geological exploration of the Angola Coast (from Sumbe to Namibe) from pioneer's first geological descriptions and mining inventory to the most recent publications supported by the oil industry. We focus our attention on the following periods: 1875-1890 (Paul Choffat's work, mainly), 1910-1949 (first maps at country scale), 1949-1974 (detailed mapping of the Kwanza-Namibe coastal series), 1975-2000, with the editing of the last version of the Angola geological map at 1:1 million scale and the progressive completion of previous works. Since 2000, there is a renewal in geological fieldwork publications on the area mainly due to the work of university teams. This review paper thus stands at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology. It shows how geological knowledge has progressed in time, fueled by economic and scientific reasons.

  16. Integrated stratigraphy of the Smirra Core (Umbria-Marche Basin, Apennines, Italy) : A new early Paleogene reference section and implications for the geologic time scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turtù, Antonio; Lauretano, Vittoria; Catanzariti, Rita; Hilgen, Frits J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102639876; Galeotti, Simone; Lanci, Luca; Moretti, Matteo; Lourens, Lucas J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103

    2017-01-01

    Pelagic sections of the Umbria-Marche Basin, in the Northern Apennines (Italy), have provided key geological archives for studying critical intervals of early Paleogene time. In addition to classical sections, the Smirra Coring project provides a new record of relatively undisturbed sediments (~ 120

  17. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Context Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. Objective The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. Design In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Results Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Conclusions Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework. PMID

  18. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework.

  19. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  20. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  1. Strengthening core public health capacity based on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005): Chinese lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (IHR) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The IHR aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet IHR requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the IHR comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the IHR requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of IHR in China. PMID:26029897

  2. Strengthening Core Public Health Capacity Based on the Implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR (2005: Chinese Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (IHR is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO. The IHR aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet IHR requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the IHR comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety, radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the IHR requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of IHR in China.

  3. Supplemental materials for the ICDP-USGS Eyreville A, B, and C core holes, Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Core-box photographs, coring-run tables, and depth-conversion files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, C.T.; Edwards, L.E.; Malinconico, M.L.; Powars, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    During 2005-2006, the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program and the U.S. Geological Survey drilled three continuous core holes into the Chesapeake Bay impact structure to a total depth of 1766.3 m. A collection of supplemental materials that presents a record of the core recovery and measurement data for the Eyreville cores is available on CD-ROM at the end of this volume and in the GSA Data Repository. The supplemental materials on the CD-ROM include digital photographs of each core box from the three core holes, tables of the three coring-run logs, as recorded on site, and a set of depth-conversion programs. In this chapter, the contents, purposes, and basic applications of the supplemental materials are briefly described. With this information, users can quickly decide if the materials will apply to their specific research needs. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  4. 36 CFR 902.59 - Geological and geophysical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geological and geophysical information. 902.59 Section 902.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... Geological and geophysical information. Any geological or geophysical information and data (including maps...

  5. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  6. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  7. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Minnesota National Lacustrine Core Repository (LacCore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Lacustrine Core Repository (LacCore), operated by the University of Minnesota is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  8. Unraveling the Geologic History of Antarctica Through the Study of Sediment and Rock Cores: The ANDRILL Education and Public Outreach Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, F. R.; Huffman, L.; Berg, M.; Levy, R.; Harwood, D.; Lacy, L.

    2007-12-01

    ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) is a multinational collaboration involving more than 250 scientists from Germany, Italy, New Zealand and the United States. The ANDRILL Program has mobilized scientists, technicians, drillers, engineers, students and educators from four member nations to bring world-class science into focus and provide in-depth immersive experiences to educators through the ARISE (ANDRILL Research Immersion for Science Educators) Program and Project Iceberg. During two seasons of scientific drilling, encompassing the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project and the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) Project, 15 educators have been immersed in ANDRILL science and have participated in both learning and teaching experiences. Blogs, video journals, images and other resources were generated and distributed online to teachers, students and the general public through the ANDRILL website as part of Project Iceberg, which was used as a unifying theme for the outreach effort. The video journals chronicled the journey from Lincoln, Nebraska to Antarctica and introduced viewers to many aspects of the ANDRILL program in an engaging manner. An accompanying guide provided background information, discussion starters, and engaging activities for students and adults alike. Subtitles in German and Italian were used on each of the video journals in addition to the English narrative, and the resulting product was entitled, ANDRILL: A REAL WORLD GEOSCIENCE ADVENTURE. The primary objective was to introduce teachers, students, and the general public to Antarctica and the ANDRILL Program, and to provide preliminary insights into the following questions: How do scientists from around the world come together in the coldest, windiest, driest place on Earth to uncover the secrets that have been shrouded beneath the ice for millions of years? What secrets do the rocks record? How can I join the journey to learn more about Antarctica and ANDRILL?

  9. Geologic occurrences of erionite in the United States: an emerging national public health concern for respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Blitz, Thomas A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Pierson, M. Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Erionite, a mineral series within the zeolite group, is classified as a Group 1 known respiratory carcinogen. This designation resulted from extremely high incidences of mesothelioma discovered in three small villages from the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where the disease was linked to environmental exposures to fibrous forms of erionite. Natural deposits of erionite, including fibrous forms, have been identified in the past in the western United States. Until recently, these occurrences have generally been overlooked as a potential hazard. In the last several years, concerns have emerged regarding the potential for environmental and occupational exposures to erionite in the United States, such as erionite-bearing gravels in western North Dakota mined and used to surface unpaved roads. As a result, there has been much interest in identifying locations and geologic environments across the United States where erionite occurs naturally. A 1996 U.S. Geological Survey report describing erionite occurrences in the United States has been widely cited as a compilation of all US erionite deposits; however, this compilation only focused on one of several geologic environments in which erionite can form. Also, new occurrences of erionite have been identified in recent years. Using a detailed literature survey, this paper updates and expands the erionite occurrences database, provided in a supplemental file (US_erionite.xls). Epidemiology, public health, and natural hazard studies can incorporate this information on known erionite occurrences and their characteristics. By recognizing that only specific geologic settings and formations are hosts to erionite, this knowledge can be used in developing management plans designed to protect the public.

  10. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Study on geologic structure of hydrogenic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The problem of studying geologic structure of hydrogenic uranium deposits developed by underground leaching (UL), is elucidated. Geologic maps of the surface are used to characterize engineering and geologic conditions. Main geologoic papers are maps drawn up according to boring data. For total geologic characteristic of the deposit 3 types of maps are usually drawn up: structural maps of isohypses or isodepths, lithologic-facies maps on the horizon and rhythm, and maps of epigenetic alterations (geochemmcal). Besides maps systems of sections are drawn up. Problems of studying lithologic-facies and geohemical peculiarities of deposits, epigenotic alterations, substance composition of ores and enclosing rocks, documentation and core sampting, are considered in details

  12. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  13. Geological studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2001-01-01

    The collection of nine papers that follow continue the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. The series presents new and sometimes preliminary findings that are of interest to earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. Reports presented in Geologic Studies in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State (fig. 1), serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for earth-science information in Alaska.

  14. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  15. The STRATAFORM Project: U.S. Geological Survey geotechnical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, Diane L.; Lee, Homa J.; Locat, Jaques; Orzech, Kevin M.; Martz, Gregory R.; Israel, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    This report presents physical property logs of core samples from an offshore area near Eureka, CA. The cores were obtained as part of the STRATAFORM Program (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995, 1996), a study investigating how present sedimentation and sediment transport processes influence long-term stratigraphic sequences preserved in the geologic record. The core samples were collected during four separate research cruises to the northern California study area, and data shown in the logs of the cores were collected using a multi-sensor whole core logger. The physical properties collected are useful in identifying stratigraphic units, ground-truthing acoustic imagery and sub-bottom profiles, and in understanding mass movement processes. STRATA FORmation on Margins was initiated in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research, Marine Geology and Geophysics Department as a coordinated multi-investigator study of continental-margin sediment transport processes and stratigraphy (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1996). The program is investigating the stratigraphic signature of the shelf and slope parts of the continental margins, and is designed to provide a better understanding of the sedimentary record and a better prediction of strata. Specifically, the goals of the STRATAFORM Program are to (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995): - determine the geological relevance of short-term physical processes that erode, transport, and deposit particles and those processes that subsequently rework the seabed over time scales - improve capabilities for identifying the processes that form the strata observed within the upper ~100 m of the seabed commonly representing 104-106 years of sedimentation. - synthesize this knowledge and bridge the gap between time scales of sedimentary processes and those of sequence stratigraphy. The STRATAFORM Program is divided into studies of the continental shelf and the continental slope; the geotechnical group within the U.S. Geological Survey provides support to both parts

  16. Preserving Geological Samples and Metadata from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Sjunneskog, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF-OPP) has long recognized the value of preserving earth science collections due to the inherent logistical challenges and financial costs of collecting geological samples from Polar Regions. NSF-OPP established two national facilities to make Antarctic geological samples and drill cores openly and freely available for research. The Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility (AMGRF) at Florida State University was established in 1963 and archives Antarctic marine sediment cores, dredge samples and smear slides along with ship logs. The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) at Ohio State University was established in 2003 and archives polar rock samples, marine dredges, unconsolidated materials and terrestrial cores, along with associated materials such as field notes, maps, raw analytical data, paleomagnetic cores, thin sections, microfossil mounts, microslides and residues. The existence of the AMGRF and USPRR helps to minimize redundant sample collecting, lessen the environmental impact of doing polar field work, facilitates field logistics planning and complies with the data sharing requirement of the Antarctic Treaty. USPRR acquires collections through donations from institutions and scientists and then makes these samples available as no-cost loans for research, education and museum exhibits. The AMGRF acquires sediment cores from US based and international collaboration drilling projects in Antarctica. Destructive research techniques are allowed on the loaned samples and loan requests are accepted from any accredited scientific institution in the world. Currently, the USPRR has more than 22,000 cataloged rock samples available to scientists from around the world. All cataloged samples are relabeled with a USPRR number, weighed, photographed and measured for magnetic susceptibility. Many aspects of the sample metadata are included in the database, e.g. geographical location, sample

  17. Geological and hydrological investigations at Sidi Kreir Site, west of Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly, E.M.; Shehata, W.M.; Somaida, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Sidi-Kreir site lies along the Mediterranean Sea coast at km 30 to km 33 westwards from the center of the city of Alexandria. The studied site covers approximately 10 km 2 from the Mediterranean Sea northward to Mallehet (Lake) Maryut southward. This study includes the results of geological investigation of the site both structurally and stratigraphically, and the groundwater conditions, in relation to the erection of a nuclear power station in the site. The surface geology has been mapped using aerial photographs on scale of 1:20,000. Twenty-five drillholes were core-drilled in order to outline the subsurface geology and to observe the groundwater fluctuations. Selected core samples and soil samples were tested geologically in thin sections, physically and mechanically. Water samples were also collected and tested for total dissolved solids and specific weight. Groundwater level fluctuations were observed for a period of one year in 75 wells and drillholes. Furthermore three pumping tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the freshwater aquifer. These properties were also calculated using the core samples data

  18. Does the Common Core Further Democracy? A Response to "The Common Core and Democratic Education: Examining Potential Costs and Benefits to Public and Private Autonomy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neem, Johann N.

    2018-01-01

    The Common Core does not advance democratic education. Far from it, the opening section of the language standards argues that the goal of public K-12 education is "college and career readiness." Only at the end of their introductory section do the Common Core's authors suggest that K-12 education has any goals beyond the economic:…

  19. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    In 1960, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey began a program to map the State geologically at a scale of 1:24,000 and to publish the maps as 707 U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Maps. Fieldwork was completed by the spring of 1977, and all maps were published by December 1978. Geologic mapping of the State was proposed by the Kentucky Society of Professional Engineers in 1959. Wallace W. Hagan, Director and State Geologist of the Kentucky Geological Survey, and Preston McGrain, Assistant State Geologist, promoted support for the proposal among organizations such as Chambers of Commerce, industrial associations, professional societies, and among members of the State government. It was also arranged for the U.S. Geological Survey to supply mapping personnel and to publish the maps; the cost would be shared equally by the two organizations. Members of the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to the program were organized as the Branch of Kentucky Geology. Branch headquarters, including an editorial staff, was at Lexington, Ky., but actual mapping was conducted from 18 field offices distributed throughout the State. The Publications Division of the U.S. Geological Survey established a cartographic office at Lexington to prepare the maps for publication. About 260 people, including more than 200 professionals, were assigned to the Branch of Kentucky Geology by the U.S. Geological Survey at one time or another. The most geologists assigned any one year was 61. To complete the mapping and ancillary studies, 661 professional man-years were required, compared with an original estimate of 600 man-years. A wide variety of field methods were used, but most geologists relied on the surveying altimeter to obtain elevations. Surface data were supplemented by drill-hole records, and several dozen shallow diamond-drill holes were drilled to aid the mapping. Geologists generally scribed their own maps, with a consequent saving of publication costs

  20. Development of coring, consolidating, subterrene penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, H.D.; Neudecker, J.W.; Cort, G.E.; Turner, W.C.; McFarland, R.D.; Griggs, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Coring penetrators offer two advantages over full face-melting penetrators, i.e., formation of larger boreholes with no increase in power and the production of glass-lined, structurally undisturbed cores which can be recovered with conventional core-retrieval systems. These cores are of significant value in geological exploratory drilling programs. The initial design details and fabrication features of a 114-mm-diam coring penetrator are discussed; significant factors for design optimization are also presented. Results of laboratory testing are reported and compared with performance predictions, and an initial field trial is described

  1. The use of U.S. Geological Survey CD-ROM-based petroleum assessments in undergraduate geology laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, R.L.; Davis, L.E.; Dyman, T.S.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic oil production is declining and United States reliance on imported oil is increasing. America will be faced with difficult decisions that address the strategic, economic, and political consequences of its energy resources shortage. The geologically literate under-graduate student needs to be aware of current and future United States energy issues. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically provides energy assessment data via digitally-formatted CD-ROM publications. These publications are free to the public, and are well suited for use in undergraduate geology curricula. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources (Digital Data Series or DDS-30) (Gautier and others, 1996) is an excellent resource for introducing students to the strategies of hydrocarbon exploration and for developing skills in problem-solving and evaluating real data. This paper introduces the reader to DDS-30, summarizes the essential terminology and methodology of hydrocarbon assessment, and offers examples of exercises or questions that might be used in the introductory classroom. The USGS contact point for obtaining DDS-30 and other digital assessment volumes is also provided. Completing the sample exercises in this report requires a copy of DDS-30.

  2. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  3. The boreholes and geology of the Down Ampney fault research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.; Hallam, J.R.; Ambrose, K.; Horton, A.

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory programme of core drilling confirmed the location of a major fault with a 50-m throw and 70 0 dip and provided geological reference sections. These data enabled a measurement array of boreholes to be planned and constructed for the geophysical and hydrogeological characterization of the fault. Full details are given of the design, drilling, coring, completion and surveying of the 22 boreholes. The geological sequence is described, together with the structure of the fault zone, which was penetrated by eight boreholes

  4. Neogene and Quaternary geology of a stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohn, Gregory S.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Cronin, Thomas M.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gibson, Thomas G.; Rubin, Meyer; Willard, Debra A.

    1996-01-01

    During April and May, 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled a 510-ft-deep, continuously cored, stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound, as part of a field study of the Neogene and Quaternary geology of the Mississippi coastal area. The USGS drilled two new holes at the Horn Island site. The first hole was continuously cored to a depth of 510 ft; coring stopped at this depth due to mechanical problems. To facilitate geophysical logging, an unsampled second hole was drilled to a depth of 519 ft at the same location.

  5. Transporting TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] core debris to INEL: Public safety and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.; Young, W.R.; Hamric, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure that public safety is maintained during transport of core debris from the Unit-2 reactor at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID. It provides up-to-date information about public response to the transport action and discusses DOE's position on several institutional issues. The authors advise that planners of future transport operations be prepared for a multitude of comments from all levels of federal, state, and local governments, special interest groups, and private citizens. They also advise planners to keep meticulous records concerning all informational transactions

  6. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images

  7. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, Jesper; Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images, or a

  8. [Core competencies in public health: a regional framework for the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Juana Suárez; Godue, Charles; Gutiérrez, José Francisco García; Valladares, Laura Magaña; Rabionet, Silvia; Concha, José; Valdés, Manuel Vázquez; Gómez, Rubén Darío; Mujica, Oscar J; Cabezas, César; Lucano, Lindaura Liendo; Castellanos, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    The response is described to the 2010 call from the Pan American Health Organization to develop a Regional Framework on Core Competencies in Public Health, with a view to supporting the efforts of the countries in the Americas to build public health systems capacity as a strategy for optimal performance of the Essential Public Health Functions. The methodological process for the response was divided into four phases. In the first, a team of experts was convened who defined the methodology to be used during a workshop at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico in 2010. The second phase involved formation of the working groups, using two criteria: experience and multidisciplinary membership, which resulted in a regional team with 225 members from 12 countries. This team prepared an initial proposal with 88 competencies. In the third phase, the competencies were cross-validated and their number reduced to 64. During the fourth phase, which included two workshops, in March 2011 (Medellín, Colombia) and June 2011 (Lima, Peru), discussions centered on analyzing the association between the results and the methodology.

  9. Computed tomography of drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.

    1985-08-01

    A preliminary computed tomography evaluation of drill cores of granite and sandstone has generated geologically significant data. Density variations as small as 4 percent and fractures as narrow as 0.1 mm were easily detected

  10. The Swedish approach to siting of a deep geological repository and interaction with the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1993-01-01

    The planned process for siting of a deep geological repository for encapsulated spent nuclear fuel in Sweden was presented in the 1992 SKB R and D programme. A first phase of the repository operation will be limited to disposal of a small amount of encapsulated spent nuclear fuel (approximately 800 tons). This phase will be followed by an evaluation of experiences as well as alternative options before deciding if, when and how to proceed with disposal of the remaining amounts of spent fuel. During the first phase it will be possible to retrieve the waste. Siting is planned to be done in stages. The field studies and safety assessments performed strongly indicate that it is possible to find geological suitable sites within many regions of Sweden. The potential for fulfilling safety requirements will be a crucial factor in site-selection. Local interest in, and attitude to a repository siting will play an important role in the siting process. It is important that an atmosphere of trust and openness can be established. Extensive geological site characterization work will be carried out at the sites selected and studies of other technical, social, economical or political matters will be equally important. Public communication and local participation will form an essential part of the siting programme from the outset. 3 refs., 3 figs

  11. Imaging subsurface geology and volatile organic compound plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualheim, B.J.; Daley, P.F.; Johnson, V.; McPherrin, R.V.; Laguna, G.

    1992-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Fig. 1) is in the final stages of the Superfund decisionmaking process for site remediation and restoration. In the process of characterizing the subsurface of the LLNL site, we have developed unique methods of collecting, storing, retrieving, and imaging geologic and chemical data from more than 350 drill holes. The lateral and vertical continuity of subsurface paleostream channels were mapped for the entire LLNL site using geologic descriptions from core samples, cuttings, and interpretations from geophysical logs. A computer-aided design and drafting program, SLICE, written at LLNL, was used to create two-dimensional maps of subsurface sediments, and state-of-the-art software produced three-dimensional images of the volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes using data from water and core fluid analyses

  12. Bibliography of publications related to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project prepared by U.S. Geological Survey personnel through April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Personnel of the US Geological Survey have participated in nuclear-waste management studies in the State of Nevada since the mid-1970's. A bibliography of publications prepared principally for the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (formerly Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations) through April 1991 contains 475 entries in alphabetical order. The listing includes publications prepared prior to the inception of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project in April 1977 and selected publications of interest to the Yucca Mountain region. 480 refs

  13. Earth sciences: Uranium geology, exploration and mining, hydrology, 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with earth sciences and issued during the period of 1986-1996. These topics are mainly in the field of uranium geology, exploration and mining, isotope applications in hydrology, IAEA Yearbook 1996 on the developments in nuclear science and technology and meetings on atomic energy. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English but all of these papers have English abstracts. The prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings

  14. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  15. Ecosystem history of South Florida; Biscayne Bay sediment core descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Ecosystem History of Biscayne Bay and the southeast Coast' project of the U.S. Geological Survey is part of a multi-disciplinary effort that includes Florida Bay and the Everglades to provide paleoecologic reconstructions for the south Florida region. Reconstructions of past salinity, nutrients, substrate, and water quality are needed to determine ecosystem variability due to both natural and human-induced causes. Our understanding of the relations between the south Florida ecosystem and introduced forces will allow managers to make informed decisions regarding the south Florida ecosystem restoration and monitoring. The record of past ecosystem conditions can be found in shallow sediment cores. This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report describes six shallow sediment cores collected from Biscayne Bay. The cores described herein are being processed for a variety of analytical procedures, and this provides the descriptive framework for future analyses of the included cores. This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  16. The laboratories of geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA's activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  17. Digital Core Modelling for Clastic Oil and Gas Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, I.; Berezovsky, V.; Gubaydullin, M.; Yur’ev, A.

    2018-05-01

    "Digital core" is a multi-purpose tool for solving a variety of tasks in the field of geological exploration and production of hydrocarbons at various stages, designed to improve the accuracy of geological study of subsurface resources, the efficiency of reproduction and use of mineral resources, as well as applying the results obtained in production practice. The actuality of the development of the "Digital core" software is that even a partial replacement of natural laboratory experiments with mathematical modelling can be used in the operative calculation of reserves in exploratory drilling, as well as in the absence of core material from wells. Or impossibility of its research by existing laboratory methods (weakly cemented, loose, etc. rocks). 3D-reconstruction of the core microstructure can be considered as a cheap and least time-consuming method for obtaining petrophysical information about the main filtration-capacitive properties and fluid motion in reservoir rocks.

  18. Description of geological data in SKBs database GEOTAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, T.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements for the characterization of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical condition have been performed since 1977 in specific site investigation as well as for geoscientific projects. The database comprises four main groups of data volumes. These are: geological data, geophysical data, hydrogeological data, and hydrochemical data. In the database, background information from the investigations and results are stored on-line on the VAX 750, while raw data are either stored on-line or on magnetic tapes. This report deals with geological data and describes the dataflow from the measurements at the sites to the result tables in the database. All of the geological investigations were carried out by the Swedish Geological Survey, and since July 1982 by Swedish Geological Co, SGAB. The geological investigations have been divided into three categories, and each category is stored separately in the database. The are: surface factures, core mapping, and chemical analyses. At SGU/SGAB the geological data were stored on-line on-line on a PRIME 750 mini computer, on microcomputer floppy disks or in filed paper protocols. During 1987 the data files were transferred from SGAB to datafiles on the VAX computer. In the report the data flow of each of the three geological information categories are described separately. (L.E.)

  19. The GIK-Archive of sediment core radiographs with documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Hannes; Winn, Kyaw; Werner, Friedrich; Driemel, Amelie; Schumacher, Stefanie; Sieger, Rainer

    2017-12-01

    The GIK-Archive of radiographs is a collection of X-ray negative and photographic images of sediment cores based on exposures taken since the early 1960s. During four decades of marine geological work at the University of Kiel, Germany, several thousand hours of sampling, careful preparation and X-raying were spent on producing a unique archive of sediment radiographs from several parts of the World Ocean. The archive consists of more than 18 500 exposures on chemical film that were digitized, geo-referenced, supplemented with metadata and archived in the data library PANGAEA®. With this publication, the images have become available open-access for use by the scientific community at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.854841.

  20. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons

  1. Two-phase flow visualization under reservoir conditions for highly heterogeneous conglomerate rock: A core-scale study for geologic carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Kwon Gyu; Shinn, Young Jae; Park, Eungyu

    2018-03-20

    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO 2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO 2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Multiphase flow tests with an in-situ imaging technology revealed three distinct CO 2 saturation distributions (from homogeneous to non-uniform) dependent on compositional complexity. Dense discontinuity networks within clasts provided well-connected pathways for CO 2 flow, potentially helping to reduce overpressure. Two flow tests, one under capillary-dominated conditions and the other in a transition regime between the capillary and viscous limits, indicated that greater injection rates (potential causes of reservoir overpressure) could be significantly reduced without substantially altering the total stored CO 2 mass. Finally, the capillary storage capacity of the reservoir was calculated. Capacity ranged between 0.5 and 4.5%, depending on the initial CO 2 saturation.

  2. Data for four geologic test holes in the Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, C.F.; French, J.J.; Schaal, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The report provides geological and geophysical data for four of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project, which is part of the Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis. The holes were drilled with a rotary well drilling machine to depths of 900 feet in the southwestern part of the Sacramento Valley in Solano and Yolo Counties. Geologic data for each well include lithology, texture, color, character of the contact, sorting, rounding, and cementation, determined from cuttings, cores, and sidewall covers. Fifty cores, 3 feet long, were obtained from each hole, and from eight to fourteen sidewall cores were collected. Geophysical data include a dual-induction log, spherically focused log (SFL), compensated neutron-formation density log, gamma-ray log, and a caliper log. These data are presented in four tables and on four plates. (USGS)

  3. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bromenshenk, Jerry [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO2 into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO2-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO2 leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  4. Seismically integrated geologic modelling: Guntong Field, Malay Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Craig S.; Bhuyan, K.; Sterling, J. Helwick; Hill, Rob E.; Hubbard, R. Scott; Khare, Vijay; Wahrmund, Leslie A.; Wang, Gann-Shyong

    1998-12-31

    This presentation relates to a research project on offshore seismically reservoir modelling. The goal of the project was to develop and test a process for interpreting reservoir properties from 3-D seismic data and for integrating these data into the building of 3-D geologic models that would be suitable for use in flow simulation studies. The project produced a 3-D geologic model for three reservoir intervals and three predominantly non-reservoir intervals. Each reservoir interval was subdivided into faces that were determined by integrating core, well log, and seismic interpretations. predictions of porosity and lithology used in building the geologic model were made using seismic attributes calculated from acoustic impedance data. 8 figs.

  5. Thermal Maturity Data Used by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Gulf Coast Region Oil and Gas Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Warwick, Peter D.; McDade, Elizabeth Chinn

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently assessing the oil and natural gas resources of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region using a total petroleum system approach. An essential part of this geologically based method is evaluating the effectiveness of potential source rocks in the petroleum system. The purpose of this report is to make available to the public RockEval and vitrinite reflectance data from more than 1,900 samples of Mesozoic and Tertiary rock core and coal samples in the Gulf of Mexico area in a format that facilitates inclusion into a geographic information system. These data provide parameters by which the thermal maturity, type, and richness of potential sources of oil and gas in this region can be evaluated.

  6. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-First Century Core Curriculum-Part 1: Mobilizing the Community to Revise the Masters of Public Health Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita; Corvin, Jaime A; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Petersen, Donna J

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century health challenges have significantly altered the expanding role and functions of public health professionals. Guided by a call from the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health's (ASPPH) and the Framing the Future: The Second 100 Years of Education for Public Health report to adopt new and innovative approaches to prepare public health leaders, the University of South Florida College of Public Health aimed to self-assess the current Masters of Public Health (MPH) core curriculum with regard to preparing students to meet twenty-first century public health challenges. This paper describes how Intervention Mapping was employed as a framework to increase readiness and mobilize the COPH community for curricular change. Intervention Mapping provides an ideal framework, allowing organizations to access capacity, specify goals, and guide the change process from curriculum development to implementation and evaluation of competency-driven programs. The steps outlined in this paper resulted in a final set of revised MPH core competencies that are interdisciplinary in nature and fulfill the emergent needs to address changing trends in both public health education and challenges in population health approaches. Ultimately, the competencies developed through this process were agreed upon by the entire College of Public Health faculty, signaling one college's readiness for change, while providing the impetus to revolutionize the delivery of public health education at the University of South Florida.

  7. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula; shield area of western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Glen F.; Schmidt, Dwight L.; Huffman, A. Curtis

    1989-01-01

    Western Arabia lies within the low-latitude desert of north Africa and the Middle East, the core being the Arabian segment of the African Shield. The core of complex basement rocks accounts for about 670,000 km2, or one-third of the Arabian Peninsula. Reconnaissance mapping of these crystalline rocks, together with bordering sedimentary rocks and volcanic flows, begun in 1950, resulted during the next 13 years in a series of geologic and geographic maps without extensive texts. The maps served as general guides for development of natural resources, including water supplies, ore deposits, and building materials. An intensive exploration program that began in 1963 and involved numerous geologists has vastly increased geologic information.

  8. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  9. 3. South American symposium on isotope geology. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This publication include papers in the fields on Methodology, thermochronology, and geochronology; Evolution of cratonic South America; Magmatic processes; Environmental geology, hydrogeology, isotopic stratigraphy and paleoclimatology; Economic Geology and Evolution of the Andean margin of South America

  10. The United States Geological Survey: 1879-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1989-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey was established on March 3, 1879, just a few hours before the mandatory close of the final session of the 45th Congress, when President Rutherford B. Hayes signed the bill appropriating money for sundry civil expenses of the Federal Government for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1879. The sundry civil expenses bill included a brief section establishing a new agency, the United States Geological Survey, placing it in the Department of the Interior, and charging it with a unique combination of responsibilities: 'classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.' The legislation stemmed from a report of the National Academy of Sciences, which in June 1878 had been asked by Congress to provide a plan for surveying the Territories of the United States that would secure the best possible results at the least possible cost. Its roots, however, went far back into the Nation's history. The first duty enjoined upon the Geological Survey by the Congress, the classification of the public lands, originated in the Land Ordinance of 1785. The original public lands were the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains claimed by some of the colonies, which became a source of contention in writing the Articles of Confederation until 1781 when the States agreed to cede their western lands to Congress. The extent of the public lands was enormously increased by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and later territorial acquisitions. At the beginning of Confederation, the decision was made not to hold the public lands as a capital asset, but to dispose of them for revenue and to encourage settlement. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided the method of surveying and a plan for disposal of the lands, but also reserved 'one-third part of all gold, silver, lead, and copper mines to be sold or otherwise disposed of, as Congress shall thereafter direct,' thus implicitly requiring

  11. OneGeology Web Services and Portal as a global geological SDI - latest standards and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tim; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    The global coverage of OneGeology Web Services (www.onegeology.org and portal.onegeology.org) achieved since 2007 from the 120 participating geological surveys will be reviewed and issues arising discussed. Recent enhancements to the OneGeology Web Services capabilities will be covered including new up to 5 star service accreditation scheme utilising the ISO/OGC Web Mapping Service standard version 1.3, core ISO 19115 metadata additions and Version 2.0 Web Feature Services (WFS) serving the new IUGS-CGI GeoSciML V3.2 geological web data exchange language standard (http://www.geosciml.org/) with its associated 30+ IUGS-CGI available vocabularies (http://resource.geosciml.org/ and http://srvgeosciml.brgm.fr/eXist2010/brgm/client.html). Use of the CGI simpelithology and timescale dictionaries now allow those who wish to do so to offer data harmonisation to query their GeoSciML 3.2 based Web Feature Services and their GeoSciML_Portrayal V2.0.1 (http://www.geosciml.org/) Web Map Services in the OneGeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org). Contributing to OneGeology involves offering to serve ideally 1:1000,000 scale geological data (in practice any scale now is warmly welcomed) as an OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard based WMS (Web Mapping Service) service from an available WWW server. This may either be hosted within the Geological Survey or a neighbouring, regional or elsewhere institution that offers to serve that data for them i.e. offers to help technically by providing the web serving IT infrastructure as a 'buddy'. OneGeology is a standards focussed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and works to ensure that these standards work together and it is now possible for European Geological Surveys to register their INSPIRE web services within the OneGeology SDI (e.g. see http://www.geosciml.org/geosciml/3.2/documentation/cookbook/INSPIRE_GeoSciML_Cookbook%20_1.0.pdf). The Onegeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org) is the first port of call for anyone

  12. Geological repositories: The last nuclear frontier. International Conference on Geological Repositories: Political and Technical Progress, 8-10 December 2003, Stockholm, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Few issues play so central a role in the public acceptance of nuclear technologies as the management and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste. In the current climate, geological repositories have come to be viewed not as one option among many for completing the nuclear fuel cycle, but as the only sustainable solution achievable in the near term. But despite a longstanding agreement among experts that geological disposal can be safe, technologically feasible and environmentally sound, a large part of the general public remains skeptical. This statement deals with the challenges that IAEA is facing to build public confidence related to spent fuel repositories

  13. Glacial/interglacial wetland, biomass burning, and geologic methane emissions constrained by dual stable isotopic CH4 ice core records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Beck, Jonas; Seth, Barbara; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Fischer, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) records reconstructed from polar ice cores represent an integrated view on processes predominantly taking place in the terrestrial biogeosphere. Here, we present dual stable isotopic methane records [δ13CH4 and δD(CH4)] from four Antarctic ice cores, which provide improved constraints on past changes in natural methane sources. Our isotope data show that tropical wetlands and seasonally inundated floodplains are most likely the controlling sources of atmospheric methane variations for the current and two older interglacials and their preceding glacial maxima. The changes in these sources are steered by variations in temperature, precipitation, and the water table as modulated by insolation, (local) sea level, and monsoon intensity. Based on our δD(CH4) constraint, it seems that geologic emissions of methane may play a steady but only minor role in atmospheric CH4 changes and that the glacial budget is not dominated by these sources. Superimposed on the glacial/interglacial variations is a marked difference in both isotope records, with systematically higher values during the last 25,000 y compared with older time periods. This shift cannot be explained by climatic changes. Rather, our isotopic methane budget points to a marked increase in fire activity, possibly caused by biome changes and accumulation of fuel related to the late Pleistocene megafauna extinction, which took place in the course of the last glacial.

  14. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  15. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): A database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  16. Core courses in public health laboratory science and practice: findings from 2006 and 2011 surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoy, John M; Beck, Angela J; Boulton, Matthew L; Kim, Deborah H; Wichman, Michael D; Luedtke, Patrick F

    2013-01-01

    We identified academic training courses or topics most important to the careers of U.S. public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratory (PHEAL) scientist-managers and directors, and determined what portions of the national PHEAL workforce completed these courses. We conducted electronic national surveys in 2006 and 2011, and analyzed data using numerical ranking, Chi-square tests comparing rates, and Spearman's formula measuring rank correlation. In 2006, 40 of 50 PHEAL directors identified 56 course topics as either important, useful, or not needed for someone in their position. These course topics were then ranked to provide a list of 31 core courses. In 2011, 1,659 of approximately 5,555 PHEAL scientific and technical staff, using a subset of 25 core courses, evidenced higher core course completion rates associated with higher-level job classification, advanced academic degree, and age. The 2011 survey showed that 287 PHEAL scientist-managers and directors, on average, completed 37.7% (n=5/13) of leadership/managerial core courses and 51.7% (n=6/12) of scientific core courses. For 1,659 laboratorians in all scientific and technical classifications, core-subject completion rates were higher in local laboratories (42.8%, n=11/25) than in state (36.0%, n=9/25), federal (34.4%, n=9/25), and university (31.2%, n=8/25) laboratories. There is a definable range of scientific, leadership, and managerial core courses needed by PHEAL scientist-managers and directors to function effectively in their positions. Potential PHEAL scientist-managers and directors need greater and continuing access to these courses, and academic and practice entities supporting development of this workforce should adopt curricula and core competencies aligned with these course topics.

  17. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored

  18. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  19. The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples: Improving Sample Accessibility and Enabling Current and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples is a community designed and maintained resource enabling researchers to locate and request sea floor and lakebed geologic samples archived by partner institutions. Conceived in the dawn of the digital age by representatives from U.S. academic and government marine core repositories and the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) at a 1977 meeting convened by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Index is based on core concepts of community oversight, common vocabularies, consistent metadata and a shared interface. Form and content of underlying vocabularies and metadata continue to evolve according to the needs of the community, as do supporting technologies and access methodologies. The Curators Consortium, now international in scope, meets at partner institutions biennially to share ideas and discuss best practices. NGDC serves the group by providing database access and maintenance, a list server, digitizing support and long-term archival of sample metadata, data and imagery. Over three decades, participating curators have performed the herculean task of creating and contributing metadata for over 195,000 sea floor and lakebed cores, grabs, and dredges archived in their collections. Some partners use the Index for primary web access to their collections while others use it to increase exposure of more in-depth institutional systems. The Index is currently a geospatially-enabled relational database, publicly accessible via Web Feature and Web Map Services, and text- and ArcGIS map-based web interfaces. To provide as much knowledge as possible about each sample, the Index includes curatorial contact information and links to related data, information and images; 1) at participating institutions, 2) in the NGDC archive, and 3) at sites such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR). Over 34,000 International GeoSample Numbers (IGSNs) linking to SESAR are

  20. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify conditions which affect public concern (either increase or decrease) and political acceptance for developing and implementing programmes for geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also looks how citizens and relevant actors can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input is enriching the outcome towards a more socially robust and sustainable solution. Finally, it aims at learning from the interaction how to optimise risk management addressing needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. In order to meet these objectives, factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified, described and analysed. Subsequently these factors are looked for in the real world of nuclear waste management through cases in several countries. The analysis is conducted for six stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realisation of the repository itself. The diversity of characteristics of such contexts increases insight in the way society and values of reference are influencing technological decision making. These interrelated factors need to be integrated in step by step decision making processes as emerging the last years in HLW disposal management. In the conclusions, the effect of each factor on acceptance is derived from the empirical record. In the course of carrying out this analysis, it became clear that acceptance had a different meaning in the first three stages of the process, more generic and therefore mainly discussed at policy level and the other stages, by nature more site-specific, and therefore requesting both public and political acceptance. Experience as clearly addressed in this report has shown that a feasible solution has its technical dimension but that 'an acceptable solution' always will have a combined technical and social dimension. If the paper provides tentative answers

  1. Compilation of data used for the analysis of the geological and hydrogeological DFN models. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanson, Jan; Fox, Aaron; Oehman, Johan; Rhen, Ingvar

    2008-08-01

    This report provides an overview and compilation of the various data that constitutes the basis for construction of the geological and hydrogeological discrete feature network (DFN) models as part of model version SDM-Site Laxemar. This includes a review of fracture data in boreholes and in outcrop. Furthermore, the basis for the construction of lineament maps is given as well as a review of the hydraulic test data from cored and percussion-drilled boreholes. An emphasis is put on graphical representation of borehole logs in the form of composites of geological, hydrogeological and even hydrogeochemical data in the case of cored boreholes. One major contribution is a compilation of characteristics of minor local deformation zones (MDZs) identified in cored boreholes. Basic orientation data and fracture intensity data are presented as a function of depth for individual boreholes. The coupling between hydrogeological data and geological data is further refined in plots of Posiva flow log (PFL) data vs. geological single hole interpretation data

  2. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  3. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  4. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  5. Drilling history core hole DC-6 Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    Core hole DC-6 was completed in May 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scisson, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-6. Core hole DC-6 is located within the boundary of the Hanford Site at the old Hanford town site. The Hanford Site coordinates for DC-6 are North 54,127.17 feet and West 17,721.00 feet. The surface elevation is approximately 402 feet above sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-6 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing. The total depth of core hole DC-6 was 4336 feet. Core recovery was 98.4% of the total footage cored

  6. Nurture of human resources for geological repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese geological repository program entered the implementing stage in 2002. At the implementing stage of the program, different sectors need various human resources to conduct their functions. This paper discusses a suitable framework of nurture of the human resources to progress the geological repository program. The discussion is based on considering of specific characters involved in the program and of the multidisciplinary knowledge related to geological disposal. Considering the specific characters of the project, two types of the human resources need to be nurtured. First type is the core persons with the highest knowledge on geological disposal. They are expected to communicate with the various stakeholders and pass down the whole knowledge of the project to the next generation. Another is to conduct the project as the managers, the engineers and the workers. The former human resources can be developed through the broad practice and experience in each sector. The latter human resources can be effectively developed by training of the fundamental knowledge on geological disposal at training centers as well as by conventional on-the-job training. The sectors involved in the program need to take their own roles in the nurture of these human resources. (author)

  7. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  8. Medical Geology: a globally emerging discipline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, J.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Centeno, J.A.; Selinus, O. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Medical Geology, the study of the impacts of geologic materials and processes on animal and human health, is a dynamic emerging discipline bringing together the geoscience, biomedical, and public health communities to solve a wide range of environmental health problems. Among the Medical Geology described in this review are examples of both deficiency and toxicity of trace element exposure. Goiter is a widespread and potentially serious health problem caused by deficiency of iodine. In many locations the deficiency is attributable to low concentrations of iodine in the bedrock. Similarly, deficiency of selenium in the soil has been cited as the principal cause of juvenile cardiomyopathy and muscular abnormalities. Overexposure to arsenic is one of the most widespread Medical Geology problems affecting more than one hundred million people in Bangladesh, India, China, Europe, Africa and North and South America. The arsenic exposure is primarily due to naturally high levels in groundwater but combustion of mineralized coal has also caused arsenic poisoning. Dental and skeletal fluorosis also impacts the health of millions of people around the world and, like arsenic, is due to naturally high concentrations in drinking water and, to a lesser extent, coal combustion. Other Medical Geology issues described include geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, exposure to radon, and ingestion of high concentrations of organic compounds in drinking water. Geoscience and biomedical/public health researchers are teaming to help mitigate these health problems as well as various non-traditional issues for geoscientists such as vector-borne diseases.

  9. 36 CFR 1256.62 - Geological and geophysical information relating to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geological and geophysical... MATERIALS General Restrictions § 1256.62 Geological and geophysical information relating to wells. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), NARA may withhold information in records that relates to geological and...

  10. Report preceding the public debate on the Cigeo project of deep geological storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents and comments the inventory made by the ANDRA of materials and wastes which are to be stored in the Cigeo deep geological storage. It highlights the transparency of the decision process related to this project (public debate, investigations and expertise), and also outlines the opinions of some local representatives and associations committed in environment protection regarding the project preparation. Five recommendations are then made by the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN). Additional information is provided in appendix about the material inventory, about the history of the decision process, and also about meetings and hearings held by the High Committee

  11. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  12. Geologic report of the Maquoketa Shale, New Albany Shale, and Borden Group rocks in the Illinois Basin as potential solid waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, J.B.; Vitaliano, C.J.

    1976-06-01

    We have evaluated the Illinois Basin in order to select a ''target site'' for a possible solid nuclear waste repository. In the process we have been mindful of geology (particularly stratigraphy and lithology and structure), terrane, population density, land use, land ownership and accessibility. After taking these restrictions into account, we have singled out a strip of land in south central Indiana in which we have selected four potential sites worthy of further exploration. In three of the sites the geology, lithology, and depth below the surface are more than adequate for crypt purposes in two separate formations--the Maquoketa Shale of the Ordovician System and the New Albany Shale-Borden Group of the Upper Devonian-Mississippian Systems. The interval between the two is several hundred feet. The geology and associated features in the fourth site are undoubtedly similar to those in the first three. In all four selections a sizeable proportion of the land is in public ownership and the population density in the nonpublicly owned land is low. The geology, lithology, and position of the target formations have been projected into the sites in question from data provided by drill core records of the Indiana Geological Survey. Precise details would, of course, require exploratory drilling on the selected site

  13. Spatial Digital Database for the Geologic Map of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; MacLeod, Norman S.; Miller, Robert J.; Raines, Gary L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction This report describes and makes available a geologic digital spatial database (orgeo) representing the geologic map of Oregon (Walker and MacLeod, 1991). The original paper publication was printed as a single map sheet at a scale of 1:500,000, accompanied by a second sheet containing map unit descriptions and ancillary data. A digital version of the Walker and MacLeod (1991) map was included in Raines and others (1996). The dataset provided by this open-file report supersedes the earlier published digital version (Raines and others, 1996). This digital spatial database is one of many being created by the U.S. Geological Survey as an ongoing effort to provide geologic information for use in spatial analysis in a geographic information system (GIS). This database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps. This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale larger than 1:500,000 (for example, 1:100,000). This report describes the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, describes the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships, and explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. Scanned images of the printed map (Walker and MacLeod, 1991), their correlation of map units, and their explanation of map symbols are also available for download.

  14. Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. 5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern; Gestion des dechets nucleaires. 1. table ronde le stockage geologique - la mise en question par les publics concernes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  16. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern; Gestion des dechets nucleaires. 1. table ronde le stockage geologique - la mise en question par les publics concernes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  17. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  18. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Mañay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  19. Linking descriptive geology and quantitative machine learning through an ontology of lithological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Huber, R.; Robertson, J.; Cox, S. J. D.; Woodcock, R.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the recent explosion of quantitative geological data, geology remains a fundamentally qualitative science. Numerical data only constitute a certain part of data collection in the geosciences. In many cases, geological observations are compiled as text into reports and annotations on drill cores, thin sections or drawings of outcrops. The observations are classified into concepts such as lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, etc. These descriptions are semantically rich and are generally supported by more quantitative observations using geochemical analyses, XRD, hyperspectral scanning, etc, but the goal is geological semantics. In practice it has been difficult to bring the different observations together due to differing perception or granularity of classification in human observation, or the partial observation of only some characteristics using quantitative sensors. In the past years many geological classification schemas have been transferred into ontologies and vocabularies, formalized using RDF and OWL, and published through SPARQL endpoints. Several lithological ontologies were compiled by stratigraphy.net and published through a SPARQL endpoint. This work is complemented by the development of a Python API to integrate this vocabulary into Python-based text mining applications. The applications for the lithological vocabulary and Python API are automated semantic tagging of geochemical data and descriptions of drill cores, machine learning of geochemical compositions that are diagnostic for lithological classifications, and text mining for lithological concepts in reports and geological literature. This combination of applications can be used to identify anomalies in databases, where composition and lithological classification do not match. It can also be used to identify lithological concepts in the literature and infer quantitative values. The resulting semantic tagging opens new possibilities for linking these diverse sources of data.

  20. Using improved technology for widespread application of a geological carbon sequestration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, J.

    2013-12-01

    analysis program can combine public LAS data with privately owned digital petrophysical information to create refined cross sections with details on lithology and geochemistry. The interactive mapper displays geophysical surveys such as depth and time converted 3D seismic, gravity, magnetic, remote sensing, simulations, regional geologic base layers, and launches web-based well profile tools. Geocelluar models that demonstrate porosity, fault boundaries, seal continuity, and other hydrostratigraphic parameters will illustrate the presence of aquifers and caprocks. Dynamic models will use this input to simulate in situ CO2 plume migration and entrapment mechanisms over time. Additional outreach activities such as core workshops that showcase geological samples, conference presentations to describe technology experiences, and publishing peer-review journal articles will ensure the scientific research is delivered to the general public and useful in academia. Next steps will seek to enhance the current 3D depiction of the subsurface, leading to a direct visual connection between conceptual models and their supporting scientific evidence. Together, these tools aim to unite various industries to perform streamlined data analysis leading to a greater understanding of future geological carbon utilization and storage.

  1. North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  2. OneGeology- A Global Geoscience Data Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M.; Komac, M.; Duffy, T.; Robida, F.; Allison, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    OneGeology (1G) is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs) around the globe that dates back to 2007. Since then, OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using GeoSciML- an international interoperability standard for the exchange of geological data. Increased use of this new standard allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet among organisations. One of the goals of OneGeology is an exchange of know-how with the developing world, shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making it more transparent, its operation more sustainable and its membership more open where in addition to GSOs, other types of organisations that create and use geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative is focused on increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource about the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative geoscience information will help to mitigate natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale with the aim of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professionals and general public- to be part of the solution. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and the OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.

  3. Technologies uses in education: Geology virtual Museum of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabo, F.

    2007-01-01

    For several years we come seeing the advance from the new technologies of the information in the education. That is a contribution to the geological knowledge of Uruguay. This presentations were done considering the three learning styles (VAK) Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic, that the NLP describes. We considered that this publication modality is a form to present to us inside and outside our country, and what our institution this doing in the didactic area, in subjects as they are geology and the mining through a CD without letting consider the low publication costs. He is usual that many institutions of education of Uruguay do not have possibility of acceding to our Museum for economic reasons for which what we propose it is the accomplishment of a crossed CD with one virtual visit to the Geology of Uruguay

  4. Environmental non-government organizations' perceptions of geologic sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha; Farrell, Alexander E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been influential in shaping public perceptions of environmental problems, their causes and potential solutions. Over the last decade, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a potentially important technological response to climate change. In this paper we investigate how leading US NGOs perceive geologic sequestration, a potentially controversial part of CCS. We examine how and why their perceptions and strategies might differ, and if and how they plan to shape public perceptions of geologic sequestration. We approach these questions through semi-structured interviews with representatives from a range of NGOs, supplemented by content analysis of their documents. We find that while all the NGOs are committed to combating climate change, their views on CCS as a mitigation strategy vary considerably. We find that these views are correlated with NGOs' histories of activism and advocacy, as well as with their sources of funding. Overall, most of these NGOs accept the necessity of geologic sequestration, while only a small fraction do not

  5. The First Global Geological Map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, L. M.; Head, J. W., III; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Fassett, C.; Whitten, J. L.; Thomas, R.; Ernst, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geological maps are tools with which to understand the distribution and age relationships of surface geological units and structural features on planetary surfaces. Regional and limited global mapping of Mercury has already yielded valuable science results, elucidating the history and distribution of several types of units and features, such as regional plains, tectonic structures, and pyroclastic deposits. To date, however, no global geological map of Mercury exists, and there is currently no commonly accepted set of standardized unit descriptions and nomenclature. With MESSENGER monochrome image data, we are undertaking the global geological mapping of Mercury at the 1:15M scale applying standard U.S. Geological Survey mapping guidelines. This map will enable the development of the first global stratigraphic column of Mercury, will facilitate comparisons among surface units distributed discontinuously across the planet, and will provide guidelines for mappers so that future mapping efforts will be consistent and broadly interpretable by the scientific community. To date we have incorporated three major datasets into the global geological map: smooth plains units, tectonic structures, and impact craters and basins >20 km in diameter. We have classified most of these craters by relative age on the basis of the state of preservation of morphological features and standard classification schemes first applied to Mercury by the Mariner 10 imaging team. Additional datasets to be incorporated include intercrater plains units and crater ejecta deposits. In some regions MESSENGER color data is used to supplement the monochrome data, to help elucidate different plains units. The final map will be published online, together with a peer-reviewed publication. Further, a digital version of the map, containing individual map layers, will be made publicly available for use within geographic information systems (GISs).

  6. Geology for a changing world 2010-2020-Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.S.; Belnap, Jayne; Goldhaber, Martin; Goldstein, Arthur; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Jones, John W.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Thompson, Robert S.; Back, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a science strategy for the geologic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2010-2020. It presents six goals with accompanying strategic actions and products that implement the science directions of USGS Circular 1309, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017.' These six goals focus on providing the geologic underpinning needed to wisely use our natural resources, understand and mitigate hazards and environmental change, and understand the relationship between humans and the environment. The goals emphasize the critical role of the USGS in providing long-term research, monitoring, and assessments for the Nation and the world. Further, they describe measures that must be undertaken to ensure geologic expertise and knowledge for the future. The natural science issues facing today's world are complex and cut across many scientific disciplines. The Earth is a system in which atmosphere, oceans, land, and life are all connected. Rocks and soils contain the answers to important questions about the origin of energy and mineral resources, the evolution of life, climate change, natural hazards, ecosystem structures and functions, and the movements of nutrients and toxicants. The science of geology has the power to help us understand the processes that link the physical and biological world so that we can model and forecast changes in the system. Ensuring the success of this strategy will require integration of geological knowledge with the other natural sciences and extensive collaboration across USGS science centers and with partners in Federal, State, and local agencies, academia, industry, nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, the American public. The first four goals of this report describe the scientific issues facing society in the next 10 years and the actions and products needed to respond to these issues. The final two goals focus on the expertise and

  7. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. The Role of Geologic Mapping in NASA PDSI Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Skinner, J. A.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic mapping is an investigative process designed to derive the geologic history of planetary objects at local, regional, hemispheric or global scales. Geologic maps are critical products that aid future exploration by robotic spacecraft or human missions, support resource exploration, and provide context for and help guide scientific discovery. Creation of these tools, however, can be challenging in that, relative to their terrestrial counterparts, non-terrestrial planetary geologic maps lack expansive field-based observations. They rely, instead, on integrating diverse data types wth a range of spatial scales and areal coverage. These facilitate establishment of geomorphic and geologic context but are generally limited with respect to identifying outcrop-scale textural details and resolving temporal and spatial changes in depositional environments. As a result, planetary maps should be prepared with clearly defined contact and unit descriptions as well as a range of potential interpretations. Today geologic maps can be made from images obtained during the traverses of the Mars rovers, and for every new planetary object visited by NASA orbital or flyby spacecraft (e.g., Vesta, Ceres, Titan, Enceladus, Pluto). As Solar System Exploration develops and as NASA prepares to send astronauts back to the Moon and on to Mars, the importance of geologic mapping will increase. In this presentation, we will discuss the past role of geologic mapping in NASA's planetary science activities and our thoughts on the role geologic mapping will have in exploration in the coming decades. Challenges that planetary mapping must address include, among others: 1) determine the geologic framework of all Solar System bodies through the systematic development of geologic maps at appropriate scales, 2) develop digital Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based mapping techniques and standards to assist with communicating map information to the scientific community and public, 3) develop

  9. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  10. Public attitudes toward geological disposal of carbon dioxide in Canada : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.

    2005-01-01

    A research project investigating the public's perceptions of the risks and benefits of the geologic disposal of carbon dioxide (GDC) technology was presented. Data for the project was collected in 2 phases. Focus groups were conducted in order to understand the likely range of attitudes and concerns about the technology. The information obtained from the focus groups was then used to design an Internet-based survey for administration to a sample of 1967 Canadians. The survey included questions about climate change and GDC as well as a discrete choice experiment. Linear multiple regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of the respondents' support for GDC. Results showed that while a strong majority of Canadians believed that climate change was occurring, climate change ranked very low in importance compared to other national issues, and was the lowest ranked environmental issue. Knowledge of GDC was low, and the vast majority of those who had heard of GDC could not identify what environmental problem it was meant to address. The most important benefits of GDC were seen to be its utility as a bridging technology while long-term climate change solutions are developed; the potential for its use in enhanced oil recovery; and its ability to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the risks of GDC were rated as more important than the benefits, and included concerns about unknown future impacts; contamination of groundwater; the risk of a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) leak; and risks to plants and animals. It was concluded that respondents were slightly supportive of GDC development in Canada, and perceived the technology as having a net positive impact on the environment. GDC was seen as less risky than normal oil and gas industry operations, nuclear power, or coal-burning power plants. It was concluded that GDC is less popular then energy efficiency and renewable energy alternatives, and should be used in combination with these technologies in order to

  11. Submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.; Anderson, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal ''red'' clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse-grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. Site selection activities for the North Atlantic and North Pacific are reviewed and future activities which include international cooperation are discussed. A paleoenvironmental model for Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific is presented based on studies of a long core from the Mid-Plate Gyre MPG-1 area, and is an example of the type of study that will be carried out in other seabed study areas. The data show that the MPG-1 region has been an area of slow, continuous accumulation during the past 65 million years. (author)

  12. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  13. Visualized materials of information on HLW geological disposal for promotion of public understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kashiwazaki, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has a few thousands of short term visitors to Geological Isolation Basic Research Facility of Tokai works in every year. From the viewpoint of promotion of the visitor's understanding and also smooth communication between researchers and visitors, the explanation of the technical information on geological disposal should be carried out in more easily understandable methods, as well as conventional tour to the engineering-scale test facility (ENTRY). The images of repository operation, output data of technical calculations regarding geological disposal were visualized. We can use them practically as one of the useful explanation tools to support visitor's understanding. The visualized materials are attached to this report with the DVD-R media, furthermore, background information of each visualized materials was documented. (author)

  14. Global and public health core competencies for nursing education: A systematic review of essential competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan; Raffray, Marie; Hendricks, Kristin; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-05-01

    Nurses are learning and practicing in an increasingly global world. Both nursing schools and nursing students are seeking guidance as they integrate global health into their learning and teaching. This systematic review is intended to identify the most common global and public health core competencies found in the literature and better inform schools of nursing wishing to include global health content in their curricula. Systematic review. An online search of CINAHL and Medline databases, as well as, inclusion of pertinent gray literature was conducted for articles published before 2013. Relevant literature for global health (GH) and public and community health (PH/CH) competencies was reviewed to determine recommendations of both competencies using a combination of search terms. Studies must have addressed competencies as defined in the literature and must have been pertinent to GH or PH/CH. The databases were systematically searched and after reading the full content of the included studies, key concepts were extracted and synthesized. Twenty-five studies were identified and resulted in a list of 14 global health core competencies. These competencies are applicable to a variety of health disciplines, but particularly can inform the efforts of nursing schools to integrate global health concepts into their curricula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Handwriting and Common Core State Standards: Teacher, Occupational Therapist, and Administrator Perceptions From New York State Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, Debra; Anson, Kylie; Halabi, Nora; Schlierman, April; Suriner, Allison

    Handwriting is the cornerstone of written performance and communication for school-age children. This mixed-methods study explored the impact of Common Core State Standards on handwriting instruction and its effects on perceptions regarding children's written responses in elementary school. Using surveys and interviews of elementary teachers, occupational therapists, and administrators in New York State public schools, we sought to understand current trends in handwriting instruction, changes in time spent on handwriting instruction in the classroom, supports offered to students who did not meet expectations for handwriting, and the impact of Common Core on children's written expression. Themes emerged revealing decreased handwriting instruction time and inconsistent use of handwriting instructional programs in the classroom after implementation of Common Core. Handwriting should be considered as a greater component in the foundational standards in Common Core. Occupational therapy services can support handwriting instruction implementation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  16. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - public participation and aboriginal engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG)'s Public Participation and Aboriginal Engagement Program for the proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level waste (L and ILW) began with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in 2002 between OPG and the Municipality of Kincardine. The MOU set out the terms under which the two parties would jointly study the feasibility of different options for the long-term management of L and ILW at the Bruce nuclear site. A consultant, independent from both the Municipality of Kincardine and OPG, was retained to manage the assessment of options as well as a communication plan to ensure the public and Aboriginal peoples were kept apprised of all activities associated with the MOU. This early commitment to transparency and openness, with its ensuing opportunities for the public and Aboriginal peoples to become informed, ask questions, and engage in meaningful two-way dialogue about the early assessment of options, established the foundation and later became the hallmark of the DGR Project's Public Participation and Aboriginal Engagement program. This paper provides an overview of the development, nature and results of that program as it has evolved through the early investigative stages of options and through the environmental assessment and licencing process for the proposed DGR Project. (author)

  17. Evaluating Geologic Sources of Arsenic in Well Water in Virginia (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany VanDerwerker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if geologic factors are linked to elevated arsenic (As concentrations above 5 μg/L in well water in the state of Virginia, USA. Using geologic unit data mapped within GIS and two datasets of measured As concentrations in well water (one from public wells, the other from private wells, we evaluated occurrences of elevated As (above 5 μg/L based on geologic unit. We also constructed a logistic regression model to examine statistical relationships between elevated As and geologic units. Two geologic units, including Triassic-aged sedimentary rocks and Triassic-Jurassic intrusives of the Culpeper Basin in north-central Virginia, had higher occurrences of elevated As in well water than other geologic units in Virginia. Model results support these patterns, showing a higher probability for As occurrence above 5 μg/L in well water in these two units. Due to the lack of observations (<5% having elevated As concentrations in our data set, our model cannot be used to predict As concentrations in other parts of the state. However, our results are useful for identifying areas of Virginia, defined by underlying geology, that are more likely to have elevated As concentrations in well water. Due to the ease of obtaining publicly available data and the accessibility of GIS, this study approach can be applied to other areas with existing datasets of As concentrations in well water and accessible data on geology.

  18. Bureau of Economic Geology. 1978 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Bureau research programs and projects are designed to address many of the State's major concerns in the areas of geologic, energy, mineral, land, and environmental resouces. Research programs incorporate geologic concepts that will build toward an understanding of a specific resource and its impact on human activities. In addition to resource assessments in uranium, lignite, and geopressured geothermal energy, the Bureau continued research into analysis of governmental policy related to energy. Systemic geologic mapping, coastal studies, basin analysis projects, and investigations in other areas of economic geology further indicate the range of research programs carried forward in 1978. Specifically, research on mineral resources and land resources, coastal studies, hydrogeology, basin studies, geologic mapping, and other research (tektites and meteorites, carboniferous of Texas, depositional environments of the Marble Falls Formation, Central Texas) are reported. The establishment of the Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute is followed. Contracts and grant support and contract reports are listed. The publications eminating from the Bureau are listed. Services rendered by the Bureau and personnel information are included. (MCW)

  19. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. Chapter 1 is an overview of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes which describes their physical characteristics, tectonic setting and geologic history. This overview is accompanied by a tectonic map. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the mantled gneiss dome concept. The purpose of including this work is to provide a basic history of this concept and to describe the characteristics and distribution of gneiss domes throughout the world to enable one to compare and contrast them with the metamorphic core complexes as discussed in this report. Some gneiss domes are known producers of uranium (as are also some core complexes). Chapter 3 is an examination of the effects of the core complex process on adjacent sedimentary and volcanic cover terranes. Also included is a discussion of the kinematic significance of these cover terranes as they are related to process within the cores of the complexes. Some of the cover terranes have uranium prospects in them. Chapter 4 is a detailed discussion of uranium in Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and includes the conceptual basis for the various types of occurrences and the processes that might favor concentration of uranium. The report is supported by a 5-part Appendix. The majority of the core complexes discussed in this report either do not appear or are not recognizable on existing published geologic maps

  20. Building of the system for managing and analyzing the hyperspectral data of drilling core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yanju; Zhang Jielin; Wang Junhu

    2010-01-01

    Drilling core logging is very important for geological exploration, hyperspectral detection provides a totally new method for drilling core logging. To use and analyze the drilling core data more easily, and especially store them permanently, a system is built for analyzing and managing the hyperspectral data. The system provides a convenient way to sort the core data, and extract the spectral characteristics, which is the basis for the following mineral identification. (authors)

  1. Updated procedures for using drill cores and cuttings at the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary K.V.; Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2018-01-30

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from subsurface investigations conducted at the INL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials.The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the corehole names, corehole locations, and depth intervals available.Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose most cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest continuously drilled core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers' responsibilities for access to the facility and for examination, sampling, and return of materials.

  2. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  3. OneGeology - Access to geoscience for all

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, Marko; Lee, Kathryn; Robida, Francois

    2014-05-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as 'GeoSciML'. Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscientific data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geoscience data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscientific data and OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.

  4. On the road to personalised and precision geomedicine: medical geology and a renewed call for interdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Le Blond, Jennifer

    2016-01-28

    Our health depends on where we currently live, as well as on where we have lived in the past and for how long in each place. An individual's place history is particularly relevant in conditions with long latency between exposures and clinical manifestations, as is the case in many types of cancer and chronic conditions. A patient's geographic history should routinely be considered by physicians when diagnosing and treating individual patients. It can provide useful contextual environmental information (and the corresponding health risks) about the patient, and should thus form an essential part of every electronic patient/health record. Medical geology investigations, in their attempt to document the complex relationships between the environment and human health, typically involve a multitude of disciplines and expertise. Arguably, the spatial component is the one factor that ties in all these disciplines together in medical geology studies. In a general sense, epidemiology, statistical genetics, geoscience, geomedical engineering and public and environmental health informatics tend to study data in terms of populations, whereas medicine (including personalised and precision geomedicine, and lifestyle medicine), genetics, genomics, toxicology and biomedical/health informatics more likely work on individuals or some individual mechanism describing disease. This article introduces with examples the core concepts of medical geology and geomedicine. The ultimate goals of prediction, prevention and personalised treatment in the case of geology-dependent disease can only be realised through an intensive multiple-disciplinary approach, where the various relevant disciplines collaborate together and complement each other in additive (multidisciplinary), interactive (interdisciplinary) and holistic (transdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary) manners.

  5. Geologic Map of the State of Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Sinton, John M.; Watkins, Sarah E.; Brunt, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    About This Map The State's geology is presented on eight full-color map sheets, one for each of the major islands. These map sheets, the illustrative meat of the publication, can be downloaded in pdf format, ready to print. Map scale is 1:100,000 for most of the islands, so that each map is about 27 inches by 36 inches. The Island of Hawai`i, largest of the islands, is depicted at a smaller scale, 1:250,000, so that it, too, can be shown on 36-inch-wide paper. The new publication isn't limited strictly to its map depictions. Twenty years have passed since David Clague and Brent Dalrymple published a comprehensive report that summarized the geology of all the islands, and it has been even longer since the last edition of Gordon Macdonald's book, Islands in the Sea, was revised. Therefore the new statewide geologic map includes an 83-page explanatory pamphlet that revisits many of the concepts that have evolved in our geologic understanding of the eight main islands. The pamphlet includes simplified page-size geologic maps for each island, summaries of all the radiometric ages that have been gathered since about 1960, generalized depictions of geochemical analyses for each volcano's eruptive stages, and discussion of some outstanding topics that remain controversial or deserving of additional research. The pamphlet also contains a complete description of map units, which enumerates the characteristics for each of the state's many stratigraphic formations shown on the map sheets. Since the late 1980s, the audience for geologic maps has grown as desktop computers and map-based software have become increasingly powerful. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can also feast on this publication. An electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications, is available for downloading. The GIS database is in an Earth projection widely employed throughout the State of Hawai`i, using the North American datum of

  6. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO 2 generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO 2 capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO 2 transport options, the geological storage of the CO 2 and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  7. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Drake, Henrik; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans; Juhlin, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  8. Environmental geology in the United States: Present practice and future training needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lawrence

    Environmental geology as practiced in the United States confronts issues in three large areas: Threats to human society from geologic phenomena (geologic hazards); impacts of human activities on natural systems (environmental impact), and natural-resource management. This paper illustrates present U.S. practice in environmental geology by sampling the work of 7 of the 50 state geological surveys and of the United States Geological Survey as well. Study of the work of these agencies provides a basis for identifying avenues for the training of those who will deal with environmental issues in the future. This training must deal not only with the subdisciplines of geology but with education to cope with the ethical, interdisciplinary, and public-communication aspects of the work of the environmental geologist.

  9. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-01-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  10. Thermal property and density measurements of samples taken from drilling cores from potential geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagedrost, J.F.; Capps, W.

    1983-12-01

    Density, steady-state conductivity, enthalpy, specific heat, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and linear thermal expansion were measured on 59 materials from core drill samples of several geologic media, including rock salt, basalt, and other associated rocks from 7 potential sites for nuclear waste isolation. The measurements were conducted from or near to room temperature up to 500 0 C, or to lower temperatures if limited by specimen cracking or fracturing. Ample documentation establishes the reliability of the property measurement methods and the accuracy of the results. Thermal expansions of salts reached 2.2 to 2.8 percent at 500 0 C. Associated rocks were from 0.6 to 1.6 percent. Basalts were close to 0.3 percent at 500 0 C. Specific heats of salts varied from 0.213 to 0.233 cal g -1 C -1 , and basalts averaged 0.239 cal g -1 C -1 . Thermal conductivities of salts at 50 0 C were from 0.022 to 0.046 wcm -1 C -1 , and at 500 0 C, from 0.012 to 0.027 wcm -1 C -1 . Basalts conductivities ranged from 0.020 to 0.022 wcm -1 C -1 at 100 0 C and 0.016 to 0.018 at 500 0 C. There were no obvious conductivity trends relative to source location. Room temperature densities of salts were from 2.14 to 2.29 gcm -3 , and basalts, from 2.83 to 2.90 gcm -3 . The extreme friability of some materials made specimen fabrication difficult. 21 references, 17 figures, 28 tables

  11. Rocks and geology in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2002-01-01

    The landscape of the San Francisco Bay region is host to a greater variety of rocks than most other regions in the United States. This introductory guide provides illustrated descriptions of 46 common and important varieties of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock found in the region. Rock types are described in context of their identification qualities, how they form, and where they occur in the region. The guide also provides discussion about of regional geology, plate tectonics, the rock cycle, the significance of the selected rock types in relation to both earth history and the impact of mineral resources on the development in the region. Maps and text also provide information where rocks, fossils, and geologic features can be visited on public lands or in association with public displays in regional museums, park visitor centers, and other public facilities.

  12. Developing a flexible core Dental Public Health curriculum for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Kathryn; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Bhoopathi, Vinodh

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum for graduating dental and dental hygiene students must prepare them to contribute to the improvement or maintenance of health for individual patient's and the public's health. The objective is to describe the background for and the process used to develop a core Dental Public Health Curriculum for such students. The process used was to solicit and review existing dental public health curriculum in dental and dental hygiene schools; review curriculum for other health professionals; identify the themes needed to frame the curriculum; select usable materials and identify gaps in existing curricular materials; and develop appropriate curriculum materials that would embody the competencies developed for undergraduate dental and dental hygiene education. Twenty-three topics were identified as embodying the eight competencies. Based on these topics, six courses, Principles of Dental Public Health, Evidence-Based Dentistry, Ethics and Dental Public Health, Dental Public Health Policy and Advocacy, Oral Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and Oral Health Literacy and Dental Public Health, were prepared. Each course includes syllabus, PowerPoint presentations, student assignments and activities, instructor guide, and classroom discussion points. Depending on the hours available in the existing curriculum at the dental or hygiene school, lecture presentations and take home assignments/discussions may be used independently or in combination with presentations from other courses. In addition, individual discussions and activities may be used to integrate dental public health materials into other courses. A flexible curriculum is available at the AAPHD website to enable the incorporation of DPH topics into the curriculum. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  14. A state geological survey commitment to environmental geology - the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermund, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    In several Texas environmental laws, the Bureau of Economic Geology is designated as a planning participant and review agency in the process of fulfilling environmental laws. Two examples are legislation on reclamation of surface mines and regulation of processing low level radioactive wastes. Also, the Bureau is the principal geological reviewer of all Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements which the Office of the Governor circulates for state review on all major developmental activities in Texas. The BEG continues its strong interest in environmental geology. In February 1988, it recommitted its Land Resources Laboratory, initiated in 1974, toward fulfilling needs of state, county, and city governments for consultation and research on environmental geologic problems. An editorial from another state geological survey would resemble the about description of texas work in environmental geology. State geological surveys have led federal agencies into many developments of environmental geology, complemented federal efforts in their evolution, and continued a strong commitment to the maintenance of a quality environment through innovative geologic studies

  15. Laboratory ultrasonic pulse velocity logging for determination of elastic properties from rock core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, Natalie Erin

    During the development of deep underground excavations spalling and rockbursting have been recognized as significant mechanisms of violent brittle failure. In order to predict whether violent brittle failure will occur, it is important to identify the location of stiffness transitions that are associated with geologic structure. One approach to identify the effect of geologic structures is to apply borehole geophysical tools ahead of the tunnel advance. Stiffness transitions can be identified using mechanical property analysis surveys that combine acoustic velocity and density data to calculate acoustic estimates of elastic moduli. However, logistical concerns arise since the approach must be conducted at the advancing tunnel face. As a result, borehole mechanical property analyses are rarely used. Within this context, laboratory ultrasonic pulse velocity testing has been proposed as a potential alternative to borehole mechanical property analysis since moving the analysis to the laboratory would remove logistical constraints and improve safety for the evaluators. In addition to the traditional method of conducting velocity testing along the core axis, two new methodologies for point-focused testing were developed across the core diameter, and indirectly along intact lengths of drill core. The indirect test procedure was implemented in a continuous ultrasonic velocity test program along 573m of drill core to identify key geologic structures that generated transitions in ultrasonic elastic moduli. The test program was successful at identifying the location of geologic contacts, igneous intrusions, faults and shear structures. Ultrasonic values of Young's modulus and bulk modulus were determined at locations of significant velocity transitions to examine the potential for energy storage and energy release. Comparison of results from different ultrasonic velocity test configurations determined that the indirect test configuration provided underestimates for values of

  16. Foliation: Geological background, rock mechanics significance, and preliminary investigations at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Hudson, J.; Wikstroem, L.; Aaltonen, I.

    2006-01-01

    A well developed, pervasive foliation is a characteristic feature of the migmatites and gneisses in the Olkiluoto bedrock, and is expected to have a significant influence on the underground construction, the design and layout and the groundwater flow regime of a deep spent nuclear fuel repository. This Working Report reviews the geological background and rock mechanics significance of foliation, and develops a methodology for the systematic acquisition of foliation data in cored boreholes and in tunnels at the Olkiluoto site, to provide the necessary basis for future geological, rock mechanics and hydrogeological modelling. The first part of the methodology concerns foliation characterisation, and develops a characterisation scheme based on two variables: the foliation type (G = gneissic, B = banded, S = schistose), which is a function of mineral composition and degree of smallscale heterogeneity, and the foliation intensity (1 = low, 2 = intermediate, 3 = high), which is a function of the type and intensity of the deformation by which it was produced (under high-grade metamorphic conditions in the core of the Svecofennian orogenic belt). At the suggested reference scales (1 m length of core, 10 m 2 area of tunnel wall), the most representative foliation type and intensity is assessed using a standard set of core photographs, which are included as an Appendix at the end of the report, providing a systematic description in terms of 9 descriptive types (G1, G2, G3, B1, B2, B3, S1, S2, S3). As a further step, the rock mechanics significance of these types is assessed and a rock mechanics foliation (RMF) number is assigned (RMF 0 = no significance, RMF 1, RMF 2 and RMF 3 = low, intermediate and high significance, respectively). The second part of the methodology concerns the orientations of the foliation within the same 1 m core lengths or 10 m2 wall areas, which have been characterised as above. This combined analysis of foliation character and foliation orientation

  17. Description of geological data in SKBs database GEOTAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehlstedt, S.; Stark, T.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1977 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB, has been performing a research and development programme for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the programme is to acquire knowledge and data of radioactive waste. Measurement for the characterisation of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions are performed in specific site investigations as well as for geoscientific projects. Large data volumes have been produced since the start of the programme, both raw data and results. During the years these data were stored in various formats by the different institutions and companies that performed the investigations. It was therefore decided that all data from the research and development programme should be gathered in a database. The database, called GEOTAB, is a relational database. The database comprises six main groups of data volumes. These are: Background information, geological data, geophysical data, hydrological and meteorological data, hydrochemical data, and tracer tests. This report deals with geological data and described the dataflow from the measurements at the sites to the result tables in the database. The geological investigations have been divided into three categories, and each category is stored separately in the database. They are: Surface fractures, core mapping, and chemical analyses. (authors)

  18. Results and prospects of development of geologic-process studies during drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodskij, P.A.; Pomerants, L.I.; Luk'yanov, Eh.E.; Chekalin, L.M.; Orlov, L.I.; Shakirov, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of researches was conducted to study geological sections of a borehole under drilling. The complex comprises gas and mechanical logging, measurements of slime and some other geophysical investigations including nuclear-physical methods. At present a subsystem for logging with measurement of natural gamma-radiation intensity during drilling is used for this purpose. The ''Zaboj'' subsystem with a well device measuring gamma-radiation intensity and other physical parameters is being developed and is planning for production. Geological cabins equipped with instrumentation for element analysis of slime and core are developed using nuclear-physical methods

  19. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1981 - 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Over 800 publications submitted by researchers supported through NASA's Planetary Geology Program are cited and an author/editor index is provided. Entries are listed under the following subjects: (1) general interest topics; (2) solar system, comets, asteroids, and small bodies; (3) geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; (4) structure, tectonics, geologic and geophysical evolution; (5) impact craters: morphology, density, and geologic studies; (6) volcanism; (7) fluvial, mass wasting, and periglacial processes; (8) Eolian studies; (9) regolith, volatile, atmosphere, and climate; (10) remote sensing, radar, and photometry; and (11) cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry.

  20. Diatom paleoecology Pass Key core 37, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Laura; Cooper, S.R.; Huvane, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    During the 20th century, there have been large-scale anthropogenic modifications to the South Florida ecosystem. The effects of these changes on Florida Bay and its biological communities are currently of political and scientific interest. This study is part of a larger effort to reconstruct the history of environmental changes in the bay, using paleoecological techniques. We are using diatom indicators preserved in Florida Bay sediments to infer long-term water quality, productivity, nutrient, and salinity changes. We are also obtaining information concerning the natural variability of the ecosystem. Diatoms are microscopic algae, the remains of which are generally well preserved in sediments, and their distributions are closely linked to water quality. Diatoms were extracted from a 70-cm sediment core collected from the Pass Key mudbank of Florida Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey. Between 300-500 diatom valves from each of 15 core samples were identified and counted. Estimates of absolute abundance, species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity, and centric:pennate ratios were calculated for each sample that was counted. Information on the ecology of the diatom species is presented, and changes in diatom community composition are evaluated. Samples contained an average of four million diatom valves per gram of sediment. Major changes in the diatom community are evident down core. These include increases in the percent abundance of marine diatoms in the time period represented by the core, probably the result of increasing salinity at Pass Key. Benthic diatoms become less abundant in the top half of the core. This may be related to a number of factors including the die-off of sea grass beds or increased turbidity of the water column. Once the chronology of the Pass Key core 37 is established, these down-core changes can be related to historical events and compared with other indicators in the sedimentary record that are currently being investigated by U.S Geological

  1. Mars Public Mapping Project: Public Participation in Science Research; Providing Opportunities for Kids of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. D.; Valderrama Graff, P.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Klug, S. L.; Deva, B.; Capages, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Mars Public Mapping Project is a web-based education and public outreach tool developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. This tool allows the general public to identify and map geologic features on Mars, utilizing Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible images, allowing public participation in authentic scientific research. In addition, participants are able to rate each image (based on a 1 to 5 star scale) to help build a catalog of some of the more appealing and interesting martian surface features. Once participants have identified observable features in an image, they are able to view a map of the global distribution of the many geologic features they just identified. This automatic feedback, through a global distribution map, allows participants to see how their answers compare to the answers of other participants. Participants check boxes "yes, no, or not sure" for each feature that is listed on the Mars Public Mapping Project web page, including surface geologic features such as gullies, sand dunes, dust devil tracks, wind streaks, lava flows, several types of craters, and layers. Each type of feature has a quick and easily accessible description and example image. When a participant moves their mouse over each example thumbnail image, a window pops up with a picture and a description of the feature. This provides a form of "on the job training" for the participants that can vary with their background level. For users who are more comfortable with Mars geology, there is also an advanced feature identification section accessible by a drop down menu. This includes additional features that may be identified, such as streamlined islands, valley networks, chaotic terrain, yardangs, and dark slope streaks. The Mars Public Mapping Project achieves several goals: 1) It engages the public in a manner that encourages active participation in scientific research and learning about geologic features and processes. 2) It helps to

  2. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal years 2009 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, Monique; Montour, Maria R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior. The U.S. Geological Survey provides impartial information on the health of our ecosystems and environment, the natural hazards that threaten us, the natural resources we rely on, the negative effects of climate and land-use change, and the core science systems that help us provide timely, relevant, and usable information. The U.S. Geological Survey is not responsible for regulations or land management.

  3. Activities of the United States Geological Survey in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    Since the late 1800's, when the U.S. Geological Survey first established a presence in Pennsylvania, the focus of our work has changed from general hydrologic and geologic appraisals to issue-oriented investigations; from predominantly data collection to a balanced program of data collection, interpretation, and research; and from traditional, hand-drawn mapping to digitally produced coverages with specialized themes. Yet our basic mission has not changed. It is as relevant to the resource issues of today as it was when our geologists first arrived in western Pennsylvania in 1884. Continuing in this proud heritage and tradition, the U.S. Geological Survey is moving confidently toward the next century, evolving organizationally and technologically to better meet the needs of our many constituencies. One major organizational change is the recent accession of employees from the former National Biological Service, who now form the Survey's fourth program division, the Biological Resources Division. These employees join forces with colleagues in our other three divisions: Water Resources, Geologic, and National Mapping. More than any other change in decades, the addition of this biological expertise creates new and exciting opportunities for scientific research and public service. This report provides an overview of recent activities in Pennsylvania conducted by the four program divisions and is intended to inform those interested in U.S. Geological Survey products and services. Additional information is available on our home page (at http://wwwpah2o.er.usgs.gov/). Together with numerous Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations who are our customers and partners, we at the U.S. Geological Survey look forward to providing continued scientific contributions and public service to Pennsylvania and the Nation.

  4. Metamorphic core complex formation by density inversion and lower-crust extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F; Goodliffe, A M; Taylor, B

    2001-06-21

    Metamorphic core complexes are domal uplifts of metamorphic and plutonic rocks bounded by shear zones that separate them from unmetamorphosed cover rocks. Interpretations of how these features form are varied and controversial, and include models involving extension on low-angle normal faults, plutonic intrusions and flexural rotation of initially high-angle normal faults. The D'Entrecasteaux islands of Papua New Guinea are actively forming metamorphic core complexes located within a continental rift that laterally evolves to sea-floor spreading. The continental rifting is recent (since approximately 6 Myr ago), seismogenic and occurring at a rapid rate ( approximately 25 mm yr-1). Here we present evidence-based on isostatic modelling, geological data and heat-flow measurements-that the D'Entrecasteaux core complexes accommodate extension through the vertical extrusion of ductile lower-crust material, driven by a crustal density inversion. Although buoyant extrusion is accentuated in this region by the geological structure present-which consists of dense ophiolite overlaying less-dense continental crust-this mechanism may be generally applicable to regions where thermal expansion lowers crustal density with depth.

  5. Journal of Mining and Geology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Journal of Mining and Geology is the scientific publication of the Nigerian Mining and Geosciences Society. Its scope covers the fields of the geosciences, mining, metallurgy, materials science and geoenvironmental studies. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed ...

  6. [Impact of the Core Training Law on preventive medicine and public health training and other common medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, Pello; Gil-Borrelli, Christian; Aguilera, José Antonio; Reques, Laura; Barreales, Saúl; Ojeda, Elena; Alemán, Guadalupe; Iniesta, Carlos; Gullón, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. The programmes of the 21 common medical specialties were analysed and the recommended training periods for each specialty collected, before the information was agreed upon by three observers. The training impact was calculated as the percentage of months that should be amended per specialty to adapt to the common training schedule. The Preventive Medicine and Public Health training programme is the specialty most affected by the Core Training Law (100%, 24 months). Intensive medicine (0%, 0 months) and medical oncology (17%, 4 months) is the least affected. The CTL affects the common medical specialties in different ways and requires a complete reorganisation of the activities and competencies of PM&PH professionals. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    . Terrestrial geologic maps published by the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of project-specific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well (e.g., Hare and others, 2009). Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically (e.g., Wilhelms, 1972, 1990; Tanaka and others, 1994). As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program s Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group s (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  8. Quality improvement training for core medical and general practice trainees: a pilot study of project participation, completion and journal publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Duncan; McKay, John; Bowie, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Small-scale quality improvement projects are expected to make a significant contribution towards improving the quality of healthcare. Enabling doctors-in-training to design and lead quality improvement projects is important preparation for independent practice. Participation is mandatory in speciality training curricula. However, provision of training and ongoing support in quality improvement methods and practice is variable. We aimed to design and deliver a quality improvement training package to core medical and general practice specialty trainees and evaluate impact in terms of project participation, completion and publication in a healthcare journal. A quality improvement training package was developed and delivered to core medical trainees and general practice specialty trainees in the west of Scotland encompassing a 1-day workshop and mentoring during completion of a quality improvement project over 3 months. A mixed methods evaluation was undertaken and data collected via questionnaire surveys, knowledge assessment, and formative assessment of project proposals, completed quality improvement projects and publication success. Twenty-three participants attended the training day with 20 submitting a project proposal (87%). Ten completed quality improvement projects (43%), eight were judged as satisfactory (35%), and four were submitted and accepted for journal publication (17%). Knowledge and confidence in aspects of quality improvement improved during the pilot, while early feedback on project proposals was valued (85.7%). This small study reports modest success in training core medical trainees and general practice specialty trainees in quality improvement. Many gained knowledge of, confidence in and experience of quality improvement, while journal publication was shown to be possible. The development of educational resources to aid quality improvement project completion and mentoring support is necessary if expectations for quality improvement are to be

  9. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  10. The laboratories of geological studies; Les laboratoires d`etudes geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA`s activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  11. Geochemistry of Mariano lake-lake valley cores, McKinley County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, J.S.; Lichte, F.E.; Gent, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of the U.S. Geological Survey-Bureau of Indian Affairs drilling project in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in McKinley County, New Mexico, was to better understand the relationship between host-rock stratigraphy and uranium mineralization. As part of this project, geochemical studies of approximately 280 samples from 8 cores and 1 outcrop were undertaken; samples from 4 cores show uranium enrichment. Geochemical relationships between samples of weathered outcrop, oxidized core, reduced (unmineralized) core, and ore-bearing core were contrasted by comparison of element abundances. Special comparative studies of sandstone and clay chemistry were made using results from x-ray diffraction, optical petrography, and chemical analysis. Results of these studies are discussed

  12. Investigation of equilibrium core by recycling MA and LLFP in fast reactor cycle. 2. Investigation of LLFP confined in Equilibrium Core with element separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Akihiko; Shono, Akira; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2000-02-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on a self-consistent fuel cycle system in the nuclear fuel recycle system with fast reactors. In this system, the self-generated MAs (Minor Actinides) and LLFPs (Long-Lived Fission Products) are confined and incinerated in the fast reactor, which is called the 'Equilibrium Core' concept. However, as the isotope separations for selected LLFPs have been assumed in this cycle system, it seems that this assumption is far from realistic one from the viewpoint of economy with respect to the fuel cycle system. In this study, the possibility for realization of the 'Equilibrium Core' concept is evaluated for three fuel types such as oxide, nitride and metallic fuels, provided that the isotopic separation of LLFPs is changed to the element one. This study provides, that is to say, how many LLFP elements can be confined in the 'Equilibrium Core' with element separation. This report examines the nuclear properties of the Equilibrium Core' for various combinations of LLFP incineration schemes from the viewpoints of the risk of geological disposal and the limit in confinable quantity of LLFPs. From the viewpoint of the risk of geological disposal estimated by the retardation factor, it is possible to confine with element separation for Tc, I and Se even in the oxide fueled core. From the standpoint of the limit of confinable amounts of LLFPs, on the other hand, Tc, I, Se, Sn and Cs can be confined with element separate only in case that the nitride fuel is chosen. (author)

  13. Time Matters: Increasing the Efficiency of Antarctic Marine Geology and Paleoceanography Expeditions by Providing Improved Sediment Chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Domack, E. W.; Shevenell, A.; Subt, C.

    2015-12-01

    To maximize the areal extent of Antarctic sedimentary records of past deglaciation, it is necessary to ensure more sediment cores can be adequately dated. Antarctic margin sediment is challenging to date due to the lack of preserved calcium carbonate, but the records contained in these sediments readily recount the history of deglaciation. Recent and continued development of new chronological methods for Antarctic margin sediments have allowed better use of the efforts of marine geological coring expeditions to the region. The development of Ramped PyrOx radiocarbon dating has allowed us to 1. improve dates in deglacial sediments where no carbonate is preserved, 2. date glacial sediments lying below the tills marking the last glaciation, and 3. compile core chronologies into a regional framework of ice shelf collapse that has eluded many marine geology campaigns over the last few decades. These advances in a fundamental aspect of geological sciences will put the U.S. and international community on a better foothold to interpret the past as it relates to our warming future. We will present these advances in chronology as well as the science that is enabled by them, while arguing that the future of Antarctic marine science also depends on investments in shore-based technologies that come at a relatively low cost.

  14. Site Investigation for Detection of KIJANG Reactor Core Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jeeyoung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It was planned for the end of March 2017 and extended to April 2018 according to the government budget adjustment. The KJRR project is intended for filling the self-sufficiency of RI demand including Mo-99, increasing the NTD capacity and developing technologies related to the research reactor. In project, site investigation is the first activity that defines seismologic and related geologic aspects of the site. Site investigation was carried out from Oct. 2012 to Jan. 2014 and this study is intended to describe detail procedures in locating the reactor core center. The location of the reactor core center was determined by collectively reviewing not only geological information but also information from architects engineering. EL 50m was selected as ground level by levering construction cost. Four recommended locations (R-1a - R-1d) are displayed for the reactor core center. R-1a was found optimal in consideration of medium rock contour, portion of medium rock covering reactor buildings, construction cost, physical protection and electrical resistivity. It is noted that engineering properties of the medium rock is TCR/RQD 100/53, elastic modulus 7,710 - 8,720MPa, permeability coefficient 2.92E-06cm/s, and S-wave velocity 1,380m/s, sound for foundations of reactor buildings.

  15. Appendix Q: siting considerations for submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal red clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. A paleoenvironmental model of Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific has been constructed from sedimentological, geotechnical and stratigraphic data derived from a single giant piston core collected in the central North Pacific (GPC-3: 30 0 N, 157 0 W; 5705 m). This core represents a record of nearly continuous sedimentation for nearly 70 million years. The core was taken from a region of abyssal hill topography located beneath the present-day carbonate compensation depth. It contains 24.5 meters of undisturbed sediment composed of oxidized brown clay with altered ash layers. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy for the upper 4.5 meters indicates sedimentation rates are 2.5 mm/1000 years for the last 2 m.y. and 1.1 mm/1000 years before that to 2.4 Ma. Ichthyolith stratigraphy shows sedimentation rates of 0.2 to 0.3 mm/1000 years from 65 to 5 Ma. The observed sedimentological variations can be explained in terms of present sedimentation patterns in the central North Pacific and by the NNW motion of the Pacific plate during the Cenozoic

  16. Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), is drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, S.C. The test well is scheduled to run between mid-March and early May 2011. When completed, the well will be about 1,000 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Hilton Head area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  17. RELATIONS WITH THE PUBLIC VERSUS PUBLIC RELATIONS IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant with the evolution of society, public relations are socially expressed only together with the explicit articulation of public categories and public organizations, once the individual becomes a citizen whose satisfaction is at the core of the public systems preoccupations, ignoring times long gone when the ordinary citizen and the majority of the public administration representatives couldnt tell apart the concept of public relations from that of relations with the public.

  18. Drilling history core hole DC-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    Core hole DC-4 was completed at a depth of 3998 feet in December, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Sicsson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the cable tool and core drilling activities, and geological core logging for DC-4. Core hole DC-4 is located on the Hanford Site about 3 miles east of the Yakima Barricade and approximately 103 feet southwest of rotary hole DC-5, which was completed to 3990 feet in February, 1978. Hanford Site coordinates reported for hole DC-4 are north 49,385.62 feet and west 85,207.63 feet, and Washington State coordinates are north 454,468.73 feet and east 2,209,990.87 feet. No elevation survey is available for hole DC-4, but it is approximately 745 feet above mean sea level based upon the survey of hole DC-5, which has a reported elevation of 745.16 feet on the top of the 3-inch flange. The purpose of core hole DC-4 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing, cross-hole seismic shear, and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-5. Hole DC-4 was drilled through the overburden into basalt bedrock by cable tool methods (0-623 feet) and continuously cored through the final interval (623 to 3998 feet).Core recovery was 95.8 percent of the total footage cored

  19. CORE: a phylogenetically-curated 16S rDNA database of the core oral microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann L Griffen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparing bacterial 16S rDNA sequences to GenBank and other large public databases via BLAST often provides results of little use for identification and taxonomic assignment of the organisms of interest. The human microbiome, and in particular the oral microbiome, includes many taxa, and accurate identification of sequence data is essential for studies of these communities. For this purpose, a phylogenetically curated 16S rDNA database of the core oral microbiome, CORE, was developed. The goal was to include a comprehensive and minimally redundant representation of the bacteria that regularly reside in the human oral cavity with computationally robust classification at the level of species and genus. Clades of cultivated and uncultivated taxa were formed based on sequence analyses using multiple criteria, including maximum-likelihood-based topology and bootstrap support, genetic distance, and previous naming. A number of classification inconsistencies for previously named species, especially at the level of genus, were resolved. The performance of the CORE database for identifying clinical sequences was compared to that of three publicly available databases, GenBank nr/nt, RDP and HOMD, using a set of sequencing reads that had not been used in creation of the database. CORE offered improved performance compared to other public databases for identification of human oral bacterial 16S sequences by a number of criteria. In addition, the CORE database and phylogenetic tree provide a framework for measures of community divergence, and the focused size of the database offers advantages of efficiency for BLAST searching of large datasets. The CORE database is available as a searchable interface and for download at http://microbiome.osu.edu.

  20. Review of the effective approaches for providing the R and D information on the geological disposal of HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi; Okuhara, Hidehiko; Nanjo, Yuki

    2001-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) had already carried out Research and development (R and D) activities for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste (HLW) in Japan, the information activities in order to gain a public understanding in Japan. At present, however, the information on the geological disposal project including R and D is still unpopular among the public and does not draw so much attention compared to the other current topics. To make a national consensus on the project, the effective public relational activities with the suitable approaches for the various groups/classes among the public should be done. From the viewpoint of gaining the social recognition, having the valuable interviews with the authorities, opinion leaders and other specialists, we reviewed the approaches of the effective information activities to gain the public attention and let them have proper understanding. We also had some group interviews subject to the university students and housewives, who are expected to have no concern with the geological disposal. During these interviews, we had monitored the degree of understanding on the geological disposal and JNC's R and D activities utilizing the conventional materials that JNC had already prepared, such as brochures and video tape recording, and found if the materials were helpful or not, for proper understanding. A questionnaire survey on the internet was done, as one of yardsticks for the effect of the JNC's activities. We studied the degree of understanding of the respondents, and analyzed the effect of the JNC's public relational activities. Based on the another questionnaire survey results at 'Forum on geological disposal', which was held by JNC, we also analyzed the effect of the forum as one of two-way communications tools. Following the above analysis, the effective approaches of the future public relational activities of the Geological disposal was reviewed. (author)

  1. Archive of Geosample Information from the British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF), National Oceanography Centre, is a contributor to the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  2. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination; Methode de cartographie de susceptibilite magnetique sur carottes de forage. Mesures experimentales pour la determination de structures geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delrive, C

    1993-11-08

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10{sup -5} SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm{sup 2} pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends.

  3. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  4. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: Radiological Protection in Geological Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.; Larsson, C-M.; McKenney, C.; Minon, J-P.; Mobbs, S.; Schneider, T.; Umeki, H.; Hilden, W.; Pescatore, C.; Vesterlind, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission’s three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  5. Impact, and its implications for geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvin, U.B.

    1988-01-01

    The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe

  6. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of projectspecific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well. Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically. As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program's Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group's (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  7. A Guide to On-line Geological Information and Publications for Use in GSHP Site Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K

    2000-03-01

    One of the first steps in the consideration of a GSHP system is a characterization of the site in terms of geology and groundwater availability. Information concerning aquifer (or aquifers) available at the site, their ability to produce water, depth to water, geology, depth to bedrock and the nature of the soil and rock (hydraulic and thermal properties) are key issues. This information guides the designer in the selection of the type of GSHP system to be used and in the design of the system. The ground source industry has not taken full advantage of available geological information resources in the past. This document is an effort to introduce GSHP designers to some of these information sources and the nature of the data that is available. A special emphasis has been placed on Internet based resources operated by government agencies--primarily the USGS and state geological surveys. The following section provides some background information on the maps and other information sources in general. This is followed by summaries of information available for the most active GSHP states.

  8. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study carried out for the European Commission, the scope and application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and current EIA practice in European Union Member States and applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe was investigated, specifically in relation to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This paper reports the study's investigations into a model approach to EIA in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment in the overall decision processes and public involvement. (author)

  9. Long-term Safety of a Geologic Repository: What does the public want to know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotra, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Janet Kotra of the U.S. NRC recounted the questions most frequently asked of the Commission's staff, concerning the long-term safety of the planned Yucca Mountain repository. The first question was related to who would decide whether the facility is safe enough. The next question linked to it is if regulatory staff is sufficiently qualified, and if they have access to independent sources of information or depend merely on the information provided by the implementer. The subsequent questions were about what criteria the regulator used and whether they were comprehensive enough. A separate group of questions addressed the safety of the technology, including the geologic features of the site, the engineered structures and the packaging of waste. Issues of documentation, operational control, long-term monitoring, oversight, and enforcement were also raised, along with the transparency of such processes and the accessibility of documents to the public. In addition, several questions were related to the fairness of decision making, public involvement, and the flexibility of the implementation process with regard to future knowledge and RD and D. Ms Kotra propounded that a single question was behind those cited above, namely whether one could rely on the regulator or not. Since it is not realistic to expect an overall consensus on the decision of the regulator agency, the goal should rather be to build confidence in the decision-making process. Key factors of confidence include openness on the part of the regulator and other decision-making institutions, and access to trustworthy representatives of these organisations

  10. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  11. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; James Drahovzal; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Chris Laughery; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-04-01

    Private- and public-sector stakeholders formed the new ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' and began a two-year research effort that will lead to a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration throughout the Appalachian basin. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 gas exploration companies and 6 research team members, including the state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks are being conducted by basin-wide research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. More than 3400 miles of Appalachian basin digital seismic data have been quality checked. In addition, inquiries have been made regarding the availability of additional seismic data from government and industry partners in the consortium. Interpretations of the seismic data have begun. Error checking is being performed by mapping the time to various prominent reflecting horizons, and analyzing for any anomalies. A regional geological velocity model is being created to make time-to-depth conversions. Members of the stratigraphy task team compiled a generalized, basin-wide correlation chart, began the process of scanning geophysical logs and laid out lines for 16 regional cross sections. Two preliminary cross sections were constructed, a database of all available Trenton-Black River cores was created, and a basin-wide map showing these core locations was produced. Two cores were examined, described and photographed in detail, and were correlated to the network of geophysical logs. Members of the petrology team began the process of determining the original distribution of porous and permeable facies within a sequence stratigraphic framework. A detailed sedimentologic and petrographic study of the Union Furnace road cut in central Pennsylvania was completed. This effort will facilitate the calibration

  12. Regional Geology Web Map Application Development: Javascript v2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    This is a milestone report for the FY2017 continuation of the Spent Fuel, Storage, and Waste, Technology (SFSWT) program (formerly Used Fuel Disposal (UFD) program) development of the Regional Geology Web Mapping Application by the Idaho National Laboratory Geospatial Science and Engineering group. This application was developed for general public use and is an interactive web-based application built in Javascript to visualize, reference, and analyze US pertinent geological features of the SFSWT program. This tool is a version upgrade from Adobe FLEX technology. It is designed to facilitate informed decision making of the geology of continental US relevant to the SFSWT program.

  13. Regional Geology Web Map Application Development: Javascript v2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Glenn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-19

    This is a milestone report for the FY2017 continuation of the Spent Fuel, Storage, and Waste, Technology (SFSWT) program (formerly Used Fuel Disposal (UFD) program) development of the Regional Geology Web Mapping Application by the Idaho National Laboratory Geospatial Science and Engineering group. This application was developed for general public use and is an interactive web-based application built in Javascript to visualize, reference, and analyze US pertinent geological features of the SFSWT program. This tool is a version upgrade from Adobe FLEX technology. It is designed to facilitate informed decision making of the geology of continental US relevant to the SFSWT program.

  14. Geological And Geotechnical Investigations Of Axum Dam Site Tigray Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leulalem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geotechnical study was conducted in concrete gravity dam which is planned to be constructed in the Maychew River 40 km south of Axum town for the purpose of water supply for the town. The objectives of this research were to map geology of the area to characterize geological defects within and around dam site to evaluate the water tightness of the dam site and to determine the bearing capacity of the dam foundation. The research involved review of different literatures lithological and structural mapping characterizing rock masses by using different rock mass classification methods interpretation of subsurface data geophysical core drilled data test pit data etc.. Results of the study indicate that the area is underlain by Quaternary sediments metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The Quaternary sediments are characterized by low permeability low plasticity and are poorly graded nature. Metasedimentary rocks are found covering the right abutment of the dam whereas at reservoir area it is found intercalating with metavolcanic rocks. These rocks are moderately jointed and sheared with faulting and folding noticed due to these they have a relatively high permeability. Metavolcanic rocks which are found covering the left abutment are strong less permeable and fractured. Most of discontinuities such as fractures bedding and foliation in the study area are oriented E-W NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW. The VES tomography and drilled core result revealed that the potential problems seepageleakage could occur due to presence of faults joints karstified black limestone lithological variations groundwater depth and topography at right abutment. Differential settlements may also occur because empirically estimated moduli of deformation Ed of rock masses indicate that for right abutment much less than left abutment and different geological defects across the dam axis. To minimize these problems contact grouting and consolidation grouting are recommended

  15. Ontology-driven data integration and visualization for exploring regional geologic time and paleontological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbin; Ma, Xiaogang; Chen, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Initiatives of open data promote the online publication and sharing of large amounts of geologic data. How to retrieve information and discover knowledge from the big data is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we developed an ontology-driven data integration and visualization pilot system for exploring information of regional geologic time, paleontology, and fundamental geology. The pilot system (http://www2.cs.uidaho.edu/%7Emax/gts/)

  16. Commencement of Geoparks, Geology day and International Earth Science Olympiad, IYPE in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki

    2010-05-01

    The GSJ is the main supporting organization of IYPE Japan, which is an implementation body of IYPE in Japan, serving as its secretariat. During the IYPE triennial activity, the GSJ has been supporting development of Geparks, establishment of "the Geology Day" and the Earth Science Olympiad activities with some academic societies, and has distributed geological maps with IYPE logo. The GSJ also established an outreach network "Geo-networks Tsukuba" as a local legacy of the IYPE, and has managed it with a local government, research organizations, nonprofit corporations and local media to increase geological and environmental literacy of public, especially among young people. The GSJ-AIST has also contributed internationally to IYPE by joining two international projects, OneGeology and the CCOP Book project. Geoparks in Japan are characterized by following features. The Japanese Islands and the surrounding seas are situated in the area of unique geologic features; the place where several tectonic plates meet and collide. This causes earthquakes and volcanic activities, and makes Japan one of most dynamic areas on the earth. The dynamics of the earth bring about not only geological hazards but also a lot of blessings. In August of 2009, three Geoparks, the Toya Caldera and Usu Volcano Geopark, the Itoigawa Geopark and the Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark, were accepted to join the Global Geopark Network from Japan for the first time. Since its launch in 2006, the GSJ has been playing a major role in promoting Geoparks in Japan together with Geological Society of Japan. The GSJ hosts the Japan Geopark Committee (JGC) for quality evaluation, serving as the information center of Geoparks in Japan. The Geology Day of Japan (10th of May) has been set up by the academic societies for geology in Japan and GSJ in 2007. The Geology Day is expected to provide the chances for the public to enjoy field trips and excursions and to understand the importance of geo-diversity. The Day

  17. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  18. Geochemical studies of backfill aggregates, lake sediment cores and the Hueco Bolson Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapalia, Anita

    This dissertation comprises of three different researches that focuses on the application of geochemistry from aggregates, lake sediment cores and Hueco Bolson Aquifer. Each study is independent and presented in the publication format. The first chapter is already published and the second chapter is in revision phase. Overall, three studies measure the large scale (field) as well as bench scale (lab) water-rock interactions influenced by the climatic and anthropogenic factors spans from the field of environmental geology to civil engineering. The first chapter of this dissertation addresses the chemical evaluation of coarse aggregates from six different quarries in Texas. The goal of this work is to find out the best geochemical methods for assessing the corrosion potential of coarse aggregates prior to their use in mechanically stabilized earth walls. Electrochemical parameters help to define the corrosion potential of aggregates following two different leaching protocols. Testing the coarse and fine aggregates demonstrate the chemical difference due to size-related kinetic leaching effects. Field fines also show different chemistry than the bulk rock indicating the weathering impact on carbonate rocks. The second chapter investigates zinc (Zn) isotopic signatures from eight lake sediment cores collected both from pristine lakes and those impacted by urban anthropogenic contamination. Zinc from the natural weathering of rocks and anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants are transported to these lakes and the signatures are recorded in the sediments. Isotopic analysis of core samples provides the signature of anthropogenic contamination sources. Dated sediment core and isotopic analysis can identify Zn inputs that are correlated to the landuse and population change of the watersheds. Comparison of isotopic data from both pristine and urban lake sediment core also serves as an analog in other lake sediment cores in the world. The third chapter studies on Hueco Bolson

  19. Digital Geologic Mapping and Integration with the Geoweb: The Death Knell for Exclusively Paper Geologic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    The combination of traditional methods of geologic mapping with rapidly developing web-based geospatial applications ('the geoweb') and the various collaborative opportunities of web 2.0 have the potential to change the nature, value, and relevance of geologic maps and related field studies. Parallel advances in basic GPS technology, digital photography, and related integrative applications provide practicing geologic mappers with greatly enhanced methods for collecting, visualizing, interpreting, and disseminating geologic information. Even a cursory application of available tools can make field and office work more enriching and efficient; whereas more advanced and systematic applications provide new avenues for collaboration, outreach, and public education. Moreover, they ensure a much broader audience among an immense number of internet savvy end-users with very specific expectations for geospatial data availability. Perplexingly, the geologic community as a whole is not fully exploring this opportunity despite the inevitable revolution in portends. The slow acceptance follows a broad generational trend wherein seasoned professionals are lagging behind geology students and recent graduates in their grasp of and interest in the capabilities of the geoweb and web 2.0 types of applications. Possible explanations for this include: fear of the unknown, fear of learning curve, lack of interest, lack of academic/professional incentive, and (hopefully not) reluctance toward open collaboration. Although some aspects of the expanding geoweb are cloaked in arcane computer code, others are extremely simple to understand and use. A particularly obvious and simple application to enhance any field study is photo geotagging, the digital documentation of the locations of key outcrops, illustrative vistas, and particularly complicated geologic field relations. Viewing geotagged photos in their appropriate context on a virtual globe with high-resolution imagery can be an

  20. Geologic database for digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah: an application of the North American Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, David R.; Ludington, Steve; Nutt, Constance M.; Stone, Paul A.; Miller, David M.; Miller, Robert J.; Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2003-01-01

    The USGS is creating an integrated national database for digital state geologic maps that includes stratigraphic, age, and lithologic information. The majority of the conterminous 48 states have digital geologic base maps available, often at scales of 1:500,000. This product is a prototype, and is intended to demonstrate the types of derivative maps that will be possible with the national integrated database. This database permits the creation of a number of types of maps via simple or sophisticated queries, maps that may be useful in a number of areas, including mineral-resource assessment, environmental assessment, and regional tectonic evolution. This database is distributed with three main parts: a Microsoft Access 2000 database containing geologic map attribute data, an Arc/Info (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) Export format file containing points representing designation of stratigraphic regions for the Geologic Map of Utah, and an ArcView 3.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) project containing scripts and dialogs for performing a series of generalization and mineral resource queries. IMPORTANT NOTE: Spatial data for the respective stage geologic maps is not distributed with this report. The digital state geologic maps for the states involved in this report are separate products, and two of them are produced by individual state agencies, which may be legally and/or financially responsible for this data. However, the spatial datasets for maps discussed in this report are available to the public. Questions regarding the distribution, sale, and use of individual state geologic maps should be sent to the respective state agency. We do provide suggestions for obtaining and formatting the spatial data to make it compatible with data in this report. See section ‘Obtaining and Formatting Spatial Data’ in the PDF version of the report.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of geological samples for gold and accessory elements power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistrenko, Yu.N.; Medvedev, A.A.; Kovalenko, V.V.; Markov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Possibility of using a power reactor for neutron activation analysis to detect gold and accompanying elements in geological samples of a region was investigated. Specimens (gold-containing samples and standards) were irradiated in a spare channel for ionization chambers located outside the core in graphite reflector. Spectrometry was conducted with the help of a semiconducting detector with LP 4900 multichannel analizer. Sensitivity threshold for gold was (1-3)10 -6 % - (1-2)10 -5 %. It is shown that this method can be used not only for gold detection but for high-sensitive multielement analysis of geological samples

  2. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  3. Bibliometric analysis of publications from North Korea indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection from 1988 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geum Hee Jeong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the bibliometric characteristics of publications from North Korea indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection from 1988 to 2016. We hypothesized that the main research area would be the physical sciences, and that the number of articles would continually increase over time. The Web of Science Core Collection was searched using the terms “North Korea” OR “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea” OR “DPRK” in the address field of the basic search on February 2, 2017. The country of the co-authors, affiliations, journals, annual number of publications, and research fields were analyzed. Additionally, the articles by North Korean authors only were analyzed for the same parameters. A total of 318 articles from North Korea were found. The most frequent countries of collaboration were China, Germany, and Australia. Kim Il Sung University produced the most articles. The main research fields were physics, mathematics, and materials science. The categories of the journal titles corresponded to the research fields. The rapid increase in the number of articles in 2015 and 2016 was remarkable, although this increase started from a very small baseline number of publications. The results of the analysis of the 46 articles published by North Korean authors only were equivalent to the results for the 318 articles presented above. Our hypotheses were confirmed. The surge of articles in 2015 and 2016 may represent the recent efforts by the North Korean government to emphasize scientific research and development. It is anticipated that the productivity of North Korean researchers in terms of publications in international journals will increase dramatically based on the above trends, although the publication baseline is very low.

  4. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The collection of papers that follow continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is one of a series of "online only" versions of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  5. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Galloway, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The collection of papers that follow continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is one of a series of 'online only' versions of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  6. From printed geological maps to web-based service oriented data products - strategies, foundations and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, M.; Schiegl, M.; Stöckl, W.; Heger, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Geological Survey of Austria is legally obligated by the INSPIRE directive to provide data that fall under this directive (geology, mineral resources and natural risk zones) to the European commission in a semantically harmonized and technically interoperable way. Until recently the focus was entirely on the publication of high quality printed cartographic products. These have a complex (carto-)graphic data-model, which allows visualizing several thematic aspects, such as lithology, stratigraphy, tectonics, geologic age, mineral resources, mass movements, geomorphology etc. in a single planar map/product. Nonetheless these graphic data-models do not allow retrieving individual thematic aspects since these were coded in a complex portrayal scheme. Automatic information retrieval is thus impossible; and domain knowledge is necessary to interpret these "encrypted datasets". With INSPIRE becoming effective and a variety of conceptual models (e.g. GeoSciML), built around a semantic framework (i.e. controlled vocabularies), being available it is necessary to develop a strategy and workflow for semantic harmonization of such datasets. In this contribution we demonstrate the development of a multistage workflow which will allow us to transform our printed maps to semantically enabled datasets and services and discuss some prerequisites, foundations and problems. In a first step in our workflow we analyzed our maps and developed controlled vocabularies that describe the thematic content of our data. We then developed a physical data-model which we use to attribute our spatial data with thematic information from our controlled vocabularies to form core thematic data sets. This physical data model is geared towards use on an organizational level but builds upon existing standards (INSPIRE, GeoSciML) to allow transformation to international standards. In a final step we will develop a standardized mapping scheme to publish INSPIRE conformant services from our core datasets

  7. Procedures for use of, and drill cores and cuttings available for study at, the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.C.; Hannula, S.R.; Bowers, B.

    1997-03-01

    In 1990, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from investigations of the subsurface conducted at the INEL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials. The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the well names, well locations, and depth intervals available. Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INEL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose the majority of cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers' responsibilities for access to the facility, and examination, sampling, and return of materials

  8. Surveying Geology Concepts in Education Standards for a Rapidly Changing Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, Sarah K.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon P.; Slater, Timothy F.; Heyer, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Internationally much attention is being paid to which of a seemingly endless list of scientific concepts should be taught to schoolchildren to enable them to best participate in the global economy of the 21st Century. In regards to science education, the concepts framing the subject of geology holds exalted status as core scientific principles in…

  9. Archive of Geosample Information from the Geological Survey of Canada Atlantic (GSC A) Marine Geoscience Curation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geological Survey of Canada Atlantic (GSC A) Marine Geoscience Curation Facility contributed information on 40,428 cores, grabs, and dredges in their holdings to...

  10. Geologic literature on North America, 1785-1918; Part I, Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, John M.

    1923-01-01

    The bibliography forming Part I of this compilation includes papers relating to the geology paleontology, petrology, and mineralogy of North America-specifically, the United States, the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland, the Arctic regions north of the continent, Greenland, Mexico Central America, Panama, and the West Indies including Trinidad-and also the Hawaiian Islands. Geographic and descriptive writings and accounts of travels with incidental mention of geologic facts are not included. Textbooks published in America and work general in character by American authors are given but general papers by foreign writers are excluded unless they have appeared in American publications. Papers by American writers on the geology of other parts of the world are not listed.

  11. The Seabed and Shallow Geology Mapping of the Porcupine Bank, West of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaudeau, B.; Monteys, X.; McCarron, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The "Porcupine Bank" is a bathymetric high of over 40,000 km2 linked to the western shelf of Ireland which lies between 51-54° N and 11-15° W approximately 100 km west of Ireland. Water depths are as shallow as 145 m over the "Porcupine Ridge". The Bank's location on the north eastern fringe of the Atlantic Ocean, in a critical position between the shelf edge and the main land and along the line of the Polar Front, means it may contain significant indications of glacial/interglacial changes in northern hemisphere climate and in North Atlantic Ocean circulation. But it also means that it consists of strategically important marine environments with very likely future developmental pressures. Peer-reviewed publications on the geology of the Bank are very limited and this current state of knowledge will hamper any marine ecosystem research and protection. This paper will describe the first results of a research project aiming at filling the gap of our understanding of the region's shallow geology and subseabed resources and characteristics. As a first step, seabed geomorphology mapping using high resolution MBES and sub bottom data have highlighted a wealth of glacially derived features such as iceberg scours and elongated ridges whose formation could be directly influenced by the presence of ice on or nearby the bank. Other features interpreted as sand waves could help understand relict or modern currents. In addition to these surface features, this paper introduces recent geological mapping of the shallow stratigraphy of the bank using 2D seismic and sub bottom profiler data collected at a high density correlated with recently collected vibro-cores. The seismic units and corresponding lithofacies (some with radiocarbon dates) are consistently described and a regional correlation built.

  12. Bibliography of publications prepared by US Geological Survey personnel under cooperative programs with the US Department of Energy and predecessor agencies, 1957--1991, with emphasis on nuclear testing programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has participated in continuing studies related to nuclear energy in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and predecessor agencies since the 1940's. Geologic, geophysical and hydrologic studies have been conducted to aid in mineral exploration; in support of the nuclear weapons testing programs at the Nevada Test Site and several other locations; in support of the Plowshare Program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions; and in the search for potential radioactive waste disposal sites. This bibliography contains alphabetical listings of 850 publications and 95 additional abstracts related to these investigations from 1957 through 1991, and contains an extensive index based on title-subject keywords

  13. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  14. Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project Completes Coring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Scientific Staff of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project (CBIS Project completed its coring operations during September–December 2005 and April–May 2006. Cores were collected continuously to a total depth of 1766 m. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of impactites beneath 444 m of post-impact continental shelf sediments.The CBIS Project is a joint venture of the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS. Project activities began with a planning workshop in September 2003 attended by sixtythree scientists from ten countries. Field operations began with site preparation in July 2005, and coring began in September 2005. Drilling, Observation and Sampling of theEarth’s Continental Crust (DOSECC was the general contractor for the drilling operations throughout 2005.

  15. Geologic map of the Lada Terra quadrangle (V-56), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides a geological map of Lada Terra quadrangle (V–56), a portion of the southern hemisphere of Venus that extends from lat 50° S. to 70° S. and from long 0° E. to 60° E. V–56 is bordered by Kaiwan Fluctus (V–44) and Agnesi (V–45) quadrangles in the north and by Mylitta Fluctus (V–61), Fredegonde (V–57), and Hurston (V–62) quadrangles in the west, east, and south, respectively. The geological map of V–56 quadrangle reveals evidence for tectonic, volcanic, and impact processes in Lada Terra in the form of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, and volcanic plains. In addition, the map also shows relative age relations such as overlapping or cross-cutting relations between the mapped geologic units. The geology observed within this quadrangle addresses (1) how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts and (2) how tesserae, regional plains, and impact craters, which are also significant geological units observed in Lada Terra quadrangle, were formed.

  16. Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Four Geologic Provinces Surrounding Mars Desert Research Station, Utah: Characterizing Analog Martian Soil in a Human Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Direito, S.; Foing, B.

    2011-01-01

    The DOMEX program is a NASA-MMAMA funded project featuring simulations of human crews on Mars focused on science activities that involve collecting samples from the subsurface using both manual and robotic equipment methods and analyzing them in the field and post mission. A crew simulating a human mission to Mars performed activities focused on subsurface science for 2 weeks in November 2009 at Mars Desert Research Station near Hanksville, Utah --an important chemical and morphological Mars analog site. Activities performed included 1) survey of the area to identify geologic provinces, 2) obtaining soil and rock samples from each province and characterizing their mineralogy, chemistry, and biology; 3) site selection and reconnaissance for a future drilling mission; 4) deployment and testing of Mars Underground Mole, a percussive robotic soil sampling device; and 5) recording and analyzing how crew time was used to accomplish these tasks. This paper summarizes results from analysis of soil cores

  17. Setting waste isolation times into a geological context: some experience with natural analogues in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritschi, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The concept of geological repositories: Permanent protection of humans and the environment by long-term passive isolation of the radioactive materials from the environment. Permanent means until radioactivity has decayed to insignificant levels (Many tens of thousands of years up to one million years into the future). Human experience with timescales: - Personal: Some 10 years, maybe up to 2 to (3) generations; - 'Rapid' (normally experienced as slow) and relevant changes with regard to personal well-being during this time span; - 100 years of European history; - Human History up to 5,000 years: but relevant to experience? So there is a complete mismatch of personal experience with the question addressed in the safety case. Understandable explanation of a geological repository: - Why is a geological repository necessary? - Why are geological repositories safe? - How can one be sure, what happens in 100,000 years? Radioactive waste must be disposed of in a way to ensure permanent protection of humans and the environment (Swiss Nuclear Energy Law). A Containment is thus necessary. Today's containment (storage) needs maintenance, but how about stability of society? How about the future development on the surface where we live? Passive safety is based on multiple barrier system: passive containment without the need of maintenance in a geological environment. Requirements on the host rock and the geosphere: Sound science and expertise is available for all the components. The need for translation: What pictures do you use to explain the functioning of a geological repository over long time scales? Pictures, Symbols, 'Analogues' must be adapted to the specific situation in a country. So whatever may happen on the surface over the next one million years: Time stands still in the underground

  18. Relations between Vegetation and Geologic Framework in Barrier Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, N. H.; Ferguson, J. B.; Lehner, J. D.; Taylor, D.; Tuttle, L. F., II; Wernette, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide valuable ecosystems and protective services to coastal communities. The longevity of barrier islands is threatened by sea-level rise, human impacts, and extreme storms. The purpose of this research is to evaluate how vegetation dynamics interact with the subsurface and offshore framework geology to influence the beach and dune morphology. Beach and dune morphology can be viewed as free and/or forced behavior, where free systems are stochastic and the morphology is dependent on variations in the storm surge run-up, aeolian sediment supply and transport potential, and vegetation dynamics and persistence. Forced systems are those where patterns in the coastal morphology are determined by some other structural control, such as the underlying and offshore framework geology. Previous studies have documented the effects of geologic framework or vegetation dynamics on the beach and dunes, although none have examined possible control by vegetation dynamics in context of the geologic framework (i.e. combined free and forced behavior). Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) was used to examine the interaction of free and forced morphology because the subsurface framework geology and surface beach and dune morphology are variable along the island. Vegetation dynamics were assessed by classifying geographically referenced historical aerial imagery into areas with vegetation and areas without vegetation, as well as LiDAR data to verify this imagery. The subsurface geologic structure was assessed using a combination of geophysical surveys (i.e. electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, and offshore seismic surveys). Comparison of the observed vegetation patterns and geologic framework leads to a series of questions surrounding how mechanistically these two drivers of coastal morphology are related. Upcoming coring and geophysical surveys will enable us to validate new and existing geophysical data. Results of this paper will help us better

  19. Topographic and hydrographic GIS datasets for the Afghan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2013 mineral areas of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brittany N.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan is endowed with a vast amount of mineral resources, and it is believed that the current economic state of the country could be greatly improved through investment in the extraction and production of these resources. In 2007, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. In 2011, a follow-on data product, “Summaries and Data Packages of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released (Peters and others, 2011). As part of this more recent work, geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies were carried out in the areas of interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of the mineral resources. The 2011 publication included a dataset of 24 identified AOIs containing subareas, a corresponding digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, areal extent, and hydrography for each AOI. In 2012, project scientists identified five new AOIs and two subareas in Afghanistan. These new areas are Ahankashan, Kandahar, Parwan, North Bamyan, and South Bamyan. The two identified subareas include Obatu-Shela and Sekhab-ZamtoKalay, both located within the larger Kandahar AOI. In addition, an extended Kandahar AOI is included in the project for water resource modeling purposes. The dataset presented in this publication consists of the areal extent of the five new AOIs, two subareas, and the extended Kandahar AOI, elevation contours at 100-, 50-, and 25-meter intervals, an enhanced DEM, and a hydrographic dataset covering the extent of the new study area. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to assist with mineral assessments, monitoring

  20. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Galloway, John

    2010-01-01

    The collection of papers that follow continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is one of a series of 'online only' versions of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  1. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  2. Follow-up by the ANDRA to the Cigeo project after the public debate - Industrial centre of geological storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    In a first part, this report comments and discusses the evolutions of the Cigeo (industrial centre of geological storage of radioactive wastes) project after the public debate in terms of: integration of a pilot industrial phase to the installation start up, implementation of a regularly reviewed master plan for the storage exploitation, a planning arrangement, and commitment of civil society in the project. The next part briefly presents the different steps defined by the ANDRA to answer the demand for reversibility. The third part states ANDRA's commitments: to guarantee safety above all, to preserve and to develop the hosting territory, and to manage the costs

  3. The U.S. Geological Survey's water resources program in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Denise A.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey performs hydrologic investigations throughout the United States to appraise the Nation's water resources. The Geological Survey began its water-resources investigations in New York in 1895. To meet the objectives of assessing New York's water resources, the Geological Survey (1) monitors the quantity and quality of surface and ground water, (2) conducts investigations of the occurrence, availability, and chemical quality of water in specific areas of the State, (3) develops methods and techniques of data-collection and interpretation, (4) provides scientific guidance to the research community, to Federal, State, and local governments, and to the public, and (5) disseminates data and results of research through reports, maps, news releases, conferences, and workshops. Many of the joint hydrologic investigations are performed by the Geological Survey in cooperation with State, county, and nonprofit organizations. The data collection network in New York includes nearly 200 gaging stations and 250 observation wells; chemical quality of water is measured at 260 sites. Data collected at these sites are published annually and are filed in the WATSTORE computer system. Some of the interpretive studies performed by the Geological Survey in New York include (1) determining the suitability of ground-water reservoirs for public-water supply in urban areas, (2) assessing geohydrologic impacts of leachate from hazardous waste sites on stream and ground-water quality, (3) evaluating the effects of precipitation quality and basin characteristics on streams and lakes, and (4) developing digital models of the hydrology of aquifers to simulate ground-water flow and the interaction between ground water and streams.

  4. Water resources science of the U.S. Geological Survey in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Anna N.

    2018-04-10

    The U.S. Geological Survey studies the effects of weather, climate, and man-made influences on groundwater levels, streamflow, and reservoir and lake levels, as well as on the ecological health of rivers, lakes, reservoirs, watersheds, estuaries, aquifers, soils, beaches, and wildlife. From these studies, the USGS produces high-quality, timely, and unbiased scientific research and data that are widely accessible and relevant to all levels of government, Tribal Nations, academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and the general public. In New York, the U.S. Geological Survey works with other Federal agencies, State and municipal government, Tribal Nations, and the private sector to develop products that inform decision makers, legislators, and the general public.

  5. Cores to the rescue: how old cores enable new science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Noren, A. J.; Brady, K.

    2016-12-01

    The value of archiving scientific specimens and collections for the purpose of enabling further research using new analytical techniques, resolving conflicting results, or repurposing them for entirely new research, is often discussed in abstract terms. We all agree that samples with adequate metadata ought to be archived systematically for easy access, for a long time and stored under optimal conditions. And yet, as storage space fills, there is a temptation to cull the collection, or when a researcher retires, to discard the collection unless the researcher manages to make his or her own arrangement for the collection to be accessioned elsewhere. Nobody has done anything with these samples in over 20 years! Who would want them? It turns out that plenty of us do want them, if we know how to find them and if they have sufficient metadata to assess past work and suitability for new analyses. The LacCore collection holds over 33 km of core from >6700 sites in diverse geographic locations worldwide with samples collected as early as 1950s. From these materials, there are many examples to illustrate the scientific value of archiving geologic samples. One example that benefitted Ito personally were cores from Lakes Mirabad and Zeribar, Iran, acquired in 1963 by Herb Wright and his associates. Several doctoral and postdoctoral students generated and published paleoecological reconstructions based on cladocerans, diatoms, pollen or plant macrofossils, mostly between 1963 and 1967. The cores were resampled in 1990s by a student being jointly advised by Wright and Ito for oxygen isotope analysis of endogenic calcite. The results were profitably compared with pollen and the results published in 2001 and 2006. From 1979 until very recently, visiting Iran for fieldwork was not pallowed for US scientists. Other examples will be given to further illustrate the power of archived samples to advance science.

  6. Geological 3D model of the investigation niche in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koittola, N.

    2014-07-15

    The main goal of this Master of Science Thesis was to create a geological 3D-model of the investigation niche 3 and its surroundings. The model were created for the needs of the rock mechanical back analysis. This study is a part of Posiva's regional studies for characterization of the bedrock. Totally 4 models were created: lithological model, foliation model, fracture model, and physical rock property model. Besides the modeling, there was also made a study of the migmatite structures in the niche. Used geological and geophysical methods were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, ground penetration radar, mise-a-la-masse and drill hole geophysics. Four rock types exist at the niche area: veined gneiss, pegmatite granite, diatexitic gneiss and quartz gneiss. The lithological units were modeled primary with the drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and ground penetrating radar. The major lithological units followed the main foliation direction (south dipping). So the continuations were fairly easy to model in the walls and roof, where the data was lacking. Foliation and fractures were modeled as discs, with mid-points at the measurement points of the structure. There were two main foliation directions 164/46 and 62/39. Fractures were more scattered but three fracture sets can be separated: 156/34, 270/85 and 342/83. The first set is mainly from the drill core loggings, second and third from tunnel mapping. Used methods in foliation model were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and drill hole geophysics. In fracture model used data was from drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, mise-a-la-masse measurements and drill core geophysic. Four anomalous zones were detected with the drill hole geophysics. Three of these zones were associated with intensely fractured zones and one was connected to exceptionally high mica content in the gneiss. Rocks of Olkiluoto are divided into gneisses and magmatic rocks in the geological mapping. Actually almost all Olkiluoto

  7. Geological 3D model of the investigation niche in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, southwestern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koittola, N.

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of this Master of Science Thesis was to create a geological 3D-model of the investigation niche 3 and its surroundings. The model were created for the needs of the rock mechanical back analysis. This study is a part of Posiva's regional studies for characterization of the bedrock. Totally 4 models were created: lithological model, foliation model, fracture model, and physical rock property model. Besides the modeling, there was also made a study of the migmatite structures in the niche. Used geological and geophysical methods were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, ground penetration radar, mise-a-la-masse and drill hole geophysics. Four rock types exist at the niche area: veined gneiss, pegmatite granite, diatexitic gneiss and quartz gneiss. The lithological units were modeled primary with the drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and ground penetrating radar. The major lithological units followed the main foliation direction (south dipping). So the continuations were fairly easy to model in the walls and roof, where the data was lacking. Foliation and fractures were modeled as discs, with mid-points at the measurement points of the structure. There were two main foliation directions 164/46 and 62/39. Fractures were more scattered but three fracture sets can be separated: 156/34, 270/85 and 342/83. The first set is mainly from the drill core loggings, second and third from tunnel mapping. Used methods in foliation model were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and drill hole geophysics. In fracture model used data was from drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, mise-a-la-masse measurements and drill core geophysic. Four anomalous zones were detected with the drill hole geophysics. Three of these zones were associated with intensely fractured zones and one was connected to exceptionally high mica content in the gneiss. Rocks of Olkiluoto are divided into gneisses and magmatic rocks in the geological mapping. Actually almost all Olkiluoto's rocks are

  8. Bayesian Chance-Constrained Hydraulic Barrier Design under Geological Structure Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazan, Nima; Pham, Hai V; Tsai, Frank T-C

    2015-01-01

    The groundwater community has widely recognized geological structure uncertainty as a major source of model structure uncertainty. Previous studies in aquifer remediation design, however, rarely discuss the impact of geological structure uncertainty. This study combines chance-constrained (CC) programming with Bayesian model averaging (BMA) as a BMA-CC framework to assess the impact of geological structure uncertainty in remediation design. To pursue this goal, the BMA-CC method is compared with traditional CC programming that only considers model parameter uncertainty. The BMA-CC method is employed to design a hydraulic barrier to protect public supply wells of the Government St. pump station from salt water intrusion in the "1500-foot" sand and the "1700-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, southeastern Louisiana. To address geological structure uncertainty, three groundwater models based on three different hydrostratigraphic architectures are developed. The results show that using traditional CC programming overestimates design reliability. The results also show that at least five additional connector wells are needed to achieve more than 90% design reliability level. The total amount of injected water from the connector wells is higher than the total pumpage of the protected public supply wells. While reducing the injection rate can be achieved by reducing the reliability level, the study finds that the hydraulic barrier design to protect the Government St. pump station may not be economically attractive. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Overview of the regional geology of the Paradox Basin Study Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The Geologic Project Manager for the Paradox Basin Salt Region (PBSR), Woodward-Clyde Consultants, has conducted geologic studies to characterize the region and evaluate selected geologic formations as potential repositories for the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Evaluations have been made from the standpoint of engineering feasibility, safety, public health, and resource conflicts. The Regulatory Project Manager for the PBSR, Bechtel National, Inc., has performed environmental characterizations to ensure that data on ecological, socioeconomic, and other environmental factors required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 are considered. This report characterizes, at a regional overview level of detail, the Paradox Basin Study Region Geology. Information sources include the published literature, field trip guidebooks, open file data of the US Geological Survey (USGC) and Utah Geologic and Mineral Survey, university theses, Geo-Ref Computer Search, and various unpublished sources of subsurface data such as well logs. Existing information has been synthesized and characterized. No field work was conducted as part of this study. Where possible, attempts were made to evaluate the data. All results of this study are subject to change as more data become available

  10. Fault rocks from the SAFOD core samples : implications for weakening at shallow depths along the San Andreas Fault, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holdsworth, R.E.; van Diggelen, E.W.E.; Spiers, C.J.; Bresser, J.H.P. de; Walker, R.J.; Bown, L.

    2011-01-01

    The drilling of a deep borehole across the actively creeping Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ), California, and collection of core materials permit direct geological study of fault zone processes at 2–3 km depth. The three drill cores sample both host and fault rocks and pass

  11. Beryllium-10 in the Taylor Dome ice core: Applications to Antarctic glaciology and paleoclimatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steig, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    An ice core was drilled at Taylor dome, East Antarctica, reaching to bedrock at 554 meters. Oxygen-isotope measurements reveal climatic fluctuations through the last interglacial period. To facilitate comparison of the Taylor Dome paleoclimate record with geologic data and results from other deep ice cores, several glaciological issues need to be addressed. In particular, accumulation data are necessary as input for numerical ice-flow-models, for determining the flux of chemical constituents from measured concentrations, and for calculation of the offset in age between ice and trapped air in the core. The analysis of cosmogenic beryllium-10 provides a geochemical method for constraining the accumulation-rate history at Taylor Dome. High-resolution measurements were made in shallow firn cores and snow pits to determine the relationship among beryllium-10 concentrations, wet and dry deposition mechanisms, and snow-accumulation rates. Comparison between theoretical and measured variations in deposition over the last 75 years constrains the relationship between beryllium-10 deposition and global average production rates. The results indicate that variations in geomagnetically-modulated production-rate do not strongly influence beryllium-10 deposition at Taylor Dome. Although solar modulation of production rate is important for time scales of years to centuries, snow-accumulation rate is the dominant control on ice-core beryllium-10 concentrations for longer periods. Results show that the Taylor Dome core can be used to provide new constraints on regional climate over the last 130,000 years, complementing the terrestrial and marine geological record from the Dry Valley, Transantarctic Mountains and western Ross Sea.

  12. Temporal Change of Seismic Earth's Inner Core Phases: Inner Core Differential Rotation Or Temporal Change of Inner Core Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Tian, D.; Sun, L.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since Song and Richards [1996] first reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKIKP wave (a compressional wave refracted in the inner core) and proposed inner core differential rotation as its explanation, it has generated enormous interests in the scientific community and the public, and has motivated many studies on the implications of the inner core differential rotation. However, since Wen [2006] reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKiKP wave (a compressional wave reflected from the inner core boundary) that requires temporal change of inner core surface, both interpretations for the temporal change of inner core phases have existed, i.e., inner core rotation and temporal change of inner core surface. In this study, we discuss the issue of the interpretation of the observed temporal changes of those inner core phases and conclude that inner core differential rotation is not only not required but also in contradiction with three lines of seismic evidence from global repeating earthquakes. Firstly, inner core differential rotation provides an implausible explanation for a disappearing inner core scatterer between a doublet in South Sandwich Islands (SSI), which is located to be beneath northern Brazil based on PKIKP and PKiKP coda waves of the earlier event of the doublet. Secondly, temporal change of PKIKP and its coda waves among a cluster in SSI is inconsistent with the interpretation of inner core differential rotation, with one set of the data requiring inner core rotation and the other requiring non-rotation. Thirdly, it's not reasonable to invoke inner core differential rotation to explain travel time change of PKiKP waves in a very small time scale (several months), which is observed for repeating earthquakes in Middle America subduction zone. On the other hand, temporal change of inner core surface could provide a consistent explanation for all the observed temporal changes of PKIKP and PKiKP and their coda waves. We conclude that

  13. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-first Century Core Curriculum-Part Two: Translation of MPH Core Competencies into an Integrated Theory-Based Core Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvin, Jaime A; DeBate, Rita; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Petersen, Donna J

    2017-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the dynamics of health and health care are changing, necessitating a commitment to revising traditional public health curricula to better meet present day challenges. This article describes how the College of Public Health at the University of South Florida utilized the Intervention Mapping framework to translate revised core competencies into an integrated, theory-driven core curriculum to meet the training needs of the twenty-first century public health scholar and practitioner. This process resulted in the development of four sequenced courses: History and Systems of Public Health and Population Assessment I delivered in the first semester and Population Assessment II and Translation to Practice delivered in the second semester. While the transformation process, moving from traditional public health core content to an integrated and innovative curriculum, is a challenging and daunting task, Intervention Mapping provides the ideal framework for guiding this process. Intervention mapping walks the curriculum developers from the broad goals and objectives to the finite details of a lesson plan. Throughout this process, critical lessons were learned, including the importance of being open to new ideologies and frameworks and the critical need to involve key-stakeholders in every step of the decision-making process to ensure the sustainability of the resulting integrated and theory-based curriculum. Ultimately, as a stronger curriculum emerged, the developers and instructors themselves were changed, fostering a stronger public health workforce from within.

  14. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  15. New Focus on the Tales of the Earth—Legacy Cores Redistribution Project Completed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Röhl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific drilling for marine cores began in 1968 under the auspices of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP, whose initial discoveries included salt domes on the sea floor and formation of oceanic crust by sea-floor spreading along the mid-ocean ridges rift zone. Analyses of cores in various laboratories all over the world provided key information toward a better understanding of Earth’s past, present, and future including the geology of the sea floor, evolution of the Earth, and past climatic changes. With an eye towards future development of analytical tools for core-based research, it was important to maintain cores in as close to their original condition as possible for the years to come. This led to the establishment of large repositories curating cores at 4ºC, conducting sub-sampling, and facilitating non-destructive observation of cores while following well-defined curation policies.

  16. Comparison of 3-D geological and geophysical investigation methods in boreholes KI-KR1 at Aeaenekoski Kivetty site and RO-KR3 at Kuhmo Romuvaara site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbas, K.

    1997-01-01

    The study is a part of the radioactive waste disposal investigations in Finland with the aim to compare three-dimensional geological and geophysical methods providing information on geologic fractures. Compared and described are the methods: core analysis, borehole television, dipmeter, borehole televiewer and differential flow measurements. (35 refs.)

  17. A Web-based Visualization System for Three Dimensional Geological Model using Open GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, T.; Masumoto, S.; Nonogaki, S.

    2017-12-01

    A three dimensional geological model is an important information in various fields such as environmental assessment, urban planning, resource development, waste management and disaster mitigation. In this study, we have developed a web-based visualization system for 3D geological model using free and open source software. The system has been successfully implemented by integrating web mapping engine MapServer and geographic information system GRASS. MapServer plays a role of mapping horizontal cross sections of 3D geological model and a topographic map. GRASS provides the core components for management, analysis and image processing of the geological model. Online access to GRASS functions has been enabled using PyWPS that is an implementation of WPS (Web Processing Service) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. The system has two main functions. Two dimensional visualization function allows users to generate horizontal and vertical cross sections of 3D geological model. These images are delivered via WMS (Web Map Service) and WPS OGC standards. Horizontal cross sections are overlaid on the topographic map. A vertical cross section is generated by clicking a start point and an end point on the map. Three dimensional visualization function allows users to visualize geological boundary surfaces and a panel diagram. The user can visualize them from various angles by mouse operation. WebGL is utilized for 3D visualization. WebGL is a web technology that brings hardware-accelerated 3D graphics to the browser without installing additional software. The geological boundary surfaces can be downloaded to incorporate the geologic structure in a design on CAD and model for various simulations. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K00158.

  18. Core data from offshore Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Shannon K.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, as a collaborative effort between Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the U.S. Geological Survey, 20 giant gravity cores were collected from areas surrounding Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The regions sampled have had many large earthquake and landslide events, some of which are believed to have triggered tsunamis. The objective of this coring cruise, carried out aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration research vessel Seward Johnson, was to determine the age of several substantial slope failures and seismite layers near Puerto Rico in an effort to map their temporal distribution. Data gathered from the cores collected in 2008 and 11 archive cores from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory are included in this report. These data include lithologic logs, core summary sheets, x-ray fluorescence, wet-bulk density, magnetic susceptibility, grain-size analyses, radiographs, and radiocarbon age dates.

  19. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  20. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology...... entitled Smart Interpretation is developed. This semi-automatic method learns the relation between a set of data attributes extracted from deterministically inverted airborne electromagnetic data and a set of interpretations of a geological layer that is manually picked by a geological expert...

  1. Comparing geological and statistical approaches for element selection in sediment tracing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; McMahon, Joe; Evrard, Olivier; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Elevated suspended sediment loads reduce reservoir capacity and significantly increase the cost of operating water treatment infrastructure, making the management of sediment supply to reservoirs of increasingly importance. Sediment fingerprinting techniques can be used to determine the relative contributions of different sources of sediment accumulating in reservoirs. The objective of this research is to compare geological and statistical approaches to element selection for sediment fingerprinting modelling. Time-integrated samplers (n=45) were used to obtain source samples from four major subcatchments flowing into the Baroon Pocket Dam in South East Queensland, Australia. The geochemistry of potential sources were compared to the geochemistry of sediment cores (n=12) sampled in the reservoir. The geochemical approach selected elements for modelling that provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination between sediment sources. Two statistical approaches selected elements for modelling with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Discriminatory Function Analysis (DFA). In particular, two different significance levels (0.05 & 0.35) for the DFA were included to investigate the importance of element selection on modelling results. A distribution model determined the relative contributions of different sources to sediment sampled in the Baroon Pocket Dam. Elemental discrimination was expected between one subcatchment (Obi Obi Creek) and the remaining subcatchments (Lexys, Falls and Bridge Creek). Six major elements were expected to provide discrimination. Of these six, only Fe2O3 and SiO2 provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination. Modelling results with this geological approach indicated 36% (+/- 9%) of sediment sampled in the reservoir cores were from mafic-derived sources and 64% (+/- 9%) were from felsic-derived sources. The geological and the first statistical approach (DFA0.05) differed by only 1% (σ 5%) for 5 out of 6 model groupings with only

  2. Capture and geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Capture and geological storage of CO 2 could be a contribution to reduce CO 2 emissions, and also a way to meet the factor 4 objective of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This publication briefly presents the capture and storage definitions and principles, and comments some key data related to CO 2 emissions, and their natural trapping by oceans, soils and forests. It discusses strengths (a massive and perennial reduction of CO 2 emissions, a well defined regulatory framework) and weaknesses (high costs and uncertain cost reduction perspectives, a technology which still consumes a lot of energy, geological storage capacities still to be determined, health environmental impacts and risks to be controlled, a necessary consultation of population for planned projects) of this option. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed

  3. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Simeonov, Assen (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    , which was carried out after the completion of the geological models during stage 2.2, has had little affect on the orientation parameters for the fractures along some important deformation zones that intersect the local model volume. By contrast, the cored borehole KFM08D intersects the central part of the target volume and the data from this borehole provide a stringent test of the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models inside this critical volume. Furthermore, since gravity measurements at the site have never been used in the development of the geological models, the modelling of gravity and petrophysical data also provides an independent test of the validity of the regional rock domain model for the site. The predictions provided by local model stage 2.2 for the position and character of the intersections of rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones along borehole KFM08D have been verified highly satisfactorily by the outcome of the single-hole interpretation of this borehole during stage 2.3. In addition, gravity modelling work provides a good support to the regional rock domain model for the site, at least where it concerns the critical rock domain RFM029. In summary, it can be stated that the analysis presented in this report provides a basis for confidence in the deterministic geological models. However, if Forsmark is selected as a site for the deep geological repository, then it will be necessary to complete minor modifications to the deterministic geological models prior to construction work that take account of the stage 2.3 data

  4. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    , which was carried out after the completion of the geological models during stage 2.2, has had little affect on the orientation parameters for the fractures along some important deformation zones that intersect the local model volume. By contrast, the cored borehole KFM08D intersects the central part of the target volume and the data from this borehole provide a stringent test of the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models inside this critical volume. Furthermore, since gravity measurements at the site have never been used in the development of the geological models, the modelling of gravity and petrophysical data also provides an independent test of the validity of the regional rock domain model for the site. The predictions provided by local model stage 2.2 for the position and character of the intersections of rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones along borehole KFM08D have been verified highly satisfactorily by the outcome of the single-hole interpretation of this borehole during stage 2.3. In addition, gravity modelling work provides a good support to the regional rock domain model for the site, at least where it concerns the critical rock domain RFM029. In summary, it can be stated that the analysis presented in this report provides a basis for confidence in the deterministic geological models. However, if Forsmark is selected as a site for the deep geological repository, then it will be necessary to complete minor modifications to the deterministic geological models prior to construction work that take account of the stage 2.3 data

  5. Interpretation of Geological Correlation Borings 1, 2, 3 in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Geophysical Correlation Boring (GCB) Program was organized to provide a comprehensive correlation capability between geological core and advanced borehole geophysical data, surface high resolution reflection seismic information and, when available, borehole geochemical and cone penetrometer data. This report provides results and initial geological interpretations of borings one, two, and three (GCB-1, GCB-2, GCB-3) located within the Upper Three Runs Watershed (A/M Area) of the Savannah River Site

  6. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  7. Planning and Design Considerations for Geological Repository Programmes of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Disposal in a geological repository is the generally accepted solution for the long term management of high level and/or long lived radioactive wastes, in line with the general principles defined in the IAEA Safety Fundamentals. This publication presents practical information on the way a geological repository programme for radioactive waste could be defined and planned, with special attention to all aspects having an impact on the timing. Country specific examples for repository development phases are provided, based on actual experiences from Member States

  8. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  9. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  10. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, ''Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  11. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. Geology and religion - historical perspective and current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl-Ebert, Martina

    2010-05-01

    debate, if there has to be one, should not be about geology versus theology but about enlightenment versus fundamentalism. It is important that geologists should be aware that many theologians are just as appalled by the recent rise of Christian fundamentalism as they are. Probably the best remedy is to engage in dialogue with those many open-minded philosophers and theologians rather than frighten them off with a militant atheist stance, bearing in mind that dialogue requires first of all respect for the intellectual achievements of the other but also a common language to avoid misunderstandings. Two seemingly trivial words, "chance" and "design", often seem to be the core of such misunderstandings. While for a palaeontologist or biologist, it is quite possible to talk about chance and design within an evolutionary framework, e.g. undirected mutations and natural selection leading to the body-plan of certain organisms, i.e. chance and necessity leading to design, these two terms exclude each other for most theologians. "Design" for them is synonymous to "purpose", while a chance event in theology is per definition without sense and purpose. Whenever we as scientists talk of "chance", a theologian suspects that we explicitly exclude god, while we are convinced that we have not made any statement about god at all.

  13. Released geophysical and geological reports : Newfoundland offshore area September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This two-part publication contains a list of geophysical and geological data acquired by the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (C-NOPB). It is made available to the public in accordance with a subsection of the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act which states that such data can be released five years after the date of completion of a program. The programs for which the data has been released are listed in chronological order by completion date. A list of wells drilled within the C-NOPB's jurisdictional area is also included along with a map showing the area of jurisdiction. The well data includes category 1 information from exploratory wells, delineation wells, and development wells. It includes factual data obtained directly from well drilling which must be made available for public examination 2 years after well completion. Category 1 data refers to drill cuttings, well fluid samples, open-hole logs, formation stimulation data, petroleum analyses, drill mud reports, and well site survey information. The interpretive geological and geophysical reports are based on industry data from exploratory programs conducted in the Newfoundland offshore area. They include information from synthetic seismograms, velocity surveys, vertical seismic profiles, petrological reports, geochemical reports, and cyberlook logs. The jurisdictional areas include Western Newfoundland, South Grand Banks, North Grand Banks, the Northeast Newfoundland Shelf, and the Labrador Shelf. Program numbers are coded to contain the geographic region to which the program relates, the type of proposed geophysical or geological work, the company operating the program, and the sequential number of that type of program operated by each company. 8 tabs

  14. Economic geology of the Bingham mining district, Utah, with a section on areal geology, and an introduction on general geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, J.M.; Keith, Arthur; Emmons, S.F.

    1905-01-01

    The field work of which this report represents the final results was first undertaken in the summer of the year 1900. This district had long been selected by the writer as worthy of special economic investigation, as well on account of the importance of its products as because of its geological structure and the peculiar relations of its ore deposits. It was not, however, until the summer mentioned above that the means at the disposal of the Survey, both pecuniary and scientific, justified its undertaking. As originally planned, the areal or surface geology was to have been worked out by Mr. Keith, who had already spent many years in unraveling the complicated geological structure of the Appalachian province, while Mr. Boutwell, who had more recently become attached to the Survey, was to have charge of the underground geology, or a study of the ore deposits, under the immediate supervision of the writer. When the time came for actually taking the field, it was found that the pressure of other work would not permit Mr. Keith to carry out fully the part allotted to him, and in consequence a part of his field work has fallen to Mr. Boutwell. Field work was commenced by the writer and Mr. Boutwell early in July, 1900. Mr. Keith joined the party on August 10, but was obliged to leave for other duties early in September. Mr. Boutwell carried on his field work continuously from July until December, taking up underground work after the snowfall had rendered work on the surface geology impracticable. The geological structure had proved to be unexpectedly intricate and complicated, so that, on the opening of the field season of 1901, it was found necessary to make further study in the light of results already worked out, and Mr. Boutwell spent some weeks in the district in the early summer of 1901. His field work that year, partly in California and partly in Arizona, as assistant to Mr. Waldemar Lindgren, lasted through the summer and winter and well into the spring of 1902

  15. Unveiling the secrets of geology, from the Earth to your daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    How should we share geological information? How can we start involving the public at large in topics that apparently are so far away from them? What kind of information would be interesting to disseminate to attract the attention of the people? "Geology at the table - cooking without borders" and "Minerals in your life", edited by EuroGeoSurveys, the Geological Surveys of Europe, are two publications that have showed how it is possible to reach thousands of people around Europe only following a few simple rules. A good scientific communicator must first understand its audience, their knowledge and beliefs, in order to adopt an attractive approach to their communication strategy. A good communicator has to adopt a simplified blend of the crucial information without depleting the content of the main message. One must avoid the danger of losing the audience's interest by keeping with simple language and information that is easy to understand and accessible to all. When it comes to the field of geology, communication efforts would ideally engage the audience and develop their interest, showing how their daily life is linked and conditioned to the geological phenomena. "Geology at the table - cooking without borders" and "Minerals in your life" are two examples of how geology, a topic unknown to many people, is part of our life. Leafing through the pages of these books it is possible to understand how important geology is for the existence of our society and its crucial role in the complex world we live in. In "Geology at the table - cooking without borders" twenty-eight European Geological Surveys have shown how their own national dishes contain references to our past, to the present, and to the future, which can easily be analysed and explained through geology. This cookbook offers a little taste of geology through wonderful recipes from all around Europe. While "Minerals in your life" is an educational book that combines a hilarious comic strip storyline with an

  16. Drilling history of core hole DB-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1980-09-01

    This core hole was drilled to obtain hydrologic and chemical data on the permeable zones of the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum Formations. These data were obtained by testing the zones that were penetrated during drilling. This testing-as-drilled method reduced the potential problems of interflow and water contamination. This report summarizes the drilling and coring operations; geologic logging, hydrologic testing, and geophysical logging activities; and cementing operations of DB-15 during drilling. The successful completion of DB-15 demonstrated that hydrologic testing can be conducted during core drilling operations. More reliable head measurements and uncontaminated representative water samples from isolated permeable zones, which have not been exposed to potential open borehole cross-flow and head equilibration problems, were benefits derived from the testing-as-drilled method. Disadvantages of the technique were a longer time to complete the borehole caused by time required for testing and increased drilling costs due to rig standby time during testing. Extension of the testing-as-drilled method to the drilling of future core holes is recommended. An evaluation should be made of the required hydrologic data and expected borehole stratigraphy before and during drilling to allow uninterrupted drilling in zones of low permeability that can be tested after drilling is complete

  17. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  18. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  19. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  20. Ways forward in quantifying data uncertainty in geological databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kint, Lars; Chademenos, Vasileios; De Mol, Robin; Kapel, Michel; Lagring, Ruth; Stafleu, Jan; van Heteren, Sytze; Van Lancker, Vera

    2017-04-01

    Issues of compatibility of geological data resulting from the merging of many different data sources and time periods may jeopardize harmonization of data products. Important progress has been made due to increasing data standardization, e.g., at a European scale through the SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas data management infrastructures. Common geological data standards are unambiguously defined, avoiding semantic overlap in geological data and associated metadata. Quality flagging is also applied increasingly, though ways in further propagating this information in data products is still at its infancy. For the Belgian and southern Netherlands part of the North Sea, databases are now rigorously re-analyzed in view of quantifying quality flags in terms of uncertainty to be propagated through a 3D voxel model of the subsurface (https://odnature.naturalsciences.be/tiles/). An approach is worked out to consistently account for differences in positioning, sampling gear, analysis procedures and vintage. The flag scaling is used in the interpolation process of geological data, but will also be used when visualizing the suitability of geological resources in a decision support system. Expert knowledge is systematically revisited as to avoid totally inappropriate use of the flag scaling process. The quality flagging is also important when communicating results to end-users. Therefore, an open data policy in combination with several processing tools will be at the heart of a new Belgian geological data portal as a platform for knowledge building (KB) and knowledge management (KM) serving the marine geoscience, the policy community and the public at large.

  1. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of earth materials collected by research personnel over the course of its history. In 2006, a Geologic Collections Inventory was conducted within the USGS Geology Discipline to determine the extent and nature of its sample collections, and in 2008, a working group was convened by the USGS National Geologic and Geophysical Data Preservation Program to examine ways in which these collections could be coordinated, cataloged, and made available to researchers both inside and outside the USGS. The charge to this working group was to evaluate the proposition of creating a Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a centralized database that would (1) identify all existing USGS geologic collections, regardless of size, (2) create a virtual link among the collections, and (3) provide a way for scientists and other researchers to obtain access to the samples and data in which they are interested. Additionally, the group was instructed to develop criteria for evaluating current collections and to establish an operating plan and set of standard practices for handling, identifying, and managing future sample collections. Policies and procedures promoted by the GCMS would be based on extant best practices established by the National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution. The resulting report—USGS Circular 1410, “The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): A Master Catalog and Collections Management Plan for U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Samples and Sample Collections”—has been developed for sample repositories to be a guide to establishing common practices in the collection, retention, and disposal of geologic research materials throughout the USGS.

  2. Geological-Hydrological Site Evaluation for NPP Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, Brigitte; Mini, Paolo [Nordostsschweizerische Kraftwerke AG NOK, Parkstrasse 23, 5401 Baden (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    NOK is investigating the potential replacement of the current NPP in Beznau. In order to meet the requirements with respect to a general licence application, geological, seismological, and geotechnical engineering, but also hydrological boundary conditions have been defined. These conditions define the nature of necessary investigations to obtain the geological, seismic, geotechnical and hydrological data themselves forming the basis to determine the site suitability. Viability has to be provided that a NPP can be built and operated at the proposed site without compromising public health, safety and environment. The collected data are also the basis for the design of all safety relevant structures, systems, and components. For example, the latter have to withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes and human induced impact such as airplane crash without loosing their capability to perform the assigned safety functions. (authors)

  3. Geological-Hydrological Site Evaluation for NPP Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, Brigitte; Mini, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    NOK is investigating the potential replacement of the current NPP in Beznau. In order to meet the requirements with respect to a general licence application, geological, seismological, and geotechnical engineering, but also hydrological boundary conditions have been defined. These conditions define the nature of necessary investigations to obtain the geological, seismic, geotechnical and hydrological data themselves forming the basis to determine the site suitability. Viability has to be provided that a NPP can be built and operated at the proposed site without compromising public health, safety and environment. The collected data are also the basis for the design of all safety relevant structures, systems, and components. For example, the latter have to withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes and human induced impact such as airplane crash without loosing their capability to perform the assigned safety functions. (authors)

  4. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  5. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudie, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  6. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I.; Escuder Viruete, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  7. Core management and fuel handling for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide supplements and elaborates upon the safety requirements for core management and fuel handling that are presented in Section 5 of the Safety Requirements publication on the operation of nuclear power plants. The present publication supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Safety Aspects of Core Management and Fuel Handling, issued in 1985 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-010. It is also related to the Safety Guide on the Operating Organization for Nuclear Power Plants, which identifies fuel management as one of the various functions to be performed by the operating organization. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for core management and fuel handling at nuclear power plants on the basis of current international good practice. The present Safety Guide addresses those aspects of fuel management activities that are necessary in order to allow optimum reactor core operation without compromising the limits imposed by the design safety considerations relating to the nuclear fuel and the plant as a whole. In this publication, 'core management' refers to those activities that are associated with fuel management in the core and reactivity control, and 'fuel handling' refers to the movement, storage and control of fresh and irradiated fuel. Fuel management comprises both core management and fuel handling. This Safety Guide deals with fuel management for all types of land based stationary thermal neutron power plants. It describes the safety objectives of core management, the tasks that have to be accomplished to meet these objectives and the activities undertaken to perform those tasks. It also deals with the receipt of fresh fuel, storage and handling of fuel and other core components, the loading and unloading of fuel and core components, and the insertion and removal of other reactor materials. In addition, it deals with loading a transport container with irradiated fuel and its preparation for transport off the site. Transport

  8. Core management and fuel handling for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Safety Guide supplements and elaborates upon the safety requirements for core management and fuel handling that are presented in Section 5 of the Safety Requirements publication on the operation of nuclear power plants. The present publication supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Safety Aspects of Core Management and Fuel Handling, issued in 1985 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-010. It is also related to the Safety Guide on the Operating Organization for Nuclear Power Plants, which identifies fuel management as one of the various functions to be performed by the operating organization. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for core management and fuel handling at nuclear power plants on the basis of current international good practice. The present Safety Guide addresses those aspects of fuel management activities that are necessary in order to allow optimum reactor core operation without compromising the limits imposed by the design safety considerations relating to the nuclear fuel and the plant as a whole. In this publication, 'core management' refers to those activities that are associated with fuel management in the core and reactivity control, and 'fuel handling' refers to the movement, storage and control of fresh and irradiated fuel. Fuel management comprises both core management and fuel handling. This Safety Guide deals with fuel management for all types of land based stationary thermal neutron power plants. It describes the safety objectives of core management, the tasks that have to be accomplished to meet these objectives and the activities undertaken to perform those tasks. It also deals with the receipt of fresh fuel, storage and handling of fuel and other core components, the loading and unloading of fuel and core components, and the insertion and removal of other reactor materials. In addition, it deals with loading a transport container with irradiated fuel and its preparation for transport off the site. Transport

  9. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Hironori; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2005-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  10. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  11. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  12. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  13. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-10-01

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  14. Study of geological details towards feasibility of uranium project: Indian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate technical evaluation of geological details at early stage of exploration is the key to minimising the lead-time between discovery and production. This has a major influence on economic viability of the deposits. Indian uranium deposits are of medium-tonnage and low-grade occurring in dissimilar geological provinces. Detailed studies of geological characteristics of these deposits are very vital to the proper selection of technology and subsequent successful operation. The method of mining (underground/open pit/in-situ recovery) is influenced by the ore body depth, size, grade, configuration, hostrock and adjoining strata characteristics, hydrological condition etc. The ore processing technology is also subjective to mineralogical characteristics of the ore. In order to draw the flowsheet, determine process parameters and selection of reagents, a comprehensive study on identification of minerals and their probable metallurgical characteristics, general physical relationship between various minerals, mineral liberation size etc is of great significance. The technology for disposal of tailings is also influenced by geological/geo-hydrological characteristics. The key to successful operation of Indian uranium deposits lies in outlining a pre-development strategy as the exploration advances to different stages. This phase called ''exploratory mining'' - which starts with detailed exploration and ends with approval of the project is very critical for early commissioning of the project. The activities during this period include collection of representative drill core samples during exploration, laboratory studies, geo-technical studies and determination of geomechanical properties of ore and waste rock etc. Later, the ore lenses are accessed through limited entry(ies). Developments along the ore body helps in better understanding of the configuration of the lenses. Studies for strata control in case of underground mining are carried out towards deciding the

  15. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  16. Does the Center Hold? Reflections on a Sociological Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne; Greenwood, Nancy; Howard, Jay R.; Kain, Edward L.; Pike, Diane; Schwartz, Michael; Smith, R. Tyson; Zipp, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Is there a distinct disciplinary core (or foundation of agreed on knowledge) in sociology? Should we define a core in our broad field to build consensus? If so, what should it look like? We address these questions by presenting three viewpoints that lean for and against identifying a core for department curricula, students, and the public face of…

  17. The U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus—Providing expertise on planetary science, ecology, water resources, geologic processes, and human interactions with the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.

  18. Exposing the faults: the geological case against the plans by UK NIREX to dispose of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    NIREX has given the strong impression throughout is recent public consultation exercise connected with underground disposal of low and intermediate level waste that the problem is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. This is not the place in which to list the considerable failings of this latest attempt. Nevertheless, the results of the consultation process show quite clearly that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and a quite reasonable suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and spells out in detail the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the United Kingdom (UK). This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. An extensive public relations exercise cannot hide the unavoidable technical uncertainties associated with burying radioactive waste. Dumping radioactive waste is foolhardy and irresponsible in the face of these unknowns. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  19. Study on the background information for the R and D of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2001-02-01

    It is quite important for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to analyze the R and D items after 'H12 report' and also provide their results of R and D activities to general public effectively. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, relating background informations were to be picked up. In this fiscal year, following two main topics were selected and studied. 1. Research and analysis on the options for the geological disposal concept. The major nuclear power-generating countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method for HLW disposal. Since 1990's, to make the geological disposal flexible, the alternative concepts for the disposal of HLW have been discussed promoting the social acceptance. In this context, recent optional discussions and international evaluations on the following topics were studied and summarized. (1) Reversibility of waste disposal/Retrievability of waste/Waste monitoring, (2) Long-term storage concept and its effectiveness, (3) Present position and role of international disposal. 2. Research and analysis on some educational materials collected from foreign countries. Although geological disposals is scheduled to start still in future, it is quite important to study the procedures to attract younger generation and get their proper perceptions on the nuclear energy and waste problems. As the supporting analysis to implement strategically the public relational activities for JNC's geological disposal R and D, particular attention was focused on the educational materials obtained in the last year's survey. Representative educational materials were selected and following items were studied and summarized. (1) Basic approach, positioning and characteristics of the educational materials, (2) Detailed analysis of the representatively selected educational materials, (3) Comparison of the analyzed characteristics and study on its feedback to Japanese materials. (author)

  20. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  1. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 1. Ice Cores and Glaciers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G. A.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D. R.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Mitra, S.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 165-184 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * comet * deposition * ice core * impact * mass extinction * paleoclimate * paleoenvironment * platinum * trigger mechanism * wildfire * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  2. Deep underground disposal facility and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, V.

    1997-01-01

    Factors arousing public anxiety in relation to the deep burial of radioactive wastes are highlighted based on Czech and foreign analyses, and guidelines are presented to minimize public opposition when planning a geologic disposal site in the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  3. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar; Petersson, Jesper; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-12-01

    geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded to the

  4. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    the geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded

  5. Is public value pluralism paramount? The intrinsic hybridity and multiplicity of public values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Z.; van Hout, E.Th.J.

    2009-01-01

    In current debates on public values too often the assumption is made that unitary conceptions exist of what "public values" are, and that one universal set of classical public core values guides administrative behaviour throughout the public sector. Studies show, however, that it is very hard to

  6. Safety characteristics of the US advanced liquid metal reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Gyorey, G.L.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design employs innovative, passive features to provide an unprecedented level of public safety and the ability to demonstrate this safety to the public. The key features employed in the core design to produce the desired passive safety characteristics are: a small core with a tight restraint system, the use of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel, control rod withdrawal limiters, and gas expansion modules. In addition, the reactor vessel and closure are designed to have the capability to withstand, with large margins, the maximum possible core disruptive accident without breach and radiological release. (author)

  7. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  8. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

  9. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  10. Project TN-030: hydrogeology, ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds. US Geological Survey annual report, FY 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Near Burial Ground 3, five wells were cored through Unit F of the Chickamauga Limestone, previously considered to be a probable barrier to ground-water flow. Cores revealed that in this area Unit F actually consists of two continuous silty shale/shaley siltstone members with an interbedded limestone member. Weathering stains in the core and small-size solution openings revealed by televiewer logging indicate that this unit likely has greater permeability than previously described. A unique instrumentation system was designed and installed in six wells to provide information about hydraulic heads in the three geologic units immediately underlying the site. Sediment retrieved from two wells 450 feet and 1300 feet from the site was found to contain as much as 335 pCi/g and 0.83 pCi/g, respectively, of cesium-137. In Burial Ground 5 the construction of four clusters of piezometers of special design was compelted. The deepest wells were cored, geophysical logs were made of each piezometer, and hydraulic conductivities of the bedrock were measured in 50-foot depth increments. No contamination that could be measured by field instrumentation was found in the bedrock. Geophysical logs were made of several older wells in Burial Grounds 5 and 6 and the ILW area. Spectral logging identified the isotopes 60 Co and/or 137 Cs in several well bores. Tritium was found to still be present in water from wells used five years ago during tracer tests in two different areas, suggesting that an inefficient retardive mechanism for this nuclide exists in fine-grained geologic material

  11. Risk analysis and prospective geology in matters of underground storage of the nuclear industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Ledoux, E.; Masure, P.

    1983-01-01

    The principal choice concerning the radioactive waste management is to bury it in geological formations. To substantiate the validity of this choice and to persuade the public opinion of it, we must assess the risks the future populations may run. It is, therefore, necessary to foresee the behaviour and the interactions of three types of surroundings: 1. the wastes, their packaging and wrappings; 2. the geological system of confinements; 3. the external environment. A review is given of the hypothesis and methods of forecasting used or considered in this field, with a special emphasis on the prospective geology and the probabilistic approaches. (AF)

  12. Research on geological disposal: R and D concept on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The objective on geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are to ensure the long term radiological protection of the human and his environment in accordance with current internationally agreed radiation protection principles. The principle of geological disposal is to settle the high-level wastes in deep underground so as to isolate them from the human and his environment considering the existence of groundwater. Japan is currently in the stage of assessing technical feasibility of geological disposal to the extent practicable. In accordance with the AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) policy in 1989, PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has conducted the research and development on geological disposal in three areas: 1) studies of geological environment, 2) research and development of disposal technology, and 3) performance assessment study. (author)

  13. Public participation in energy related decision making: Six case studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, F.; Cole, J.; Kloman, E.; McCabe, J.; Sawicki, P.

    1977-12-01

    Each of the six case studies documents public participation in Federal and/or state governmental decisions related to energy facility siting. Four of the cases involved decisions on specific facilities at specific sites, namely: (1) various state and federal licensing procedures for the Seabrook, New Hampshire nuclear facility; (2) the Maine Environmental Improvement Commission's denial of a permit for an oil refinery on Sears Island in Penobscot Bay; (3) the Atomic Energy Commission's amendment to the license for the Big Rock Point, Michigan, nuclear reactor to allow an increased level of plutonium-enriched fuel use; (4) the AEC's review, arising from disclosure of a geological fault, of the North Anna River, Virginia, nuclear facility. A fifth case documents a series of public meetings conducted in Pennsylvania by the Governor's Energy Council to consider the energy park concept. The sixth study was a narrative history and analysis of RM-50-1, a rulemaking proceeding conducted by the AEC in 1972 and 73 on emergency core cooling system operating standards.

  14. Introductory Geology From the Liberal Arts Approach: A Geology-Sociology Linked Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E. O.; Davis, E.

    2008-12-01

    Geology can be a hard sell to college students, especially to college students attending small, liberal arts institutions in localities that lack exaggerated topography. At these schools, Geology departments that wish to grow must work diligently to attract students to the major; professors must be able to convince a wider audience of students that geology is relevant to their everyday lives. Toward this end, a Physical Geology course was linked with an introductory Sociology course through the common theme of Consumption. The same students took the two courses in sequence, beginning with the Sociology course and ending with Physical Geology; thus, students began by discussing the role of consumption in society and ended by learning about the geological processes and implications of consumption. Students were able to ascertain the importance of geology in their daily lives by connecting Earth processes to specific products they consume, such as cell phones and bottled water. Students were also able to see the connection between seemingly disparate fields of study, which is a major goal of the liberal arts. As a theme, Consumption worked well to grab the attention of students interested in diverse issues, such as environmental science or social justice. A one-hour lecture illustrating the link between sociology and geology was developed for presentation to incoming freshmen and their parents to advertise the course. Initial response has been positive, showing an increase in awareness of geological processes among students with a wide range of interests.

  15. Geologic distributions of US oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents nonproprietary field size distributions that encompass most domestic oil and gas fields at year-end 1989. These data are organized by geologic provinces as defined by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists' Committee on Statistics of Drilling (AAPG/CSD), by regional geographic aggregates of the AAPG/CSD provinces, and Nationally. The report also provides partial volumetric distributions of petroleum liquid and natural gas ultimate recoveries for three macro-geologic variables: principal lithology of the reservoir rock, principal trapping condition and geologic age of the reservoir rock, The former two variables are presented Nationally and by geographic region, in more detail than has heretofore been available. The latter variable is provided Nationally at the same level of detail previously available. Eighteen tables and 66 figures present original data on domestic oil and gas occurrence. Unfortunately, volumetric data inadequacy dictated exclusion of Appalachian region oil and gas fields from the study. All other areas of the United States known to be productive of crude oil or natural gas through year-end 1989, onshore and offshore, were included. It should be noted that none of the results and conclusions would be expected to substantively differ had data for the Appalachian region been available for inclusion in the study

  16. Geologic isolation programs in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.

    1976-01-01

    Several nations other than West Germany and The Netherlands have declared their intention to investigate geological formations as potential radioactive waste repositories. In Belgium, the formations underlying the Mol Center have been cored down to about 570 m. The target formation is a bed of tertiary clay 165 to 265 m below the surface. The plan is to produce a 10,000-m 3 cavity in the middle of this clay and to use it for the disposal of intermediate-level and alpha-bearing wastes. France has a program underway to assess salt and crystalline formations as possible waste-disposal sites. In Italy, the feasibility of high-level-waste disposal in clay formations is being explored. In situ experiments will be performed in the massive clays underlying the Trisaia Center in southern Italy. Spain has begun studies on waste disposal in salt, clay, anhydrite, and crystalline formations. In Sweden, attention is focused on the possibility of disposal in Precambrian crystalline bedrock. In Switzerland, where crystalline rocks are always fractured, large formations of salt are not known, and suitable clay or marl formations have not been identified, anhydrite formations are being studied. The United Kingdom has declared its intention to investigate clays and crystalline rocks. Other countries that have revealed plans to assess geologic disposal within their territories include Austria, Denmark, India, the German Democratic Republic, and the Soviet Union

  17. Assessment of deep geological environment condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Han, Kyung Won; Joen, Kwan Sik

    2003-05-01

    The main tasks of geoscientific study in the 2nd stage was characterized focusing mainly on a near-field condition of deep geologic environment, and aimed to generate the geologic input data for a Korean reference disposal system for high level radioactive wastes and to establish site characterization methodology, including neotectonic features, fracture systems and mechanical properties of plutonic rocks, and hydrogeochemical characteristics. The preliminary assessment of neotectonics in the Korean peninsula was performed on the basis of seismicity recorded, Quarternary faults investigated, uplift characteristics studied on limited areas, distribution of the major regional faults and their characteristics. The local fracture system was studied in detail from the data obtained from deep boreholes in granitic terrain. Through this deep drilling project, the geometrical and hydraulic properties of different fracture sets are statistically analysed on a block scale. The mechanical properties of intact rocks were evaluated from the core samples by laboratory testing and the in-situ stress conditions were estimated by a hydro fracturing test in the boreholes. The hydrogeochemical conditions in the deep boreholes were characterized based on hydrochemical composition and isotopic signatures and were attempted to assess the interrelation with a major fracture system. The residence time of deep groundwater was estimated by C-14 dating. For the travel time of groundwater between the boreholes, the methodology and equipment for tracer test were established

  18. Geological isotope anomalies as signatures of nearby supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Schramm, David N; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D; Schramm, David N

    1996-01-01

    Nearby supernova explosions may cause geological isotope anomalies via the direct deposition of debris or by cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the mass of material deposited terrestrially by these two mechanisms, showing the dependence on the supernova distance. A number of radioactive isotopes are identified as possible diagnostic tools, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-53, Fe-60, and Ni-59, as well as the longer-lived I-129, Sm-146, and Pu-244. We discuss whether the 35 and 60 kyr-old Be-10 anomalies observed in the Vostok antarctic ice cores could be due to supernova explosions. Combining our estimates for matter deposition with results of recent nucleosynthesis yields, we calculate the expected signal from nearby supernovae using ice cores back to \\sim 300 kyr ago, and we discuss using deep ocean sediments back to several hundred Myr. In particular, we examine the prospects for identifying isotope anomalies due to the Geminga supernova explosion, and signatures of the possibility...

  19. Lithologic Coring in the Lower Anacostia Tidal Watershed, Washington, D.C., July 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the volumetric flux of ground water to the lower tidal Anacostia River, or whether ground-water flow is an important component of the contaminant load in this part of the Anacostia River. The watershed is in the eastern part of Washington, D.C., and has been subjected to over 200 years of urbanization and modifications of the river channel and nearby land areas. These anthropogenic factors, along with tidal fluctuations in the river, make ground-water data collection and interpretations difficult. The U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the District of Columbia Department of Health, Environmental Health Administration, Bureau of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division, in a study to assess nonpoint-source pollution from ground water into the lower tidal Anacostia River. Lithologic cores from drilling activities conducted during July 2002 in the study area have been interpreted in the context of geologic and hydrogeologic information from previous studies in the lower Anacostia tidal watershed. These interpretations can help achieve the overall project goals of characterizing ground-water flow and contaminant load in the study area. Hydrostratigraphic units encountered during drilling generally consisted of late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial deposits overlying Cretaceous fluvial/deltaic deposits. Cores collected in Beaverdam Creek and the Anacostia River indicated high- and low-energy environments of deposition, respectively. Two cores collected near the river showed different types of anthropogenic fill underlain by low-energy deposits, which were in turn underlain by sand and gravel. A third core collected near the river consisted primarily of sand and gravel with no artificial fill.

  20. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications

  1. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  3. Database of the Geologic Map of North America - Adapted from the Map by J.C. Reed, Jr. and others (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Soller, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The Geological Society of America's (GSA) Geologic Map of North America (Reed and others, 2005; 1:5,000,000) shows the geology of a significantly large area of the Earth, centered on North and Central America and including the submarine geology of parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This map is now converted to a Geographic Information System (GIS) database that contains all geologic and base-map information shown on the two printed map sheets and the accompanying explanation sheet. We anticipate this map database will be revised at some unspecified time in the future, likely through the actions of a steering committee managed by the Geological Society of America (GSA) and staffed by scientists from agencies including, but not limited to, those responsible for the original map compilation (U.S. Geological Survey, Geological Survey of Canada, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute). Regarding the use of this product, as noted by the map's compilers: 'The Geologic Map of North America is an essential educational tool for teaching the geology of North America to university students and for the continuing education of professional geologists in North America and elsewhere. In addition, simplified maps derived from the Geologic Map of North America are useful for enlightening younger students and the general public about the geology of the continent.' With publication of this database, the preparation of any type of simplified map is made significantly easier. More important perhaps, the database provides a more accessible means to explore the map information and to compare and analyze it in conjunction with other types of information (for example, land use, soils, biology) to better understand the complex interrelations among factors that affect Earth resources, hazards, ecosystems, and climate.

  4. Physical Modeling in the Geological Sciences: An Annotated Bibliography. CEGS Programs Publication No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, L. J., Jr.; Passero, Richard Nicholas

    The bibliography identifies, describes, and evaluates devices and techniques discussed in the world's literature to demonstrate or stimulate natural physical geologic phenomena in classroom or laboratory teaching or research situations. The aparatus involved ranges from the very simple and elementary to the highly complex, sophisticated, and…

  5. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  6. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert

  7. The Cigeo project, Meuse/Haute-Marne reversible geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. Project Owner File, Public debate of 15 May to 15 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Gonnot, Francois-Michel

    2013-07-01

    Andra is exploring several options for the disposal of low-level long-lived waste (LLW-LL). With the French Government's approval, in June 2008 Andra began looking around France for a site to build an LLW-LL repository. In late 2008 it provided the Government with a report analysing the geological, environmental and socio-economic aspects of the forty odd municipalities that expressed an interest in the project. After the withdrawal of the two municipalities chosen in 2009 to conduct geological investigations, the government asked Andra to re-explore the various management options for graphite and radium-bearing waste, focusing in particular on ways to manage these types of waste separately. The High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Safety (HCTISN) created a working group to provide feedback on the search for a site for LLW-LL. Andra submitted a report to the Government in late 2012. This report contains proposals for continuing the search and draw in particular on the HCTISN's recommendations. Contents: 1 - Radioactive waste (Sources, Types, Management, Waste to be disposed of at Cigeo, Cigeo's estimated disposal capacities, Where IS HLW and ILW-LL being stored until Cigeo is commissioned? 2 - Why deep geological disposal? (A 15-year research programme, Presentation and assessment of the research results, The public debate of 2005-2006, Deep geological disposal ratified by the 2006 Planning Act, The 2006 Planning Act: other areas of research complementary to deep geological disposal, The situation in other countries); 3 - Why the Meuse/Haute-Marne site? (Selection of the Meuse and Haute-Marne site to host an underground research laboratory, The geological formation in the Meuse and Haute-Marne site, Callovo-Oxfordian clay, Siting of Cigeo's installations); 4 - How will Cigeo operate? (The installations at Cigeo, Construction of Cigeo, Transport of waste packages, Operation of Cigeo, Closure of Cigeo); 5 - Safety at Cigeo

  8. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Apollo 17 drill core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.

    1979-01-01

    Lithologic abundances obtained from modal analyses of a continuous string of polished thin sections indicate that the Apollo 17 deep drill core can be divided into three main zones: An upper zone (0-19 cm depth) characterized by high abundances of agglutinates (30%) and a high ratio of mare to non-mare lithic fragments (less than 0.8); a coarse-grained layer (24-56 cm) rich in fragments of high-Ti mare basalts and mineral fragments derived from them, and poor in agglutinates (6%); and a lower zone (56-285 cm) characterized by variable but generally high agglutinate abundances (25%) and a low ratio of mare to nonmare lithic fragments (0.6). Using observations of the geology of the landing site, the principles of cratering dynamics, and the vast amount of data collected on the core, the following depositional history for the section of regolith sampled by the Apollo 17 drill core: was devised.

  9. Resources for Teaching About Evolution from the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    As a scientific research agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in an ideal position to provide scientific information and resources to educators. The USGS is not a curriculum developer, nor an expert in pedagogy, yet the USGS does have a wealth of scientific information on subjects such as fossils, geologic time, biological resources and plate tectonics that naturally come in to play in the teaching of evolution. Among USGS resources are the general interest pamphlets Geologic Time, Dinosaurs: Facts And Fiction, Our Changing Continent, and Fossils Rocks, and Time, and its accompanying poster, Fossils Through Time. In addition to printed versions, the pamphlets are available at no cost on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/. The popular booklet, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html, touches on evolution-related subjects such as Alfred Wegener's use of fossils to develop his theory of continental drift, "polar" dinosaur fossils found in Australia, marine fossils in the rocks of the Himalayas, and the use of fossil ages to determine rates of plate motions. Paleontological research at the USGS is highlighted on the Internet at http://geology.er.usgs.gov/paleo/. The web site includes links to technical publications, profiles of scientists, a geologic time scale, a glossary, information on important fossil groups, and a list of non-USGS references on fossils: all very useful to educators. A wealth of biological information and data can be found in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a multi-agency collaborative program led by the USGS. In addition to data on the Nation's biological resources, the NBII web site http://www.nbii.gov/ includes a section on systematics and scientific names (helpful for illustrating the evolutionary relationships among living organisms), and links to non-USGS curriculum materials. A fact sheet, Unveiling the NBII as a Teaching

  10. Virtual help to the learning of Geology in the Madrid School of Mines and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José EUGENIO ORTIZ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning Geology requires a skill that is primarily achieved with practice in nature, being more effective when one tries to transmit knowledge to others. Here, we show the results of an educational innovation program in courses related to Geology using new technologies (ITC in order to increase the acquisition of geological knowledge. This program is designed mainly on the basis of individual work with video recordings in the field in which students explain geological concepts at various scales. These videos have been uploaded to the “moodle”, “facebook” and “youtube” channel, where people can view them. We also elaborated "Geological routes," which are accompanied by these videos indicating the most important geological aspects that can be observed, that were uploaded to “moodle” platform. The realization of these videos has been warmly welcomed by students, and they show increased motivation, accompanied by an improvement in grades. They also gained confidence in public speaking using technical language. Also, students can make itineraries of geological interest without having to be accompanied by a professor, deeping into the most interesting topics. 

  11. Geological data acquisition for site characterisation at Olkiluoto: a framework for the phase of underground investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.; Mattila, J.; Wikstroem, L.; Front, K.; Kaerki, A.; Gehoer, S.; Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Ahokas, T.

    2007-05-01

    'Geological data acquisition' is a general term for the collection of observations and measurements by direct observation of exposed bedrock in the field (i.e. in natural outcrops and trenches, in drillholes, and in tunnels and other underground excavations). Only field-based data acquisition is included in this report: laboratory-based investigations will be continued, based on the field data and sampling, and all the data will be subject to discipline-specific processing, as the project proceeds. The ultimate aim of geological data acquisition is to provide the necessary data base for geological models of the bedrock of the Olkiluoto site, in connection with the construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, and a repository for spent nuclear fuel, at about 500m depth. Geological data acquisition plays a central role in site characterisation and modelling, and is intended to provide a solid platform on which the other disciplines (rock mechanics, hydrogeology, seismic risk assessment, etc.) can base their investigations. Based on consideration of a series of guidelines (e.g. modelling scale, source of data, level of investigation, national and international experience, special conditions at Olkiluoto, need for process understanding), a project-oriented 'framework' has been developed as a background to the different projects within the geological data acquisition programme. Each project will require its own system of data acquisition (methodology, spreadsheets, protocols, etc.), as described in the corresponding reports; the present report concentrates on the general principles which lie behind the different methodologies and data sheets. These principles are treated under three main headings: characterization of intact rock, characterization of deformation zone intersections, and characterization of individual fractures. Geological mapping of natural outcrops and trenches at Olkiluoto, and lithological logging of more than 40 rock cores

  12. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and

  13. Overview of Nagra's geological investigation programme in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thury, M.; Diebold, P.

    1987-01-01

    For the assessment of the feasibility and safety of a repository for high level radioactive waste, Nagra (National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste) has started in 1980 in central Northern Switzerland an extensive geological investigation program. This overall program contains four field investigation programs and several programs for synthesis work. By the end of 1985, six deep drillings have been completed. The deepest borehole reached 2482 m. All in all, more than 8000 m of cores have been taken and analyzed in detail. In the boreholes, extensive hydrogeological tests have been carried out. Within the regional geophysical investigation program gravimetric, aeromagnetic and magnetotelluric, refraction seismic and reflection seismic surveys have been carried out. Vibroseis lines of 400 km length have been measured. Within the regional hydrogeological program, water samples of more than 100 springs and wells with hydrochemically or thermally abnormal waters have been analyzed in detail for their chemical and isotopic composition. Within the neotectonic program, geomorphologic, tectonic, geodetic and seismic studies and measurements have been carried out. In 1983, a microearthquake survey network was installed. All these data were analyzed in several synthetic programs: Structural geology, hydrochemistry, hydrodynamic modelling and long term stability scenarios. The Nagra program continues. As next, a deep borehole in the Canton of Schaffhausen is planned. Meanwhile all data are analyzed in detail and the understanding of the regional and local geology, geochemistry and hydrogeology of northern Switzerland is improved and refined. (author) 32 refs., 8 figs

  14. Publication List - New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Museum, Albany.

    Presented is a list of publications in six areas: (1) Anthropology and Archeology, (2) Botany, (3) Entomology, (4) Zoology, (5) Geology and Paleontology, and (6) Miscellaneous. This list was produced by the New York State Department of Education in cooperation with the New York State Museum. The list includes the publication number, author(s),…

  15. Public acceptance of CO2 capture and storage technology : a survey of public opinion to explore influential factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A.; Akai, M.

    2005-01-01

    A potentially effective tool in managing carbon emissions is carbon capture and storage technology (CCS). However, its effectiveness depends on its acceptability by the public, and very little is known about how willing the general public will accept various options of CCS. This paper presented the results of a study that assessed general perceptions of various forms of CCS and identified various factors that influence public acceptance of CCS. Two versions of a survey were administered and conducted in Tokyo and Sapporo, Japan in December 2003. The paper discussed the design of the questionnaire as well as the administration of the survey. One version of the survey provided limited education about CCS, while another version, provided more extensive information about CCS. The data analysis methodology was also described with reference to factor analysis, comparisons of means and rank order distributions, and multiple regression. Last, the study findings and results were presented. The findings suggest that the general public was supportive of CCS as part of a larger national climate policy, although it was opposed to the implementation of specific CCS options involving deep-sea dilution option of ocean storage, lake type option of ocean storage, onshore option of geological storage, and offshore option of geological storage. In addition, it was found that education about CCS affected public acceptance. The more information respondents obtained about CCS, the more likely they were to be supportive of those storage options, except for onshore option of geological storage. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Uruguayan geological documents produced and included in INIS Database- IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebellato, A.

    2007-01-01

    A possible promotion way for Uruguayan geological documents or foreigner authors who public their researchers in Uruguay was given by International Nuclear Information System INIS of the International Agency Atomic Energy .The article shows not only the INIS historic information, integration products, services and operation but also a safe tool for scientific and technological knowledge preservation. (author)

  17. Core drilling of REPRO drillholes in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2012-05-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled ten drillholes for the Posiva's Experiments to investigate Rock Matrix Retention Properties (REPRO) in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2010 - 2011. The drillholes are used for geological characterization, hydrological and geophysical studies and instrumenting in research for retention of radionuclides to rock matrix. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled in March 2010 and the drillholes ONKPP318... 324 and ONK-PP326...327 in October - December 2011. The lengths of the drillholes range from 4.90 to 21.65 metres. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled for pretesting in the investigation niche 4 at access tunnel chainage 3747 and the rest of the drillholes in the investigation niche 5 at access tunnel chainage 4219. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The starting directions of the close spaced drillholes were controlled with an aligner assembly to be as parallel as possible. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and quartz gneiss (skarn rock). The average fracture frequency in drill cores is 1.2 pcs/m and the average RQD value 98.6 %. (orig.)

  18. Core drilling of REPRO drillholes in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled ten drillholes for the Posiva's Experiments to investigate Rock Matrix Retention Properties (REPRO) in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2010 - 2011. The drillholes are used for geological characterization, hydrological and geophysical studies and instrumenting in research for retention of radionuclides to rock matrix. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled in March 2010 and the drillholes ONKPP318... 324 and ONK-PP326...327 in October - December 2011. The lengths of the drillholes range from 4.90 to 21.65 metres. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled for pretesting in the investigation niche 4 at access tunnel chainage 3747 and the rest of the drillholes in the investigation niche 5 at access tunnel chainage 4219. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The starting directions of the close spaced drillholes were controlled with an aligner assembly to be as parallel as possible. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and quartz gneiss (skarn rock). The average fracture frequency in drill cores is 1.2 pcs/m and the average RQD value 98.6 %. (orig.)

  19. Geothermal properties and groundwater flow estimated with a three-dimensional geological model in a late Pleistocene terrace area, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, A.; Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction The ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a highly efficient and renewable energy technology for space heating and cooling, with benefits that include energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. One result of the huge Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disasters is that GSHPs are receiving more attention from the media and they are being introduced by some local governments. Heat generated by underground GSHP installation, however, can pollute the geothermal environment or change groundwater flow patterns . In this study, we estimated possible effects from the use of GSHPs in the Tokyo area with a three-dimensional (3D) geological model. 2. Geological model The Tokyo Metropolitan Area is surrounded by the Late Pleistocene terraces called the Musashino uplands. The terrace surfaces are densely populated residential areas. One of these surfaces, the Shimosueyohi surface, formed along the Tama River during the last deglacial period. The CRE-NUCHS-1 core (Funabiki et al., 2011) was obtained from this surface, and the lithology, heat transfer coefficients, and chemical characteristics of the sediments were analyzed. In this study, we used borehole log data from a 5 km2 area surrounding the CRE-NUCHS-1 core site to create a 3D geological model. In this area, the Pleistocene Kazusa Group is overlain by terrace gravels and a volcanic ash layer called the Kanto Loam. The terrace gravels occur mainly beneath the Kanda, Kitazawa, and Karasuyama rivers , which flow parallel to the Tama River, whereas away from the rivers , the Kanto Loam directly overlies the Kazusa Group sediments. 3. Geothermal disturbance and groundwater flow Using the geological model, we calculated the heat transfer coefficients and groundwater flow velocities in the sediments. Within the thick terrace gravels, which are at relatively shallow depth (8-20 m), heat transfer coefficients were high and groundwater flow was relatively fast. The amount

  20. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  1. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Texas; fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alicia A.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to provide a permanent Federal agency to conduct the systematic and scientific classification of the public lands and to examine the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of national domain. An integral part of that original mission includes publishing and disseminating the earth science information needed to understand, to plan the use of, and to manage the Nation's energy, land, mineral, and water resources.

  2. Diamond drilling for geologic information in the middle Precambrian basins in the western portion of northern Michigan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, J.

    1979-10-01

    Between September 26, 1977, and May 11, 1978, six initially vertical holes probed a total of 9896 feet (1109 feet or 11.2% in overburden, 155 feet or 1.6% in Precambrian Y mafic dikes, 8386 feet or 84.7% in Precambrian X Goodrich Quartzite and Michigamme Formation, and 246 feet or 2.5% in Precambrian W basement lithologies). In addition to normal examination of core, logging, and storing of core, the holes were extensively logged geophysically, acidized core was tested for phosphate content by ammonium molybdate, splits from five out of every thirty feet of core were subjected to chemical scrutiny, thin sections of all lithologies were examined, and radiometric determinations of geologic age were made for confirmation of Precambrian W basement which was encountered in each of the three basins in Marquette County

  3. History of geological disposal concept (3). Implementation phase of geological disposal (2000 upward)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Sumio; Sakuma, Hideki; Umeki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Important standards and concept about geological disposal have been arranged as an international common base and are being generalized. The authors overview the concept of geological disposal, and would like this paper to help arouse broad discussions for promoting the implementation plan of geological disposal projects in the future. In recent years, the scientific and technological rationality of geological disposal has been recognized internationally. With the addition of discussions from social viewpoints such as ethics, economy, etc., geological disposal projects are in the stage of starting after establishment of social consensus. As an international common base, the following consolidated and systematized items have been presented as indispensable elements in promoting business projects: (1) step-by-step approach, (2) safety case, (3) reversibility and recovery potential, and (4) trust building and communications. This paper outlines the contents of the following cases, where international common base was reflected on the geological disposal projects in Japan: (1) final disposal method and safety regulations, and (2) impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident on geological disposal plan. (A.O.)

  4. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  5. Environmental geology and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Mileusnić, Marta; Pavlić, Krešimir; Kovač, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Environmental geology is scientific discipline dealing with the interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Many natural hazards, which have great impact on humans and their environment, are caused by geological settings. On the other hand, human activities have great impact on the physical environment, especially in the last decades due to dramatic human population growth. Natural disasters often hit densely populated areas causing tremendous death toll and material damage. Demand for resources enhanced remarkably, as well as waste production. Exploitation of mineral resources deteriorate huge areas of land, produce enormous mine waste and pollute soil, water and air. Environmental geology is a broad discipline and only selected themes will be presented in the following subchapters: (1) floods as natural hazard, (2) water as geological resource and (3) the mining and mineral processing as types of human activities dealing with geological materials that affect the environment and human health.

  6. Geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, J.C.; Trollman, W.M.; Denman, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The following list of references includes most of the geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in central California (see figure 1) published prior to January 1, 1973. The San Joaquin Valley comprises all or parts of 11 counties -- Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare (figure 2). As a matter of convenient geographical classification the boundaries of the report area have been drawn along county lines, and to include San Benito and Santa Clara Counties on the west and Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties on the east. Therefore, this list of geological literature includes some publications on the Diablo and Temblor Ranges on the west, the Tehachapi Mountains and Mojave Desert on the south, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills and Mountains on the east.

  7. Forensic geoscience: applications of geology, geomorphology and geophysics to criminal investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    One hundred years ago Georg Popp became the first scientist to present in court a case where the geological makeup of soils was used to secure a criminal conviction. Subsequently there have been significant advances in the theory and practice of forensic geoscience: many of them subsequent to the seminal publication of "Forensic Geology" by Murray and Tedrow [Murray, R., Tedrow, J.C.F. 1975 (republished 1986). Forensic Geology: Earth Sciences and Criminal Investigation. Rutgers University Press, New York, 240 pp.]. Our review places historical development in the modern context of how the allied disciplines of geology (mineralogy, sedimentology, microscopy), geophysics, soil science, microbiology, anthropology and geomorphology have been used as tool to aid forensic (domestic, serious, terrorist and international) crime investigations. The latter half of this paper uses the concept of scales of investigation, from large-scale landforms through to microscopic particles as a method of categorising the large number of geoscience applications to criminal investigation. Forensic geoscience has traditionally used established non-forensic techniques: 100 years after Popp's seminal work, research into forensic geoscience is beginning to lead, as opposed to follow other scientific disciplines.

  8. Rolling-Tooth Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bickler, Donald B.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Hudson, Nicolas H.

    2011-01-01

    Sampling cores requires the controlled breakoff of the core at a known location with respect to the drill end. An additional problem is designing a mechanism that can be implemented at a small scale that is robust and versatile enough to be used for a variety of core samples. This design consists of a set of tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube) and a rolling element (rolling tooth). An additional tube can be used as a sample tube. The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal holes with the axes offset from the axis of each tube. The two eccentricities are equal. The inner tube fits inside the drill tube, and the sample tube fits inside the inner tube. While drilling, the two tubes are positioned relative to each other such that the sample tube is aligned with the drill tube axis and core. The drill tube includes teeth and flutes for cuttings removal. The inner tube includes, at the base, the rolling element implemented as a wheel on a shaft in an eccentric slot. An additional slot in the inner tube and a pin in the drill tube limit the relative motion of the two tubes. While drilling, the drill assembly rotates relative to the core and forces the rolling tooth to stay hidden in the slot along the inner tube wall. When the drilling depth has been reached, the drill bit assembly is rotated in the opposite direction, and the rolling tooth is engaged and penetrates into the core. Depending on the strength of the created core, the rolling tooth can score, lock the inner tube relative to the core, start the eccentric motion of the inner tube, and break the core. The tooth and the relative position of the two tubes can act as a core catcher or core-retention mechanism as well. The design was made to fit the core and hole parameters produced by an existing bit; the parts were fabricated and a series of demonstration tests were performed. This invention is potentially applicable to sample return and in situ missions to planets such as Mars and Venus, to moons such

  9. Global Disease Detection-Achievements in Applied Public Health Research, Capacity Building, and Public Health Diplomacy, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Carol Y; Goryoka, Grace W; Henao, Olga L; Clarke, Kevin R; Salyer, Stephanie J; Montgomery, Joel M

    2017-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015-2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human-animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases. Projects incorporated multiple core activities, with technical capacity building being most prevalent. Collaborating with host countries to implement such projects promotes public health diplomacy. The GDD Program continues to work with countries to strengthen core capacities so that emerging diseases can be detected and stopped faster and closer to the source, thereby enhancing global health security.

  10. OneGeology-Europe: architecture, portal and web services to provide a European geological map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Tertre, François; Laxton, John

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is a large ambitious project to make geological spatial data further known and accessible. The OneGeology-Europe project develops an integrated system of data to create and make accessible for the first time through the internet the geological map of the whole of Europe. The architecture implemented by the project is web services oriented, based on the OGC standards: the geological map is not a centralized database but is composed by several web services, each of them hosted by a European country involved in the project. Since geological data are elaborated differently from country to country, they are difficult to share. OneGeology-Europe, while providing more detailed and complete information, will foster even beyond the geological community an easier exchange of data within Europe and globally. This implies an important work regarding the harmonization of the data, both model and the content. OneGeology-Europe is characterised by the high technological capacity of the EU Member States, and has the final goal to achieve the harmonisation of European geological survey data according to common standards. As a direct consequence Europe will make a further step in terms of innovation and information dissemination, continuing to play a world leading role in the development of geosciences information. The scope of the common harmonized data model was defined primarily by the requirements of the geological map of Europe, but in addition users were consulted and the requirements of both INSPIRE and ‘high-resolution' geological maps were considered. The data model is based on GeoSciML, developed since 2006 by a group of Geological Surveys. The data providers involved in the project implemented a new component that allows the web services to deliver the geological map expressed into GeoSciML. In order to capture the information describing the geological units of the map of Europe the scope of the data model needs to include lithology; age; genesis and

  11. Developing a geoscience knowledge framework for a national geological survey organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew S.; Hatton, Bill; Reitsma, Femke; Lawrie, Ken I. G.

    2009-04-01

    Geological survey organisations (GSOs) are established by most nations to provide a geoscience knowledge base for effective decision-making on mitigating the impacts of natural hazards and global change, and on sustainable management of natural resources. The value of the knowledge base as a national asset is continually enhanced by the exchange of knowledge between GSOs as data and information providers and the stakeholder community as knowledge 'users and exploiters'. Geological maps and associated narrative texts typically form the core of national geoscience knowledge bases, but have some inherent limitations as methods of capturing and articulating knowledge. Much knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D) spatial interpretation and its derivation and uncertainty, and the wider contextual value of the knowledge, remains intangible in the minds of the mapping geologist in implicit and tacit form. To realise the value of these knowledge assets, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has established a workflow-based cyber-infrastructure to enhance its knowledge management and exchange capability. Future geoscience surveys in the BGS will contribute to a national, 3D digital knowledge base on UK geology, with the associated implicit and tacit information captured as metadata, qualitative assessments of uncertainty, and documented workflows and best practice. Knowledge-based decision-making at all levels of society requires both the accessibility and reliability of knowledge to be enhanced in the grid-based world. Establishment of collaborative cyber-infrastructures and ontologies for geoscience knowledge management and exchange will ensure that GSOs, as knowledge-based organisations, can make their contribution to this wider goal.

  12. Assessment of the Influence of Dredge Spoil Dumping on the Seafloor Geological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonas J. Virtasalo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the development of suitable indicators for regular reporting on the environmental state and achievement of a good environmental status of EU's marine waters by 2020. The development of indicators for determining seafloor integrity and its possible disturbance by human activities have so far largely ignored the geological properties of seafloor. This paper presents a study of Vuosaari and Uusikaupunki-D offshore dumping sites in Finland, the northern Baltic Sea. Full coverage multibeam bathymetry and relative backscatter data, and a number of sediment cores were collected over the sites. The areas covered by dumped dredge spoil stand out in the multibeam images because of their irregular surface and elevated backscatter. The short gravity cores were studied for lithology, and in 1-cm slices for 137Cs activity, organic content, and grain size distribution. The dumped material is represented in the cores by the gravelly mud lithofacies with massive texture and angular coarse particles. The dumped material is coarser, less sorted and has higher kurtosis compared to natural sediment due to the admixing of blasted rock during the dredging activities, and limited sorting during fall through the water column upon dumping. Dispersed dredge spoil, which was suspended in the water column during the dumping activities or reworked from the dumped material mounds and redistributed along the seafloor soon thereafter, was deposited over a wide area as a thin layer that is not necessarily readily identifiable by visual inspection in the cores. Cesium activity helped distinguish the dumped material from the 137Cs-enriched natural sediments deposited after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. Considering that the dumped material at many of the coring sites in the Vuosaari dumping area is covered by natural sediment, it probably is largely stable. In contrast, dumped material at the shallower Uusikaupunki-D site has

  13. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  14. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, involves the construction of a limited number of facilities and it is therefore a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. Public information, consultation and/or participation in environmental or technological decision-making are today's best practice and must take place at the different geographical and political scales. Large-scale technology projects are much more likely to be accepted when stakeholders have been involved in making them possible and have developed a sense of interest in or responsibility for them. In this way, national commitment, and local and regional involvement are two essential dimensions of the complex task of securing continued societal agreement for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, is a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. The national policy frameworks increasingly support participatory, flexible and accountable processes. Radioactive waste management institutions are evolving away from a technocratic stance, demonstrating constructive interest in learning and adapting to societal requirements. Empowerment of the local and regional actors has been growing steadily in the last decade. Regional and local players tend to take an active role concerning the siting and implementation of geological repositories. National commitment and local/regional involvement go hand-in-hand in supporting sustainable decisions for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

  15. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  16. Subsurface geology of the Cold Creek syncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, C.W.; Price, S.M.

    1981-07-01

    Bedrock beneath the Hanford Site is being evaluated by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) for possible use by the US Department of Energy as a geologic repository for nuclear waste storage. Initial BWIP geologic and hydrologic studies served to determine that the central Hanford Site contains basalt flows with thick, dense interiors that have low porosities and permeabilities. Furthermore, within the Cold Creek syncline, these flows appear to be nearly flat lying across areas in excess of tens of square kilometers. Such flows have been identified as potential repository host rock candidates. The Umtanum flow, which lies from 900 to 1150 m beneath the surface, is currently considered the leading host rock candidate. Within the west-central Cold Creek syncline, a 47-km 2 area designated as the reference repository location (RRL) is currently considered the leading candidate site. The specific purpose of this report is to present current knowledge of stratigraphic, lithologic, and structural factors that directly relate to the suitability of the Umtanum flow within the Cold Creek syncline for use as a nuclear waste repository host rock. The BWIP geologic studies have concentrated on factors that might influence groundwater transport of radionuclides from this flow. These factors include: (1) intraflow structures within the interiors of individual lava flows, (2) interflow zones and flow fronts between adjacent lava flows, and (3) bedrock structures. Data have been obtained primarily through coring and geophysical logging of deep boreholes, petrographic, paleomagnetic, and chemical analysis, seismic-reflection, gravity, and magnetic (ground and multilevel airborne) surveys, and surface mapping. Results included in this document comprise baseline data which will be utilized to prepare a Site Characterization Report as specified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  17. Uranium geology and prospecting in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenfelt, A.; Neilson, B.L.; Secher, K.

    1977-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Greenland is responsible for most of the uranium and thorium prospecting activity in Greenland, which involves airborne gamma spectrometry and scintillometry, geochemical sampling, geological investigations and ground scintillometry. Since 1971 large areas of east and west Greenland have been investigated by aerial surveys, geochemical sampling and most of the detailed scintillometric work having been restricted to small areas in east Greenland. Anomalous radioactivity in west Greenland is recorded from carbonatite intrusions, and from units in Proterozoic and Archaean gneisses. No mineralization has been found to date. In south Greenland investigations have been centred on the uranium and thorium deposit at Kvanefjeld, which is situated in a corner of the Ilimaussaq alkaline intrusion. The coincidence of favourable conditions during the differentiation and crystallization of the magma led to an extreme enrichment of uranium and thorium in the rocks that were last formed - the lujavrites. The deposit comprises parts of the lujavrites and a secondary enrichment zone in the contact between lujavrite and basaltic cover rocks. Reasonably assured reserves are 5800 t U with a grade of 310 ppm U. In the Caledonides of east Greenland some gneisses in basement cores, a dark siltstone in late Precambrian sediments and the Devonian acid magmatic rocks are characterized by a higher radiation level. A number of small mineral occurrences have been found, the majority of which are associated with the Devonian acid magmatic rocks. (author)

  18. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  19. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  20. Development of JNC geological disposal technical information integration system for geological environment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto; Ueta, Shinzo; Ohashi, Toyo

    2004-02-01

    Enormous data on geology, geological structure, hydrology, geochemistry and rock properties should be obtained by various investigation/study in the geological disposal study. Therefore, 'JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System for Geological Environment Field' was developed in order to manage these data systematically and to support/promote the use of these data for the investigators concerned. The system is equipped with data base to store the information of the works and the background information of the assumptions built up in the works on each stage of data flow ('instigative', → 'data sampling' → interpretation' → conceptualization/modeling/simulation' → 'output') in the geological disposal study. In this system the data flow is shown as 'plan' composed of task' and 'work' to be done in the geological disposal study. It is possible to input the data to the database and to refer data from the database by using GUI that shows the data flow as 'plan'. The system was installed to the server computer possessed by JNC and the system utilities were checked on both the server computer and client computer also possessed by JNC. (author)

  1. Recent aspects of uranium toxicology in medical geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Geir; Albert Christophersen, Olav; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Selinus, Olle; Aaseth, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities. This paper highlights different health and environmental aspects of U as well as uptake and intake. It discusses levels of U in soil and water and the related health issues. Also described are different issues of U pollution, such as U and fertilizers, occupational exposure in miners, use and hazards of U in weapons (depleted U), U and plutonium as catalysts in the reaction between DNA and H 2 O 2, and recycling of U from groundwater to surface soils in irrigation. For use in medical geology and U research, large databases and data warehouses are currently available in Europe and the United States. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Geological and geotechnical limitations of radioactive waste retrievability in geologic disposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Leon-Vargas, Rocio; Mintzlaff, Volker; Treidler, Ann-Kathrin [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

    2015-07-01

    The capability of retrieving radioactive waste emplaced in deep geological formations is nowadays in discussion in many countries. Based on the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in deep geological repositories there is a number of possible scenarios for their retrieval. Measurements for an improved retrieving capability may impact on the geotechnical and geological barriers, e.g. keeping open the access drifts for a long period of time can result in a bigger evacuation damage zone (EDZ) in the host rock which implies potential flow paths for ground water. Nevertheless, to limit the possible scenarios associated to the retrieval implementation, it is necessary to take in consideration which criteria will be used for an efficient monitoring program, while clearly determining the performance reliability of the geotechnical barriers. In addition, the integrity of the host rock as geological barrier has to be verified. Therefore, it is important to evaluate different design solutions and the most appropriate measurement methods to improve the retrievability process of wastes from a geological repository. A short presentation of the host rocks is given is this paper.

  3. Geomicrobiology of cores from Suruí Mangrove--Guanabara Bay--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luiz Francisco; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira; Sabadini-Santos, Elisamara; de Figueiredo, Alberto Garcia; Crapez, Mirian Araújo Carlos

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the biopolymers associated to esterase enzymes and identify bacterial respiratory activity in four cores collected in Suruí Mangrove, Guanabara Bay - RJ. Biopolymer concentration was 1000 times lower than previously reported in the literature, indicating the need for creating and establishing eutrophication indicative rates and records compatible with tropical coastal systems. The biochemical representative relationships in the cores were equivalent to those from studies on coastal marine environments made in the Northern Hemisphere. The esterase enzymes in the sediment proved efficient in the mineralization of biopolymers, even with preferentially anaerobic metabolic physiology. Despite the lack of incipient geomicrobiological studies, the results highlighted the possible application of microbiology to a better understanding of geological processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary geologic map of the late Cenozoic sediments of the western half of the Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, J.T.; Tallman, A.M.; Caggiano, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Basalt Waste Isolation Program within the Rockwell Hanford Operations, is investigating the feasibility of terminal storage of radioactive waste in deep caverns constructed in Columbia River Basalt. This report represents a portion of the geological work conducted during fiscal year 1978 to assess the geological conditions in the Pasco Basin. The surficial geology of the western half of the Pasco Basin was studied and mapped in a reconnaissance fashion at a scale of 1:62,500. The map was produced through a compilation of existing geologic mapping publications and additional field data collected during the spring of 1978. The map was produced primarily to: (1) complement other mapping work currently being conducted in the Pasco Basin and in the region by Rockwell Hanford Operations and its subcontractors; and, (2) to provide a framework for more detailed late Cenozoic studies within the Pasco Basin. A description of procedures used to produce the surficial geologic map and geologic map units is summarized in this report

  5. Posiva microseismic network. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PP348...351 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four drillholes for the Posiva's ONKALO microseismic network in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2012. The drillholes are used for geophone instrumentation and geological characterization. The drillholes ONKPP348... 351 were core drilled in February 2012. All the drillholes are ∼ 9.40 m by length. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in deep angles to the floors of the access tunnel and three niches near each other at access tunnel chainages 3019 - 3080. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillcores are diatexitic gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency of the drillcores range from 1.2 to 2.4 pc/m and the average RQD value from 96.6 % to 98.6 %. Two fractured zones were intersected. (orig.)

  6. Posiva microseismic network. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PP348...351 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2014-04-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four drillholes for the Posiva's ONKALO microseismic network in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2012. The drillholes are used for geophone instrumentation and geological characterization. The drillholes ONKPP348... 351 were core drilled in February 2012. All the drillholes are ∼ 9.40 m by length. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in deep angles to the floors of the access tunnel and three niches near each other at access tunnel chainages 3019 - 3080. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillcores are diatexitic gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency of the drillcores range from 1.2 to 2.4 pc/m and the average RQD value from 96.6 % to 98.6 %. Two fractured zones were intersected. (orig.)

  7. ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROAD SOLIN - KLIS (DALMATIA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Šestanović

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The research, that has been done both on the »intact« terrain and on the opened cuts and discontinuities, and which has been carried on in the basic caves of the object, as well as in the tunnels; has verified the engineering geological and basic tectonic characteristics of Senonian limestones, Eocene flysch, the Promina breccias and breccia-conglomerates, as well as Oligocene poorly sorted breccias, on the route of semi-highway Solin-Klis (Dalmatia, Croatia. The lab analyses, of the great number of the rock samples, have brought out the parametres of their basic physical and mechanical features within a particular engineering geological unit. The results, thus obtained, have been compared to the qualities of the rock structure block as a whole, and had been previously evaluated by applying RMR-classification of the rocks, and the results of the measured velocities of the longitudinal waves. It has been pointed out that similar procedure may be applied in the publication of General Engineering Geological Map of the Republic of Croatia (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Regional and site geological frameworks : proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Bruce County, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, K.; Sterling, S.; Gaines, S.; Wigston, A. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is conducting geoscientific studies on behalf of Ontario Power Generation into the proposed development of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L and ILW) at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario. This paper presented a regional geological framework for the site that was based on a review of regional drilling; structural geology; paleozoic stratigraphy and sedimentology; a 3D geological framework model; a DGR geological site characterization model; bedrock stratigraphy and marker beds; natural fracture frequency data; and formation predictability. The studies have shown that the depth, thickness, orientation and rock quality of the 34 rock formations, members or units that comprise the 840 m thick Paleozoic bedrock sequence at the Bruce site are very uniform and predictable over distances of several kilometres. The proposed DGR will be constructed as an engineered facility comprising a series of underground emplacement rooms at a depth of 680 metres below ground within argillaceous limestones. The geoscientific studies are meant to provide a basis for the development of descriptive geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical models of the DGR site that will facilitate environmental and safety assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Core Competencies for Injury and Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Bou-Saada, Ingrid; Hunter, Wanda; Lindemer, Kristen; Runyan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence require a workforce that is knowledgeable and skilled in prevention. However, there has been no systematic process to ensure that professionals possess the necessary competencies. To address this deficiency, we developed a set of core competencies for public health practitioners in injury and violence prevention programs. The core competencies address domains including public health significance, data, the design and implementation of prevention activities, evaluation, program management, communication, stimulating change, and continuing education. Specific learning objectives establish goals for training in each domain. The competencies assist in efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence and can provide benchmarks against which to assess progress in professional capacity for injury and violence prevention. PMID:19197083

  10. Geological Development of the Izu-Bonin Forearc Since the Eocene Based on Biostratigraphic, Rock Magnetic, and Sediment Provenance Observations from IODP Expedition 352 Drill Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronotis, K. E.; Robertson, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Avery, A.; Baxter, A.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Wang, K. L.; Acton, G.

    2016-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352 recovered early Oligocene to recent sediments above Eocene igneous basement at 4 sites in the Izu-Bonin Forearc. The sites were selected to investigate the forearc region since subduction initiation in the Eocene, with Sites U1439 and U1442 being cored into the upper trench slope and Sites U1440 and U1441 into the lower trench slope. Postcruise studies of biostratigraphy, sediment chemistry, tephra composition and chronology and magnetic properties, along with observations from prior coring help constrain the regional geological development. Volcanic activity in the area, as inferred from its influence on sediment composition, has varied between long periods of activity and quiescence. Combined whole-rock sediment chemistry and tephra compositions suggest that during the Oligocene to earliest Miocene ( 30-22 Ma) tuffaceous input of predominantly dacitic composition was mainly derived from the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin Arc. The early Miocene interval ( 22-15 Ma) lacks tuffaceous input, as supported by rock magnetic data. During this period, the forearc subsided beneath the carbonate compensation depth (CCD), as evidenced by radiolarian-bearing mud and metal-rich silty clay. This was followed by input of tephra with bimodal felsic and mafic compositions from the Izu-Bonin Arc from 15 to 5 Ma. Middle Miocene to Quaternary time was characterized by increased carbonate preservation, coupled with abundant, predominantly felsic tephra input, which is chemically indicative of a Japan continental arc source (Honshu), with additional chemically distinctive input from the Izu-Bonin Arc. Extending back to 32 Ma, tephra layers can be correlated between the upper-slope sites, extrapolated to the less well-dated lower-slope sites, and further correlated with onland Japanese tephra (Kutterolf et al., 2016; Goldschmidt Conference). Overall, the new results provide an improved understanding of the regional tectonic evolution.

  11. Barcelona Rocks, a mobile app to learn geology in your city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Cabrera, Lluis; Alias, Gemma; Aulinas, Meritxell; Becerra, Margarita; Casadellà, Jordi; Clotet, Roger; Delclós, Xavier; Fernández-Turiel, José-Luis; Tarragó, Marta; Travé, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Barcelona Rocks is an application for personal mobile devices suitable for secondary and high school students as well as the general public without a solid background in Earth Sciences. The main objective of this app is to teach Geology using as learning resource our city façades and pavements. Additionally, Barcelona Rocks provides a short explanation about the significance of the appearance of the different rock types at the different historical periods of the city. Although it has been designed as a playful learning resource for secondary school students, the level of knowledge also allows bringing some basic concepts and principles of Earth Sciences to the general public, irrespective of age. This app is intended to provide the degree of interactivity and entertainment required by the different individual users and aims to: (i) Explain the techniques and experiments that allow the user to identify the different rocks, as well as their genesis. (ii) Introduce geology to the youngest users in a more attractive and entertaining way, providing also some information regarding the use of the different ornamental rocks during the different historical periods of the city: roman, medieval, etc. (iii) Provide historical and architectural information of the selected buildings in order to improve the city's historical architectural knowledge of the users. (iv) Show the non-expert public the importance of their country's geology. (v) Develop of outreach and dissemination resources taking advantage of the versatile and potent mobile application format using also the content as support material for science courses, seminars, or social learning events. (vi) Encourage new generations of Earth Scientists (vii) Promote science and scientific culture of the society, integrating culture and innovation as essential for the emergence of new scientific and technological vocations, promoting critical thinking, understanding of the scientific method and the social interest in science

  12. Geology of the Horse Range Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bush, A.L.; Bell, Henry; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Horse Range Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary strictures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  13. Natural and anthropogenic environmental hazards. Research results of the Department of Applied Geology; Natuerliche und anthropogene Umweltgefaehrdungen. Forschungsergebnisse aus dem Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czurda, K.; Eiswirth, M.; Hoetzl, H. [comps.

    1998-12-31

    Applied geology is employed in mining geology, raw materials geology, engineering geology, and hydrogeology, of which the two last-mentioned are the most important for the Department of Applied Geology. This series of publications arose from the need of making research findings, dissertations, theses and conference papers accessible to the public faster and more comprehensively than in national and international journals. [Deutsch] Die Aufgaben der angewandten Geologie sind im weitesten Sinne in der Montangeologie, in der Rohstoffgeologie, in der Ingenieurgeologie und in der Hydrogeologie zu sehen. Der engere Aufgabenbereich der Institute fuer Angewandte Geologie konzentriert sich der heutigen Fragestellung entsprechend meist auf die Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie. Wenn wir daraus noch die Umweltgeologie ableiten, so ist der Lehr- und Forschungsschwerpunkt auch des Karlsruher Lehrstuhles fuer Angewandte Geologie (AGK=Angewandte Geologie Karlsruhe) umrissen. Die vorliegende Schriftenreihe ist aus der Notwendigkeit entstanden, Forschungsergebnisse, Dissertationen und ausgewaehlte Diplomarbeiten sowie Beitraege einschlaegiger Tagungen in Karlsruhe rascher und u.U. umfangreicher als in internationalen oder nationalen Journalen moeglich zu publizieren. (orig.)

  14. A study of passive safety conditions for fast reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akinao

    1991-01-01

    A study has been made for passive safety conditions of fast reactor cores. Objective of the study is to develop a concept of a core with passive safety as well as a simple safety philosophy. A simple safety philosophy, which is wore easy to explain to the public, is needed to enhance the public acceptance for nuclear reactors. The present paper describes a conceptual plan of the study including the definition of the problem a method of approach and identification of tasks to be solved

  15. Research and development of the geological environment data base management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiko

    1989-10-01

    PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has been carrying out investigation and research to understand characteristics of the geological environment throughout the country of Japan so as to prepare the fundamental data for evaluation of suitability of the entire geological environment. Being accumulated are a large quantity and variety of data on the geological environment which comprises the geology, lithology, geomechanics, geochemistry, geotectonic conditions and resource potential. It will be necessary hereafter to manage these data efficiently and apply them to comprehensive analysis to assess the framework of the geological environment of Japan. Thus it was decided that a computer aided data management system would be introduced to support extensively the task of experts in charge of investigation and evaluation of the geological environment of Japan. A basic design and a development plan of the system, named Geological Environment Data Base Management System, were made on the basis of task analysis and investigation on current technology of computer graphics which consists of the most important factor of the system development. The method of data management and the specification of functions to be realized were examined. The user-interface is designed in consideration of application of the system to presentation for public acceptance and operation by the unexperienced. The whole system is divided into seven subsystems and the entire program is compiled as an assembly of modules corresponding to each functions so that the system is applicable to partial reforming and functional expansion with the change of requirement to the system or the advance of computer technology in future. Only the input and output data format of each subsystems are standardized and unified to maintain the compatibility in the system. (author)

  16. Research of mining and geological conditions for geological exploration in Pre-Caucasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Гасумов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration natural depletion of reserves of hydrocarbons in Mesozoic deposits of the majority of operated deposits of North Caucasus and for the purpose of further development of oil and gas producing industry in the region it is necessary to involve a carbonaceous complex of Jura of West Pre-Caucasus with the burial depth of more than 5300 m in the development. When drafting engineering design for a construction of exploratory wells in complex mining and geological conditions driven by anomalously high overburden pressure and temperature, use of thoroughly studied field geological information and taking into consideration the experience of boring similar wells is important. The paper provides analysis of geophysical data, the results of complex studies of reservoir porosity and permeability features of rocks picked out of core-samples of the first exploratory well on Krupskaya zone (porosity, permeability, electrical, acoustic, lithological characteristics, pressure-and-temperature conditions. The information obtained allowed to specify technological parameters of boring and tailing-in and to give recommendations regarding the way of exploratory wells boring and use of borehole equipment. In order to avoid the development of significant hydrodynamic pressure in the borehole which provokes gas showings it is necessary to keep on a certain level of minimal values of mud rheology parameters (dynamic shear stress τ = 70¸135 dPa; plastic viscosity η = 25¸35 mPa·s. For the purpose of real-time keeping of overbalance with anomalously high overburden pressure, control and regulation of calculated head pressure a stripper head should be included into the equipment configuration. Furthermore well head equipment and blowout preventer equipment must be designed for expected gradient of overburden pressure.

  17. Assessing correlations between geological hazards and health outcomes: Addressing complexity in medical geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola Ann; Le Blond, Jennifer Susan

    2015-11-01

    The field of medical geology addresses the relationships between exposure to specific geological characteristics and the development of a range of health problems: for example, long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can result in the development of skin conditions and cancers. While these relationships are well characterised for some examples, in others there is a lack of understanding of the specific geological component(s) triggering disease onset, necessitating further research. This paper aims to highlight several important complexities in geological exposures and the development of related diseases that can create difficulties in the linkage of exposure and health outcome data. Several suggested approaches to deal with these complexities are also suggested. Long-term exposure and lengthy latent periods are common characteristics of many diseases related to geological hazards. In combination with long- or short-distance migrations over an individual's life, daily or weekly movement patterns and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in geological characteristics, it becomes problematic to appropriately assign exposure measurements to individuals. The inclusion of supplementary methods, such as questionnaires, movement diaries or Global Positioning System (GPS) trackers can support medical geology studies by providing evidence for the most appropriate exposure measurement locations. The complex and lengthy exposure-response pathways involved, small-distance spatial heterogeneity in environmental components and a range of other issues mean that interdisciplinary approaches to medical geology studies are necessary to provide robust evidence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The Mount Logan (Yukon) Ice Cores: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. A.

    2004-05-01

    Three ice cores were taken at different elevations on or near My Logan in the years 2001 and 2002. The summit core (PRCol) comes from the summit plateau ( 5340 masl, length 187 m to bedrock, mean temperature -29 C ) and was done by the Geological Survey of Canada. The NIPR group cored 210m on the flanks of the mountain at King Col (4200 masl mean temperature -16C) and the UNH group cored 20 km from the mountain at Eclipse "Dome" (3015 masl,length 345 m mean temperature -5C) . The three cores were done cooperatively by GSC, NIPR and UNH and cover nominally 30 ka, 1 ka and 2ka respectively . Located very close to the Gulf of Alaska these core records are thought to reflect the climate history of the Pacific Ocean and having three widely spaced elevations, the sites "see" different distances to different sources. The lowest site (Eclipse) has excellent seasonals but a very muted δ 18O history with no obvious little ice age, whereas the most recent 1ka of the PRCol summit sites contains two very large and sudden δ 18O and d (deuterium excess) shifts at 1850 AD and ~ 800 AD. The δ 18O shifts which happen from one year to the next are about 4 o/oo . The summit site (PRCol) δ 18O response is "backwards", ie the Little Ice Age δ 18O values are 4 o/oo more positive than recent ones. The PRCol δ 18O and d suggest that the source water can either be ëlocalí (Gulf of Alaska) or very distant (tropics) . The Eclipse site seems only to get the local water . A massive dust storm originating in central Asia (Gobi) in April 2001 dumped a visible layer all over the St Elias Mountains and this layer was sampled, to provide a calibration "Asian dust event". The satellite and isotoic signatures both agreed that Gobi was the source. The PRCol record covers the Holocene and well back into the ice age. The transition is defined by a sudden ECM shift on the flanks of a more gradual O18 shift. Acknowledgements. Logan consortium consists of : Geological Survey of Canada : Jocelyne

  19. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Coring operations, core sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.

    2011-01-01

    In February 2007, BP Exploration (Alaska), the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Geological Survey completed the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) in the Milne Point Unit on the Alaska North Slope. The program achieved its primary goals of validating the pre-drill estimates of gas hydrate occurrence and thickness based on 3-D seismic interpretations and wireline log correlations and collecting a comprehensive suite of logging, coring, and pressure testing data. The upper section of the Mount Elbert well was drilled through the base of ice-bearing permafrost to a casing point of 594??m (1950??ft), approximately 15??m (50??ft) above the top of the targeted reservoir interval. The lower portion of the well was continuously cored from 606??m (1987??ft) to 760??m (2494??ft) and drilled to a total depth of 914??m. Ice-bearing permafrost extends to a depth of roughly 536??m and the base of gas hydrate stability is interpreted to extend to a depth of 870??m. Coring through the targeted gas hydrate bearing reservoirs was completed using a wireline-retrievable system. The coring program achieved 85% recovery of 7.6??cm (3??in) diameter core through 154??m (504??ft) of the hole. An onsite team processed the cores, collecting and preserving approximately 250 sub-samples for analyses of pore water geochemistry, microbiology, gas chemistry, petrophysical analysis, and thermal and physical properties. Eleven samples were immediately transferred to either methane-charged pressure vessels or liquid nitrogen for future study of the preserved gas hydrate. Additional offsite sampling, analyses, and detailed description of the cores were also conducted. Based on this work, one lithostratigraphic unit with eight subunits was identified across the cored interval. Subunits II and Va comprise the majority of the reservoir facies and are dominantly very fine to fine, moderately sorted, quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragment-bearing to

  20. China organic-rich shale geologic features and special shale gas production issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Ju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environment of organic-rich shale and the related tectonic evolution in China are rather different from those in North America. In China, organic-rich shale is not only deposited in marine environment, but also in non-marine environment: marine-continental transitional environment and lacustrine environment. Through analyzing large amount of outcrops and well cores, the geologic features of organic-rich shale, including mineral composition, organic matter richness and type, and lithology stratigraphy, were analyzed, indicating very special characteristics. Meanwhile, the more complex and active tectonic movements in China lead to strong deformation and erosion of organic-rich shale, well-development of fractures and faults, and higher thermal maturity and serious heterogeneity. Co-existence of shale gas, tight sand gas, and coal bed methane (CBM proposes a new topic: whether it is possible to co-produce these gases to reduce cost. Based on the geologic features, the primary production issues of shale gas in China were discussed with suggestions.

  1. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  2. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Texas; fiscal years 1982-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozier, R.U.; Land, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to provide a permanent Federal agency to conduct the systematic and scientific classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of national domain. An integral part of that original mission includes publishing and disseminating the earth-science information needed to understand, to plan the use of, and to manage the Nation's energy, land, mineral, and water resources.

  3. Geological-geotechnical studies for siting the Superconducting Super Collider in Illinois: results of the 1986 test drilling program. Environmental geology notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, B.B.; Graese, A.M.; Hasek, M.J.; Vaiden, R.C.; Bauer, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    From 1984 through 1986, geologists from the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) conducted a thorough field investigation in northeastern Illinois to determine whether the surface and subsurface geology would be suitable for constructing the U.S. Department of Energy's 20-TeV (trillion electron volt) particle accelerator - the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The third and final stage of test drilling in 1986 concentrated on a specific corridor proposed for the racetrack-shaped SSC that would circle deep below the surface of Kane, Kendall, and Du Page Counties. The main objective was to verify that bedrock lying under the region satisified the site criteria for construction of a 10-foot-diameter tunnel to hold the particle accelerator and the superconducting magnets, large chambers to house the laboratories and computers for conducting and recording experiments, and shafts to provide access to the subterranean facilities. Thirteen test holes, ISGS S-18 through S-30, were drilled to depths ranging from 398.2 to 646.6 feet. The field team recovered 5675 feet of bedrock core and 212 samples of glacial drift (sand, clay, gravel) for laboratory analyses and recorded on-site data that establish the thickness, distribution, lithology (composition), and other properties of the rocks lying under the study area

  4. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  5. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1982 - 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography cites recent publications by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, Planetary Geology Program. It serves as a companion piece to NASA TM-85127, ""Reports of Planetary Programs, 1982". Entries are listed under the following subject areas: solar system, comets, asteroids, meteorites and small bodies; geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; structure, tectonics, and planetary and satellite evolutions; impact craters; volcanism; fluvial, mass wasting, glacial and preglacial studies; Eolian and Arid climate studies; regolith, volatiles, atmosphere, and climate, radar; remote sensing and photometric studies; and cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry. An author index is provided.

  6. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  7. Minimal geological methane emissions during the Younger Dryas-Preboreal abrupt warming event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Vasilii V; Smith, Andrew M; Schaefer, Hinrich; Riedel, Katja; Brook, Edward; Baggenstos, Daniel; Harth, Christina; Hua, Quan; Buizert, Christo; Schilt, Adrian; Fain, Xavier; Mitchell, Logan; Bauska, Thomas; Orsi, Anais; Weiss, Ray F; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P

    2017-08-23

    Methane (CH 4 ) is a powerful greenhouse gas and plays a key part in global atmospheric chemistry. Natural geological emissions (fossil methane vented naturally from marine and terrestrial seeps and mud volcanoes) are thought to contribute around 52 teragrams of methane per year to the global methane source, about 10 per cent of the total, but both bottom-up methods (measuring emissions) and top-down approaches (measuring atmospheric mole fractions and isotopes) for constraining these geological emissions have been associated with large uncertainties. Here we use ice core measurements to quantify the absolute amount of radiocarbon-containing methane ( 14 CH 4 ) in the past atmosphere and show that geological methane emissions were no higher than 15.4 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence), averaged over the abrupt warming event that occurred between the Younger Dryas and Preboreal intervals, approximately 11,600 years ago. Assuming that past geological methane emissions were no lower than today, our results indicate that current estimates of today's natural geological methane emissions (about 52 teragrams per year) are too high and, by extension, that current estimates of anthropogenic fossil methane emissions are too low. Our results also improve on and confirm earlier findings that the rapid increase of about 50 per cent in mole fraction of atmospheric methane at the Younger Dryas-Preboreal event was driven by contemporaneous methane from sources such as wetlands; our findings constrain the contribution from old carbon reservoirs (marine methane hydrates, permafrost and methane trapped under ice) to 19 per cent or less (95 per cent confidence). To the extent that the characteristics of the most recent deglaciation and the Younger Dryas-Preboreal warming are comparable to those of the current anthropogenic warming, our measurements suggest that large future atmospheric releases of methane from old carbon sources are unlikely to occur.

  8. Minimal geological methane emissions during the Younger Dryas-Preboreal abrupt warming event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Smith, Andrew M.; Schaefer, Hinrich; Riedel, Katja; Brook, Edward; Baggenstos, Daniel; Harth, Christina; Hua, Quan; Buizert, Christo; Schilt, Adrian; Fain, Xavier; Mitchell, Logan; Bauska, Thomas; Orsi, Anais; Weiss, Ray F.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2017-08-01

    Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas and plays a key part in global atmospheric chemistry. Natural geological emissions (fossil methane vented naturally from marine and terrestrial seeps and mud volcanoes) are thought to contribute around 52 teragrams of methane per year to the global methane source, about 10 per cent of the total, but both bottom-up methods (measuring emissions) and top-down approaches (measuring atmospheric mole fractions and isotopes) for constraining these geological emissions have been associated with large uncertainties. Here we use ice core measurements to quantify the absolute amount of radiocarbon-containing methane (14CH4) in the past atmosphere and show that geological methane emissions were no higher than 15.4 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence), averaged over the abrupt warming event that occurred between the Younger Dryas and Preboreal intervals, approximately 11,600 years ago. Assuming that past geological methane emissions were no lower than today, our results indicate that current estimates of today’s natural geological methane emissions (about 52 teragrams per year) are too high and, by extension, that current estimates of anthropogenic fossil methane emissions are too low. Our results also improve on and confirm earlier findings that the rapid increase of about 50 per cent in mole fraction of atmospheric methane at the Younger Dryas-Preboreal event was driven by contemporaneous methane from sources such as wetlands; our findings constrain the contribution from old carbon reservoirs (marine methane hydrates, permafrost and methane trapped under ice) to 19 per cent or less (95 per cent confidence). To the extent that the characteristics of the most recent deglaciation and the Younger Dryas-Preboreal warming are comparable to those of the current anthropogenic warming, our measurements suggest that large future atmospheric releases of methane from old carbon sources are unlikely to occur.

  9. Outcrop - core correlation and seismic modeling of the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit, Fort McMurray area, northeast Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, F.J. [Alberta Geological Survey, Calgary, AB (Canada); Langenberg, C.W.; Cotterill, D.C.; Berhane, H. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lawton, D.; Cunningham, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    A joint study between the Alberta Geological Survey and the University of Calgary was conducted which involved a detailed facies analysis of cores and outcrops from the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in Alberta`s Steepbank area. A unified facies classification for the deposit was developed. Larger scale facies associations were also determined, as well as proxy sonic logs for outcrops used in seismic modeling. The cores which were displayed exhibited detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis of 10 outcrops in the area. 7 refs.

  10. Exploring the "what if?" in geology through a RESTful open-source framework for cloud-based simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jess

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Our framework consist of two layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, and (b) a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can query the ground-truth for underlying properties and produce a simulated measurement to a control layer, which could be a database or LIMS, a machine learner or a companies' existing data infrastructure. Ground truth data are generated by an implicit geological model which serves as a host for nested models of geological processes as smaller scales. Our two layers are implemented using Flask and Gunicorn, which are open source Python web application framework and server, the PyData stack (numpy, scipy etc) and Rabbit MQ (an open-source queuing library). Sensor data is encoded using a JSON-LD version of the SensorML and Observations and Measurements standards. Containerisation of the synthetic sensors using Docker and CoreOS allows rapid and scalable deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as sensor discovery to form a self-organized dynamic network of sensors. Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the

  11. Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey: School Year 2011-12. Provisional Version 1a. NCES 2014-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The documentation for this provisional version 1a file of the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey for SY 2011-12, contains a brief description of the data collection, along with information required to understand and access the data file. The SY 2011-12…

  12. Korrelasjon mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Olsen, Andrea Marie; Fugelsøy, Eivor; Maurstad, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med studien var å se hvilke korrelasjon det er mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Testingen bestod av tre hoveddeler hvor vi testet core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Innenfor core styrke og utholdende styrke i core ble tre ulike tester utført. Ved måling av core stabilitet ble det gjennomført kun en test. I core styrke ble isometrisk abdominal fleksjon, isometrisk rygg ekstensjon og isometrisk lateral fleksjon testet. Sit-ups p...

  13. The use of photography to record geologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClay, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Although photography is generally used today by geologists to record important data and features of interest, no strong effort has been made to systematically photo-document preliminary investigations and siting of critical facilities such as nuclear power plants, Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) terminals, or dams At a time when the safe siting of critical facilities is coming under ever closer scrutiny by regulatory agencies and the public, the importance and usefulness of photographic evidence and authentication is clear. Photography by no means replaces the accurate, detailed log or map. However, when used together, the photograph and graphic log or map can provide a clearer, more understandable representation of geologic data. This can be extremely important to the non-technical reviewer or decision maker. A simple method of presenting documentary photographs has been used for the proposed LNG facility at Little Cojo Bay, near Point Conception, California. This method combines both geologic data and photographic images through the use of clear mylar or acetate overlays

  14. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  15. A database of paleoceanographic sediment cores from the North Pacific, 1951-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreggine, Marisa; Myhre, Sarah E.; Mislan, K. Allison S.; Deutsch, Curtis; Davis, Catherine V.

    2017-09-01

    We assessed sediment coring, data acquisition, and publications from the North Pacific (north of 30° N) from 1951 to 2016. There are 2134 sediment cores collected by American, French, Japanese, Russian, and international research vessels across the North Pacific (including the Pacific subarctic gyre, Alaskan gyre, Japan margin, and California margin; 1391 cores), the Sea of Okhotsk (271 cores), the Bering Sea (123 cores), and the Sea of Japan (349 cores) reported here. All existing metadata associated with these sediment cores are documented here, including coring date, location, core number, cruise number, water depth, vessel metadata, and coring technology. North Pacific sediment core age models are built with isotope stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, tephrochronology, % opal, color, and lithological proxies. Here, we evaluate the iterative generation of each published age model and provide comprehensive documentation of the dating techniques used, along with sedimentation rates and age ranges. We categorized cores according to the availability of a variety of proxy evidence, including biological (e.g., benthic and planktonic foraminifera assemblages), geochemical (e.g., major trace element concentrations), isotopic (e.g., bulk sediment nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotopes), and stratigraphic (e.g., preserved laminations) proxies. This database is a unique resource to the paleoceanographic and paleoclimate communities and provides cohesive accessibility to sedimentary sequences, age model development, and proxies. The data set is publicly available through PANGAEA at PANGAEA.875998" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875998.

  16. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of geological Sciences including Petrology, Mineralogy, geophysics, hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Petroleum geology, Palaeontology, environmental geology, Economic geology, etc.

  17. The mechanism of translational displacements of the core of the Earth at inversion molten and solidification of substance at core-mantle boundary in opposite hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    thermal energy. The directed mechanical influences of the bottom shell on top (of the core on the mantle) on geological intervals of time will result in enormous additional variations of the tension state of the top shell, also ordered in space and time (besides in various time scales). This influence will be transferred to all natural processes which will have similar properties of cyclicity and orderliness. Thermodynamic stimulation of layer D " by the relative displacements of the core and mantle will result in formation of ascending mantle streams - plumes. Relative oscillations of the top shells of the Earth with boundaries on depths of 670 km, 430 km and oth. will generate the fluid formations (lenses and chambers) from a magmatic materials and fusions. Ascending fluid streams in the top mantle on system of breaks and cracks move in the top layers and on a surface of the Earth. So magmatic and volcanic activity of the Earth is realized. Over this activity again "supervise" mutually - displaced and deformed shells of the Earth. The last, in turn, are in strict "submission" at the Moon and the Sun and «are sensitively listen» to the slightest changes of their orbital motions." (Barkin, 2002, pp. 45, 46). "The powerful impacts repeating cyclically, on zones of a congestion of fluid masses (astenosphere lenses, magmatic chambers etc.) result in their growth and expansion, and at significant subsequent impacts to a effects of wedging of the top layers of lithosphere and the crust, i.e. to formation of new or to stimulation and expansion of old cracks and lineaments. Subsequent or more powerful impacts (influences) of the bottom shell on a direction of wedging will result in transport of molten mantle substances from the bottom layers in top, including outpourings of magmas and other fluids on a surface of a planet (the Earth). " (Barkin, 2002, with. 47). The mechanism of formation of plums and hot spots. "The most significant displacements of the centers of mass of

  18. Acquiring Sediment and Element Compositional Changes Based on a Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometry Technology from Cores Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H. J.; Chen, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Heavy summer monsoon rainfall along with typhoon-induced extreme precipitation cause frequent geological hazards that often threaten the human's safety and property in Taiwan. These geological hazards can be triggered by both natural factors, and/or have become deteriorated by perturbations from more and more human activities ever since few thousand years ago. However, due to the limit of instrumental records for observing long-term environmental changes in Taiwan, few evidence exist for distinguishing the human-induced impacts from natural climate change. Here we report a study on a high quality marine sediment core (MD103264) which were retrieved from the high sedimentation rate area from offshore southwestern Taiwan and present evidence for the long-term climate and possibly human-induced environmental changes since the last glacial. We are using the VIS-NIR Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometry (DRS) methods to study the cores. Interpreting the VIS-NIR reflectance spectra through the VARIMAX-rotation, principle component analysis (VPCA) helps conducting rapid and inexpensive measurements for acquiring high-resolution biogenic component, clay, and iron oxide mineral compositional data from the cores. We are also using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis, which is also useful in determining the element compositional changes in the core. Our studies aim toward understanding the sediment and element compositional changes that reflect the patterns of changes in precipitation and soil erosion on land since the last glacial to the Holocene, during which the human activities (deforestation, agriculture, and land uses change) may have increased drastically. We will report and interpret the preliminary results of the optical analyses of the core.

  19. Teaching Spatial Thinking in Undergraduate Geology Courses Using Tools and Strategies from Cognitive Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T. A.; Tikoff, B.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial visualization is an essential skill in the STEM disciplines, including the geological sciences. Undergraduate students, including geoscience majors in upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. Students with weak spatial skills may struggle to understand fundamental concepts and to solve geological problems with a spatial component. However, spatial thinking skills are malleable. Using strategies that have emerged from cognitive science research, we developed a set of curricular materials that improve undergraduate geology majors' abilities to reason about 3D concepts and to solve spatially complex geological problems. Cognitive science research on spatial thinking demonstrates that predictive sketching, making visual comparisons, gesturing, and the use of analogy can be used to develop students' spatial thinking skills. We conducted a three-year study of the efficacy of these strategies in strengthening the spatial skills of students in core geology courses at three universities. Our methodology is a quasi-experimental quantitative design, utilizing pre- and post-tests of spatial thinking skills, assessments of spatial problem-solving skills, and a control group comprised of students not exposed to our new curricular materials. Students taught using the new curricular materials show improvement in spatial thinking skills. Further analysis of our data, to be completed prior to AGU, will answer additional questions about the relationship between spatial skills and academic performance, spatial skills and gender, spatial skills and confidence, and the impact of our curricular materials on students who are struggling academically. Teaching spatial thinking in the context of discipline-based exercises has the potential to transform undergraduate education in the geological sciences by removing one significant barrier to success.

  20. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-07

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  1. Probability-of-success studies for geothermal projects: from subsurface data to geological risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sandra; Pierau, Roberto; Wirth, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the development of geothermal plants in Germany has increased significantly due to a favorable political setting and resulting financial incentives. However, most projects are developed by local communities or private investors, which cannot afford a project to fail. To cover the risk of total loss if the geothermal well should not provide the energy output necessary for an economically viable project, investors try to procure insurances for this worst case scenario. In order to issue such insurances, the insurance companies insist on so called probability-of-success studies (POS studies), in which the geological risk for not achieving the necessary temperatures and/or flow rates for an economically successful project is quantified. Quantifying the probability of reaching a minimum temperature, which has to be defined by the project investors, is relatively straight forward as subsurface temperatures in Germany are comparatively well known due tens of thousands of hydrocarbon wells. Moreover, for the German Molasse Basin a method to characterize the hydraulic potential of a site based on pump test analysis has been developed and refined in recent years. However, to quantify the probability of reaching a given flow rate with a given drawdown is much more challenging in areas where pump test data are generally not available (e.g. the North German Basin). Therefore, a new method based on log and core derived porosity and permeability data was developed to quantify the geological risk of reaching a determined flow rate in such areas. We present both methods for POS studies and show how subsurface data such as pump tests or log and core measurements can be used to predict the chances of a potential geothermal project from a geological point of view.

  2. Petrologic studies of drill cores USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporuscio, F.; Vaniman, D.; Bish, D.; Broxton, D.; Arney, B.; Heiken, G.; Byers, F.; Gooley, R.; Semarge, E.

    1982-07-01

    The tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation as a possible deep geologic site for high-level radioactive waste disposal. This report characterizes tuff retrieved in core from two drill holes, USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, at the Yucca Mountain block. The USW-G2 drill core is from the northernmost extent of the block, whereas UE25b-1H is adjacent to an earlier drill hole, UE25a-1. The drill cores USW-G2 and UE25b-1H bottomed at 6000 and 4200 ft, respectively. Petrographic and x-ray diffraction studies of the two drill cores are presented in this report and indicate that tuffs (composed primarily of variably welded ash flows) are partially recrystallized to secondary minerals. Correlations of stratigraphy are also made with previous drill cores from Yucca Mountain

  3. Mind the Gaps: Expert and Non-Expert Differences in Conceptualising the Geological Subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, H.; Stewart, I. S.; Stokes, A.; Pahl, S.

    2017-12-01

    In communicating geoscience topics, emphasis is often given to approaches such as the use of narrative to make a message engaging and reducing the use of jargon to ensure that it is understood by as wide a group of people as possible. Whilst these are undeniably important techniques to promote effective communication, an aspect of geoscience communication that is often overlooked is the publics' conceptual frameworks about core geoscience concepts. The consideration of different conceptual frameworks fits with the need to ensure that the framing is appropriate for the message, but it extends beyond simple framing into more complicated issues of addressing and incorporating pre- and mis-conceptions in geoscience. In a study examining expert and non-expert cognitive (mental) models of the geological subsurface in south-west England, several gaps were found between the fundamental ways that experts and non-experts conceptualise this invisible realm. Of these, three gaps were considered to be particularly important and common to many participants: the use of spatial reasoning; the application of surface experiences to subsurface processes; and the connection between the surface and subsurface. This paper will examine the evidence for these three important conceptual gaps between specialists and non-specialists and will address how this type of cognitive study can help improve effective geoscience communication.

  4. Development Of Training Curriculum In Improving Community-Based Geological Hazard Mitigation Competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusman Rusman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide training curriculum model in improving community-based geological hazard mitigation competency. The goal was achieved through research and development method, is divided into three main stages. First, applied need analysis as the introduction. Second, developed the curriculum model. Third, tested the curriculum model in order to explore the curriculum effectiveness in improving the competency for mitigation measurement related to geological hazard. This study showed that the training curriculum model, which is developed based on the result of need analysis, is effective to improve the participant’s competency. The result of pre-post test shows that the improvement of the participant’s cognitive aspect.  The significant improvement is identified in the training competency showing the effectiveness of Test II in improving the participant’s practical competency to carry out the training. Some factors that support the training curriculum model development related to community-based Landslides management are: (a the public servant’s competency for geological hazard mitigation; (b the motivation of the community who becomes the volunteer; and (c support from the decision maker. On the other hand, the inhibitors are the lack of competency for training related to geological field, the lack of educational background and knowledge of geology and landslides, and the lack of time.

  5. A WebGIS-Based Information System for Monitoring and Warning of Geological Disasters for Lanzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Miao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and warning of geological disasters accurately and in a timely fashion would dramatically mitigate casualties and economic losses. This paper takes Lanzhou city as an example and designs a Web-based system, namely the information system for geological disaster monitoring and warning (ISGDMW. Presented are its framework, key developing technologies, database, and working flow. The information system adopts a Browser/Server (B/S structure and has three-tier architecture, combining in-situ monitoring instruments, the wireless sensor network, WebGIS techniques and the grey system theory. The framework of the ISGDMW can be divided into three categories: (1 in-situ monitoring system, it aims to monitor geological disaster sites and get state information of geological disaster sites; (2 database, manage in-situ monitoring data, antecedent field investigating data and basic data; (3 analyzing and warning system, analyze in-situ monitoring data, understand the deformation trend of the potential geological disaster, and release disaster warning information to the public. The ISGDMW allow the processes of geological disaster monitoring, in-situ monitoring data analysis, geological disaster warning to be implemented in an efficient and quick way, and can provide scientific suggestions to commanders for quick response to the possibility of geological disaster.

  6. Historical summary of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris transportation campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinn, G.J. [Wastren, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Transport of the damaged core materials from the Unit 2 reactor of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for examination and storage presented many technical and institutional challenges, including assessing the ability to transport the damaged core; removing and packaging core debris in ways suitable for transport; developing a transport package that could both meet Federal regulations and interface with the facilities at TMI-2 and the INEL; and developing a transport plan, support logistics, and public communications channels suited to the task. This report is a historical summary of how the US Department of Energy addressed those challenges and transported, received, and stored the TMI-2 core debris at the INEL. Subjects discussed include preparations for transport, loading at TMI-2, institutional issues, transport operations, receipt and storage at the INEL, governmental inquiries/investigations, and lessons learned. Because of public attention focused on the TMI-2 Core Debris Transport Program, the exchange of information between the program and public was extensive. This exchange is a focus for parts of this report to explain why various operations were conducted as they were and why certain technical approaches were employed. And, because of that exchange, the program may have contributed to a better public understanding of such actions and may contribute to planning and execution of similar future actions.

  7. Historical summary of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris transportation campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.; Quinn, G.J.

    1993-03-01

    Transport of the damaged core materials from the Unit 2 reactor of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for examination and storage presented many technical and institutional challenges, including assessing the ability to transport the damaged core; removing and packaging core debris in ways suitable for transport; developing a transport package that could both meet Federal regulations and interface with the facilities at TMI-2 and the INEL; and developing a transport plan, support logistics, and public communications channels suited to the task. This report is a historical summary of how the US Department of Energy addressed those challenges and transported, received, and stored the TMI-2 core debris at the INEL. Subjects discussed include preparations for transport, loading at TMI-2, institutional issues, transport operations, receipt and storage at the INEL, governmental inquiries/investigations, and lessons learned. Because of public attention focused on the TMI-2 Core Debris Transport Program, the exchange of information between the program and public was extensive. This exchange is a focus for parts of this report to explain why various operations were conducted as they were and why certain technical approaches were employed. And, because of that exchange, the program may have contributed to a better public understanding of such actions and may contribute to planning and execution of similar future actions

  8. Microbial investigations of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Joulian, C.; Coulon, S.; Le Marrec, C.; Garrido, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep sedimentary rocks are now considered to contain a significant part of the total bacterial population, but are microbiologically unexplored. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned and sub-sampled on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible, the nine cores: two in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, two in the Dogger, five in the Triassic compartments. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the five Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized bars chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the core by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analysed. The microbial exploration we started can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for six metabolic groups to try to find microbial cells still viable. This type of experiment is difficult because of the small proportion of cultivable species, especially in these extreme environmental samples. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. Here, the limits are the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. The five Triassic samples were partly crushed in powder and inoculated in the six culture media with four NaCl concentrations, because this type of rock is known as saline or hyper-saline, and incubated at three temperatures: 30 deg. C, 55 deg. C under agitation and 70 deg. C. First results will be presented. The direct extraction of DNA needs a complete method optimisation to adapt existent procedures (using commercial kit and classical

  9. CoolRep H22: Synthesis report on R and D results on geological disposal up to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, Hiroyuki; Hioki, Kazumasa; Osawa, Hideaki; Fujita, Tomoo; Shibata, Masahiro; Makino, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Shinji; Ishimaru, Tsuneari

    2011-02-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing research and development on geological disposal technology of high level radioactive waste. At the end of fiscal year 2009, the Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate of JAEA made publicly available the 'CoolRep H22', which is a web-based report that summarizes the R and D results, on its website. This document reports the contents of CoolRep H22. (author)

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1981-02-01

    Assessment of the post-closure performance of a nuclear waste repository has two basic components: the identification and analysis of potentially disruptive sequences and the pattern of geologic events and processes causing each sequence, and the identification and analysis of the environmental consequences of radionuclide transport and interactions subsequent to disruption of a repository. The AEGIS Scenario Analysis Task is charged with identifying and analyzing potenially disruptive sequences of geologic events and processes. The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) was developed to evaluate the geologic/hydrologic system surrounding an underground repository, and describe the phenomena that alone, or in concert, could perturb the system and possibly cause a loss of repository integrity. The AEGIS approach is described in this report. It uses an integrated series of models for repository performance analysis; the GSM for a low-resolution, long-term, comprehensive evaluation of the geologic/hydrologic system, followed by more detailed hydrogeologic, radionuclide transport, and dose models to more accurately assess the consequences of disruptive sequences selected from the GSM analyses. This approach is felt to be more cost-effective than an integrated one because the GSM can be used to estimate the likelihoods of different potentially disruptive future evolutionary developments within the geologic/hydrologic system. The more costly consequence models can then be focused on a few disruptive sequences chosen for their representativeness and effective probabilities

  11. Sedimentary petrology of oil well rock cores; Petrologia sedimentaria de nucleos de rocas de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo M, Georgina; Paredes S, Adriana [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    At the request of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), in the area of Geology of the Gerencia de Geotermia, the necessary methodology has been integrated to carry out the geologic characterization of cores obtained during the oil well drilling. The integrated studies have been of utility for PEMEX, because they provide detailed information on the processes, conditions of deposition and diagenesis that occur in sedimentary rocks. On the other hand, this geologic information contributes to the update of the geologic model of the field in study. [Spanish] A solicitud de PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), en el area de Geologia de la Gerencia de Geotermia, se ha integrado la metodologia necesaria para llevar a cabo la caracterizacion geologica de nucleos obtenidos durante la perforacion de pozos petroleros. Los estudios integrados han sido de utilidad para PEMEX, pues proporcionan informacion detallada sobre los procesos, condiciones de depositacion y diagenesis que ocurren en rocas sedimentarias. Por otro lado, esta informacion geologica contribuye a la actualizacion del modelo geologico del campo en estudio.

  12. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L; Pelayo, M; Recreo, F

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  13. Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course Offered by The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Allison, M. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year six, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students participate in an initial period of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas and Galveston, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, have provided ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques. In the field, students rotate between two research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, and is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibrocoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for

  14. Surface water-quality activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Thomas G.

    2016-03-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with a variety of Federal, State, local, and tribal partners on scientific projects to provide reliable and impartial water-quality data and interpretation to resource managers, planners, stakeholders, and the general public. The themes related to surface water quality include the following:

  15. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  16. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National.... Geological Survey (703-648-6283, [email protected] ). Registrations are due by April 13, 2012. While the...

  17. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  18. A Monitoring System for Mountain Flood Geological Hazard Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANGFU Zhong-Min

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the shortcomings of the poor real-time data collection and the insufficient information coverage in the traditional geological hazard disaster monitoring measures, this paper designs a monitoring system for mountain flood geological hazard based on the Internet of Things, in which the overall architecture of the system is built, and the design of hardware combined with its driver program for the remote terminal system is presented in detail. This system uses STC12C5A60S2 MCU as the core controller to handle such data as rainfall, groundwater level and displacement of the mountain which are collected by the sensors, and employs GPS module to get the location information. Then the data processed is encapsulated into TCP/IP data packs by GPRS module. Through GPRS accessing the Internet, these data packs are transmitted to the monitoring center. The experimental results show that the system has good reliability, stability and real-time in communication.

  19. Topographic and Hydrographic GIS Datasets for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2014 Mineral Areas of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2015-11-18

    Mineral extraction and associated industries play an important role in the Afghan economy, particularly in the “transitional era” of declining foreign aid and withdrawal of foreign troops post 2014. In addition to providing a substantial source of government revenue, other potential benefits of natural resource development include boosted exports, employment opportunities, and strengthened industrialization (Joya, 2012). Continued exploration and investment in these industries has resulted in large economic improvements since 2007, when this series of studies was initiated. At that time, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment published a series of country-wide datasets, including a digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, hydrography, transportation routes, geophysics, and cultural datasets (Peters and others, 2007). It also delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. A second data product, “Summaries of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released by Peters and others in 2011. This work highlighted geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies that were carried out in specific Areas of Interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of mineral resources. Also included in the 2011 publication is a collection of appendixes and inventories of Geographic Information System (GIS) datasets for each of the 24 identified AOIs. A third data product was released in 2013 (Casey and Chirico, 2013), publishing datasets for five different AOIs, two subareas, and one AOI extension. Each dataset contains vector shapefiles of the AOI boundary, streams, roads, and contours at 25-, 50-, and 100-meter (m) intervals, as well as raster files of the AOI’s DEM and hillshade.

  20. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  1. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interopability of online geological maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a

  2. Geologic description of cores from holes P-3 MH-1 through P-3 MH-5, Area G, Technical Area 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Wheeler, M.L.; Rogers, M.A.

    1978-05-01

    Five horizontal holes were cored beneath Pit 3 near the southeast edge of Mesita del Buey at Area G. The pit, filled and covered by 1966, contains solid radioactive wastes. The holes were cored to obtain samples of the tuff underlying the pit to determine if there has been any migration of radionuclides by infiltration of water in the past 10 y. The five holes were collared in Unit 2b of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff; three of the holes plunged downward into Unit 2a. This report describes the rock units penetrated by core holes and the joint characteristics observed. The locations of core samples selected for analyses are related to the floor of the pit

  3. Database system of geological information for geological evaluation base of NPP sites(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. B.; Choi, K. R.; Sim, T. M.; No, M. H.; Lee, H. W.; Kim, T. K.; Lim, Y. S.; Hwang, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to provide database system for site suitability analyses of geological information and a processing program for domestic NPP site evaluation. This database system program includes MapObject provided by ESRI and Spread 3.5 OCX, and is coded with Visual Basic language. Major functions of the systematic database program includes vector and raster farmat topographic maps, database design and application, geological symbol plot, the database search for the plotted geological symbol, and so on. The program can also be applied in analyzing not only for lineament trends but also for statistic treatment from geologically site and laboratory information and sources in digital form and algorithm, which is usually used internationally

  4. Core Analysis Combining MT (TIPPER) and Dielectric Sensors (Sans EC) in Earth and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Michael C.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    On terrestrial planets and moons of our solar system cores reveal details about a geological structure's formation, content, and history. The strategy for the search for life is focused first on finding water which serves as a universal solvent, and identifying the rocks which such solvent act upon to release the constituent salts, minerals, ferrites, and organic compounds and chemicals necessary for life. Dielectric spectroscopy measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency. Reflection measurements in the frequency range from 300 kHz to 300 MHz were carried out using RF and microwave network analyzers interrogating SansEC Sensors placed on clean geological core samples. These were conducted to prove the concept feasibility of a new geology instrument useful in the field and laboratory. The results show that unique complex frequency spectra can be acquired for a variety of rock core samples. Using a combination of dielectric spectroscopy and computer simulation techniques the magnitude and phase information of the frequency spectra can be converted to dielectric spectra. These low-frequency dielectric properties of natural rock are unique, easily determined, and useful in characterizing geology. TIPPER is an Electro-Magnetic Passive-Source Geophysical Method for Detecting and Mapping Geothermal Reservoirs and Mineral Resources. This geophysical method uses distant lightning and solar wind activity as its energy source. The most interesting deflections are caused by the funneling of electrons into more electrically conductive areas like mineralized faults, water or geothermal reservoirs. We propose TIPPER to be used with SansEC for determining terrain/ocean chemistry, ocean depth, geomorphology of fracture structures, and other subsurface topography characteristics below the ice crust of Jovian moons. NASA envisions lander concepts for exploration of these extraterrestrial icy surfaces and the oceans beneath. One such concept would use a

  5. Trichloroethylene (TCE) in tree cores to complement a subsurface investigation on residential property near a former electroplating facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Kathy M

    2016-10-01

    Tree cores were collected and analyzed for trichloroethylene (TCE) on a private property between a former electroplating facility in Asheville, North Carolina (USA), and a contaminated wetland/spring complex. TCE was detected in 16 of 31 trees, the locations of which were largely consistent with a "plume core" delineated by a more detailed subsurface investigation nearly 2 years later. Concentrations in tree cores and nearby soil borings were not correlated, perhaps due to heterogeneities in both geologic and tree root structure, spatial and temporal variability in transpiration rates, or interferences caused by other contaminants at the site. Several tree cores without TCE provided evidence for significantly lower TCE concentrations in shallow groundwater along the margins of the contaminated spring complex in an area with limited accessibility. This study demonstrates that tree core analyses can complement a more extensive subsurface investigation, particularly in residential or ecologically sensitive areas.

  6. Advanced core-analyses for subsurface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.

    2017-12-01

    The heterogeneity of geological formations varies over a wide range of length scales and represents a major challenge for predicting the movement of fluids in the subsurface. Although they are inherently limited in the accessible length-scale, laboratory measurements on reservoir core samples still represent the only way to make direct observations on key transport properties. Yet, properties derived on these samples are of limited use and should be regarded as sample-specific (or `pseudos'), if the presence of sub-core scale heterogeneities is not accounted for in data processing and interpretation. The advent of imaging technology has significantly reshaped the landscape of so-called Special Core Analysis (SCAL) by providing unprecedented insight on rock structure and processes down to the scale of a single pore throat (i.e. the scale at which all reservoir processes operate). Accordingly, improved laboratory workflows are needed that make use of such wealth of information by e.g., referring to the internal structure of the sample and in-situ observations, to obtain accurate parameterisation of both rock- and flow-properties that can be used to populate numerical models. We report here on the development of such workflow for the study of solute mixing and dispersion during single- and multi-phase flows in heterogeneous porous systems through a unique combination of two complementary imaging techniques, namely X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The experimental protocol is applied to both synthetic and natural porous media, and it integrates (i) macroscopic observations (tracer effluent curves), (ii) sub-core scale parameterisation of rock heterogeneities (e.g., porosity, permeability and capillary pressure), and direct 3D observation of (iii) fluid saturation distribution and (iv) the dynamic spreading of the solute plumes. Suitable mathematical models are applied to reproduce experimental observations, including both 1D and 3D

  7. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  8. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-11-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  9. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data From the USGS Dixon Core, Onslow County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Wilma Aleman B.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Weems, Robert E.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Durand, Colleen T.

    2009-01-01

    In October through November 2006, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Region Earth Surface Processes Team (EESPT) and the Raleigh (N.C.) Water Science Center (WSC), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Onslow County Water and Sewer Authority (ONWASA), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Onslow County, N.C. The Dixon corehole was cored on ONWASA water utility property north of the town of Dixon, N.C., in the Sneads Ferry 7.5-minute quadrangle at latitude 34deg33'35' N, longitude 77deg26'54' W (decimal degrees 34.559722 and -77.448333). The site elevation is 66.0 feet (ft) above mean sea level as determined using a Paulin precision altimeter. The corehole attained a total depth of 1,010 ft and was continuously cored by the USGS EESPT drilling crew. A groundwater monitoring well was installed in the screened interval between 234 and 254 ft below land surface. The section cored at this site includes Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments. The Dixon core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh. The Dixon corehole is the fourth and last in a series of planned North Carolina benchmark coreholes drilled by the USGS Coastal Carolina Project. These coreholes explore the physical stratigraphy, facies, and thickness of Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene Coastal Plain sediments in North Carolina. Correlations of lithologies, facies, and sequence stratigraphy can be made with the Hope Plantation corehole, N.C., near Windsor in Bertie County (Weems and others, 2007); the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, N.C., in Bladen County (Self-Trail and others, 2004b); the Smith Elementary School corehole, near Cove City, N.C., in Craven County (Harris and Self-Trail, 2006; Crocetti, 2007); the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, N.C., in New Hanover County (Self-Trail and others, 2004a); the Esso#1, Esso #2, Mobil #1, and Mobil #2 cores in Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds

  10. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  11. Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

    2010-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

  12. A database of paleoceanographic sediment cores from the North Pacific, 1951–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borreggine

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed sediment coring, data acquisition, and publications from the North Pacific (north of 30° N from 1951 to 2016. There are 2134 sediment cores collected by American, French, Japanese, Russian, and international research vessels across the North Pacific (including the Pacific subarctic gyre, Alaskan gyre, Japan margin, and California margin; 1391 cores, the Sea of Okhotsk (271 cores, the Bering Sea (123 cores, and the Sea of Japan (349 cores reported here. All existing metadata associated with these sediment cores are documented here, including coring date, location, core number, cruise number, water depth, vessel metadata, and coring technology. North Pacific sediment core age models are built with isotope stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, tephrochronology, % opal, color, and lithological proxies. Here, we evaluate the iterative generation of each published age model and provide comprehensive documentation of the dating techniques used, along with sedimentation rates and age ranges. We categorized cores according to the availability of a variety of proxy evidence, including biological (e.g., benthic and planktonic foraminifera assemblages, geochemical (e.g., major trace element concentrations, isotopic (e.g., bulk sediment nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotopes, and stratigraphic (e.g., preserved laminations proxies. This database is a unique resource to the paleoceanographic and paleoclimate communities and provides cohesive accessibility to sedimentary sequences, age model development, and proxies. The data set is publicly available through PANGAEA at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875998.

  13. [Geognosy versus Geology: National Modes of Thought and Cultural Practices Concerning Space and Time in Competition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemun, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Natural science investigators at the end of the eighteenth century made use of conflicting labels to position their respective preferred fields of activity in the Earth sciences. This mania for labelling marked their break with natural science and the umbrella term 'mineralogy'. In this conflict situation of specialist classifications and explanations, two terms in particular were established: geognosy and geology, which covered the very promising project of research in the areas of the 'origin of the Earth' and the 'formation of the Earth'. These and the associated research goals were subsequently accorded a dazzling career. Proceeding from the conceptual core-meaning in the formation of terms und its semantic spectrum and conceptual shifts in a time of change, my study will look at the identity and heterogeneity functions of geology and geognosy. For whereas in French and English speaking countries the term geology came to be used exclusively (geology, géologie), this was avoided in German, particularly because the term geognosy was preferred. These national differences may be explained with reference to the different cultural and national styles of science: for example the social embedding of geology in the culture of the English gentleman or the French museum culture, and the close connection of 'German' geognosy to mining. A further starting point in the analysis of the double use of both geology and geognosy in German speaking countries until 1840 is provided by the different references to temporalization and spatialization of the two terms. And we should also include the practical implications and the epistemic requirements that were bound up with the defence of geognosy in the German speaking world.

  14. Results from the geological surveys carried out in the Bure laboratory's drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebours, Herve; Righini, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After the government's authorization to build and operate an underground laboratory, Andra started the investigation works in November 99 on the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL site. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is located at the border of the Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine regions, on the township of Bure in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rich rock. At this place, the layer is about 135 m-thick and lies at a depth of 417 m to 552 m. The construction of the underground installations started in August 2000 with the sinking of the main shaft and the first phase of diggings was completed on the 27 April 2006 when it linked up with the south drift of the laboratory. The laboratory consists in two vertical shafts crossing the 505-m thick sedimentary cover and two levels of experimental drifts dug in Callovo-Oxfordian formation. The first experimental drift dug at -445 m with a drill-and-blast method with steps of 2.4 m. The technical and experimental drifts at the main level (-490 m of depth) were dug with a hydraulic stone crusher. The aims of the geological surveys carried out during the drifts digging are to observe the lateral variation of the lithology, if there is one, to confirm the absence of fault and the geometry of the argillites formation. These works should also allow to characterize the natural or inducted fracturing (EDZ - Excavation Damaged Zone) induced by the digging by a sedimentary and structural follow-up. The EDZ characterization has been established from the geological survey of the drift face and sidewalls carried out from 1 to 5 meters in the drifts, and completed by the structural analysis of the cores of the boreholes drilled for the experimentations' equipments. After the safe keeping of the front, the geological team goes down to carry out the survey which consists in a lithologic and sedimentary mapping, a structural survey for the understanding of joints distribution and EDZ characterization, and

  15. A brief geological history of Cockspur Island at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Parker, Mercer

    2018-03-09

    Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island in Chatham County, Georgia, within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The island lies near the mouth of the Savannah River, and consists of small mounds (hummocks), salt marshes, and sediment dredged from the river. A 1,017-foot (ft) (310-meter [m])-deep core drilled at Cockspur Island in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey revealed several sedimentary units ranging in age from 43 million years old to present. Sand and mud are present at drilling depths from 0 to 182 ft (56 m), limestone is present at depths from 182 ft (56 m) to 965 ft (295 m), and glauconitic sand is present at depths from 965 ft (295 m) to 1,017 ft (310 m). The limestone and the water within the limestone are referred to collectively as the Floridan aquifer system, which is the primary source of drinking water for the City of Savannah and surrounding communities. In addition to details of the subsurface geology, this fact sheet identifies the following geologic materials used in the construction of Fort Pulaski: (1) granite, (2) bricks, (3) sandstone, and (4) lime mud with oyster shells.

  16. Geological disposal of nuclear waste: II. From laboratory data to the safety analysis – Addressing societal concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, Bernd; Bretesché, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Models for repository safety can only partly be validated. • Long term risks need to be translated in the context of societal temporalities. • Social sciences need to be more strongly involved into safety assessment. - Abstract: After more than 30 years of international research and development, there is a broad technical consensus that geologic disposal of highly-radioactive waste will provide for the safety of humankind and the environment, now, and far into the future. Safety analyses have demonstrated that the risk, as measured by exposure to radiation, will be of little consequence. Still, there is not yet an operating geologic repository for highly-radioactive waste, and there remains substantial public concern about the long-term safety of geologic disposal. In these two linked papers, we argue for a stronger connection between the scientific data (paper I, Grambow et al., 2014) and the safety analysis, particularly in the context of societal expectations (paper II). In this paper (II), we assess the meaning of the technical results and derived models (paper I) for the determination of the long-term safety of a repository. We consider issues of model validity and their credibility in the context of a much broader historical, epistemological and societal context. Safety analysis is treated in its social and temporal dimensions. This perspective provides new insights into the societal dimension of scenarios and risk analysis. Surprisingly, there is certainly no direct link between increased scientific understanding and a public position for or against different strategies of nuclear waste disposal. This is not due to the public being poorly informed, but rather due to cultural cognition of expertise and historical and cultural perception of hazards to regions selected to host a geologic repository. The societal and cultural dimension does not diminish the role of science, as scientific results become even more important in distinguishing

  17. Engineering geology and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, E M

    1979-01-01

    A classification is made of the anthropogenic processes in the environment into global, local, universally distributed, zonal, regional, and essentially local processes. Engineering geology is defined as the principal science concerned with the study of the geological medium which in turn involves the study of fossil fuel geology. 22 references.

  18. Data to Support Development of Geologic Framework Models for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This report summarizes work conducted in FY2017 to identify and document publically available data for developing a Geologic Framework Model (GFM) for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). Data was collected for all four of the sites being considered in 2017 for a DBFT site.

  19. Geologic map of the Lower Valley quadrangle, Caribou County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlindacher, H. Peter; Hovland, R. David; Miller, Susan T.; Evans, James G.; Miller, Robert J.

    2018-04-05

    The Lower Valley 7.5-minute quadrangle, located in the core of the Southeast Idaho Phosphate Resource Area, includes Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary rocks, Pliocene to Pleistocene basalt, and Tertiary to Holocene surficial deposits. The Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary sequence was deposited on a shallow shelf between an emergent craton to the east and the Antler orogenic belt to the west. The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation hosts high-grade deposits of phosphate that were the subject of geologic studies through much of the 20th century. Open-pit mining of the phosphate has been underway within and near the Lower Valley quadrangle for several decades.

  20. Site investigation - equipment for geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Fridh, B.; Johansson, B.E.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1986-11-01

    The investigations are performed within a site investigation program. In total about 60,000 m of cored 56 mm boreholes have been drilled and investigated at eight study sites. A summarized description of the main investigation methods is included. Instruments for geophysical investigations contains equipment for ground measurements as well as for borehole logging. The Geophysical investigations including the borehole radar measurements, are indirect methods for the geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock formation. Great effort has been laid on the development of hydrogeological instruments for hydraulic tests and groundwater head measurements. In order to obtain hydrochemical investigations with high quality, a complete system for sampling and analysis of ground water has been developed. (orig./PW)

  1. Tree Coring as a Complement to Soil Gas Screening to Locate PCE and TCE Source Zones and Hot Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rehne Jensen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    ) or trichloroethylene (TCE) to evaluate their ability to locate source zones and contaminant hot spots. One test site represented a relatively homogeneous sandy soil and aquifer, and the second a more heterogeneous geology with both sandy and less permeable clay till layers overlying a chalk aquifer. Tree cores from...

  2. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  4. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  5. Do AAO-HNSF CORE Grants Predict Future NIH Funding Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Kanumuri, Vivek V; Folbe, Adam J; Setzen, Michael; Baredes, Soly

    2014-08-01

    To determine (1) whether academic otolaryngologists who have received an American Academy of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) Centralized Otolaryngology Research Efforts (CORE) grant are more likely to procure future National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding; (2) whether CORE grants or NIH Career Development (K) awards have a stronger association with scholarly impact. Historical cohort. Scholarly impact, as measured by the h-index, publication experience, and prior grant history, were determined for CORE-funded and non-CORE-funded academic otolaryngologists. All individuals were assessed for NIH funding history. Of 192 academic otolaryngologists with a CORE funding history, 39.6% had active or prior NIH awards versus 15.1% of 1002 non-CORE-funded faculty (P productivity than those with CORE funding history. Both cohorts had higher scholarly impact values than previously published figures among academic otolaryngologists, highlighting that both CORE grants and NIH K-grants awards are effective career development resources. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  6. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  7. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low-order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, while (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region require a different parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geologies can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. More generally, we show that by defining a set of end-member parameters that reflect different geologic classes, we can more efficiently apply a hydrologic model over a geologically complex landscape and resolve geo-climatic differences in how different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  8. Risk communication as a core public health competence in infectious disease management: Development of the ECDC training curriculum and programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Abraham, Thomas; Sarkar, Satyajit; Wysocki, Piotr; Cecconi, Sabrina; Apfel, Franklin; Nurm, Ülla-Karin

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication has been identified as a core competence for guiding public health responses to infectious disease threats. The International Health Regulations (2005) call for all countries to build capacity and a comprehensive understanding of health risks before a public health emergency to allow systematic and coherent communication, response and management. Research studies indicate that while outbreak and crisis communication concepts and tools have long been on the agenda of public health officials, there is still a need to clarify and integrate risk communication concepts into more standardised practices and improve risk communication and health, particularly among disadvantaged populations. To address these challenges, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) convened a group of risk communication experts to review and integrate existing approaches and emerging concepts in the development of a training curriculum. This curriculum articulates a new approach in risk communication moving beyond information conveyance to knowledge- and relationship-building. In a pilot training this approach was reflected both in the topics addressed and in the methods applied. This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation.

  9. Summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Texas; fiscal years 1989-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcategui, Kristy E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to provide a permanent Federal agency to conduct the systematic and scientific classification of the public lands and to examine the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of national domain. An integral part of that original mission includes publishing and disseminating the earth science information needed to understand, to plan the use of, and to manage the Nation's energy, land, mineral, and water resources.

  10. Geologic map of the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Roberts, Paul; Smith, Moira; Gamble, Bruce M.; Henning, Mitchell W.; Gough, Larry P.; Morath, Laurie C.

    2003-01-01

    New 1:63,360-scale geologic mapping of the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle provides important data on the structural setting and age of geologic units, as well as on the timing of gold mineralization plutonism within the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska. Gold exploration has remained active throughout the region in response to the discovery of the Pogo gold deposit, which lies within the northwestern part of the quadrangle near the south bank of the Goodpaster River. Geologic mapping and associated geochronological and geochemical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, provide baseline data to help understand the regional geologic framework. Teck Cominco Limited geologists have provided the geologic mapping for the area that overlies the Pogo gold deposit as well as logistical support, which has lead to a much improved and informative product. The Yukon-Tanana Upland lies within the Tintina province in Alaska and consists of Paleozoic and possibly older(?) supracrustal rocks intruded by Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippian) and Cretaceous plutons. The oldest rocks in the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle are Paleozoic gneisses of both plutonic and sedimentary origin. Paleozoic deformation, potentially associated with plutonism, was obscured by intense Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism. At least some of the rocks in the quadrangle underwent tectonism during the Middle Jurassic (about 188 Ma), and were subsequently deformed in an Early Cretaceous contractional event between about 130 and 116 Ma. New U-Pb SHRIMP data presented here on zircons from the Paleozoic biotite gneisses record inherited cores that range from 363 Ma to about 2,130 Ma and have rims of euhedral Early Cretaceous metamorphic overgrowths (116 +/- 4 Ma), interpreted to record recrystallization during Cretaceous west-northwest-directed thrusting and folding. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of monazite from a Paleozoic

  11. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0134] Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core..., entitled, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors,'' is...

  12. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  13. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, David

    2008-01-01

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  14. A virtual tour of geological heritage: Valourising geodiversity using Google Earth and QR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Graña, A. M.; Goy, J. L.; Cimarra, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    When making land-use plans, it is necessary to inventory and catalogue the geological heritage and geodiversity of a site to establish an apolitical conservation protection plan to meet the educational and social needs of society. New technologies make it possible to create virtual databases using virtual globes - e.g., Google Earth - and other personal-use geomatics applications (smartphones, tablets, PDAs) for accessing geological heritage information in “real time” for scientific, educational, and cultural purposes via a virtual geological itinerary. Seventeen mapped and georeferenced geosites have been created in Keyhole Markup Language for use in map layers used in geological itinerary stops for different applications. A virtual tour has been developed for Las Quilamas Natural Park, which is located in the Spanish Central System, using geological layers and topographic and digital terrain models that can be overlaid in a 3D model. The Google Earth application was used to import the geosite placemarks. For each geosite, a tab has been developed that shows a description of the geology with photographs and diagrams and that evaluates the scientific, educational, and tourism quality. Augmented reality allows the user to access these georeferenced thematic layers and overlay data, images, and graphics in real time on their mobile devices. These virtual tours can be incorporated into subject guides designed by public. Seven educational and interpretive panels describing some of the geosites were designed and tagged with a QR code that could be printed at each stop or in the printed itinerary. These QR codes can be scanned with the camera found on most mobile devices, and video virtual tours can be viewed on these devices. The virtual tour of the geological heritage can be used to show tourists the geological history of the Las Quilamas Natural Park using new geomatics technologies (virtual globes, augmented reality, and QR codes).

  15. Onshore/ Offshore Geologic Assessment for Carbon Storage in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Brantley, D.; Lakshmi, V.; Almutairi, K.; Almayahi, D.; Akintunde, O. M.; Ollmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Eighty percent of the world's energy relies on fossil fuels and under increasingly stricter national and international regulations on greenhouse gas emissions storage of CO2 in geologic repositories seems to be not only a feasible, but also and vital solution for near/ mid-term reduction of carbon emissions. We have evaluated the feasibility of CO2 storage in saline formations of the Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) including (1) the Jurassic/Triassic (J/TR) sandstones of the buried South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin, and (2) the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic formations along the Mid- and South Atlantic seaboard. These analyses have included integration of subsurface geophysical data (2- and 3-D seismic surveys) with core samples, well logs as well as uses of geological databases and geospatial analysis leading to CO2 injection simulation models. ENAM is a complex and regionally extensive mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), (2) a complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. While the target reservoirs onshore show heterogeneity and a highly complex geologic evolution they also show promising conditions for significant safe CO2 storage away from the underground acquifers. Our offshore study (the Southeast Offshore Storage Resource Assessment - SOSRA) is focused on the outer continental shelf from North Carolina to the southern tip of Florida. Three old exploration wells are available to provide additional constraints on the seismic reflection profiles. Two of these wells (TRANSCO 1005-1 and COST GE-1) penetrate the pre-rift Paleozoic sedimentary formations while the EXXON 564-1 well penetrates the post

  16. Geologic mapping procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Geologic mapping will provide a baseline record of the subsurface geology in the shafts and drifts of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). This information will be essential in confirming the specific repository horizon, selecting representative locations for the in situ tests, providing information for construction and decommissioning seal designs, documenting the excavation effects, and in providing information for performance assessment, which relates to the ultimate suitability of the site as a nuclear waste repository. Geologic mapping will be undertaken on the walls and roof, and locally on the floor within the completed At-Depth Facility (ADF) and on the walls of the two access shafts. Periodic mapping of the exposed face may be conducted during construction of the ADF. The mapping will be oriented toward the collection and presentation of geologic information in an engineering format and the portrayal of detailed stratigraphic information which may be useful in confirmation of drillhole data collected as part of the surface-based testing program. Geologic mapping can be considered as a predictive tool as well as a means of checking design assumptions. This document provides a description of the required procedures for geologic mapping for the ESF. Included in this procedure is information that qualified technical personnel can use to collect the required types of geologic descriptions, at the appropriate level of detail. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The age of nuclear waste - the length of time between its removal from the reactor cores and its emplacement in a repository - is a significant factor in determining the thermal loading of a repository. The surface cooling period as well as the density and sequence of waste emplacement affects both the near-field repository structure and the far-field geologic environment. To investigate these issues, a comprehensive review was made of the available literature pertaining to thermal effects and thermal properties of mined geologic repositories. This included a careful evaluation of the effects of different surface cooling periods of the wastes, which is important for understanding the optimal thermal loading of a repository. The results led to a clearer understanding of the importance of surface cooling in evaluating the overall thermal effects of a radioactive waste repository. The principal findings from these investigations are summarized in this paper

  18. Developments since 2005 in understanding potential environmental impacts of CO2 leakage from geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, D.G.; Beaubien, S.E.; Blackford, J.C.; Foekema, E.M.; Lions, J.; Vittor, de C.; West, J.M.; Widdicombe, S.; Hauton, C.; Queiros, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research into the potential environmental impacts of leakage from geological storage of CO2 since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in 2005. Possible impacts are considered on onshore (including drinking water aquifers) and offshore

  19. Geologic modeling in risk assessment methodology for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Berbano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of New Mexico is developing a computer based assessment methodology for evaluating public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of radioactive waste in geologic formations. Methodology incorporates a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. The release model and its application to a model repository in bedded salt is described. Fault trees are constructed to provide the relationships between various geologic and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material beyond the immediate environs of the repository. The environmental model includes: 1) the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, 2) pathways from these environmental concentrations, and 3) radiation dose to man. Finally, economic results are used to compare and assess various disposal configurations as a basis for formulatin

  20. Geological events in submerged areas: attributes and standards in the EMODnet Geology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, A.; Battaglini, L.; D'Angelo, S.

    2017-12-01

    EMODnet Geology is a European Project which promotes the collection and harmonization of marine geological data mapped by various national and regional mapping projects and recovered in the literature, in order to make them freely available through a web portal. Among the several features considered within the Project, "Geological events and probabilities" include submarine landslides, earthquakes, volcanic centers, tsunamis, fluid emissions and Quaternary faults in European Seas. Due to the different geological settings of European sea areas it was necessary to elaborate a comprehensive and detailed pattern of Attributes for the different features in order to represent the diverse characteristics of each occurrence. Datasets consist of shapefiles representing each event at 1:250,000 scale. The elaboration of guidelines to compile the shapefiles and attribute tables was aimed at identifying parameters that should be used to characterize events and any additional relevant information. Particular attention has been devoted to the definition of the Attribute table in order to achieve the best degree of harmonization and standardization according to the European INSPIRE Directive. One of the main objectives is the interoperability of data, in order to offer more complete, error-free and reliable information and to facilitate exchange and re-use of data even between non-homogeneous systems. Metadata and available information collected during the Project is displayed on the Portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) as polygons, lines and points layers according to their geometry. By combining all these data it might be possible to elaborate additional thematic maps which could support further research as well as land planning and management. A possible application is being experimented by the Geological Survey of Italy - ISPRA which, in cooperation with other Italian institutions contributing to EMODnet Geology, is working at the production of an update for submerged areas

  1. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  2. Advanced core concepts with enhanced proliferation resistance by transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    ''Protected Plutonium Production (P 3 )'' has been proposed to establish high burn-up cores and to produce protected with high proliferation resistance due to high decay heat and large number of spontaneous fission neutron of 238 Pu by the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MAs) which is presently treated as high-level waste. The burn-up calculations have shown that the advanced fuel with UO 2 (11-13% enrichment of 235 U) by doping 237 Np to produce 238 Pu in the commercialized large LWRs burn up to 100 GWd/t with 238 Pu to Pu ratio of about 20% which means the fuel is highly protected from proliferation. It was also predicted that medium or small size LWR cores with 15-17% enrichment, liquid metal cooled cores, and gas cooled cores added by 1-2% Np could achieve 100 GWd/t burning with bearing high proliferation resistance. The 237 Np mass balance calculations have revealed that more than 20 nuclear P 3 plants of 300 MWe could be supplied with enough 237 Np from the Japanese commercial plants in equilibrium fuel cycles. From the present studies, it is confirmed that MAs are treated as burnable and fertile materials not only to extend the core life but also to improve plutonium proliferation resistance of the future nuclear energy systems instead of their geological disposal or just their burning through fission. (author)

  3. Global Tsunami Database: Adding Geologic Deposits, Proxies, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocko, V. R.; Varner, J.

    2007-12-01

    A result of collaboration between NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES), the Global Tsunami Database includes instrumental records, human observations, and now, information inferred from the geologic record. Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) data, historical reports, and information gleaned from published tsunami deposit research build a multi-faceted view of tsunami hazards and their history around the world. Tsunami history provides clues to what might happen in the future, including frequency of occurrence and maximum wave heights. However, instrumental and written records commonly span too little time to reveal the full range of a region's tsunami hazard. The sedimentary deposits of tsunamis, identified with the aid of modern analogs, increasingly complement instrumental and human observations. By adding the component of tsunamis inferred from the geologic record, the Global Tsunami Database extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Deposit locations, their estimated age and descriptions of the deposits themselves fill in the tsunami record. Tsunamis inferred from proxies, such as evidence for coseismic subsidence, are included to estimate recurrence intervals, but are flagged to highlight the absence of a physical deposit. Authors may submit their own descriptions and upload digital versions of publications. Users may sort by any populated field, including event, location, region, age of deposit, author, publication type (extract information from peer reviewed publications only, if you wish), grain size, composition, presence/absence of plant material. Users may find tsunami deposit references for a given location, event or author; search for particular properties of tsunami deposits; and even identify potential collaborators. Users may also download public-domain documents. Data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and

  4. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, P.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km 2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  5. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs

  6. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish undergraduate medical degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Barrio-Fernández, José Luis; Porta, Miquel; Benavides, Fernando G; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2016-01-01

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into undergraduate medical degrees. The 2nd Forum of University Teachers was held at the Rey Juan Carlos University (Madrid, 11-12 December 2014). Twenty-four university professors and lecturers from 19 Spanish universities imparting medical degrees participated in the forum. They were distributed in three working groups during three working sessions. In the first session, they were asked to identify and classify core public health competencies for medical degrees. In the second, they were asked to propose public health contents for the identified competencies. In the third session, the participants organized these contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in distinct plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the public health functions «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organised into five units: Concept of health, public health and its determinants; Epidemiology and health research; Determinants and health problems; Strategies, interventions and policies; and health systems, clinical and healthcare management. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to improve and update public health training programmes for future medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Core drilling of drillhole ONK-PVA8 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2010-12-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a drillhole for groundwater monitoring station in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in July 2010. The groundwater monitoring stations are used for monitoring changes in groundwater conditions. The identification number of the hole is ONK-PVA8, and the length of the drillhole is 17.74 m. The drillhole is 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillhole was drilled in a niche of the access tunnel at chainage 2935. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are diatexitic gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in drill core ONK-PVA8 is 1.7 pcs / m and the average RQD value 96.0 %. (orig.)

  8. Geochemical analysis of core from a geothermal anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverslew, B.; Tammemagi, H.Y.

    1985-04-01

    A mild geothermal area in western Montana, USA, has been studied, as a natural analog, to learn about the effects that long-term heat generated by a repository containing spent nuclear fuel might have on the surrounding rock mass. The results of previous geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies are briefly summarized. Extensive petrological studies have been undertaken on core samples obtained from a 2 km deep borehole drilled into the Empire Creek Stock. These include a detailed petrographic study, x-ray diffraction analyses, scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe analyses, porosity and permeability measurements, oxygen isotope analyses, uranium disequilibrium analyses and K-Ar age determinations. The implications to deep burial of nuclear wastes are discussed. 40 refs

  9. A geologic approach to field methods in fluvial geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Thornbush, Mary J; Allen, Casey D; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    A geologic approach to field methods in fluvial geomorphology is useful for understanding causes and consequences of past, present, and possible future perturbations in river behavior and floodplain dynamics. Field methods include characterizing river planform and morphology changes and floodplain sedimentary sequences over long periods of time along a longitudinal river continuum. Techniques include topographic and bathymetric surveying of fluvial landforms in valley bottoms and describing floodplain sedimentary sequences through coring, trenching, and examining pits and exposures. Historical sediment budgets that include floodplain sedimentary records can characterize past and present sources and sinks of sediment along a longitudinal river continuum. Describing paleochannels and floodplain vertical accretion deposits, estimating long-term sedimentation rates, and constructing historical sediment budgets can assist in management of aquatic resources, habitat, sedimentation, and flooding issues.

  10. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  11. Combined NLCG/SBI magnetotelluric data inversion for recognition of complex geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal Stefaniuk

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Geological interpretation of magnetotelluric data is a subject of some misunderstandings. Simplified geometrically and well contrasted in resistivity models do not response for real geological environment. The aim of outstripping magnetotelluric works widely made in Polish Outer Carpathians, is general structural and lithological recognising of geological environment and distinguishing of areas where oil prospection will be projected. The geological medium is formed by sedimentary formations, strongly deformed and containing relatively thin layers with essentially differentiated parameters, overlying rather flat, high resistivity basement. Application of simplified strongly contrasted interpretation model with fluently changing parameters gives frequently results not corresponding with geological reality. Presented analysis is based on surveys located in marginal zone of Carpathianst in the area relatively well recognised, where interpreted structural and lithologic model rather well reflects real geological medium. Then, it was used as reference model for obtained results of MT data inversion. Magnetotelluric continuous profiling located along reflection seismic profile, between two deep boreholes was made. Set of results of computations allows to evaluate of effectiveness of used procedures and suggest optimum way of dealing. First stage of data interpretation was based on 1D and EMAP inversion. The section was then applied as starting model for 2D NLCG inversion. Results of this method give rather generalized resistivity distribution well reflecting structure of flysch cover but not adequate for the basement. This models was applied as starting models for SBI inversion constrained by borehole data. Results of SBI procedure well reflects relatively flat complexes of the basement, but are rather unrealistic for folded flysch cover. The another NLCG inversion was computed with stabilised model of basement obtained from SBI

  12. Geologic field notes and geochemical analyses of outcrop and drill core from Mesoproterozoic rocks and iron-oxide deposits and prospects of southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Granitto, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources/Missouri Geological Survey, undertook a study from 1988 to 1994 on the iron-oxide deposits and their host Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in southeastern Missouri. The project resulted in an improvement of our understanding of the geologic setting, mode of formation, and the composition of many of the known deposits and prospects and the associated rocks of the St. Francois terrane in Missouri. The goal for this earlier work was to allow the comparison of Missouri iron-oxide deposits in context with other iron oxide-copper ± uranium (IOCG) types of mineral deposits observed globally. The raw geochemical analyses were released originally through the USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDB, http://mrdata.usgs.gov). The data presented herein offers all of the field notes, locations, rock descriptions, and geochemical analyses in a coherent package to facilitate new research efforts in IOCG deposit types. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel (Version Office 2010) spreadsheet format (*.xlsx) and MS-DOS text formats (*.txt) for ease of use by numerous computer programs.

  13. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, S.P.; Finley, R.J.; Galloway, W.E.; Gustavson, T.C.; Handford, C.R.; Presley, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Early in 1977 the Bureau of Economic Geology was invited to assemble and evaluate geologic data on several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as a contribution to the national nuclear repository program. In response to this request, the Bureau, acting as a technical research unit of the University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, initiated a long-term program to assemble and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for delineation, description, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Panhandle area. The technical program can be subdivided into three broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, and a basin geohydrology group. The basin analysis group has assembled the regional stratigraphic and structural framework of the total basin fill, initiated evaluation of natural resources, and selected stratigraphic core sites for sampling the salt and associated beds. Two drilling sites have provided nearly 8000 feet (2400 m) of core material for analysis and testing of the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely-sensed data to describe surficial processes, including carbonate and evaporate solution, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The newly formed basin geohydrology group will evaluate both shallow and deep circulation of fluids within the basins. This paper, a summary report of progress, reviews principal conclusions and illustrates the methodologies used and the types of data and displays generated

  14. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and geological environment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Seo, Toshihiro; Yshida, Hidekazu

    2001-01-01

    The geological environment has two main functions in terms of ensuring the safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. One relates to the fundamental long-term stability of the site and the other to the properties of the host rock formations and groundwaters which facilitate the emplacement of the engineered barrier system and act as a natural barrier. In this connection, the feasibility of selecting a geological environment in Japan which is appropriate for geological disposal was discussed, based on findings obtained from case studies and field measurements. Considering long-term stability of the site, it is important to understand the effects and spatial distributions of the natural phenomena such as fault movement, volcanic activity, uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes. Fault movement and volcanic activity are relatively localized phenomena, and can be avoided by considering only areas that are sufficiently remote from existing volcanoes and major active faults for these phenomena to have a negligible probability of causing significant effects. Uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes are gradual phenomena and are more ubiquitous. It is, nevertheless, possible to estimate future trends by extrapolating the past changes into the future, and then to identify areas that may not be affected significantly by such phenomena. Considering the properties of the host rocks and groundwaters, it can be understood, from the presently available data, that deep groundwater in Japan generally flows slowly and its chemistry is in a reduced state. The data also suggest that deep rock masses, where the ground temperature is acceptably low and the rock pressure is almost homogeneous, are widely located throughout Japan. Based on the examination of the geological environment in Japan, it is possible to discuss the requirements for the geological environment to be considered and the investigations to be performed during the site selection

  15. INTURGEO: The international uranium geology information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The International Uranium Geology Information System (INTURGEO) is an international compilation of data on uranium deposits and occurrences. The purpose of INTURGEO is to provide a clearinghouse for uranium geological information that can serve for the better understanding of the worldwide distribution of uranium occurrences and deposits. The INTURGEO system is by no means complete for all regions of the world. Data have been available principally from the WOCA countries. INTURGEO currently covers 6,089 occurrences and deposits in 96 countries of which 4,596 occurrences in 92 countries are presented here. The information presented in this publication is a very brief, one line synopsis of deposits and occurrences, and has been collected from literature and through questionnaires sent directly to IAEA Member States. None of the information contained in the INTURGEO database was derived from confidential sources although there are many entries which come from the internal files of Member States and are not directly available in the general literature. The uniformity of the INTURGEO data presented in this report has depended heavily on the data provided by Member States. Basic information includes the deposit or occurrence name, the mining district, the tectonic setting, the geological type, status, size, host-rock type, age of mineralization and bibliographic references. The data contained in the maps of the atlas include all reported occurrences of uranium above the anomaly level. The categories of occurrence and deposit status includes: Anomaly; occurrences of unknown status; occurrences; prospects; developed prospects; subeconomic deposits; economic deposits; mines; inactive mines; depleted mines. A microcomputer version of INTURGEO on 21 Megabyte Bernoulli disks is available. 5 tabs, 102 maps

  16. Geostatistics: a common link between medical geography, mathematical geology, and medical geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, P

    2014-08-01

    Since its development in the mining industry, geostatistics has emerged as the primary tool for spatial data analysis in various fields, ranging from earth and atmospheric sciences to agriculture, soil science, remote sensing, and more recently environmental exposure assessment. In the last few years, these tools have been tailored to the field of medical geography or spatial epidemiology, which is concerned with the study of spatial patterns of disease incidence and mortality and the identification of potential 'causes' of disease, such as environmental exposure, diet and unhealthy behaviours, economic or socio-demographic factors. On the other hand, medical geology is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field studying the relationship between natural geological factors and their effects on human and animal health. This paper provides an introduction to the field of medical geology with an overview of geostatistical methods available for the analysis of geological and health data. Key concepts are illustrated using the mapping of groundwater arsenic concentration across eleven Michigan counties and the exploration of its relationship to the incidence of prostate cancer at the township level.

  17. Environmental geophysics: Locating and evaluating subsurface geology, geologic hazards, groundwater contamination, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical surveys can be used to help delineate and map subsurface geology, including potential geologic hazards, the water table, boundaries of contaminated plumes, etc. The depth to the water table can be determined using seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods, and hydrogeologic and geologic cross sections of shallow alluvial aquifers can be constructed from these data. Electrical resistivity and GPR data are especially sensitive to the quality of the water and other fluids in a porous medium, and these surveys help to identify the stratigraphy, the approximate boundaries of contaminant plumes, and the source and amount of contamination in the plumes. Seismic, GPR, electromagnetic (VLF), gravity, and magnetic data help identify and delineate shallow, concealed faulting, cavities, and other subsurface hazards. Integration of these geophysical data sets can help pinpoint sources of subsurface contamination, identify potential geological hazards, and optimize the location of borings, monitoring wells, foundations for building, dams, etc. Case studies from a variety of locations will illustrate these points. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Application of Advanced Multi-Core Processor Technologies to Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Application of Advanced Multi-Core Processor Technologies...STM32 NXP LPC series No Proprietary Microchip PIC32/DSPIC No > 500 mW; < 5 W ARM Cortex TI OMAP TI Sitara Broadcom BCM2835 Varies FPGA...state-of-the-art information processing architectures. OBJECTIVES Next-generation processor architectures (multi-core, multi-threaded) hold the

  19. Geological history of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, Heikki

    1989-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in continental geological environments. The order of magnitude of uranium abundance in felsitic igneous rocks is 2-15 ppm, whereas it is less than 1 ppm in mafic rocks. Sedimentary rocks show a large range: from less than 0.1 ppm U in certain evaporites to over 100 ppm in phosphate rocks and organogenic matter. The content of U in seawater varies from 0.0005 to 0.005 ppm. The isotopic ratio U-238/U-235 is presently 137.5+-0.5, having gradually increased during geological time. The third natural isotope is U-234. On the basis of three fundamental economic criteria for ore reserves assessment (geological assurance, technical feasibility, and the grade and quantity of the deposits), the author finally comes to the following conclusions: Although the global uranium ores are not geologically renewable but continuously mined, they still, due to exploration and technical development, will tend to progressively increase for centuries to come

  20. Life Cores: A Sci-Art Collaboration Between a Snow/Ice Researcher, an Artist/Educator, Students, and Street Road Artists Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, J.; Courville, Z.; Artinian, E.

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundStreet Road Artists Space Summer 2015 show was Sailing Stones. Works presented scenarios on tension between transience and permanence, highlighting cultural constructs imposed onto landscape and place. Dooley's installation, CryoZen Garden, operated as visual metaphor, modeling cryospheric processes and explored effects of melting polar ice caps on a warming world. A grant from Pennsylvania Partners in the Arts, with a focus on sharing contemporary works which were participatory, conceptual, and polar science research-based, allowed for a new project to engage community members, particularly students.MethodsIn this project students were introduced to the work of Dooley, artist/educator and Courville, snow/ice researcher. Students created `Life Cores', a take on ice and sediment coring scientists use as evidence of Earth's atmospheric and geologic changes. Students were given plastic tubes 2' long and 2" in diameter and were asked to add a daily layer of materials taken from everyday life, for a one month period. Students chose materials important to them personally, and kept journals, reflecting on items' significance, and/or relationship to life and world events. After creation of the Life Cores, Courville and Dooley visited students, shared their work on polar research, what it's like to live and work on ice, and ways science and art can intertwine to create better understanding of climate change issues. Students used core logging sheets to make observations of each others' life cores, noting layer colors, textures and deposition rates as some of the characteristics researchers use in ice and sediment core interpretation. Students' work was exhibited at Street Road and will remain on Street Road's website. Courville and Dooley presented to the general public during the opening. ConclusionsParticipants were better able to answer the question, How do we know what we know from coring? by relating the science to something that is known and personal, such as

  1. What is "theology" in "public theology" and what is "public" about "public theology"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries van Aarde

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to argue that institutional Christianity does not have the exclusive rights to “doing theology”. Since Plato theology has assumed systematization of ideas on the transcendent divine. The practice of theology is to be found in both the professional academy and in the public square. Spirituality is not to be reserved for people longing for God within the context of today’s mass consumerist populist culture. Spirituality and religion overlap and, therefore, today’s postmodern spirituality need not result in the end of religion. However, institutional religion is indeed dying and ”public theology” is not about theologians or pastors “doing theology” in the public square. Public theologicans are the film directors, artists, novelists, poets, and philosophers. The article argues that “public theology” could facilitate a dialogue between the theological discourse of academics and the public theological discourse. The article shows that “public theology” does to an extent overlap with ecclesial and contextual theology. In its corepublic theology” is seen as the inarticulate longing of believers who do not want to belong.

  2. The geology of the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Aldiss, D.T.; Edwards, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  3. Examination of offsite emergency protective measures for core melt accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; McGrath, P.E.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Jones, R.B.; Rasmussen, N.C.

    Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to potential nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted using a modified version of the Reactor Safety Study consequence model. Models representing each protective measure were developed and are discussed. Potential PWR core-melt radioactive material releases are separated into two categories, ''Melt-through'' and ''Atmospheric,'' based upon the mode of containment falure. Protective measures are examined and compared for each category in terms of projected doses to the whole body and thyroid. Measures for ''Atmospheric'' accidents are also examined in terms of their influence on the occurrence of public health effects

  4. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage; Le captage et le stockage geologique de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO{sub 2} generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO{sub 2} capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO{sub 2} transport options, the geological storage of the CO{sub 2} and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  5. Database for geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furze, Andrew J.; Bard, Joseph A.; Robinson, Joel; Ramsey, David W.; Kuntz, Mel A.; Rowley, Peter D.; MacLeod, Norman S.

    2017-10-31

    This publication releases digital versions of the geologic maps in U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1950 (USGS I-1950), “Geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington” (Kuntz, Rowley, and MacLeod, 1990) (https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/i1950). The 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions on May 18, May 25, June 12, July 22, August 7, and October 16–18 produced pyroclastic-flow and related deposits. The distribution and morphology of these deposits, as determined from extensive field studies and examination of vertical aerial photographs, are shown on four maps in I-1950 (maps A–D) on two map sheets. Map A shows the May 18, May 25, and June 12 deposits; map B shows the July 22 deposits; map C shows the August 7 deposits; and map D shows the October 16–18 deposits. No digital geospatial versions of the geologic data were made available at the time of publication of the original maps. This data release consists of attributed vector features, data tables, and the cropped and georeferenced scans from which the features were digitized, in order to enable visualization and analysis of these data in GIS software. This data release enables users to digitally re-create the maps and description of map units of USGS I-1950; map sheet 1 includes text sections (Introduction, Physiography of Mount St. Helens at the time of the 1980 eruptions, Processes of the 1980 eruptions, Deposits of the 1980 eruptions, Limitations of the maps, Preparation of the maps, and References cited) and associated tables and figures that are not included in this data release.

  6. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Fifth Worldwide Review is to document evolution in the state-of-the-art of approaches for nuclear waste disposal in geological formations since the Fourth Worldwide Review that was released in 2006. The last ten years since the previous Worldwide Review has seen major developments in a number of nations throughout the world pursuing geological disposal programs, both in preparing and reviewing safety cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. The countries that are approaching implementation of geological disposal will increasingly focus on the feasibility of safely constructing and operating their repositories in short- and long terms on the basis existing regulations. The WWR-5 will also address a number of specific technical issues in safety case development along with the interplay among stakeholder concerns, technical feasibility, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. Preparation and publication of the Fifth Worldwide Review on nuclear waste disposal facilitates assessing the lessons learned and developing future cooperation between the countries. The Report provides scientific and technical experiences on preparing for and developing scientific and technical bases for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic repositories in terms of requirements, societal expectations and the adequacy of cases for long-term repository safety. The Chapters include potential issues that may arise as repository programs mature, and identify techniques that demonstrate the safety cases and aid in promoting and gaining societal confidence. The report will also be used to exchange experience with other fields of industry and technology, in which concepts similar to the design and safety cases are applied, as well to facilitate the public perception and understanding of the safety of the disposal approaches relative to risks that may increase over long times frames in the absence of a successful

  7. Geological investigations for geological model of deep underground geoenvironment at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Tagami, Masahiko; Amano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Arata; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Koike, Katsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing a geoscientific research project, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in order to establish scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The MIU is located in crystalline rock environment, in Mizunami City, central Japan. Field investigations include geological mapping, reflection seismic surveys, several borehole investigations and geological investigations in the research galleries to identify the distribution and heterogeneity of fractures and faults that are potential major flowpaths for groundwater. The results of these field investigations are synthesized and compiled for the purpose of geological modeling. The field investigations indicate that the Main Shaft at the MIU intersected low permeability NNW oriented faults. A high permeability fracture zone in the granite, a significant water inflow point, was observed in the Ventilation Shaft. Development of the geological model focusing 3D spatial relationships at different scales and evolution of the geoenvironment are underway. This paper describes geological investigations applied in the MIU project, focusing on the evaluation of their effectiveness to understand for deep underground geoenvironment. (author)

  8. PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR THE STATE-GOVERNED GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lygin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research. Creating high-efficient and innovation-oriented system of studying the subsoil and the mineral resource base is one of the priority areas of developing the geological sphere. The purpose of the present study is to substantiate the rationale for the adoption of the project management methods for the exploration work. Research methods: method of system analysis, method of comparison and analogies, and method of scientific generalization. The results and their application. This article deals with the content of the main standard legislative documents which determine the strategy and lines of the country’s geological sector development in the nearest future. The article discloses the purposes and their strategic objectives and the content of the state program of the Russian Federation called “Reproduction and use of natural resources”. The res