WorldWideScience

Sample records for public foster care

  1. Public health nurses' primary health care practice: strategies for fostering citizen participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Edwards, Nancy; Young, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    Citizen participation is heralded as a critical element of community health programs that emphasize empowerment and health promotion strategies. Although there is a growing body of research on public health nurses' primary health care practice, few studies have described how public health nurses foster citizen participation. This article presents findings from an interpretive qualitative study of public health nurses' perceptions of their role in fostering citizen participation in an eastern Canadian province at a time of significant health care restructuring. The findings from this study clearly profile public health nurses as integral to the practice of fostering citizen participation.

  2. Adoption & Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique challenges. The acceptance ...

  3. Multidimension Treatment Foster Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Hansen, Helle; Deding, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Dette notat er en kort opsamling af den nyeste forskning af effekterne af Multidimension Treatment Foster Care (herefter MTFC). SFI lavede i 2010 en oversigt over forskningen om effekterne af MTFC i forbindelse med udarbejdelsen af en projektbeskrivelse. Dette notat sammenfatter den nyeste...

  4. Multidimension Treatment Foster Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Hansen, Helle; Deding, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Dette notat er en kort opsamling af den nyeste forskning af effekterne af Multidimension Treatment Foster Care (herefter MTFC). SFI lavede i 2010 en oversigt over forskningen om effekterne af MTFC i forbindelse med udarbejdelsen af en projektbeskrivelse. Dette notat sammenfatter den nyeste...

  5. Foster Care and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinship foster care and foster care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, J.; Zandberg, Tj.; Van der Meulen, B.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the similarities and differences between foster parents and kinship foster parents in the Netherlands. Both parents and caseworkers have filled out questionnaires for the purpose of this study. No evidence has been found to support the argument that kinship foster care holds

  7. Educating Students in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Students who are in foster care need principals who are informed about policy, aware of their needs, and willing to be advocates for them. Multiple school placements often result in significant gaps in the education of students in foster care. If they also have disabilities, they may lose special programs and services when they change placements.…

  8. Permanency and the Foster Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Katie K; Friedman, Susan; Christian, Cindy W

    2015-10-01

    Each year over 20,000 youth age out of the child welfare system without reaching a permanent placement in a family. Certain children, such as those spending extended time in foster care, with a diagnosed disability, or adolescents, are at the highest risk for aging out. As young adults, this population is at and increased risk of incarceration; food, housing, and income insecurity; unemployment; educational deficits; receipt of public assistance; and mental health disorders. We reviewed the literature on foster care legislation, permanency, outcomes, and interventions. The outcomes of children who age out of the child welfare system are poor. Interventions to increase permanency include training programs for youth and foster parents, age extension for foster care and insurance coverage, an adoption tax credit, and specialized services and programs that support youth preparing for their transition to adulthood. Future ideas include expanding mentoring, educational support, mental health services, and post-permanency services to foster stability in foster care placements and encourage permanency planning. Children in the child welfare system are at a high risk for physical, mental, and emotional health problems that can lead to placement instability and create barriers to achieving permanency. Failure to reach the permanency of a family leads to poor outcomes, which have negative effects on the individual and society. Supporting youth in foster care throughout transitions may mediate the negative outcomes that have historically followed placement in out-of-home care. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Foster care children and family homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, C; Kronstadt, D; Klee, L

    1998-09-01

    This study examined the association between family homelessness and children's placement in foster care. The prevalence of homelessness in a random sample of 195 young foster children was examined. Almost half of the birth parents of the foster children had experienced homelessness. Those children were more likely than other foster children to have siblings in foster care and to be place with nonrelatives. An extremely high prevalence of family homelessness was found among children in foster care. Policy implications of the association between family homelessness and placement into foster care are discussed.

  10. Supporting Students in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Lauren E.; La Salle, Tamika P.

    2017-01-01

    Students living in foster care are at risk for experiencing many challenges in school, spanning domains of social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. They are twice as likely to be absent from school and to have received and out-of-school suspension and up to three and a half times more likely to receive special education services.…

  11. Supporting Students in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Lauren E.; La Salle, Tamika P.

    2017-01-01

    Students living in foster care are at risk for experiencing many challenges in school, spanning domains of social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. They are twice as likely to be absent from school and to have received and out-of-school suspension and up to three and a half times more likely to receive special education services.…

  12. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Foster Care Alumni: The Role of Race, Gender, and Foster Care Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Foster Care Alumni: The Role of Race, Gender, and Foster Care Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…

  15. Foster care placement improves children's functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, S M; Balestracci, K M; Simms, M D

    2001-11-01

    To examine changes in reported functioning over a 12-month follow-up period and predictors of those changes for a cohort of young children enrolled in foster care. Data came from a longitudinal follow-up of a cohort of young children entering foster care in one Connecticut region. These data were originally assembled to evaluate the effectiveness of a specialized set of services designed to provide a baseline multidisciplinary assessment and ongoing monitoring for young children entering foster care. From February 1, 1992, through July 31, 1993, all young children (N = 120) entering foster care in one Connecticut region were enrolled in this study. Children were assessed at entry into care and at 6 and 12 months after entry. Participation rates exceeded 90% at each follow-up period. The principal outcome of interest for these analyses is 12-month functioning as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) scores completed by their foster mothers. At entry into foster care, children ranged in age from 11 to 76 months, were evenly divided by sex, and had a mean VABS score of 79.5 signifying functioning below the average range. At 6 months children gained an average of 7.87 points on their VABS score. By 12 months children showed an average change of 9.65 points, for a mean VABS score of 94.5, well within the nationally normed average range. The multivariate linear model predicting the 12-month VABS score showed that, controlling for the baseline VABS score, when children who were abused, older at placement, female, of African American ethnicity, spent more time in foster care, and had fewer recommended services while in care, they were more likely to show improvement on the foster mother-reported VABS evaluation. These results demonstrate that children's reported functioning improves over the course of placement in foster care and that sociodemographic characteristics, reason for placement, length of time in foster care, and fewer recommended services at

  16. 45 CFR 233.110 - Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.110 Foster care... Security Act, and operates a foster care maintenance and adoption assistance program in conformity with...

  17. Mental Health Issues in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, W David; Jones, V Faye

    2016-10-01

    Children in foster care have exceptional needs due to their histories of abuse, neglect, and increased exposure to violence. The rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder, are much higher in children in foster care; furthermore, the rate of these children receiving psychotropic medications is 3 times that of children who are not in foster care. Pediatricians, in their role of providing a medical home, play a central role in safeguarding the physical and mental health of these children. By taking a trauma-informed approach to understanding the unique needs and gaps in their health care, pediatricians can improve the mental health and maximize outcome for children in foster care. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e342-e348.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Foster Care and School Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan; Finkelstein, Marni J.

    2003-01-01

    Foster children face many obstacles to academic achievement. In addition to low educational achievement, they may have high rates of school mobility and experience long delays when transferring schools. Sources of these transfers and delays include numerous residential movements and lack of coordination between child welfare and school…

  20. Identifying Divergent Foster Care Careers for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care...

  1. Identifying divergent foster care careers for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care drift, instability, and placement disruptions to define the unstable foster care career as a subset of foster care careers. I then use administrative data on 30,239 Danish children born 1982-1987 who entered foster care to generate nine foster care careers, two of which meet the criteria for an unstable career. Children with a high number of risk factors associated with foster care entry were also the most likely to enter an unstable career. I end by discussing implications for recent studies of the effect of foster care on children's later life outcomes and the relevance of the findings for practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Foster Care and College: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…

  3. Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

  4. Health care of youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.

  5. A Celebration of Foster Care: a special edition of the Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Fergus

    2002-01-01

    This special edition of IJASS A Celebration of Foster Care brings together a collection of essays on from fostering social workers, foster care researchers, foster care legal experts as well as foster carers, children who grew up in foster care and children who care. An international focus on foster care with essays focus on foster care in Ireland, Scotland, Uganda, Australia and Canada.

  6. 76 FR 25519 - National Foster Care Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8661 of April 29, 2011 National Foster Care Month, 2011 By the President of the... children. For nearly half a million youth in foster care across our country, the best path to success we... National Foster Care Month, we renew our commitment to ensuring a brighter future for foster youth, and we...

  7. Prereading Deficits in Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Heywood, Cynthia V.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten…

  8. Schooling Issue a Complication for Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers from Congress to the state and local levels are sharpening their focus on the educational needs of children in foster care, a population that can exceed 700,000 nationally in the course of a year and which has doubled in the past two decades. In many cases, their strategies coincide with recommendations outlined in a recent report on…

  9. Measuring Parent Engagement in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Lily T.; Britner, Preston A.

    2009-01-01

    Today, child welfare agencies widely endorse a family-centered approach to foster care casework. This approach centers on a collaborative parent-caseworker relationship as a mechanism for maintaining parents' engagement in services and presumes that continued engagement will propel parents toward reunification. However, despite the importance of…

  10. Depression among Alumni of Foster Care: Decreasing Rates through Improvement of Experiences in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; English, Diana; Williams, Jason R.; Phillips, Chereese M.

    2009-01-01

    The Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study examined the relation between experiences in foster care and depression among young adults who spent at least a year in foster care as adolescents. Results indicate that preparation for leaving foster care, nurturing supports from the foster family, school stability, access to tutoring, access to therapeutic…

  11. The Loneliest Babies: Foster Care in the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an ignored problem--the plight of infants and toddlers in foster care who find themselves hospitalized. A majority of the children in foster care will be hospitalized for medical treatment while in foster care because they are more likely to have serious medical problems or developmental disabilities than their age peers.…

  12. The Loneliest Babies: Foster Care in the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an ignored problem--the plight of infants and toddlers in foster care who find themselves hospitalized. A majority of the children in foster care will be hospitalized for medical treatment while in foster care because they are more likely to have serious medical problems or developmental disabilities than their age peers.…

  13. 78 FR 26219 - National Foster Care Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...;#0; ] Proclamation 8968 of April 30, 2013 National Foster Care Month, 2013 By the President of the.... Thanks to those efforts, the number of young people in foster care is falling and fewer children are... services that strengthen the foster care system and encourage adoption. We will keep working to ensure...

  14. The Influence of Perception on Maternal Sensitivity in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponciano, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceptions of children's care needs and maternal sensitivity with 76 dyads in foster care. Foster mothers were more sensitive to typically developing children perceived as requiring easier care and were less sensitive to children with developmental delays. Adopting foster mothers were sensitive with…

  15. Foster Family Care for Hard-to-Place Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Margaret; Siegel, Maxine

    1988-01-01

    In a program developed at Merrywood School (Bellevue, Washington), four key components were identified as critical to successfully placing disabled children in foster care: identification and recruitment of stable, motivated, and qualified foster parents; preparation of foster parents; support for foster parents' needs; and development of creative…

  16. Re-Imagining Language, Culture, and Family in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half a million children in the United States are currently being served by the foster care system. Infants and toddlers represent the largest single group entering foster care. While these very young children are at the greatest peril for physical, mental health, and developmental issues and tend to spend the longest time in the foster care…

  17. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or foster....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are...

  18. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or foster... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency...

  19. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  20. Homelessness during the transition from foster care to adulthood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dworsky, Amy; Napolitano, Laura; Courtney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    .... Using data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth, a longitudinal study of youths aging out of foster care in 3 Midwestern states, and a bounds approach, we...

  1. Essential case management services for young children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, C; Kronstadt, D; Klee, L

    1999-10-01

    A growing number of children in the United States are being placed into foster care. Past studies indicate that effective case manager interventions have helped foster families with a variety of different problems. This study enrolled a randomly selected sample of 130 children under age four who had been newly placed into foster care. The purpose of this study was to identify the services needed by foster care families and determine which services require the most case manager effort. Consistent with other research, many foster care children in this study exhibited developmental, medical and psychosocial concerns. Nevertheless, we found that it was services aimed at the foster care parents, rather than the foster care children, that required the most labor-intensive case management services.

  2. Expanded Medical Home Model Works for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Champagne, Vince; Harden, Allen; Masterson, James; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Welfare Department implemented a statewide health care system to ensure that children in foster care obtain quality health care by providing each child with a medical home. This study demonstrates that the Medical Home model works for children in foster care providing better health outcomes in higher immunization rates. These…

  3. Expanded Medical Home Model Works for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Champagne, Vince; Harden, Allen; Masterson, James; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Welfare Department implemented a statewide health care system to ensure that children in foster care obtain quality health care by providing each child with a medical home. This study demonstrates that the Medical Home model works for children in foster care providing better health outcomes in higher immunization rates. These…

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Crack and AIDS Babies. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Mallea, Evelyn

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module examines the effects of maternal alcohol and crack use during the prenatal period on infants, and the transmission of AIDS to infants. The module's learning objectives address: (1) foster care concerns for medically…

  5. Children in Foster Care: Before, during, and after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Joe; Sisson, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that foster children are at greater risk for mental health problems than are children in the general population, very little is known about the smaller group of foster children admitted to psychiatric hospitals. The present study sought to determine whether foster children admitted to inpatient care are a distinct…

  6. Foster Care Children Need Better Educational Opportunities. Backgrounder No. 2039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips; Dan

    2007-01-01

    The estimated 518,000 children in foster care in the United States are among the most at-risk children in American society. Research shows that foster children are more likely to be at risk of poor life outcomes. The quality of a foster child's primary and secondary education is a major factor in future life success. Early warning signs of these…

  7. Project Iris - Caring for a sexually abused foster child.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Dorijn; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The traumatizing effects of child sexual abuse are generally acknowledged. Successfully fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse requires specific skills and knowledge. What expertise do foster families caring for these vulnerable children have? What do they need to succeed? What do foster c

  8. Mental Health Care for Foster Children in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Linnea; Halfon, Neal

    1987-01-01

    Interviews with 154 program administrators, social workers, foster parents, and health care providers in California found that only one county performed routine mental health evaluations of all foster children. Mental health problems were identified by informants as more severe than medical problems among foster children. (Author/DB)

  9. Family Perceptions of Geriatric Foster Family and Nursing Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Rose, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Relatives (N=62) of matched pairs of patients in geriatric foster homes and nursing homes rated care provided to their relatives. Significantly more foster family patients had positive pre-placement attitudes than did nursing home patients. Upon follow-up, relatives of foster patients reported seeing more patient improvement, satisfaction,…

  10. Project Iris - Caring for a sexually abused foster child.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Dorijn; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The traumatizing effects of child sexual abuse are generally acknowledged. Successfully fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse requires specific skills and knowledge. What expertise do foster families caring for these vulnerable children have? What do they need to succeed? What do foster

  11. Mental and Physical Health of Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Each year, nearly 1% of US children spend time in foster care, with 6% of US children placed in foster care at least once between their birth and 18th birthday. Although a large literature considers the consequences of foster care placement for children's wellbeing, no study has used a nationally representative sample of US children to compare the mental and physical health of children placed in foster care to the health of children not placed in foster care. We used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized children in the United States, and logistic regression models to compare parent-reported mental and physical health outcomes of children placed in foster care to outcomes of children not placed in foster care, children adopted from foster care, children across specific family types (eg, single-mother households), and children in economically disadvantaged families. We find that children in foster care are in poor mental and physical health relative to children in the general population, children across specific family types, and children in economically disadvantaged families. Some differences are explained by adjusting for children's demographic characteristics, and nearly all differences are explained by also adjusting for the current home environment. Additionally, children adopted from foster care, compared with children in foster care, have significantly higher odds of having some health problems. Children in foster care are a vulnerable population in poor health, partially as a result of their early life circumstances. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Resiliency in Children and Youth in Kinship Care and Family Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jed

    2008-01-01

    This study examined self-concept, resiliency and social support in 107 children and youth placed in foster care in New York City. Of the children and youth, 55 were placed in family foster care, while the remaining 52 children and youth were placed in a kinship foster home. Significantly more of mothers of the kinship foster care children and…

  13. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  14. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  15. Trauma-Informed Care for Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Carolyn M

    2016-06-01

    violence, specifically abuse and/or neglect (Burns et al., 2004). It is estimated that approximately 90-percent of children in foster care have experienced a traumatic event, with nearly half reporting exposure to four or more types of traumatic events (Stein et al., 2001). Given the widespread prevalence of traumatic exposures, it is important for the mental health professionals working with foster care youth, to be aware of the prevalence and various types of trauma that are most common. Focus in treatment is typically on behavioral and emotional reactions rather than addressing the context of these symptoms, including trauma exposure histories and trauma-specific reactions. Clinicians must maintain awareness of the frequency and impact of childhood traumatic experiences on subsequent behaviors and overall functioning. Clinicians should appreciate the link between how traumatized children understand the world and interact with others differently from other children and how to provide appropriate treatment for children with a history of traumatic exposures. Practitioners must remain alert to symptoms that may suggest a history of trauma and must have an understanding of the difficulties adolescents may face regulating their emotions and behavior, as a symptom of a past traumatic experience. The failure to address trauma through screening, assessment, and treatment has major implications for long-term public health costs and services.

  16. Children in foster care: what forensic nurses need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Children living in foster care are a unique population with specialized healthcare needs. This article will assist forensic nurses and advanced practice forensic nurses, particularly those working in pediatrics, in understanding the needs of children in foster care and implementing a practice plan to better meet their healthcare needs. To that end, a basic understanding of the foster care system is crucial and involves an appreciation of the interface between the legal system and the child welfare system. Most important to providing care to children in foster care is a true understanding of trauma exposure and its potential effects on the lives of children: physically, developmentally, emotionally, and psychologically. This article will assist forensic nurses working with pediatric populations to more fully understand the needs of children in foster care and to develop innovative interventions to appropriately meet their unique needs.

  17. Exiting Foster Care: A Case Study of Former Foster Children Enrolled in Higher Education in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, foster care is provided to children to avert maltreatment and abuse of children in distressed families by providing a temporary home or a foster home. Courts with jurisdiction over families have been charged by Congress to find appropriate homes when necessary circumstances occur. In fiscal year 2009, there were 423,773…

  18. Surviving Foster Care and Its Emotional Roller Coaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzola, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides one perspective of the foster-care experience as described by an individual who spent most of his youth in a foster home. Emphasizes the importance of excelling at something, the damage wrought by impermanence, and the chronic pain that can accompany emotional abuse. Suggests ways to improve child care. (RJM)

  19. Promoting Smooth School Transitions for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviolette, Ghyslyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Children in foster care move two times per year on average. School records are not always transferred in a timely manner, which leads to a lack of services. Schools often are not aware of the legal issues surrounding foster care, such as who has legal rights to sign field trip permission slips or consent for educational evaluations. This study led…

  20. The Parent Satisfaction with Foster Care Services Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Stephen A.; Vela, Rebecca H.

    2004-01-01

    Client satisfaction measures are an essential component of program evaluation. This article describes the development of a scale for measuring the satisfaction levels of parents whose children have received foster care services. Subjected to various statistical measures, the Parent Satisfaction with Foster Care Services Scale appears to be a…

  1. Engaging Adolescent Youth in Foster Care through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Girvin, Heather; Primak, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Older youth in foster care are particularly vulnerable because they are poorly prepared for the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. Interventions designed to assist in this transition rarely engage youth directly; plans are made for youth rather than with them. Photographs can serve as an externalised medium for the expression of…

  2. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  3. Factors associated with family reunification for children in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F.; Montserrat, Carme; Bravo, Amaia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse reunification processes from family foster care, both kinship and non-kinship, and the variables associated with them in a Spanish sample. Data collection was carried out after a review of child protection and foster care files, and those responsible for the cases were also

  4. Engaging Adolescent Youth in Foster Care through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Girvin, Heather; Primak, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Older youth in foster care are particularly vulnerable because they are poorly prepared for the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. Interventions designed to assist in this transition rarely engage youth directly; plans are made for youth rather than with them. Photographs can serve as an externalised medium for the expression of…

  5. Factors associated with family reunification for children in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F.; Montserrat, Carme; Bravo, Amaia

    In this paper, we analyse reunification processes from family foster care, both kinship and non-kinship, and the variables associated with them in a Spanish sample. Data collection was carried out after a review of child protection and foster care files, and those responsible for the cases were also

  6. The New York Court Review of Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Trudy Bradley

    1975-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated three areas: (1) factors related to the court's determination of foster care status or availability of children for adoption; (2) the extent of agreement between agency recommendations and court orders; and (3) the impact of the court review on moving children out of foster care. (SDH)

  7. Achieving better health care outcomes for children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Robin; Noonan, Kathleen; Rubin, David

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews the challenges health care systems face as they attempt to improve health care outcomes for children in foster care. It discusses several of the promising health care strategies occurring outside the perimeter of child welfare and identifies some of the key impasses in working alongside efforts in child welfare reform. The authors posit that the greatest impasse in establishing a reasonable quality of health care for these children is placement instability, in which children move frequently among multiple homes and in and out of the child welfare system. The authors propose potential strategies in which efforts to improve placement stability can serve as a vehicle for multidisciplinary reform across the health care system.

  8. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population Care [$28.57 95% CI($14.00, $43.15)]. Most children enrolled in WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  10. Foster Care Outcomes for Children With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth M

    2016-10-01

    The promotion of speedy, permanent outcomes for foster children is a central child welfare policy goal. However, while children with intellectual disability (ID) are at greater risk for child welfare involvement, little is known about their case outcomes. This cross-sectional national study explores between-group foster care outcomes. Foster children with intellectual disability were more likely to have experienced an adoption disruption or dissolution but less likely to be reunified with a parent, primary caretaker or other family member. Implications for interagency collaboration in support of pre and post-foster care discharge support services are discussed.

  11. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care... provisions as they apply to children and foster care providers under paragraphs (a) and (b) of section 472 of...

  12. Dimensions of Health in Young People in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Steven M.; Norbeck, Jane S.; Robbins, Nancy R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe the dimensions of health and illness from the perspective of adolescents in foster care. Methods Descriptive analyses of dimensions of health were conducted on N=105 adolescents in foster care. Differences among demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and foster care placement (age at first placement, reason(s) for foster care placement, length of time in care, number, and types of placement) variables and the dimensions and subdimensions of health (Child Health and Illness Profile- Adolescent Edition) were determined using T-tests and ANOVA. Results Most were placed in long-term foster care ( x̄ =6.46 years; SD=4.86) during adolescence (38%), with multiple placements ( x̄ =3.99; SD=3.8). All domains of health were self-reported to be average to low average, with poorer findings in specific risk and resilience subdomains. There were no significant differences by age or race/ethnicity. Girls had lower satisfaction with health and self esteem and more physical and emotional discomfort. Preplacement adverse experiences were associated with increased risks. Conclusions Adolescent self-report of the domains of health for those in foster care was better than expected, based on literature review and qualitative data for the larger study. Potential explanations for this inflation of status and functioning include the need for self-protection in foster care, the familiarity of testing regimes by children in foster care with some social desirability effect, and their paradoxical responses to preplacement problems. Data including qualitative and significant other-reported data may be necessary to gain an accurate portrayal of the health status of adolescents in foster care. PMID:19702202

  13. Interventions in foster and kinship care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Debbie; Schlösser, Annette

    2013-07-01

    Foster care is a complex setting in which to provide therapeutic interventions due to the high rates of difficulty, poor outcomes and high numbers of professionals and carers involved. This systematic review aims to examine interventions that have been empirically assessed in foster care. Thirty papers describing 20 interventions were included. It was found that there was good support for wraparound services and relational interventions, but little support for widely used carer training programmes. A need was identified to further research and implement wraparound services within the UK, and to empirically test interventions which may be efficacious with a foster care population.

  14. Improving Educational Outcomes for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christina; Kabler, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Recent statistics estimate that there are 783,000 children living in foster care in the United States. This vulnerable population is at risk for academic failure as well as internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Compared to their peers, foster youth face significant educational difficulties, including lower levels of academic…

  15. Food in Foster Families: Care, Communication and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alyson; Holland, Sally; Pithouse, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the significance of food and mealtimes in relation to the transition into foster care and the therapeutic settling of the child in a new family. In doing so, we draw upon an in-depth, qualitative case study of 10 experienced foster families in the UK focusing on what helped them to be successful. At the time of the study, there…

  16. Effect of Foster Care on Young Children's Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Benigno, Joann P.; Wing, Christine A.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines 174 young children's language outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, the first randomized trial of foster placement after institutional care. Age of foster placement was highly correlated with language outcomes. Placement by 15 months led to similar expressive and receptive language test scores as typical age…

  17. The effect of foster care placement on paternal welfare dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    The arrival of a child profoundly alters the life-course for men. Yet, children could change men's lives not only by arriving in them, but also by departing from them. In this article, I test how one such departure-foster care placement-affects men's labor market attachment, and in so doing I...... provide a novel parallel to existing research on how fatherhood affects men, which focuses almost exclusively on a child's arrival. Using population panel data from Denmark that include all first time fathers whose children were placed in foster care from 1995-2005, I find that having a child placed...... in foster care is associated with up to a 12 percentage point increase in welfare dependency. This result persists in analyses that control for individual and family level fixed effects, unobserved heterogeneity, and selection into having a child placed in foster care....

  18. Weight changes in children in foster care for 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study of predominately racial/ethnic minority children in foster care (N=360, birth to 19 years old) in Los Angeles, CA were to examine the (1) prevalence of obesity (≥ 95 percentile) and overweight/obese (≥ 85 percentile) upon entrance to foster care (T1) and after 1 year in foster care (T2); (2) comparison of high weight categories to national statistics; (3) relationship of changes in weight status to age, reason for entry into foster care, and placement. Chi-square test and McNemar test comparing paired proportions were used to determine whether there were significant changes in the proportion of high weight categories between T1 and T2. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate the association between age, placement, and reason for foster care with the change in weight category. Changes in weight were categorized as (1) decreased in weight, (2) remained at overweight or obese, (3) increased in weight, or (4) remained normal. The proportion of obese and obese/overweight children between ages 2 and 5 were significantly lower at T2 than T1. There were no significant changes in the prevalence of obesity for the total population at T2. Children age 6 or older had a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight/obesity compared to national statistics. Of children at all ages, 64.7% of children of all ages entered foster care with a normal weight and stayed in the normal range during their first year in foster care, 12.2% decreased their weight, 15.4% remained overweight or obese, and 7.7% increased their weight. Age and parental substance use was related to change in weight category from T1 to T2. Children did not become more overweight or obese in foster care; however 28% of the children were obese or overweight upon entry into foster care. Children who are 6 years or older and obese upon entering foster care should be targeted for weight reduction. The pediatric community and child welfare system need to work together by

  19. Behavioral Health Service Use and Costs among Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marion; Jordan, Neil; Larsen, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This article compares behavioral health service use and cost for foster care versus nonfoster care children; children before, during, and after foster care placement; and successfully reunified versus nonsuccessfully reunified foster care children. Behavioral health service costs for children in foster care were higher than for children not in…

  20. 25 CFR 20.507 - What requirements must foster care providers meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements must foster care providers meet? 20.507... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.507 What requirements must foster care providers meet? If a child needs foster care, the social services worker must select care that...

  1. Foster family care from the Polish and American perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gruca-Miąsik, Urszula

    2003-01-01

    When children are removed from their homes, they may be placed in a variety of settings. In many states in USA and provinces (voivodships) in Poland, foster family care has been the predominant form of substitute care for several decades (Chamberlin, Moreland and Reid 1992; Kolankiewicz 1998). Foster parents are usually licensed by the state or local authorities, indicating that their homes have been assessed for basic health and safety standards, and that the caregivers have ...

  2. Foster care and healing from complex childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2014-10-01

    Children enter foster care with many forms of adversity and trauma beyond maltreatment that impact their short- and long-term physical, mental, and developmental health and their adaptation to their new care environment. Applying an understanding of the impact of toxic stress on the developing brain and body allows the health care provider to understand findings in this vulnerable population. Complex trauma alters immune response, neurodevelopment, and the genome, resulting in predictable and significant cognitive, behavioral, and physical consequences. Pediatric care of children in foster care must be trauma informed to meet their medical, mental health, and developmental needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementing Critical Health Services for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Linnea; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Recommendations concerning California's efforts to provide for the health needs of its children were developed at the California Conference on Health Care for Children in Foster Care. The conference was organized to discuss California's implementation of the Child Welfare League of America's Standards for Health Care Services for Children in…

  4. Developmental health of infants and children subsequent to foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskas, Delilah

    2010-11-01

    every day, the United States child welfare system is entrusted with the care of over 400,000 children through foster care. The majority of children entering this social setting are infants, the most developmentally vulnerable. bronfenbrenner's human health ecology model and Bowlby's attachment theory are used to delineate the social setting of foster care and its impact on developmental health, and elucidates the relationship between childhood experiences and the overall continuum of health. Additionally, the notion of inherited genes and environmental influences or epigenetics toward gene expression will be explored. research points out that what happens in childhood matters; the consequences of not addressing childhood adversity and the associated risk factors of foster care increase a child's risk for poor developmental health and other major illnesses noted later in life such as cardiac disease, depression, and even premature death. Healthcare providers and others charged with caring for this vulnerable population who understand the social setting of foster care and its impact on developmental health may help identify and treat developmental problems earlier, thus potentially reducing long-term effects of abuse and neglect. improvement plans that promote best practice for child welfare must include those that directly address the unique developmental needs of all infants and children in foster care itself. Such plans will ensure that foster care as an intervention to protect vulnerable children at risk does not create more harm by reducing the associated risks and maximizing benefits while in foster care, and ensures that those born genetically vulnerable and disproportionately susceptible to poor outcomes in adversity are also protected and provided opportunities that promote optimal developmental health.

  5. Medical Foster Homes: Can the Adult Foster Care Model Substitute for Nursing Home Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Cari; Whitfield, Emily A

    2016-12-01

    To compare characteristics, healthcare use, and costs of care of veterans in the rapidly expanding Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical foster home (MFH) with those of three other VHA long-term care (LTC) programs. Descriptive, unmatched study. VHA MFHs, home-based primary care (HBPC), community living centers (CLCs), and community nursing homes (CNHs). Veterans newly enrolled in one of the four LTC settings in calendar years 2010 or 2011. Using VA and Medicare data from fiscal years 2010 and 2011, demographic characteristics, healthcare use, and costs of 388 veterans in MFHs were compared with 26,037 of those in HBPC, 5,355 in CLCs, and 5,517 in CNHs in the year before and the year after enrollment. Veterans enrolled in the MFH program were more likely to be unmarried than those in other LTC programs and had higher levels of comorbidity and frailty than veterans receiving HBPC but had similar levels of comorbidity, frailty, and healthcare use as those in CLCs and CNHs. MFH veterans incurred lower costs than those in CNHs and CLCs. MFHs served a distinct subset of veterans with levels of comorbidity and frailty similar to those of veterans cared for in CLCs and CNHs at costs that were comparable to or lower than those of the VHA. Propensity-matched comparisons will be necessary to confirm these findings. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. "Couch Surfing" of Latino Foster Care Alumni: Reliance on Peers as Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Beatrix F.; Romo, Harriett D.

    2011-01-01

    Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age…

  7. "Couch Surfing" of Latino Foster Care Alumni: Reliance on Peers as Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Beatrix F.; Romo, Harriett D.

    2011-01-01

    Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age…

  8. Foster Caregivers' Perspectives on the Medical Challenges of Children Placed in Their Care: Implications for Pediatricians Caring for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Mary V; Ross, Jennifer; Brown, Courtney M; Beal, Sarah J; Sherman, Susan N

    2015-08-01

    To investigate, using qualitative methodology, foster caregivers' perspectives related to the medical needs of children placed in their care. Fifteen foster caregivers were individually interviewed using a semistructured open-ended question guide. Data were coded, and the analysis was conducted in an inductive manner, allowing themes to emerge from the interviews. The following 4 themes were identified: (1) the fragmented histories provided to foster caregivers and difficulty in obtaining information; (2) the unique medical complications that children in foster care experience; (3) the difference between "doing what is expected" and becoming a proactive foster caregiver; and (4) the support needs of foster caregivers. Foster caregivers receive insufficient information despite the evidence that these children are likely to have complex needs. It is, therefore, necessary for the pediatrician to recognize existing medical problems, identify new medical problems, educate foster caregivers, and communicate with the multidisciplinary team. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  10. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  11. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  12. Enhancing the Empowerment of Youth in Foster Care: Supportive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra J.; Skolnik, Louise; Turnbull, Ayme

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the research on youth empowerment in seven child welfare programmatic areas. A lack of studies specifically focused on the empowerment of youth in foster care was found. Conceptual perspectives and existing data, however, suggest that the empowerment of youth in and transitioning out of care is essential and should be overtly…

  13. Burning Their Bridges: Disordered Attachment and Foster Care Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzerro, Rose Marie; Lein, Laura

    1995-01-01

    An ethnographic study of adolescent boys in residential treatment explored their experiences with transition from placement to placement. Findings indicated displays of antisocial acting-out behaviors, especially at transition. Results suggest reevaluation of residential treatment within the continuum of care, as successive foster care placements…

  14. A Critical Reflection: Foster Care Youth Experiences at a Four Year Postsecondary Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Renada D.

    2016-01-01

    Foster care youth face significant challenges to postsecondary educational success, especially while enrolled at four-year institutions. Foster care youth are absent of family support that their non-foster peers receive throughout the college experience. Without family support, foster care youth encounter greater challenges to persevere through…

  15. Challenges of Assessing Maltreated Children Coming into Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Rachel; Hockaday, Harriet; Anderson, Beatrice; Davidson, Claire; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversity have been known to be at risk of developing cognitive, attachment, and mental health problems; therefore, it is crucial that children entering foster care can be properly assessed as early as possible. There are known difficulties in assessing children in foster care, for example, in finding a reliable informant. An ongoing randomised controlled trial in Glasgow, Scotland, recruiting infants entering foster care, provides a unique opportunity to explore some of the issues which need to be considered when assessing these children. The assessment data of 70 infants entering care is described while exploring the reliability of foster carers as informants and the importance of infant engagement with tasks. This group of infants was shown to be having more problems than children from the general population. While correlations were found between a carer's level of concern about a child and the severity of a child's problem, there were still a number of children displaying worrying problem scores whom foster carers did not report concern. The child's engagement in the cognitive task showed associations with the child's attainment on the task. Findings emphasise the importance of a holistic assessment for these children and all should be considered as potential cases with Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems (MAPP).

  16. Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    The Social Security Act (the Act) requires that ACF regulate a national data collection system that provides comprehensive demographic and case-specific information on children who are in foster care and adopted. This final rule replaces existing Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) regulations and the appendices to require title IV-E agencies to collect and report data to ACF on children in out-of-home care, and who exit out-of-home care to adoption or legal guardianship, children in out-of-home care who are covered by the Indian Child Welfare Act, and children who are covered by a title IV-E adoption or guardianship assistance agreement.

  17. Placement History of Foster Children : A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment

  18. Placement History of Foster Children: A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment disorders, severity of behavioral problems, and…

  19. Reflection of Foster Parents on Caring for Foster and Adopted Children and Their Suggestions to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Helinski, Monica; Buchstein, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this research project we investigated the process of adoption of foster children by foster parents and the foster parents' ideas of how to help foster children going through the process of adoption or those who have been adopted. We sent questionnaires to 200 foster parents living in the Cleveland area, but just 23 foster parents replied.…

  20. 75 FR 23557 - National Foster Care Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... depth and kindness of the human heart. Children and youth in foster care deserve the happiness and joy... committed to meeting the developmental, educational, and health- related needs of children and youth in... access to Federal resources for Indian tribes, coordinated health benefits, improved...

  1. 77 FR 26909 - National Foster Care Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 88 / Monday, May 7, 2012 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8814 of May 2, 2012 National Foster Care Month, 2012 By the President of...

  2. Processes that Contribute to Resilience among Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Sylvie; Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Lepine, Rachel; Begin, Gilles; Bernard, Martine

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research is to better understand the processes that contribute to resilience among adolescents in foster care. Twelve boys and girls (X=15.9 years), identified as resilient, participated in this study. The mean duration of the teenagers' placement is 7.3 years. The results point to three types of turning points:…

  3. Beginning Teacher Challenges Instructing Students Who Are in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetlin, Andrea; MacLeod, Elaine; Kimm, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Children in foster care compose a population of students very vulnerable to school failure. Placement and school instability and lack of collaboration between the school and child welfare agency are some of the barriers that impede their school performance. This study focused on the classroom context and questioned beginning general and special…

  4. Modern Family: Adoption and Foster Care in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Ruth Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often have no preparation for handling the questions and conversations that arise in the classroom when discussing literature having adoption or foster care themes. Instead of relying on personal experiences or stereotypes portrayed through the media, teachers are advised to understand the developmental tasks of children from families…

  5. Prior Trauma Exposure for Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Burns, Barbara J.; Southerland, Dannia G.; Cox, Julia Revillion; Wagner, H. Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Very little research has focused on rates of trauma exposure for youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Available research has utilized record review for assessing exposure, which presents limitations for the range of trauma types examined, as records are predominantly focused on abuse and neglect. The current study examines exposure rates and…

  6. Everyday Miracles: Supporting Parents of Infants in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Evelyn; McInnis, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a model for supporting parents and their infants during separations due to temporary foster care. Using a case example, the authors describe a model for visit coaching, including their process for assessment and strategies used for intervention. The lessons learned are: (a) that individual parents can present very…

  7. Trauma exposure and PTSD among older adolescents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M; Keller, Thomas E; Gowen, L Kris; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    Youth in foster care represent a highly traumatized population. However, trauma research on this population has focused primarily on maltreatment rather than the full spectrum of trauma experiences identified within the DSM-IV. The current study aims to fill this gap by reporting the prevalence of exposure to specific types of traumatic events for a large sample of youth with foster care experience. The study also reports the likelihood of lifetime PTSD diagnoses associated with each specific type of trauma. Data are from a longitudinal panel study of 732 adolescents aged 17 and 18 who were in foster care. Lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD diagnosis were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Statistical comparisons were made using logistic regressions. The majority of respondents had experienced at least one trauma in their lifetime. While overall trauma prevalence did not differ by gender, males were more likely to experience interpersonal violence and environmental trauma, while females were more likely to experience sexual trauma. Caucasian participants reported higher rates of trauma exposure than African-American participants did. The types of trauma associated with the highest probability of a lifetime PTSD diagnosis were rape, being tortured or a victim of terrorists, and molestation. Youth in foster care are a highly traumatized population and meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD at higher rates than general youth populations. The ongoing impact of trauma may be particularly problematic for these young people given their abrupt transition to independence.

  8. Intervention Targets for Youth with Disabilities in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwick, Robin; Tyre, Ashli; Beisse, Kay; Thomas, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    This article will focus on students with disabilities in foster care to help school psychologists identify effective school-based interventions for these students. We will report our findings from three independent studies and then apply the findings to suggest targeted interventions for these students that are intended to improve educational and…

  9. Beginning Teacher Challenges Instructing Students Who Are in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetlin, Andrea; MacLeod, Elaine; Kimm, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Children in foster care compose a population of students very vulnerable to school failure. Placement and school instability and lack of collaboration between the school and child welfare agency are some of the barriers that impede their school performance. This study focused on the classroom context and questioned beginning general and special…

  10. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  11. Health Care Issues for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care and Kinship Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Children and adolescents who enter foster care often do so with complicated and serious medical, mental health, developmental, oral health, and psychosocial problems rooted in their history of childhood trauma. Ideally, health care for this population is provided in a pediatric medical home by physicians who are familiar with the sequelae of childhood trauma and adversity. As youth with special health care needs, children and adolescents in foster care require more frequent monitoring of their health status, and pediatricians have a critical role in ensuring the well-being of children in out-of-home care through the provision of high-quality pediatric health services, health care coordination, and advocacy on their behalves. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. The need for educational assessment of children entering foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Larry D; Scott, Susan S; Schulz, Eldon G

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive medical and mental health evaluations of children in foster care are recommended within 30 days of entering care. What constitutes a comprehensive evaluation has yet to be established. This study examines the need to include educational assessment as a component of the comprehensive evaluation. Rates of achievement and language problems for Arkansas school-age children are compared with rates of medical and psychiatric disorders to assess the relative need for including educational assessment.

  13. Helping infants and toddlers in Foster family care : The evidence base of the Foster carer − Foster child Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The Foster carer- Foster child Intervention (FFI) helps very young foster children to feel safe in their new foster-environment. After placement young children often adapt to their new environment with avoidant behaviour. Evidence exist they do not feel safe, for example because they do not ask for

  14. Caring for vulnerable children: challenges of mothering in the Australian foster care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Stacy L; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2013-04-01

    Foster carers have a significant responsibility in caring for vulnerable children. In order to support and facilitate foster carers it is important to understand how they perceive and fulfil this responsibility. A qualitative story-telling study, informed by feminist perspectives, was used to conduct in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 women providing long-term foster care in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed these women characterised themselves as mothers, rather than paid carers, to the long-term foster children in their care. Using this maternal self-perception as the starting point, this paper reveals some of the challenges and difficulties participants encountered when mothering within the confines of the child protection system. Implications for nursing practice are discussed. These implications focus on ways that nurses can effectively support foster carers, thus optimising the health and well-being of the vulnerable children in their care.

  15. Physical Health Problems and Barriers to Optimal Health Care Among Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Stephanie Anne; Fortin, Kristine

    2015-10-01

    Children and adolescents in foster care placement represent a unique population with special health care needs, often resulting from pre-placement early adversity and neglected, unaddressed health care needs. High rates of all health problems, including acute and/or chronic physical, mental, and developmental issues prevail. Disparities in health status and access to health care are observed. This article summarizes the physical health problems of children in foster care, who are predisposed to poor health outcomes when complex care needs are unaddressed. Despite recognition of the significant burden of health care need among this unique population, barriers to effective and optimal health care delivery remain. Legislative solutions to overcome obstacles to health care delivery for children in foster care are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 45 CFR 1356.22 - Implementation requirements for children voluntarily placed in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD... children voluntarily placed in foster care. (a) As a condition of receipt of Federal financial participation (FFP) in foster care maintenance payments for a dependent child removed from his home under a...

  17. The Effect of Foster Care Experience and Characteristics on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calix, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of foster care experience and characteristics on educational outcomes. The typical strategy in examining the effect foster care has on educational outcomes is to compare the educational achievement of youth with foster care experience to that of their peers or to national norms. This strategy fails to take selection…

  18. 25 CFR 20.506 - What information is required in the foster care case file?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information is required in the foster care case file... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.506 What information is required in the foster care case file? At a minimum the following information is required: (a) Tribal...

  19. Teacher's Understanding, Perceptions, and Experiences of Students in Foster Care: A Forgotten Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Davis, Darneika

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine elementary teacher's understanding, perceptions, and experiences of working with students in foster care. The researcher examined whether teachers are informed about students in foster care, determined teacher's understanding of the foster care system, and how their students are affected. The results…

  20. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees may...

  1. Foster care assessment: An exploratory study of the placement assessment process in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderfaeillie, J.; Damen, H.R.; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Bergh, P.M. van den; Holen, F. van

    2016-01-01

    Family foster care placement decision-making has a weak scientific underpinning. The identification of clusters of foster children (groups of foster children with similar characteristics) can help improve decision quality. In this study, we investigated if foster children could indeed be clustered,

  2. Foster care assessment: An exploratory study of the placement assessment process in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderfaeillie, J.; Damen, H.R.; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Bergh, P.M. van den; Holen, F. van

    2016-01-01

    Family foster care placement decision-making has a weak scientific underpinning. The identification of clusters of foster children (groups of foster children with similar characteristics) can help improve decision quality. In this study, we investigated if foster children could indeed be clustered,

  3. Foster care as a viable alternative to institutional care in the Middle East: community acceptance and stigma across type of placement in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Schwalbe, Craig S J; Gearing, Robin E; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Batayneh, Jude; Darwish, Dua'a M; Al-Kharabsheh, Jihad; Al-Zu'bi, Mu'ayad H

    2012-07-01

    Utilizing an experimental vignette design, this study assessed attitudes in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan toward the implementation of foster care as an alternative to institutions for children in need of care and protection. A sample of 111 adults were surveyed in Amman and presented with a vignette describing a 14-year-old boy who came into the care of the Ministry of Social Development when he was a baby after being placed by the grandfather because of shame surrounding the mother being unwed. The vignettes systematically varied as to whether the child was described as raised in an orphanage, with a relative in a kinship foster placement, or with a nonkin foster family. Participants were then asked a series of questions about their acceptance of the child, stigma that the community might attach to the child, and potential outcomes for the child. We found no differences across the acceptance and stigma questions between the kinship and non-kin foster conditions. The 2 foster care options were at least as acceptable as current institutional models across all domains, and participants were more likely to accept the child going to school with or being friends with their child if they were in foster care rather than an institution. These results represent the first evidence of public acceptance of foster care as a model of care in Jordan and may inform the process of local stakeholders implementing alternatives to institutional care on a meaningful and sustainable scale in the Kingdom and regionally.

  4. Fostering institutional practices in support of public engagement by scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Scientists are increasingly called on to communicate the findings of their research outside the scientific sphere, to members of the public, media, and/or policymakers eager for information about topics at the intersections of science and society. While all scientists share a desire for a more informed public, and for the development of evidence-based public policy, there are profound hurdles that prevent most scientists from meaningfully engaging the public. Here, I identify and discuss both internal (i.e. finite time, discomfort in public speaking and interview settings, etc) and external (metrics for promotion and tenure, scholarly reputation, etc) obstacles for public engagement. At the same time, I also discuss how recent trends in scientific practice provide clear, concrete, and compelling rewards for public engagement. Specifically, institutions of higher education have a vested interest in fostering and rewarding greater public engagement by scientists across all academic ranks. I review a variety of innovative mechanisms, both informal and formal, that institutions are employing to achieve this goal, and assess their potential impact on the engagement levels of scientists.

  5. Planned and unplanned terminations of foster care placements in the Netherlands: Relationships with characteristics of foster children and foster placements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.; Maaskant, A.; Weijers, I.; Weijers, D.; Hermanns, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of placement and child characteristics in the unplanned termination of foster placements. Data were used from 169 foster children aged 0 to 20. Results showed that 35% of all foster placement terminations were unplanned. Outcomes of logistic regression analyses

  6. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care facility...

  7. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  8. Meaningful Change for Children in Foster Care: Much More than Just Reunification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Amy B.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    2016-01-01

    The youngest children in foster care suffer disproportionately. The Adoption and Safe Families Act (1997) attempted to provide greater safeguards for children, which led courts to push for earlier reunifications between foster children and their biological families. Although no one wants young children to languish in the foster care system, early…

  9. An Ecological Understanding of Kinship Foster Care in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Algood, Carl L.; Chiu, Yu-Ling; Lee, Stephanie Ai-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We review empirical studies on kinship foster care in the United States. We conceptualize kinship foster care within the context of Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1994) most recent ecological systems theory. Because there are multiple levels of influences on the developmental outcomes of children placed in kinship foster home, understanding the…

  10. An Ecological Understanding of Kinship Foster Care in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Algood, Carl L.; Chiu, Yu-Ling; Lee, Stephanie Ai-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We review empirical studies on kinship foster care in the United States. We conceptualize kinship foster care within the context of Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1994) most recent ecological systems theory. Because there are multiple levels of influences on the developmental outcomes of children placed in kinship foster home, understanding the…

  11. Preparing Students in Foster Care for Emancipation, Employment, and Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Tracey G.

    2015-01-01

    Students preparing to emancipate from the foster care system face multiple challenges. For many formerly fostered teens, outcomes are relatively poor. Others have shown incredible resilience in the face of adversity. School psychologists can help address obstacles to postsecondary success for students living in foster care preventively while they…

  12. From Foster Care to College: The Seita Scholars Program at Western Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrau, Yvonne A.

    2011-01-01

    More than 32,000 young people in the United States exit the foster care system in a typical year by aging out to independence (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2011). Despite available financial support for post-secondary education through the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999, only 20% of college-qualified foster youth attend college and…

  13. How Can State Law Support School Continuity and Success for Students in Foster Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First Focus, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief is authored by The Legal Center for Foster Care and Education, a collaboration between the American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law, Education Law Center (PA), and Juvenile Law Center. The federal Fostering Connections Act of 2008 and the McKinney-Vento Act both provide education stability for children in foster care,…

  14. Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care in England: differential effects by level of initial antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Ian; Parry, Elizabeth; Biehal, Nina; Fresen, John; Kay, Catherine; Scott, Stephen; Green, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), recently renamed Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents (TFCO-A) is an internationally recognised intervention for troubled young people in public care. This paper seeks to explain conflicting results with MTFC by testing the hypotheses that it benefits antisocial young people more than others and does so through its effects on their behaviour. Hard-to-manage young people in English foster or residential homes were assessed at entry to a randomised and case-controlled trial of MTFC (n = 88) and usual care (TAU) (n = 83). Primary outcome was the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) at 12 months analysed according to high (n = 112) or low (n = 59) baseline level of antisocial behaviour on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents. After adjusting for covariates, there was no overall treatment effect on CGAS. However, the High Antisocial Group receiving MTFC gained more on the CGAS than the Low group (mean improvement 9.36 points vs. 5.33 points). This difference remained significant (p care but only for those with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Further work is needed on whether such benefits persist, and on possible negative effects of this treatment for those with low antisocial behaviour.Trial Registry Name: ISRCTNRegistry identification number: ISRCTN 68038570Registry URL: www.isrctn.com.

  15. A first look: determinants of dental care for children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, M; Huebner, C E; Chi, D L; Hinderberger, H; Milgrom, P

    2013-01-01

    This hypothesis-generating study sought to identify potential determinants of dental care use and oral health among children living in foster care. Using a grounded theory approach, fourteen key informant interviews were conducted among health and social services professionals experienced with children in foster care and families in western Washington State. The identified potential determinants of oral health and dental use among children living in foster care included: (1) linguistic and cultural barriers; (2) lack of dentists willing to accept children's Medicaid dental insurance; (3) lack of resources available to case workers (i.e., large caseload burden) (4) lack of federal funding for specialized dental care; (5) lack of systematic health record-keeping; (6) child transience, leading to the lack of a dental home; (8) foster parents' competing needs; (7) child behavior problems; and (9) lack of dental "buy in" from adolescents. Additional studies are needed to determine whether children living in foster care achieve oral health, and the extent of their unmet dental need. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Predictors of Adult Quality of Life for Foster Care Alumni with Physical and/or Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anctil, Tina M.; McCubbin, Laurie D.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study used quality of life and resilience as theoretical frameworks for evaluating predictors of outcomes for adults who received foster care services alumni of foster care and were diagnosed with a physical or psychiatric disability while in foster care. Method: First, outcomes for foster care alumni with and without physical…

  17. Medicaid Managed Care and the Health Care Utilization of Foster Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Makayla; Marton, James; Yelowitz, Aaron; Talbert, Jeffery

    2017-01-01

    A recent trend in state Medicaid programs is the transition of vulnerable populations into Medicaid managed care (MMC) who were initially carved out of such coverage, such as foster children or those with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of the transition of foster children from fee-for-service Medicaid coverage to MMC coverage on outpatient health care utilization. There is very little empirical evidence on the impact of managed care on the health care utilization of foster children because of the recent timing of these transitions as well as challenges associated with finding data sets large enough to contain a sufficient number of foster children for such analysis. Using administrative Medicaid data from Kentucky, we use retrospective difference-in-differences analysis to compare the outpatient utilization of foster children transitioned to MMC in one region of the state with foster children in the rest of the state who remained in fee-for-service coverage. We find that the transition to MMC led to a 4 percentage point reduction in the probability of having any monthly outpatient utilization. We also estimate that MMC leads to a reduction in outpatient spending.

  18. Parental Book Reading and Social-Emotional Outcomes for Head Start Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care.

  19. Institutional predictors of developmental outcomes among racially diverse foster care alumni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio R; Pecora, Peter J; Harachi, Tracy; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Child welfare practitioners are confronted with the responsibility of relying on best practice to ensure children in foster care transition successfully into adulthood after leaving the foster care system. Yet, despite recent reforms and efforts to address their needs, research clearly shows that foster care alumni are still more likely to experience negative developmental outcomes compared to adults in the general population. The purpose of this study was to better understand how child-serving systems of care adequately prepare racially diverse foster care alumni to thrive. Controlling for gender, age, placement instability, and circumstances of exit from foster care, study findings highlighted salient racial and ethnic differences relative to which factors predicted the odds of mental health, education, and employment outcomes. Implications for developing and implementing culturally sensitive, evidence-based prevention and intervention programs to promote positive developmental outcomes among racially diverse foster care alumni are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  20. Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care: The Model of Care Thirty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunzo, Annette C.; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Strickler, Amy; Doncaster, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, trends in children's mental health have moved care from residential and office-based treatment to community-based interventions. The Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care (PRTFC) program was developed in 1981 in response to these trends. Currently, Pressley Ridge provides PR-TFC treatment in 15 programs in six states and the…

  1. Fostering dignity in the care of nursing home residents through slow caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohne, Vibeke; Høy, Bente; Lillestø, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical impairment and dependency on others may be a threat to dignity. Research questions: The purpose of this study was to explore dignity as a core concept in caring, and how healthcare personnel focus on and foster dignity in nursing home residents. Research design: This study has...... personnel, maintaining human dignity requires slow caring in nursing homes, as an essential approach....

  2. Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care: The Model of Care Thirty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunzo, Annette C.; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Strickler, Amy; Doncaster, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, trends in children's mental health have moved care from residential and office-based treatment to community-based interventions. The Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care (PRTFC) program was developed in 1981 in response to these trends. Currently, Pressley Ridge provides PR-TFC treatment in 15 programs in six states and the…

  3. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  4. Suicidality among preadolescent maltreated children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Heather N; Harpin, Scott B; Maguire, Sabine A

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among 515 preadolescent (aged 9-11 years) maltreated children who entered foster care within the prior year. Over a quarter (26.4%) of the children had a history of suicidality according to their own and/or their caregiver's report, 4.1% of whom were imminently suicidal. In bivariate analyses, children at higher risk of suicidality tended to be younger, non-Hispanic, abused, and to have experienced multiple types of maltreatment, more referrals to child welfare, more household transitions, and a longer length of time in foster care. There were no gender differences. Multiple regression analyses found physical abuse and chronicity of maltreatment to be the most robust predictors of suicidality. It is critically important that these high-risk children are screened for suicidality before adolescence and that caregivers and professionals are informed of their risk status so that they may implement mental health treatment, monitoring, and harm reduction measures.

  5. Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana K; Johnson, Amber B; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; DeGarmo, David S

    2007-05-01

    Parental substance use is a well-documented risk for children. However, little is known about specific effects of prenatal and postnatal substance use on child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions. In this study, the authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling. Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.

  6. Health Service Utilization of Children in Delaware Foster Care, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erin K; McDuffie, May Joan; Gifford, Katie; Zorc, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Children in foster care represent some of the most vulnerable children in the U.S. Their higher prevalence of a range of physical and behavioral health problems can lead to greater health care utilization and higher costs. However, many children in foster care have undiagnosed conditions and unmet needs. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of health services accessed by children in foster care in Delaware. The data serves as a baseline and informs current efforts to improve the health care of children in foster care. We analyzed rates of emergency room visits, behavioral health visits, hospitalizations, and costs of care for children in foster care and made comparisons with other children participating in Medicaid. We also looked at utilization before and after entry into care and assessed rates of appropriate medical screening for children on entering foster care. This study was conducted as part of a larger analysis guided by the Delaware Task Force on the Health of Children in Foster Care with funding appropriated by the Delaware General Assembly. Using a unique identification number, we linked Medicaid claims data with demographic information and characteristics associated with foster care from the Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth and Their Families. We examined diagnoses, patterns of utilization, and costs for children in foster care (n = 1,458) and a comparable cohort of other children in Medicaid (n = 124,667) during fiscal years 2013 and 2014. Compared with other children in Medicaid, children in foster care had similar rates of emergency department utilization, but relatively high rates of outpatient behavioral health visits. Similarly, compared with other children in Medicaid, those in foster care had particularly high rates of psychotropic drug utilization. Entry into foster care was associated with increased utilization of overall health care services, including receipt of well-child care. However, just 31 percent

  7. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Placement in Foster Care Enhances Quality of Attachment among Young Institutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyke, Anna T.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Guthrie, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classifications of attachment in 42-month-old Romanian children (N = 169). Institutionalized since birth, children were assessed comprehensively, randomly assigned to care as usual (CAU) or to foster care, and compared to family-reared children. Attachment classifications for children in foster care were markedly different from…

  9. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting.

  10. Placement breakdown in foster care: Reducing risks by a foster parent training program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis started by focusing on Dutch foster children’s well-being, emotional and behavioral functioning and placement stability. Subsequently, we attempted to identify how foster families who are considered to be at a high risk of placement breakdown could be given effective support. The

  11. Placement breakdown in foster care: Reducing risks by a foster parent training program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis started by focusing on Dutch foster children’s well-being, emotional and behavioral functioning and placement stability. Subsequently, we attempted to identify how foster families who are considered to be at a high risk of placement breakdown could be given effective support. The finding

  12. Patterns of Movement in Foster Care: An Optimal Matching Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Placement instability remains a vexing problem for child welfare agencies across the country. This study uses child welfare administrative data to retrospectively follow the entire placement histories (birth to age 17.5) of 474 foster youth who reached the age of majority in the state of Illinois and to search for patterns in their movement through the child welfare system. Patterns are identified through optimal matching and hierarchical cluster analyses. Multiple logistic regression is used to analyze administrative and survey data in order to examine covariates related to patterns. Five distinct patterns of movement are differentiated: Late Movers, Settled with Kin, Community Care, Institutionalized, and Early Entry. These patterns suggest high but variable rates of movement. Implications for child welfare policy and service provision are discussed. PMID:20873020

  13. Medical Management and Trauma-Informed Care for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; Fortin, Kristine; Forkey, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Children enter foster care with a myriad of exposures and experiences, which can threaten their physical and mental health and development. Expanding evidence and evolving guidelines have helped to shape the care of these children over the past two decades. These guidelines address initial health screening, comprehensive medical evaluations, and follow-up care. Information exchange, attention to exposures, and consideration of how the adversities, which lead to foster placement, can impact health is crucial. These children should be examined with a trauma lens, so that the child, caregiver, and community supports can be assisted to view their physical and behavioral health from the perspective of what we now understand about the impact of toxic stress. Health care providers can impact the health of foster children by screening for the negative health consequences of trauma, advocating for trauma-informed services, and providing trauma-informed anticipatory guidance to foster parents. By taking an organized and comprehensive approach, the health care provider can best attend to the needs of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fostering change within organizational participants of multisectoral health care alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Mittler, Jessica N

    2012-01-01

    A touted advantage of multisectoral health care alliances is their ability to coordinate diverse constituencies and pursue community health goals in ways that allow them to make greater progress than each constituency could independently. However, participating organizations may have goals that do not entirely overlap or necessarily align with the alliance's goals, which can weaken or undermine an alliance's efforts. Fostering changes within participating organizations in ways that are consistent with the alliance's goals (i.e., alliance-oriented change) may be one mechanism by which alliances can coordinate diverse activities and improve care in their local communities. We examined whether alliance-oriented change within participating organizations is associated with alliance decision-making and conflict management style, level of participation, perceptions of alliance participation benefits and costs, and awareness of alliance activities within participating organizations. The study used two rounds of survey data collected from organizational participants of 14 alliances participating in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality program. Alliance participants generally reported low levels of alliance-oriented change within their organizations as a result of the alliance and its activities. However, participants reporting higher levels of internal change in response to alliance activities had more positive perceptions of alliance decision-making style, higher levels of participation in alliance activities, more positive perceptions of alliance participation benefits relative to costs, and greater awareness of alliance activities across multiple levels of their respective organizations. Despite relatively low levels of alliance-oriented change within participating organizations, alliances may still have the means to align the goal orientations of a diverse membership and foster change that may extend the reach of the alliance in the community.

  15. Measurement Error in the Reported Reasons for Entry into the Foster Care System

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Dwyer

    2001-01-01

    To date, much of the research on foster dependence hinges on the validity of the reasons for entry into the foster care system. Yet, no one has tested these data. Since these reasons for entry help to assess individual differences in foster care children, the purpose of this study is to more closely examine these reasons. Using data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System, we begin with exploratory factor analysis on the reported reasons for entry. Next, we specify and tes...

  16. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies.

  17. Somebody’s Children or Nobody’s Children? How the Sociological Perspective Could Enliven Research on Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have long been concerned about how the fortunes of parents affect their children, with acute interest in the most marginalized children. Yet little sociological research considers children in foster care. In this review, we take a three-pronged approach to show why this inattention is problematic. First, we provide overviews of the history of the foster care system and how children end up in foster care, as well as an estimate of how many children ever enter foster care. Second, we review research on the factors that shape the risk of foster care placement and foster care caseloads and how foster care affects children. We close by discussing how a sociological perspective and methodological orientation—ranging from ethnographic observation to longitudinal mixed methods research, demographic methods, and experimental studies—can foster new knowledge around the foster care system and the families it affects. PMID:25431518

  18. Evidence Use in Mental Health Policy Making for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Justeen K; Mackie, Thomas I; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Niemi, Emily; Leslie, Laurel K

    2016-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the use of research evidence to inform public policy making. Building upon Weiss's model of research utilization, we examined the types and uses of evidence that child welfare administrators used in response to federal policy reforms requiring psychotropic medications oversight for children in foster care. Participants relied on a range of "global" and "local" evidence types throughout the policy development phase. Global research evidence was used to raise awareness about problems associated with psychotropic medication use. Local evidence helped to contextualize concerns and had problem-solving and political uses. In most states, policy actions were informed by a combination of evidence types.

  19. Youth Emancipating from Foster Care in California: Findings Using Linked Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needell, Barbara; Cuccaro-Alamin, Stephanie; Brookhart, Alan; Jackman, William; Shlonsky, Aron

    This study examined characteristics of youth emancipated from child welfare (ECW) and probation (EPR) supervised foster care; receipt of mental health services for emancipating youth; births to emancipating females; deaths of youth who emancipated from foster care; receipt of Medi-Cal due to AFDC/TANF, SSI/disability, or medical indigence after…

  20. Reducing Transfers of Children in Family Foster Care through Onsite Mental Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Carmen; Levine, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful pilot project in New York City that effectively reduced the number of transfers or replacements of children in family foster care through the placement of mental health clinicians onsite at two foster care agencies. (Contains 2 tables and 2 footnotes.)

  1. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  2. An Analysis of Foster Care Placement History and Post-Secondary Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Angelique; Dworsky, Amy; Feng, Wenning

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has document significant disparities in post-secondary educational attainment between young adults who had been in foster care and their peers in the general population. This study uses survival analysis to compare the four-year college graduation rate of students who had been in foster care to the graduation rate of first…

  3. Postsecondary Strengths, Challenges, and Supports Experienced by Foster Care Alumni College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.; Jones, Kevin R.; Emerson, John C.; Mucha, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Young people transitioning from foster care to college experience unique identities and circumstances that make being successful in college especially challenging. We used qualitative survey data from 248 college graduates who were formerly in foster care to explore the strengths, challenges, and supports they experienced while in college that…

  4. ESSA and Students in Foster Care. Policy Update. Vol. 23, No. 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    For years, students in foster care have been among the most transient in the nation, enduring sudden, sometimes frequent school changes as they move from home to home. The lack of school stability contributes to those children's academic struggles: Students in foster care are more likely than their peers to score lower on assessments and less…

  5. Special Education Administrators' Response to the Educational Needs of Foster Care Youth: Collaborative or Disjointed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John; Haar, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Although the literature discusses the deleterious educational outcomes that foster care students endure, little attention has focused on school personnel's responses to the phenomenon. Despite the documented relationship between foster care and special education, a missing contribution is the voice of special education administrators. In turn, the…

  6. Students in Foster Care: Individualized School-Based Supports for Successful Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiheiser, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Foster care is a government-based, temporary system of support for children and adolescents whose biologic parents are either unwilling or unable to parent them. Variability exists with regard to the type of foster care continuity of services offered as well as to the placement homes themselves, and--of the nearly half-million youth currently…

  7. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  8. The Foster Care Baby Boom Revisited: What Do the Numbers Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Fred; Chen, Lijun; Collins, Linda; Ernst, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The Center for State Foster Care and Adoption Data, operated by Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, supports child welfare agencies in using longitudinal data to improve outcomes for children. For the purposes of this article, the authors analyzed data for 14 states from 2000 through 2008 to examine trends in foster care placement, length of…

  9. Signs of Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls in the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Tonya; Auslander, Wendy; Elze, Diane; Bowland, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 99 sexually abused adolescent girls in the foster care system (64% in congregate living situations and 36% in family/foster care homes), nearly half were psychologically functioning well despite having experienced moderate-to-severe emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. It was hypothesized that these girls with resilient…

  10. Critical Issues in Foster Care: Lessons the Children's Ark Learned from Barbara and Nathan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Kretchmar, Molly D.; Worsham, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an attachment theory framework, this article explores several critical issues in foster care as reflected in the case of Barbara and her 9-month-old son, Nathan. Barbara and Nathan participated in The Children's Ark, an innovative intervention for families in foster care that allowed mothers who had lost custody of their children to live,…

  11. Youth transitioning out of foster care: an evaluation of a Supplemental Security Income policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Rukh-Kamaa, Aneer

    2013-01-01

    Youths with disabilities face numerous challenges when they transition to adulthood. Those who are aging out of foster care face the additional challenge of losing their foster care benefits, although some will be eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments after foster care ceases. However, the time needed to process SSI applications exposes those youths to a potential gap in the receipt of benefits as they move between foster care and SSI. We evaluate the effects of a 2010 Social Security Administration policy change that allows such youths to apply for SSI payments 60 days earlier than the previous policy allowed. The change provides additional time for processing claims before the applicant ages out of the foster care system. We examine administrative records on SSI applications from before and after the policy change to determine if the change has decreased the gap between benefits for the target population.

  12. A Foster Care Alumna’s Past and Present Technological Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesia Roche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on technology use and access among youth raised in non-traditional family structures indicates that the youth’s experiences are different from individuals raised in traditional family structures. Foster care represents a non-traditional family structure that warrants research attention in terms of technology. Using a multicultural feminist framework, the present study explores the past and present technological experience of a woman (30 years old who was raised in the foster care system. The results are presented as a case study documenting her technological experience in foster care, as she transitioned out of the foster care system, and as she has taken on the roles of wife and mother. Results indicated that the participant had limited access to technology while in the foster care system, and this limited technology access related to her current use and perceptions of technology. Directions for future research are provided.

  13. The Effects of Foster Care Intervention on Socially Deprived Institutionalized Children's Attention and Positive Affect: Results from the BEIP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghera, Melissa M.; Marshall, Peter J.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Smyke, Anna T.; Guthrie, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of a foster care intervention on attention and emotion expression in socially deprived children in Romanian institutions. Methods: Institutionalized children were randomized to enter foster care or to remain under institutional care. Subsequently, the institutionalized and foster care groups, along with a…

  14. Can foster care ever be justified for weight management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G M G; Bredow, Maria; Barton, John; Pryce, Rebekah; Shield, J P H

    2014-03-01

    Article nine of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child states that 'Children must not be separated from their parents unless it is in the best interests of the child.' We describe the impact that placing a child into care can have on long-standing and intractable obesity when this is a component of a child safeguarding strategy. Significant weight loss was documented in a male adolescent following his placement into foster care due to emotional harm and neglect within his birth family. The child's body mass index (BMI) dropped from a peak of 45.6 to 35 over 18 months. We provide brief details of two further similar cases and outcomes. Childhood obesity is often not the sole concern during safeguarding proceedings. Removal from an 'obesogenic' home environment should be considered if failure by the parents/carers to address the obesity is a major cause for concern. It is essential that all other avenues have been explored before removing a child from his birth family. However, in certain circumstances we feel it may be justified.

  15. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must make...

  16. Foster care assessment: A study of the placement decision process in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Pijnenburg, Huub; Damen, Harm; Van Holen, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Family foster care placement decision-making has a weak scientific underpinning. Mostly a 'variable-oriented approach' is taken, which requires a lot of information that is not always available. The identification of clusters of foster children with similar characteristics may be a more viable decision strategy. In this study we investigated if foster children could indeed be clustered, which problems were identified at the time of placement, and the influence of placement history. It proved possible to group foster children into two clusters: (1) young children with familial problems and few behavioral problems, and (2) older children with prominent child problems and behavioral problems. For foster children with and without placement history, problems associated with placement proved identical. Considering that a foster care placement did not result in fundamental change in the problems present at time of placement, the importance is stressed of approaching foster care assessment as part of a decision making process which looks back as well as forward. Placement decisions should be based on an appraisal of the appropriateness of foster placement as a solution for the child. In conjunction with this appraisal a decision is required on how parents can be supported toward reunification. Or--if this is not an option--whether long term foster care is the best option for the child and if so, what conditions need to be met. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Providing therapy to children and families in foster care: a systemic-relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Foster care is a system created to protect children from an unsafe home environment yet multiple foster home placements, conflictual or nonexistent relationships between foster parents and birth parents, long, drawn out court battles, and living in an on-going state of not knowing when or if they will be going home are just some of the challenges many children in care are expected to manage. This paper presents a guide for therapists working with families involved in foster care. Utilizing ideas from the postmodern therapies and structural family therapy, suggestions will be provided about who needs to talk to whom about what, when to have these necessary conversations, and how to talk to people in a way that mobilizes adults to take action for the children, with the goal of minimizing postplacement trauma, strengthening and repairing relational bonds, and moving children out of foster care and into permanent homes as quickly as possible.

  18. Integrative Review: Delivery of Healthcare Services to Adolescents and Young Adults During and After Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer L

    The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize evidence describing delivery of healthcare services to adolescents while in foster care and to young adults after they exit foster care. The long-term, deleterious effect of abuse and/or neglect by caregivers among youth who have been placed in foster care is grounded in empirical evidence demonstrating the relationship between long-term health needs and exposure to trauma in childhood. Evidence is needed to provide culturally-specific care and also to identify knowledge gaps in the care of adolescents and young adults who have been in the foster care system. Peer-reviewed research studies published between 2004 and 2014 that include samples of youth 12 to 30 years of age are included in the review. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Physical and behavioral healthcare needs among youth with foster care experience are significant. The ability to adequately meet health needs are inextricable from the ability to negotiate resources and to successfully interact with adults. Challenges that youth with foster care histories experience when transitioning into young adulthood are comparable to other populations of vulnerable youth not in foster care. Nurses must use each healthcare encounter to assess how the social determinants of health facilitate or impede optimal health among youth with foster care experience. The development of integrated intervention strategies to inform best practice models is a priority for current and former foster care youth as they transition into young adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Addressing the mental health needs of looked after children in foster care: the experiences of foster carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, W; Jones, J

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: In the UK and internationally, the number of looked after children is increasing year on year. Mental health problems among looked after children are significantly higher than in the general population, and the uptake of mental health services for these children is low. There is a poor prognosis for children with untreated mental health problems; this is further compounded if the child is within the care system. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to our understanding of foster carers' experiences of the mental health needs of looked after children and demonstrates some of the challenges associated with accessing appropriate and timely mental health services. New knowledge derived from this research is that the barriers to accessing Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) are not at the time of initial referral as previously reported, but later, once within the mental health system with long waiting times experienced particularly for specialist services. This study provides new insights into the experience of being a foster carer and the levels of support and resources needed that directly relate to the viability of the placement. The majority of the foster carers interviewed were from a Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) background, previously under-represented in this research area. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: A number of areas in current CAMHS provision need addressing with a focus on accessibility, consultation and support for foster carers. Waiting times need to be addressed, and improved communication with other agencies is also highlighted. CAMHS nurses are well placed to develop and deliver a comprehensive care package to foster carers, offering more tailored support to them whilst enabling the children and young people in their care to access and engage more effectively with mental health services. Introduction Despite well-documented vulnerabilities to mental health problems

  20. Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Grant-Savela, Stacey D.; Brondino, Michael J.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study presents outcomes from a randomized trial of a novel Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) model for foster families. Differential effects of two intervention doses on child externalizing and internalizing symptoms are examined. Method: A sample of 102 foster children was assigned to one of three conditions--brief PCIT,…

  1. Allowing Family to be Family: End-of-Life Care in Veterans Affairs Medical Foster Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Chelsea E; Haverhals, Leah M; Jones, Jacqueline; Levy, Cari R

    2016-01-01

    The Medical Foster Home program is a unique long-term care program coordinated by the Veterans Health Administration. The program pairs Veterans with private, 24-hour a day community-based caregivers who often care for Veterans until the end of life. This qualitative study explored the experiences of care coordination for Medical Foster Home Veterans at the end of life with eight Veterans' family members, five Medical Foster Home caregivers, and seven Veterans Health Administration Home-Based Primary Care team members. A case study, qualitative content analysis identified these themes addressing care coordination and impact of the Medical Foster Home model on those involved: (a) Medical Foster Home program supports Veterans' families; (b) Medical Foster Home program supports the caregiver as family; (c) Veterans' needs are met socially and culturally at the end of life; and (d) the changing needs of Veterans, families, and caregivers at Veterans' end of life are addressed. Insights into how to best support Medical Foster Home caregivers caring for Veterans at the end of life were gained including the need for more and better respite options and how caregivers are compensated in the month of the Veteran's death, as well as suggestions to navigate end-of-life care coordination with multiple stakeholders involved.

  2. Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Although foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as child abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults. A consecutive sample of 423 adults aged 18 to 21 years who sought emergency shelter for the first time between October 1, 2007, and February 29, 2008, were assessed at intake. Logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, and psychotic) and psychiatric treatment. The analyses adjusted for demographic characteristics, childhood abuse, substance use, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely than those without such histories to report any psychiatric disorder. They were more than twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder, to have been prescribed psychiatric medication, and to have been hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Histories of foster care among homeless young adults should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, and hospitalization) tailored to the psychiatric needs of this highly vulnerable population.

  3. Development of a radical foster care intervention in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Kathleen Anne; Balogun, Mayowa Oluwatosin; Minnis, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Services for maltreated children are inadequate and lack infant mental health input in many parts of the world. A recent audit of Glasgow services revealed that children frequently 'revolve' between maltreating birth parents and various temporary foster placements for many years. Addressing infant mental health in this population will require radical change to current services. The New Orleans programme developed by the Tulane Infant Team in Louisiana is one such radical programme. Prior to the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test this programme in Glasgow, it was essential that policy-makers had some insight into the local model of service delivery and how a New Orleans model could impact. This article explores the structure and costs of the current Glasgow system and the potential costs and consequence impact of implementing a New Orleans model in Glasgow, using data obtained from the research literature, Glasgow City Council audit data and expert's opinion. A New Orleans-Glasgow model would likely shift resources from social services on to the NHS. The resource intensive nature of this model could increase the cost of an episode in care from £66 300 in the current system to £86 070; however, the probability of repeated episodes in care is likely to fall substantially, making the cost per child fall from £95 500 in the current system to £88 600. This study informed the design of a phase II explorative RCT, identified appropriate outcomes for measurement and areas of uncertainty for further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Preventing rapid repeat pregnancy and promoting positive parenting among young mothers in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Murray, Kantahyanee W; O'Connor, Julia M; Rushovich, Berenice R; Dixon, Desyree A; Barth, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Young mothers in foster care face considerable challenges above and beyond that of their non-foster care peers. Child welfare workers have few resources to guide them in the selection of evidence-informed programs, models, and strategies that address the unique risk factors and needs of youth in foster care who are at risk for rapid repeat pregnancy and inadequate parenting practices. Workers need knowledge of the evidence about which programs are most likely to improve key health and well-being outcomes. The article assesses the evidence-based programs identified and yields a list that reflects the best evidence for efficacy and effectiveness.

  5. The Socioemotional Development of Orphans in Orphanages and Traditional Foster Care in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj

    1996-01-01

    A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)

  6. Who's Who and What's What? Special Education Services for Foster Care Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the educational experiences of a foster care student named Chad. His foster parents and teacher notice educational deficits and express concern about gaps in the student's cumulative educational record. The principal and special education director must guide all constituents to adhere to special education mandates and at the…

  7. Kinship Foster Care and School Adjustment: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Children in Out-of-Home Care in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Chun, JongSerl; Chung, Ick-Joong; Kang, Hyunah; Nho, Choong Rai; Woo, Seokjin

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are many appealing reasons to support kinship foster care as an alternative to other types of out-of-home care. In South Korea, however, less is known about whether or not kinship foster care is beneficial for children's development, and nothing is known about how kinship foster care compares with other types of out-of-home care…

  8. Enhancing the validity of foster care follow-up studies through multiple alumni location strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; McWilliams, Alisa; Mainieri, Tina; Pecora, Peter J; La Belle, Karin

    2006-01-01

    While family-based placement prevention services, family reunification programs, subsidized guardianship, and aggressive adoption programs are reducing the numbers of children spending long periods of time in substitute care, a significant number of America's children will come of age in foster care. Agencies and policymakers should use research and evaluation to assess the effectiveness of foster care in nurturing healthy adults and to explore ways to improve services. Outcome studies that have focused on locating and interviewing young or middle-aged adults emancipated from foster care have been hampered by modest response rates, limiting the field's ability to evaluate the efficacy of foster care programs. This article describes a set of strategies that were used to achieve higher response rates in two recent follow-up studies.

  9. Psychopathology in young children in two types of foster care following institutional rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibu, Florin; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Institutional rearing of young children has been demonstrated to increase risk for a broad range of psychiatric disorders and other impairments. This has led many countries to consider or to invest in foster care. However, no study to date has explored potential differences in psychiatric symptoms in children placed in different types of foster care. We assessed internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 54-month-old children living with foster families. We compared one group of children living in high-quality foster families who had benefited from specialized training and support to another group of children placed with government-sponsored foster care in Bucharest, Romania. After controlling for duration of time spent in foster care, there was a main group effect in predicting ADHD (p = .021) and a marginal group × gender interaction effect. No effects were noted for signs of externalizing disorders. There was, however, a significant group × gender interaction effect of signs of internalizing disorders (p = .007), with the girls in high-quality foster care having less severe symptomatology than did their counterparts in the government-sponsored group. Governments must invest in quality interventions for their most vulnerable citizens to prevent serious and potentially lasting problems. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Career mentoring needs of youths in foster care: voices for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2013-05-01

    Adolescents with a history of foster care placement are more likely to become homeless, have mental illness, become parents too early in life, or become incarcerated within the juvenile justice/prison system. In addition, a low percentage of young adults, who formerly were in foster care, complete vocational training or higher education. This was a qualitative study, using focus group methodology. Four focus group sessions were conducted with youth living in foster care. The purpose was to obtain their perceptions about mentoring. Focus groups comprised six to eight youths per group and were guided by a semi-structured interview guide. A total of 27 youth in foster care participated in focus group interviews. Mean age was 16.4 (SD = 0.68) years. Youth participants were very knowledgeable about mentoring programs for at-risk youth, along with negative psychosocial outcomes experienced by former foster youth. However, they remarked that they are given few opportunities for career mentoring. The overall themes that emerged from narrative data were needing and finding authority figures, hooking up with a career mentor, and deserving the good life. Career mentoring is an affordable and feasible intervention for child welfare agencies. This could lead to more motivated and prepared youth living in foster care for vocational training or higher education. Learning opportunities from a career mentor may be a lifeline for preventing negative psychosocial outcomes for foster youth, reward achievement goals, and improve overall quality of life in emerging adulthood. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparing preventive visits of children in foster care with other children in Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Glenn; Snyder, Angela; Zhou, Mei

    2013-05-01

    This study compared preventive medical and dental visits of Georgia children in foster care with other children enrolled in Medicaid to determine if utilization differed. Two logistic regressions estimated the likelihood of an annual Health Check screening and the likelihood of at least one dental visit. Compared with children in foster care, children in the adoption assistance ([AOR] .37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.40), SSI (AOR .37, 95% CI = 0.35-0.38) and low-income (AOR .40, 95% CI = 0.39-0.42) Medicaid categories were less likely to receive an annual Health Check screening. Children in adoption assistance were also less likely to have a dental visit during the study period. Policies require a Health Check visit upon placement into foster care and annual check-ups consistent with pediatric guidelines; we found more Early and Periodic Screening, Detection, and Treatment screenings for foster care children in Georgia than for other children receiving Medicaid.

  12. Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System Trends Chart and Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AFCARS Trends Chart tracks children in Foster Care from FY 2002 through the most recent year. A table of data and a graphic depiction of trends are shown for...

  13. The Impact of the New York Court Review of Children in Foster Care: A Followup Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Trudy Bradley

    1976-01-01

    Examines the data on children studied in a 1974 investigation. Proposes that court review speed movement of children out of foster care, and suggests steps necessary for both court and agencies to make the procedures more effective. (Author/SB)

  14. CHALLENGES OF FOSTER CARE FOR CHILDREN WITH EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Laklija

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Children come into public care with a variety of previous life experiences, various histories of their biological families (background,reasons for separation and etc., which make them vulnerable to mental health issues. Identifying the emotional problems and behavioraldisorders of children and young people who are in public care are increasingly engaging the interest of scientifi c and professionalpublic, and therefore intensify their efforts to fi nd better methods of responding to the needs of children at risk. Research shows thatfoster care for most children deprived of parental care is the best form of care and that in most cases can provide children experienceof a stable family life, life in the community and strengthen their social competence. The main goal of this paper is therefore to identifysome of the emotional and behavioral problems of children who are in foster care, and to provide a theoretical basis for improvingfoster care practice in the Republic of Croatia, with special emphasis on specialized/treatment/therapeutic foster care for childrenwith behavioral disorders or emotional, psychological and physical diffi culties.

  15. Is higher placement stability in kinship foster care by virtue or design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has repeatedly documented higher placement stability for children who enter kinship care rather than non-relative foster care. However, little is known about why, and under what circumstances, kinship care is more stable. This study uses longitudinal state administrative data to explore possible explanations. Results suggest that, while children in non-relative foster care are indeed at higher risk of any placement move than their peers in kinship care, this appears to be partly driven by child selection factors and policy preferences for kinship care. That is, the gap is not explained primarily by different rates of caregiver-requested moves. However, the gap was sizably smaller among select high-risk subgroups of foster children, suggesting that higher stability in kinship care may be partly explained by differences in the characteristics of children entering kinship care (versus non-relative foster care). Moreover, a large portion of the gap is explained by children in non-relative care being moved into kinship care; a move that is likely the result of policy preferences for kinship care rather than a defect in the initial placement. In sum, these results suggest that kinship care provides only a limited stability advantage, and the reasons for that advantage are not well understood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Foster care, externalizing disorders, and antipsychotic use among Medicaid-enrolled youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwerker, Lauren; Akincigil, Ayse; Olfson, Mark; Gerhard, Tobias; Neese-Todd, Sheree; Crystal, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which clinical diagnoses of externalizing disorders explain higher rates of antipsychotic use by foster care youths. Medicaid claims data from 44 states for 2009 for youths in foster care (N=301,894) and those not in foster care (N=5,092,574) were analyzed, excluding those with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, and major depressive disorder. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between foster care, externalizing disorders, and antipsychotic use. Foster care youths had higher rates of externalizing disorders than the comparison group (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 17.3% versus 6.5%; disruptive behavior disorder, 7.2% versus 2.5%; conduct disorder, 2.3% versus .5%) and greater antipsychotic use (7.4% versus 1.4%). Foster care remained a significant predictor of antipsychotic use after control for demographic and diagnostic covariates, including externalizing disorders (adjusted odds ratio=2.59, 95% confidence interval=2.54-2.63). High rates of externalizing disorder diagnoses only partially explained elevated levels of antipsychotic use in this vulnerable population.

  17. Good caring and vocabularies of motive among foster carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Doyle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing C. Wright Mills’ concept of vocabulary of motives, this article examines the motives and attitudes of people who volunteer to foster children with high support needs. Data is drawn from a larger qualitative study involving indepth interviewing of 23 carers. When asked why they had become foster carers participants produced conventional accounts of child-centred altruistic motives–an acceptable vocabulary of motives which satisfied institutional and cultural expectations regarding caregiving. However, closer examination of participants’ experiences and attitudes revealed the likelihood that economic motives were also factors in decisions to foster. It is argued that participants chose to exclude economic motives from their accounts so as to avoid the risk of being seen to be ‘doing it for the money’.

  18. A randomized controlled trial comparing foster care and institutional care for children with signs of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyke, Anna T; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Drury, Stacy S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Guthrie, Donald

    2012-05-01

    The authors examined signs of emotionally withdrawn (inhibited type) and indiscriminately social (disinhibited type) reactive attachment disorder in Romanian children enrolled in a randomized trial of foster care compared with institutional care and in a comparison group of never-institutionalized children. At baseline and when children were ages 30, 42, and 54 months and 8 years, caregivers were interviewed with the Disturbances of Attachment Interview to assess changes in signs of reactive attachment disorder in three groups of children: those receiving care as usual (including continued institutional care) (N=68); those placed in foster care after institutional care (N=68); and those who were never institutionalized (N=72). The impact of gender, ethnicity, and baseline cognitive ability was also examined. On the Disturbances of Attachment Interview, signs of the inhibited type of reactive attachment disorder decreased after placement in foster care, and scores were indistinguishable from those of never-institutionalized children after 30 months. Signs of the disinhibited type were highest in the usual care group, lower in the foster care group, and lowest in the never-institutionalized group. Early placement in foster care (before age 24 months) was associated with fewer signs of the disinhibited type. Lower baseline cognitive ability was associated with more signs of the inhibited type in the usual care group and more signs of the disinhibited type in both groups. Signs of the inhibited type of reactive attachment disorder responded quickly to placement in foster care; signs of the disinhibited type showed less robust resolution with foster placement. Lower baseline cognitive ability was linked to signs of reactive attachment disorder.

  19. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  20. The influence of caregiver depression on children in non-relative foster care versus kinship care placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio; O'Reilly, Amanda; Matone, Meredith; Kim, Minseop; Long, Jin; Rubin, David M

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about how the challenges faced by caregivers influence the variation in social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) outcomes of youth placed in kinship versus non-relative foster care. This study examined SEB symptoms among youth in kinship and non-relative foster care settings, hypothesizing that changes in caregiver depression would modify children's change in behavior over time. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) assessments of 199 children placed with kinship and non-relative foster care providers in a Mid-Atlantic city were conducted at time of placement and 6-12 months post-placement. Linear regression estimated CBCL change scores for youth across placement type and caregiver depression trajectories. Kinship caregivers were more likely to become depressed or remained depressed than non-relative foster caregivers. Youth in kinship care always exhibited better change in SEB outcomes than youth in non-relative foster care, but these positive outcomes were principally observed among families where caregivers demonstrated a reduction in depression over time or were never depressed. Adjusted change scores for non-relative foster care youth were always negative, with the most negative scores among youth whose caregivers became depressed over time. Caregiver well-being may modify the influence of placement setting on SEB outcomes for youth placed into out-of-home care. Findings lend to policy relevance for child welfare systems that seek kinship settings as a panacea to the challenges faced by youth, without allocating resources to address caregiver needs.

  1. Adaptation Issues in Disabled Children Deprived of Parental Care, Living in Foster Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga T.I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on revealing psychological issues in the adaptation of children, including the ones with disabilities, which are deprived of parental care and are raised in foster families. The paper describes psychological features of relative caregivers, outlines the specifics, dynamics and contributing factors of anxiety in children deprived of parental care as well as in biological children of foster carers. Also, the paper reviews the specifics of relationships between relative carers and children with disabilities, the former’s approaches to raising a disabled child. Much attention is drawn to the difficulties in childrearing and teaching experienced by the caregivers. The paper concludes that there is a strong need for support from social workers and family intervention specialists. Supported within the framework of the state task FGAU "FIRO", research topics of the 25.304.2016/NM "Complex social-psychological support of foster families who foster orphans and children left without parental care, including children with disabilities"

  2. Extended Foster Care for Transition-Age Youth: An Opportunity for Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Hammond, Ivy; Eastman, Andrea Lane; McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Webster, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This analysis examined California county birth rate variations among girls in foster care. The objective was to generate data to assess potential intervention points tied to federal legislation extending foster care beyond age 18 years. Child protection records for all adolescent girls in foster care at age 17 years between 2003 and 2007 (N = 20,222) were linked to vital birth records through 2011. The cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth by age 21 years was calculated by county and race/ethnicity. One in three (35.2%) adolescent girls in foster care had given birth at least once before age 21 years. Although significant birth rate variations emerged, even at the low end of the county range, more than one in four girls had given birth by age 21 years. Child welfare systems are now charged with coordinating transitional services for foster youth beyond age 18 years. Extended foster care provides new opportunities for pregnancy prevention work and targeted parenting support. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing executive functioning among toddlers in foster care with an attachment-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Teresa; Lee Raby, K; Caron, E B; Roben, Caroline K P; Dozier, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Young children in foster care often experience adversity, such as maltreatment and lack of stability in early caregiving relationships. As a result, these children are at risk for a range of problems, including deficits in executive functioning. The Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up for Toddlers (ABC-T) intervention was designed to help foster parents behave in ways that promote the development of young children's emerging self-regulatory capabilities. Participants included 173 parent-toddler dyads in three groups: foster families that were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC-T intervention (n = 63) or a control intervention (n = 58), as well as low-risk parent-toddler dyads from intact families (n = 52). At a follow-up conducted when children were approximately 48 months old, children's executive functioning abilities were assessed with the attention problems scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and a graded version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort developed for preschoolers (Beck, Schaefer, Pang, & Carlson, 2011). Results showed that foster children whose parents received the ABC-T intervention and low-risk children never placed in foster care had fewer parent-reported attention problems and demonstrated greater cognitive flexibility during the Dimensional Change Card Sort than foster children whose parents received the control intervention. These results indicate that an attachment-based intervention implemented among toddlers in foster care is effective in enhancing children's executive functioning capabilities.

  4. Mitigating HPA Axis Dysregulation Associated With Placement Changes in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Maltreated foster children often exhibit alterations in diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity that are characterized by lower cortisol levels upon waking and smaller declines in morning-to-evening cortisol levels. Previous research has shown that this dysregulated pattern is associated with high caregiver stress levels over the course of foster care placements. In contrast, therapeutic interventions that emphasize consistent and responsive caregiving have been associated with more regulated cortisol rhythms. In this paper, two related issues were explored: whether placement changes (i.e., moving between foster homes or from a foster home to a permanent placement) were associated with more blunted daily cortisol rhythms and whether a caregiver-based intervention exerted a protective effect in this context. Because the intervention program has components specifically designed to prepare foster children for placement changes and to maintain consistent parenting techniques despite them, a prevention effect on HPA axis dysregulation during placement changes was hypothesized. The results of linear mixed modeling analyses showed that placement changes predicted dysregulation in cortisol rhythms in the regular foster care group but not in the intervention foster care group. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for child welfare policy and practice. PMID:20888698

  5. The Use of Psychotropic Medication for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismon, M. Lynn; Argo, Tami

    2009-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medication for foster children is in itself not unique; however, these children are of particular interest because of the stress associated with their life situations. A thorough assessment of the child and family should occur before beginning these medications, and in general, they should only be used in the presence of a…

  6. Children in family foster care have greater health risks and less involvement in Child Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M; Emmelin, M; Hjern, A; Rosvall, M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of being in family foster care on selected health determinants and participation in Child Health Services (CHS). Two groups of 100 children, born between 1992 and 2008, were studied using data from Swedish Child Health Services for the preschool period up to the age of six. The first group had been in family foster care, and the controls, matched for age, sex and geographic location, had not. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences in health determinants and participation in Child Health Services between the two groups. The foster care group had higher health risks, with lower rates of breastfeeding and higher levels of parental smoking. They were less likely to have received immunisations and attended key nurse or physician visits and speech and vision screening. Missing data for the phenylketonuria test were more common in children in family foster care. Children in family foster care were exposed to more health risks than the control children and had lower participation in the universal child health programme during the preschool period. These results call for secure access to high-quality preventive health care for this particularly vulnerable group of children. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Life Course Outcomes on Mental and Physical Health: The Impact of Foster Care on Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Tammy W.; Soman, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We compared the prevalence rates of mental health and physical health problems between adults with histories of childhood foster care and those without. Methods. We used 2003–2005 California Health Interview Survey data (n = 70 456) to test our hypothesis that adults with childhood histories of foster care will report higher rates of mental and physical health concerns, including those that affect the ability to work, than will those without. Results. Adults with a history of childhood foster care had more than twice the odds of receiving Social Security Disability Insurance because they were unable to work owing to mental or physical health problems for the past year, even after stratifying by age and adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Conclusions. Childhood foster care may be a sentinel event, signaling the increased risk of adulthood mental and physical health problems. A mental and physical health care delivery program that includes screening and treatment and ensures follow-up for children and youths who have had contact with the foster care system may decrease these individuals’ disproportionately high prevalence of poor outcomes throughout their adulthood. PMID:22390519

  8. Foster care and type 1 diabetes in the Bronx: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangat, Mariam; Klein, Genna W; Heptulla, Rubina A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the health status of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in foster care. A retrospective chart review of children with T1DM in foster care at the Children's Hospital at Montefiore (CHAM) in Bronx, NY, USA, was performed. All patients were either African American or Hispanic and raised by single mothers. The majority of referrals were for medical neglect. The time spent in foster care ranged from 1 to 7 years, with 1-12 placements. Only two children were reunified with their biological mothers. Extensive financial burdens on the health-care system for children with diabetes including prolonged hospitalizations awaiting placement, frequent hospital admissions, and support services were noted. To our knowledge, this is the first report on children with T1DM in foster care. Poor glycemic control and suboptimal social outcomes were noted in the children we report in our case series. Programs geared to improve and reform foster care for children with diabetes are needed.

  9. Predicting Family Reunification, Adoption, and Subsidized Guardianship Among Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Falconnier, Lydia; Spielfogel, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    Although national legislation has attempted to decrease the length of time that children spend in foster care, these policies have been less effective with adolescents than with children, raising questions about how best to promote permanency for adolescents. This study examined factors that predict adolescent adoption, subsidized guardianship, and reunification. The caseworkers and foster parents of 203 randomly selected 12-13 year olds placed in traditional or specialized foster care were interviewed. Permanency outcomes were prospectively tracked for eight years. By the end of the study, over 40% of the adolescents were placed in permanent homes. As hypothesized, a strong relationship with a biological mother predicted successful reunification, and a high degree of integration into a foster home predicted adoption. Additionally, as compared to adoption, subsidized guardianship with foster parents occurred more frequently for youth with strong relationships with their biological mothers and weaker relationships with their foster families. Unexpectedly, behavior problems were not related to any permanency outcomes. Results suggest that promotion of strong relationships with adults is key in efforts to find permanent families for foster children. Furthermore, efforts to attain permanency should not cease during adolescence. PMID:20636947

  10. Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care: Review of Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsverk, John A.; Burns, Barbara J.; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Rolls Reutz, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Between one-half and three-fourths of children entering foster care exhibit behavioral or social-emotional problems warranting mental health care. This paper, condensed and updated from a technical report prepared for Casey Family Programs in 2005, reviews evidence-based and promising interventions for the most prevalent mental conditions found…

  11. Perspectives: Infants and Toddlers in Foster Care and Their Therapists: Mirrored Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Sandra R.

    2011-01-01

    Professionals assigned to address the social and emotional needs of children in foster care have an enormous responsibility not only to understand these needs but to work with the multiple systems of care that converge to make decisions in the best interest of the child. In this essay, the author explores the emotional toll on those professionals…

  12. Treatment Foster Care for Improving Outcomes in Children and Young People: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William; Macdonald, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of treatment foster care (TFC) on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes, delinquency, placement stability, and discharge status for children and adolescents who, for reasons of severe medical, social, psychological and behavioural problems, were placed in out-of-home care in restrictive settings or at risk of…

  13. The Empirical Ties between Religious Motivation and Altruism in Foster Parents: Implications for Faith-Based Initiatives in Foster Care and Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howell-Moroney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amidst a crisis shortage of foster homes in the child welfare system, a number of innovative faith-based collaborations aimed at recruiting foster parents have recently emerged. It has been suggested that these collaborations offer a unique opportunity to recruit committed and altruistic parents as caregivers, providing much needed capacity to an overloaded child welfare system. This paper uses data from the National Survey of Current and Former Foster Parents to examine the associations between religious motivations for fostering, altruism and various measures of foster home utilization and longevity. The empirical results demonstrate that religiously motivated foster parents are more likely to have altruistic reasons for fostering, and scored higher than the non-religiously motivated group on an index of altruism. A separate empirical analysis shows that the interaction of high levels of altruism and religious motivation is associated with higher foster home utilization. No association was found between religious altruism and the parent’s expressed intent to continue providing foster care. The implications of these findings for current faith-based collaboration in the child welfare arena are discussed.

  14. Medical foster care: what happens when children with medical complexity cannot be cared for by their families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Rebecca R; Henderson, Carrie M; Boss, Renee D

    2016-01-01

    Medical interventions for life-threatening pediatric conditions often oblige ongoing and complex medical care for survivors. For some children with medical complexity, their caretaking needs outstrip their parents' resources and abilities. When this occurs, the medical foster care system can provide the necessary health care and supervision to permit these children to live outside of hospitals. However, foster children with medical complexity experience extremes of social and medical risk, confounding their prognosis and quality of life beyond that of similar children living with biologic parents. Medical foster parents report inadequate training and preparation, perpetuating these health risks. Further, critical decisions that weigh the benefits and burdens of medical interventions for these children must accommodate complicated relationships involving foster families, caseworkers, biologic families, legal consultants, and clinicians. These variables can delay and undermine coordinated and comprehensive care. To rectify these issues, medical homes and written care plans can promote collaboration between providers, families, and agencies. Pediatricians should receive specialized training to meet the unique needs of this population. National policy and research agendas could target medical and social interventions to reduce the need for medical foster care for children with medical complexity, and to improve its quality for those children who do.

  15. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  16. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  17. The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-09-01

    Children raised in institutions experience psychosocial deprivation that can negatively impact attention skills and emotion regulation, which subsequently may influence behavioral regulation and social relationships. The current study examined visual attention biases in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Relations among attention biases and concurrent social outcomes were also investigated. In early childhood, 136 children abandoned at birth or shortly thereafter into institutional care were randomized to receive a high-quality foster care intervention or care-as-usual within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At 8 years of age, 50 care-as-usual, 55 foster care, and 52 community controls performed a behavioral dot-probe task, and indices of attention biases to threat and positive stimuli were calculated. Concurrent data on social behavior were collected. Children placed into the foster care intervention had a significant attention bias toward positive stimuli, while children who received care-as-usual had a significant bias toward threat. Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. A positive bias was related to more social engagement, more prosocial behavior, less externalizing disorders, and less emotionally withdrawn behavior. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care among children with a history of institutionalization. An attention bias towards positive stimuli was associated with reduced risk for behavioral problems amongst children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation. Research assessing attention biases in children experiencing early environmental stress may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later psychiatric and social disorders and inform prevention efforts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Social Capital Theory: Another Lens for School Social Workers to Use to Support Students Living in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…

  19. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  20. Time well spent: the duration of foster care and early adult labor market, educational, and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7220 children. The children experienced different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster care on income and labor market participation. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on foster care caseloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This article uses administrative data on all Danish municipalities (N = 277) and a 10% randomly drawn sample of all Danish children (N...... = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would...... have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral...

  2. Evaluating the use of computerized stimulus preference assessments in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Colbert, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to extend the use of stimulus preference assessments to children in foster care. In Study 1, subjects completed a computerized 4-point Likert-type questionnaire designed to assess preference for a wide range of stimuli and activities. Next, items identified as highly preferred (HP) and less preferred (LP) on the questionnaire were tested using a computerized paired-stimulus preference assessment. Results showed complete correspondence between the results of the computerized preference assessments for 11 of 17 subjects. Studies 2 and 3 evaluated whether the stimuli identified as HP in Study 1 would function as reinforcers. Overall, subjects allocated their engagement to HP items, and those HP items could be used as reinforcers for math problem completion. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that computerized preference assessments may be a feasible method of identifying preferences in the foster care system. Implications for their use in foster care are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: outcomes and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B

    2008-03-01

    Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the

  4. Pregnancy Rates Among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two RCTs of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. The present study examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (ages 13–17) with histories of criminal referrals (Mdn = 10) were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as part of two randomized controlled trials. Pregnancy...

  5. Continuing in Foster Care Beyond Age 18: How Courts Can Help. Issue Brief 116

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Clark; Bell, Katie S. Claussen; Zinn, Andrew; Goerge, Robert M.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Research has found that foster youth who remain in care beyond age 18 are more likely to participate in services and tend to have better outcomes than those who do not. However, not all youth eligible to remain in care beyond age 18 do so. This study examines Illinois, one of the few states that extends care up to age 21, to identify the major…

  6. Social Public Care Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2008-01-01

    @@ China faces toughest after-quake reconstruction since 1976. In contrast with neighbouring Myanmar's lethargic and secre-tive handling of its cyclone ten days earlier, China responded to the earthquake rapidly and with uncharacteristic openness. Within hours Premier Wen Jiabao was on a plane, and appeared in almost all the strategic plac-es in the earthquake-hit areas in the follow-ing days; President Hu Jintao was chairing an emergency meeting of Standing Com-mittee and thousands of soldiers and police were being dispatched. China is moved and moves. For the most impressive time, we read the social care from all works of lives.

  7. Foster Care Dynamics and System Science: Implications for Research and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Wulczyn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although system is a word frequently invoked in discussions of foster care policy and practice, there have been few if any attempts by child welfare researchers to understand the ways in which the foster care system is a system. As a consequence, insights from system science have yet to be applied in meaningful ways to the problem of making foster care systems more effective. In this study, we draw on population biology to organize a study of admissions and discharges to foster care over a 15-year period. We are interested specifically in whether resource constraints, which are conceptualized here as the number of beds, lead to a coupling of admissions and discharges within congregate care. The results, which are descriptive in nature, are consistent with theory that ties admissions and discharges together because of a resource constraint. From the data, it is clear that the underlying system exerts an important constraint on what are normally viewed as individual-level decisions. Our discussion calls on extending efforts to understand the role of system science in studies of child welfare systems, with a particular emphasis on the role of feedback as a causal influence.

  8. Safeguarding children and youth in residential and foster care: Supporting healthy sexual development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Grandal*, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In The Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland special awareness on the subject of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation was raised by national investigations on the prevalence and content of sexual abuse in residential and foster care. In Flanders (Belgium) it was the start of the so called Helpline 1712...... (in 2012) to report on sexual and physical violence, that raised awareness on the subject. The investigations showed that professionals perceive very few of the cases of sexual abuse in residential and foster care and in many cases the perpetrators turn out to be peers. This drew attention...... to a central issue: the incapability of professionals to support a healthy sexual development and discuss sexual behaviour with children and young people, their (foster) parents and other professionals. Sex is a subject that is not easily talked about and most professionals feel insecure about. Moreover...

  9. Temperament, disordered attachment, and parental sensitivity in foster care: differential findings on attachment security for shy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schipper, J Clasien; Oosterman, Mirjam; Schuengel, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    In a foster care sample, the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality was tested. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M = 57 months, SD = 16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds, symptoms of inhibited and disinhibited disordered attachment were derived from the Disturbances of Attachment Interview. The Strange Situation Procedure as well as a 15 minute parent-child interaction task were administered. Analyses indicated an interaction effect between parental perceptions of shyness and parental sensitivity for attachment quality. Shy children who had more sensitive foster parents were more often securely attached. For less shy children, no differences in attachment security were found in relation to the foster parents' sensitivity. These results are partially consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis. Shy children may benefit more from more sensitive foster parents when entering foster care.

  10. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement by Age 18 for U.S. Children, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Emanuel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Foster care placement is among the most tragic events a child can experience because it more often than not implies that a child has experienced or is at very high risk of experiencing abuse or neglect serious enough to warrant state intervention. Yet it is unclear how many children will experience foster care placement at some point between birth and age 18. Using synthetic cohort life tables and data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), we estimated how many U.S. children were placed in foster care between birth and age 18, finding support for three conclusions. First, up to 5.91% of all U.S. children were ever placed in foster care between their birth and age 18. Second, Native American (up to 15.44%) and Black (up to 11.53%) children were at far higher risk of placement. Foster care is thus quite common in the U.S., especially for historically disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups. Third, differences in foster care placement were minimal between the sexes, indicating that the high risks of foster care placement are shared almost equally by boys and girls. PMID:24671254

  11. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This paper uses administrative data from one country that experienced a sharp decline in foster care caseloads, Denmark, to show that inc...... rate all shape foster care caseloads, future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads.......Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This paper uses administrative data from one country that experienced a sharp decline in foster care caseloads, Denmark, to show...... that increasing medical treatment of ADHD (primarily through the use of Ritalin) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads over this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD...

  12. Cumulative risks of foster care placement by age 18 for U.S. children, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Emanuel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Foster care placement is among the most tragic events a child can experience because it more often than not implies that a child has experienced or is at very high risk of experiencing abuse or neglect serious enough to warrant state intervention. Yet it is unclear how many children will experience foster care placement at some point between birth and age 18. Using synthetic cohort life tables and data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), we estimated how many U.S. children were placed in foster care between birth and age 18, finding support for three conclusions. First, up to 5.91% of all U.S. children were ever placed in foster care between their birth and age 18. Second, Native American (up to 15.44%) and Black (up to 11.53%) children were at far higher risk of placement. Foster care is thus quite common in the U.S., especially for historically disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups. Third, differences in foster care placement were minimal between the sexes, indicating that the high risks of foster care placement are shared almost equally by boys and girls.

  13. Navigating the Financial Aid System in the Community College: The Lived Experience of Students Formerly in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solemsaas, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    For many low-income and disadvantaged students formerly in foster care, community colleges are the main post-secondary educational pathway to socioeconomic opportunities. However, students formerly in foster care face many barriers in accessing college as well as actually succeeding in achieving a college degree. Although considerable efforts have…

  14. Perceived Social Environment and Adolescents' Well-Being and Adjustment: Comparing a Foster Care Sample with a Matched Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farruggia, Susan P.; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that former foster care youth are at risk for poor outcomes (e.g., more problem behaviors, more depression, lower self-esteem, and poor social relationships). It is not clear, however, whether these findings reflect preemancipation developmental deficits. This study used 163 preemancipation foster care youth and…

  15. Cumulative risks of foster care placement by age 18 for U.S. children, 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wildeman

    Full Text Available Foster care placement is among the most tragic events a child can experience because it more often than not implies that a child has experienced or is at very high risk of experiencing abuse or neglect serious enough to warrant state intervention. Yet it is unclear how many children will experience foster care placement at some point between birth and age 18. Using synthetic cohort life tables and data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS, we estimated how many U.S. children were placed in foster care between birth and age 18, finding support for three conclusions. First, up to 5.91% of all U.S. children were ever placed in foster care between their birth and age 18. Second, Native American (up to 15.44% and Black (up to 11.53% children were at far higher risk of placement. Foster care is thus quite common in the U.S., especially for historically disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups. Third, differences in foster care placement were minimal between the sexes, indicating that the high risks of foster care placement are shared almost equally by boys and girls.

  16. The Educational Professional: The Educational Experiences that Enhanced and Impeded the Academic Outcome of Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    A child in foster care is often categorized as a student at risk for school failure. However, children in foster care face a unique challenge in that most have been involuntarily separated from their biological parent and/or family. The schools must work in collaboration with the child to provide the necessary supports to achieve better…

  17. Understanding the Relationships between Attachment Styles, Locus of Control, School Maladaptation, and Depression Symptoms among Students in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Anna M.; Lewandowska-Walter, A.; Chalupa, A. A.; Jonak, Jolanta; Duszynski, Ramzia; Mazurkiewicz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Altered family experiences place children in foster care at risk for school adjustment difficulties. This study focuses on exploring the differences in school adaptation, locus of control, depression symptoms, and attachment styles among children in foster care and children raised by their biological parents. Sixty children completed self-report…

  18. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 1: Education Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Smithgall, Cheryl; Courtney, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care and into adulthood need many supports to navigate the challenges they face. Over the past three decades, federal child welfare policy has significantly increased the availability of those supports. In 1999, the Foster Care Independence Act amended Title IV-E of the Social Security Act to create the Chafee…

  19. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  20. The Educational Rights of Children in Foster Care and Other Out-of-Home Placements: A Guide for Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    This guide is designed to help advocates--including biological and adoptive parents, resource parents, adult students in foster care, and service providers--understand and advocate for the educational rights of children in New Jersey's foster care system. The guide explains the requirements of federal and state laws that particularly affect these…

  1. Grappling with the Gaps: Toward a Research Agenda to Meet the Educational Needs of Children and Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Some of the nation's leading scholars and philanthropic organizations selected a dozen foster care experts to discuss what they know--and don't know--about improving educational outcomes for children and youth in foster care. These experts represent a wide range of experience and perspective including that of an urban county school superintendent,…

  2. The Goal of Reunification: An Adlerian Approach to Working for Therapeutic Change within the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guardia, Amanda C.; Banner, Amy T.

    2012-01-01

    The system of foster care that is currently in operation throughout the United States can present many challenges for counselors as they work with families toward positive outcomes. This article will endeavor to describe common issues and struggles currently facing children and families experiencing foster care and how these difficulties might…

  3. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 3: Employment Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Sara; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This issue brief is one of three that focus on programs providing services to youth transitioning out of foster care in three common service domains: education, employment, and financial literacy and asset building. This brief highlights why employment services are important to youth currently or formerly in foster care, what we know about the…

  4. Practitioner Review: Children in Foster Care--Vulnerabilities and Evidence-Based Interventions that Promote Resilience Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of children are placed in foster care (i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral,…

  5. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  6. Practitioner Review: Children in Foster Care--Vulnerabilities and Evidence-Based Interventions that Promote Resilience Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of children are placed in foster care (i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral,…

  7. Early School Engagement and Late Elementary Outcomes for Maltreated Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.; Yoerger, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Children with a history of maltreatment and placement into foster care face elevated risks of poor psychosocial outcomes including school failure, substance use, externalizing, and deviant peer association. For children in the general population, school engagement appears to be a promotive factor in preventing negative outcomes. In this study,…

  8. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3 to 6 years old at the study start. Additionally, the…

  9. Introduction to the Special Issue: Children in Foster Care and International Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Children in the foster care system and those experiencing international adoption face a host of risk factors that result in academic, behavioral, and emotional challenges. The purpose of this special issue is to provide school psychologists with the knowledge regarding current intervention strategies and programming to provide effective supports…

  10. Child welfare services involvement among the children of young parents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high rate of early parenthood among youth in foster care as well as the increased risk of child maltreatment among children whose adolescent parents have been neglected or abused, very little is known about child welfare services involvement among children whose parents were in foster care when they were born. This study uses administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) to examine the occurrence of child abuse and neglect investigations, indicated reports and out of home care placements among the children of youth in foster. Thirty-nine percent of the children were the subject of at least one CPS investigation, 17 percent had at least one indicated report and 11 percent were placed in out of home care at least once before their 5th birthday. Cox proportional hazard models are also estimated to identify characteristics of parenting foster youth and their placement histories associated with the risk of child welfare services involvement. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Age-related trends in psychotropic medication use among very young children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosReis, Susan; Tai, Ming-Hui; Goffman, David; Lynch, Sean E; Reeves, Gloria; Shaw, Terry

    2014-12-01

    The specific objectives were to investigate changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for each year increase in age from three to six years old among children in foster care and to examine time-varying odds of longer duration of use by each year of age. A retrospective analysis of data on mental health and pharmacy services was conducted for 1,491 children age six and younger who were in foster care in 2010 and had at least 365 days in foster care during 2009-2011. A total of 178 children received at least one psychotropic medication from 2009 through 2011. Psychotropic prevalence and average days of use were calculated for each therapeutic class. Longitudinal regression models assessed the time-varying relationship between year of age and duration of use, controlling for demographic and clinical covariates. Approximately 12% of children age six and younger in foster care for 365 days or more received at least one psychotropic medication over the three-year study period. Prevalence of ADHD medication and antipsychotic medication and duration increased with each year of age (pchildren who initiated antipsychotic and ADHD medications before the age of six continued to receive them for longer periods of time. There is a critical need for long-term studies to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure on children's health and well-being.

  12. Do Specialty Courts Achieve Better Outcomes for Children in Foster Care than General Courts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A.; Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Eldred, Lindsey M.; Acquah, Kofi F.; Blevins, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effects of unified family and drug treatment courts (DTCs) on the resolution of cases involving foster care children and the resulting effects on school performance. Method: The first analytic step was to assess the impacts of presence of unified and DTCs in North Carolina counties on time children spent in…

  13. Foster Children and Placement Stability: The Role of Child Care Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, Mary Elizabeth; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children who enter the child welfare system at a young age are at risk for a myriad of developmental, physical, and mental health problems. The risks faced by these vulnerable young children may be exacerbated by placement disruptions during foster care. This study utilizes administrative data from Illinois to explore the potential of child care…

  14. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1355 - Foster Care Data Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... behavior manifested during the developmental period that adversely affect a child's/youth's socialization... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL Pt....

  15. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL.... These are specified in Appendix E to this part. (c) Missing data standards. (1) The term “missing data... missing data. All data which are “out of range” (i.e., the response is beyond the parameters allowed...

  16. Using GIS Mapping to Assess Foster Care: A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, Christine M.; Morales, Jocelyn; Vanyukevych, Anastasiya B.; Durand, Emily G.; Schroeder, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become widely used outside of traditional mapping applications, expanding their reach to social service organizations. The purpose of this article is to describe and explore the benefits of GIS mapping in identifying strengths and needs of foster care systems in rural settings through graphically assessing…

  17. 45 CFR 1356.21 - Foster care maintenance payments program implementation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unaccompanied refugee minor as defined in 45 CFR 400.111; or (D) There are international legal obligations or... ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND... reasonable efforts to maintain the family unit and prevent the unnecessary removal of a child from his/her...

  18. 45 CFR 1356.30 - Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive home providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND... against a child or children (including child pornography); or, (4) A crime involving violence,...

  19. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  20. Re-examining Social Work Roles and Tasks with Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Leon C.; McGladdery, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote developmental outcomes with children and young people and to nurture their positive health and well-being in foster care, social workers and case managers are required to direct professional attention toward both the child or young person and her/his daily living environment(s)--at home, at school, and in the local…

  1. Educational Supports for Middle School Youths Involved in the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyre, Ashli D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite our knowledge of poor educational outcomes for youths in foster care, the literature on methods or models for addressing the needs of this vulnerable group of students remains extremely limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to describe a school-based educational support model that provides advocacy, tutoring, and…

  2. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  3. Shared Data Reveal the Invisible Achievement Gap of Students in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    At any given time, tens of thousands of children and youth in the U.S. are in the foster care system. Many have been abused, neglected, or abandoned, and they face a challenging journey of uncertainty, often not knowing where they will live next, where they will go to school, or whether they will have contact with friends and relatives. Child…

  4. Mentoring and Social Skills Training: Ensuring Better Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes…

  5. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems of Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWey, Lenore M.; Cui, Ming; Pazdera, Andrea L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a developmental psychopathology framework, this study aimed to examine changes in externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescents in foster care and to determine whether type of maltreatment, gender, and age influenced trajectories. Authors used 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Growth-curve…

  6. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood: a risk factor for preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Rodriguez, Daniel; Polly Gobin, Asi; Waldemore, Marissa; Magee, Susanna; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood on the risk for preterm birth (PTB), controlling for other known risk factors for PTB. Participants were 302 pregnant women from a low-income, diverse sample drawn from 2 intensive prospective studies of maternal mood and behavior and fetal and infant development. Gestational age was determined by best obstetric estimate. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement prior to age 18 years was determined by maternal report. Other maternal characteristics, including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and health behaviors, were measured during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The odds of delivering preterm (gestational age foster care placement compared with women who were never placed out of the home during childhood. This association remained significant after adjusting for other known risk factors for PTB including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and negative health behaviors in pregnancy. Findings suggest that a history of adoption/foster care placement is an important risk factor for PTB and may be comparable with other established risk factors for PTB including prior history of PTB, body mass index, African-American race, and advanced maternal age. More studies are needed to understand why women with placement histories may be at increased risk to deliver preterm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  8. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  9. Type of Maltreatment as a Predictor of Mental Health Service Use for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ann F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of demographic, behavioral, and mental health service utilization data on 662 children in foster care found that 56% had received mental health services. Children who experienced "active" types of maltreatment (such as sexual abuse) were more likely to receive mental health services even when severity of mental health problems…

  10. The Destruction of Foster Care Files in Quebec: The Co-Opting of the Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Carol Cumming

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the widespread, planned destruction of foster care files in social service centers in Quebec, focusing on the issues for the former clients, for the agencies involved, and for the social work profession. Argues that, for social workers, the destruction of the files represents an abandonment of their professional principles. (MDM)

  11. Mentoring and Social Skills Training: Ensuring Better Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes…

  12. Outcomes of Specialized Foster Care in a Managed Child Welfare Services Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore P.; Leavey, Joseph; Mosley, Peggy R.; White, Andrew W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic

    2004-01-01

    This study (N = 384) presents results from outcome measurement in a services network providing specialized foster care (SFC) to children in child protective service custody. A majority of participants improved on most outcomes. Global improvement was associated with increased length of stay up to two years, five months, and with younger age, fewer…

  13. Girls in foster care: a vulnerable and high-risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, Elizabeth B; Cavanaugh, Deborah J; Burgess, Ann W; Prentky, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of girls in foster care who have exhibited sexually abusive behavior. This was a chart review and a descriptive, exploratory study of 155 female children and adolescents (age 4-17 years) who were in foster care and had been evaluated for their sexual abusive and aggressive behaviors. Findings indicated that these girls had significant histories of maltreatment, chronic health issues, and foster care placement instability; 84% of the girls had been physically abused; 95% were victims of ongoing abuse by the biological parents (78%). Sexual abuse was reported by 81%, and 68% were sexually abused by more than one individual. Ninety-five percent were neglected; 51% of the neglect was classified as severe and chronic. All of the girls (100%) had been shown to exhibit sexually abusive and inappropriate behaviors toward other children, including exposing themselves to age-mates, violation of body space, sexually aggressive remarks, sexual touching without permission, and sexual touching of much younger children. Ninety-two percent of the girls had two or more changes in caregivers by age 16 years. Over one-third of the girls (39.2%) experienced four or more different living situations that lasted less than 1 month. These girls demonstrated a variety of behavior problems that place them at high risk for multiple foster care placements, which can negatively impact upon their well-being and health. Whether in healthcare settings, schools, the workplace, community, in-patient, or psychiatric settings, nurses and other healthcare providers have access to children and their foster care caregivers. Nurses and other healthcare clinicians are in an ideal position to provide a safe clinical environment contributing to the health, education, and support to these girls.

  14. Health outcomes in young adults from foster care and economically diverse backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; Garrison, Michelle M; Courtney, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Foster youth have high rates of health problems in childhood. Little work has been done to determine whether they are similarly vulnerable to increased health problems once they transition to adulthood. We sought to prospectively evaluate the risk of cardiovascular risk factors and other chronic conditions among young adults formerly in foster care (FC) and young adults from economically insecure (EI) and economically secure (ES) backgrounds in the general population. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (FC group; N = 596) and an age-matched sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (EI and ES groups; N = 456 and 1461, respectively). After controlling for covariates, we performed multivariate regressions to evaluate health outcomes and care access by group at 2 time points (baseline at late adolescence, follow-up at 25-26 years). Data revealed a consistent pattern of graduated increase in odds of most health outcomes, progressing from ES to EI to FC groups. Health care access indicators were more variable; the FC group was most likely to report having Medicaid or no insurance but was least likely to report not getting needed care in the past year. Former foster youth appear to have a higher risk of multiple chronic health conditions, beyond that which is associated with economic insecurity. Findings may be relevant to policymakers and practitioners considering the implementation of extended insurance and foster care programs and interventions to reduce health disparities in young adulthood. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care and in outpatient treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihanović, Mate; Restek-Petrović, Branka; Bogović, Anamarija; Ivezić, Ena; Bodor, Davor; Požgain, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The Sveti Ivan Psychiatric Hospital in Zagreb, Croatia, offers foster home care treatment that includes pharmacotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, family therapy, and work and occupational therapy. The aim of this study is to compare the health-related quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care with that of patients in standard outpatient treatment. The sample consisted of 44 patients with schizophrenia who, upon discharge from the hospital, were included in foster home care treatment and a comparative group of 50 patients who returned to their families and continued receiving outpatient treatment. All patients completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire on the day they completed hospital treatment, 6 months later, and 1 year after they participated in the study. The research also included data on the number of hospitalizations for both groups of patients. Though directly upon discharge from the hospital, patients who entered foster home care treatment assessed their health-related quality of life as poorer than patients who returned to their families, their assessments significantly improved over time. After 6 months of treatment, these patients even achieved better results in several dimensions than did patients in the outpatient program, and they also had fewer hospitalizations. These effects remained the same at the follow-up 1 year after the inclusion in the study. Notwithstanding the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that treatment in foster home care is associated with an improvement in the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia, but the same was not observed for the patients in standard outpatient treatment. We hope that these findings will contribute to an improved understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on the functioning of patients and the development of more effective therapeutic methods aimed at improving the patients' quality of life.

  16. Starting with Self: Teaching Autoethnography to Foster Critically Caring Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camangian, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates the application of critical literacy (Freire & Macedo, 1987; Gutierrez, 2008; Morrell, 2007) pedagogies that draw from young people's funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992) to actively nurture personally, authentically, and culturally caring relationships (Howard, 2002; Noddings, 1992;…

  17. Experiences of the foster care process in the Republic of Ireland: retrospective accounts from biological children of foster carers

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, David

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the experiences of the biological children of foster carers. In particular it explores their experiences in relation to inclusion, consultation and decision-making. The study also examines the support and training needs of birth children in foster families. Using a qualitative methodology in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen birth children of foster carers aged between 18 and 30 years. The research findings show that for the majority of birth c...

  18. HPA stability for children in foster care: mental health implications and moderation by early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-09-01

    Research on stress-sensitive biological systems has typically focused on activation at one time, yet recent theories emphasize dynamic, context-specific adaptation. This study tested hypothesized calibration of one such system by examining both mean levels and longitudinal stability of daily cortisol--reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation--in children exposed to high-risk versus lower-risk caregiving contexts. Context-specific effects of longitudinal cortisol profiles were addressed via relations with child psychiatric symptoms. Children from regular foster care, foster children participating in a family-based intervention, and community comparison children (n = 96 total) collected saliva samples for cortisol assay at 29 timepoints across 6+ years. High-risk (regular foster care) children showed lower and more variable cortisol levels than their lower-risk (treatment foster care, community comparison) counterparts. For the high-risk children only, higher and more stable cortisol related to elevated anxiety symptoms. Implications for contextual calibration of stress systems and family intervention mechanisms are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Multidimensional treatment foster care for preschoolers: early findings of an implementation in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonkman Caroline S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC has been shown to be an evidence based alternative to residential rearing and an effective method to improve behavior and attachment of foster children in the US. This preliminary study investigated an application of MTFC for preschoolers (MTFC-P in the Netherlands focusing on behavioral outcomes in course of the intervention. To examine the following hypothesis: “the time in the MTFC-P intervention predicts a decline in problem behavior”, as this is the desired outcome for children assigned to MTFC-P, we assessed the daily occurrence of 38 problem behaviors via telephone interviews. Repeated measures revealed significant reduced problem behavior in course of the program. MTFC-P promises to be a treatment model suitable for high-risk foster children, that is transferable across centres and countries. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: 1747.

  20. Home or foster home care versus institutional long-term care for functionally dependent older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Camilla; Hall, Amanda M; Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Quinn, Terry J; Hooft, Lotty; van Munster, Barbara C; Stott, David J

    2017-04-03

    Changing population demographics have led to an increasing number of functionally dependent older people who require care and medical treatment. In many countries, government policy aims to shift resources into the community from institutional care settings with the expectation that this will reduce costs and improve the quality of care compared. To assess the effects of long-term home or foster home care versus institutional care for functionally dependent older people. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and two trials registers to November 2015. We included randomised and non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies complying with the EPOC study design criteria and comparing the effects of long-term home care versus institutional care for functionally dependent older people. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. We reported the results narratively, as the substantial heterogeneity across studies meant that meta-analysis was not appropriate. We included 10 studies involving 16,377 participants, all of which were conducted in high income countries. Included studies compared community-based care with institutional care (care homes). The sample size ranged from 98 to 11,803 (median N = 204). There was substantial heterogeneity in the healthcare context, interventions studied, and outcomes assessed. One study was a randomised trial (N = 112); other included studies used designs that had potential for bias, particularly due lack of randomisation, baseline imbalances, and non-blinded outcome assessment. Most studies did not select (or exclude) participants for any specific disease state, with the exception of one study that only included patients if they had a stroke. All studies had methodological limitations, so readers should interpret results with caution.It is uncertain

  1. An Intercollegiate Competitive Public Speaking Program: Establishing a Forensic Group to Foster Training in Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Hal

    1982-01-01

    Describes a small but successful intercollegiate competitive public speaking program. Success was related to formation of good student-teacher relationships, a productive organizational psycho-environment, and careful teaching of public speaking fundamentals. (Author/RC)

  2. An Intercollegiate Competitive Public Speaking Program: Establishing a Forensic Group to Foster Training in Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Hal

    1982-01-01

    Describes a small but successful intercollegiate competitive public speaking program. Success was related to formation of good student-teacher relationships, a productive organizational psycho-environment, and careful teaching of public speaking fundamentals. (Author/RC)

  3. Mental health and associated risk factors of Dutch school aged foster children placed in long-term foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    More than 20,000 children in the Netherlands live in foster families. The majority are in long-term foster family placements, which are intended to provide a stable rearing environment until the children reach adulthood. International studies have shown, however, that compared to children in the

  4. 'She was a foster mother who said she didn't give cuddles': The adverse early foster care experiences of children who later struggle with adoptive family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakings, Sarah; Selwyn, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Foster care remains a valuable and safe intervention for many children unable to live with their birth family. When birth family reunification is not considered possible, a small proportion of children in foster care will go on to achieve permanency by way of adoption. This article reports on some unexpected findings to emerge from two national adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. Focussing on a subset of families who had experienced or were at risk of an adoption disruption, the findings revealed that not only did children carry elevated risks for disruption due to their older age at entry to care, multiple foster care placements and traumatic early histories, but once in care, many of the children whose placements had disrupted were considered by their adoptive parents to have had very poor, even harmful fostering experiences before being placed for adoption. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, together with the implications for social work practice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The formation of secure new attachments by children who were maltreated: an observational study of adolescents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Michelle A; O'Connor, Thomas G; Briskman, Jacqueline A; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Children who were maltreated and enter foster care are at risk for maladjustment and relationship disturbances with foster carers. A popular hypothesis is that prior attachment relationships with abusive birth parents are internalized and carried forward to impair the child's subsequent attachment relationships. However, the empirical base for this model is limited, especially in adolescence. We examined the attachment patterns of 62 adolescents with their birth parents and their foster parents; we compared them to a comparison sample of 50 adolescents in normal-risk families. Attachment was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview; adolescent-parent interaction quality was assessed from direct observation; disruptive behavior symptoms were assessed from multiple informants. Whereas nearly all of the adolescents in foster families exhibited insecure attachments to their birth mothers (90%) and birth fathers (100%), nearly one-half were classified as having a secure attachment with their foster mother (46%) and father (49%); rates of secure attachment toward foster parents did not differ significantly from the rate in comparison families. Within the foster care sample, attachment security to the foster mother was predicted from current observed relationship quality and the duration of current placement. In addition, attachment quality in foster adolescents was associated with fewer disruptive behavior symptoms, and this association was equally strong in foster and comparison families. Our findings demonstrate that there is substantial potential for maltreated children to change and develop subsequent secure attachments in adolescence.

  6. Kinship foster care among African American youth: Interaction effects at multiple contextual levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufa, Anne K.; Fowler, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of kinship foster care on mental health outcomes among African American youth. Longitudinal data were used from a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents who were the subject of child protective services investigation from 1999 to 2000 (n=5,501). The secondary analyses focused on African American youth (n=225) placed into foster care. In structured interviews, current caregivers reported on youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors immediately following placement into out-of-home care and 18-months later. Path analysis tested a theoretical model that compared placements with kin to other formal out-of-home arrangements in context of setting characteristics, including aspects of caregiver and neighborhood disorder. Results suggested significant increases in internalizing symptoms over time for youth with more baseline mental health problems, as well as those placed in more distressed neighborhoods. Increased externalizing symptoms occurred among youth with greater baseline behavior problems, those placed in more problematic neighborhoods, and youth who experienced a placement change between assessments. Additionally, a combination of placement characteristics predicted increases in externalizing problems; youth placed in kinship foster care with older caregivers in poorer health exhibited greater increases in externalizing problems. Findings highlighted important contextual considerations for out-of-home placement among African American youth. PMID:26924865

  7. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries...... in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid...... of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?...

  8. The quality of food, clothing and shelter provided to orphaned children under foster care in Kibera slums in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Mary A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the quality of foster care with regard to the provision of food, clothing and shelter to orphaned children under foster care. Kibera Division in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 82 respondents were obtained using the Snowball Sampling Technique. Focus Group Discussions were conducted with 37-orphaned children who were studied in 4 separate groups of males and females. Eighteen (18) Key Informants were interviewed. A questionnaire was used to collect Quantitative data from foster care providers. Qualitative data was obtained by using Focus Group Discussion Guides and Key Informant Interview Guides. Nearly 49% of the foster care providers rated food quality as fair while 29.3% of them reported poor quality. The majority of the orphaned children had only one meal per day while others did not get any food at home. Over 73% of the foster care providers reported that the children's clothing was inadequate. About 90% of the foster care providers lacked adequate shelter. The number of people sharing the same shelter had a Mean of 6, = 2 Standard Deviation. Overcrowding explains episodes of pneumonia and 83% cases of coughs and colds among the orphaned children. Over 56% of the foster care providers live below the poverty line. Nearly 10% of the respondents provided foster care to at least 5 orphaned children. The Mean number of orphaned children was 2.2 per household in 2005, an increase from 1.9 in 2004, with a Median of 3, +/- 1.3 Standard Deviation. The quality of foster care is poor and the quantity is inadequate. There is evidence that families are struggling to provide adequate and good quality of food, clothing and shelter to orphaned children, exposing them to the risk of malnutrition, low self-esteem and respiratory tract infections.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Transitions from Foster Care Key Leader Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M; Brown, Eric C; Monahan, Kathryn C; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-04-01

    This study summarizes the development and piloting of the Transitions from Foster Care Key Leader Survey (TFC-KLS), an instrument designed to measure change in systems serving young people transitioning from foster care to adulthood. The Jim Casey Youth Opportunity Initiative's logic model was used as a basis for instrument development. The instrument was piloted with 119 key leaders in six communities. Seven of eight latent scales performed well in psychometric testing. The relationships among the 24 measures of system change were explored. A CFA testing overall model fit was satisfactory following slight modifications. Finally, a test of inter-rater reliability between two raters did not find reliable reporting of service availability in a supplemental portion of the survey. The findings were generally positive and supported the validity and utility of the instrument for measuring system change, following some adaptations. Implications for the field are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extending Foster Care to Age 21: Weighing the Costs to Government against the Benefits to Youth. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Clark M.; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.; Pollack, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 allows states to claim federal reimbursement for the costs of caring for and supervising Title IV-E eligible foster youth until their 21st birthday. This issue brief provides preliminary estimates of what the potential costs to government and the benefits to young people…

  11. Adversity and Adjustment in Children in Institutions, Family Foster Care, and Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morago, Jesús M; León, Esperanza; Román, Maite

    2015-06-22

    This study's objective was to identify the adversity profiles of children in different childcare placements, and to analyze their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment. We studied a group of 230 children 4 to 10 years old indifferent childcare placements (international adoption, institutional care, non-kin foster care, and kinship care), as well as a control group. Information was collected from parent or caregiver interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that children in the child welfare system had experienced significant adversity before their current placement, especially among institutional care cases and international adoptees. Meanwhile, children in kinship care had experienced less adversity (p .50 to d > .80). After a period of time in their respective placements, children's psychological adjustment was generally positive, but children living in institutional care exhibited the most problems and difficulties, followed by non-kin foster care cases (p .50 to d > .80). Finally, we found that children's early adversity levels (p < .05; r = .16), age of current placement (p < .01; r = .23), and duration of current placement (p < .05: r = -.19) were all tied to current psychological adjustment.

  12. Pre-placement risk and longitudinal cognitive development for children adopted from foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Jill M; Nadeem, Erum; Paczkowski, Emilie; Foster, Jared Cory; Lavner, Justin A; Belin, Thomas; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the trajectory of cognitive development over the first five years of adoptive placement among children adopted from foster care and how pre-adoption risk factors relate to this development. Overall, children's cognitive scores increased significantly, with the most rapid improvement occurring in the first year post-placement. By five years post-placement, children's mean cognitive and achievement scores were in the average range. Adoption is a positive intervention for children's cognitive development.

  13. Quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care and in outpatient treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihanović M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mate Mihanović,1,2 Branka Restek-Petrović,1,2 Anamarija Bogović,1 Ena Ivezić,1 Davor Bodor,1 Ivan Požgain3 1Psychiatric Hospital “Sveti Ivan”, Zagreb, 2Faculty of Medicine Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center Osijek, Osijek, Croatia Background: The Sveti Ivan Psychiatric Hospital in Zagreb, Croatia, offers foster home care treatment that includes pharmacotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, family therapy, and work and occupational therapy. The aim of this study is to compare the health-related quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care with that of patients in standard outpatient treatment. Methods: The sample consisted of 44 patients with schizophrenia who, upon discharge from the hospital, were included in foster home care treatment and a comparative group of 50 patients who returned to their families and continued receiving outpatient treatment. All patients completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire on the day they completed hospital treatment, 6 months later, and 1 year after they participated in the study. The research also included data on the number of hospitalizations for both groups of patients. Results: Though directly upon discharge from the hospital, patients who entered foster home care treatment assessed their health-related quality of life as poorer than patients who returned to their families, their assessments significantly improved over time. After 6 months of treatment, these patients even achieved better results in several dimensions than did patients in the outpatient program, and they also had fewer hospitalizations. These effects remained the same at the follow-up 1 year after the inclusion in the study. Conclusion: Notwithstanding the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that treatment in foster home care is associated with an improvement in the quality of life of patients

  14. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This article uses administrative data on all Danish municipalities (N = 277) and a 10% randomly drawn sample of all Danish children (N = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children's acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  15. The prevalence of child sexual abuse in out-of-home care: a comparison between abuse in residential and in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tharner, Anne; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the 2010 year prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in residential and foster care and compared it with prevalence rates in the general population. We used two approaches to estimate the prevalence of CSA. First, 264 professionals working in residential or foster care (sentinels) reported CSA for the children they worked with (N = 6,281). Second, 329 adolescents staying in residential or foster care reported on their own experiences with CSA. Sentinels and adolescents were randomly selected from 82 Dutch out-of-home care facilities. We found that 3.5 per 1,000 children had been victims of CSA based on sentinel reports. In addition, 58 per 1,000 adolescents reported having experienced CSA. Results based on both sentinel report and self-report revealed higher prevalence rates in out-of-home care than in the general population, with the highest prevalence in residential care. Prevalence rates in foster care did not differ from the general population. According to our findings, children and adolescents in residential care are at increased risk of CSA compared to children in foster care. Unfortunately, foster care does not fully protect children against sexual abuse either, and thus its quality needs to be further improved.

  16. Fostering person-centered care among nursing students: creative pedagogical approaches to developing personal knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jasna K; Beanlands, Heather; Lapum, Jennifer; Romaniuk, Daria; Fredericks, Suzanne; LeGrow, Karen; Edwards, Susanna; McCay, Elizabeth; Crosby, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    Person-centered care (PCC) is grounded in principles of respect, autonomy, and empowerment and requires the development of interpersonal relationships. For nursing students to engage in PCC, they need to intentionally develop personal knowing, which is an essential attribute of therapeutic relationships. Developing personal knowing, as well as professional knowledge, positions students to enact PCC in their practice. Faculty members play a vital role in fostering the development of personal knowing by creating opportunities for students in which genuine and respectful dialogue, reflection, self-awareness, and critical thinking can take place. This article explores several creative approaches faculty have used to actualize these qualities in their teaching-learning encounters with nursing students at various stages of their students' professional development. These approaches offer experiential teaching-learning opportunities that foster the development of personal knowing, as well as constructive and respectful relationships between faculty and students, therefore laying the groundwork for PCC in practice settings.

  17. Joint editorial - Fostering innovation and improving impact assessment for journal publications in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Blöschl, Günter; Bárdossy, András; Cudennec, Christophe; Hughes, Denis; Montanari, Alberto; Neuweiler, Insa; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Editors from several journals in the field of hydrology met during the Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences-IAHS (within the Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics-IUGG) in Prague in June 2015. This event was a follow-up of a similar meeting in July 2013 in Gothenburg (as reported by Blöschl et al. (2014)). In these meetings the group of editors reviewed the current status of the journals and the publication process, and shared thoughts on future strategies. Journals were represented in the meeting through their editors, as shown in the list of authors. The main points on fostering innovation and improving impact assessment in journal publications in hydrology are communicated in this joint editorial published in journals that participated in the meeting.

  18. Joint editorial: Fostering innovation and improving impact assessment for journal publications in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Blöschl, Günter; Bárdossy, András.; Cudennec, Christophe; Hughes, Denis; Montanari, Alberto; Neuweiler, Insa; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Editors of several journals in the field of hydrology met during the Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences—IAHS (within the Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics—IUGG) in Prague in June 2015. This event was a follow-up of a similar meeting held in July 2013 in Gothenburg (as reported by Blöschl et al. [2014]). These meetings enable the group of editors to review the current status of the journals and the publication process, and share thoughts on future strategies. Journals were represented in the 2015 meeting through their editors, as shown in the list of authors. The main points on fostering innovation and improving impact assessment in journal publications in hydrology are communicated in this joint editorial published in the above journals.

  19. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  20. Foster Care and Its Transformation in Slovakia – Proclamation and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albín Škoviera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the process of transforming residential institutional care and foster family care in the Slovak Republic at three levels. It is a socio-political context that led firstly to the fact that "education" and "health" orphanages passed into the social sector, secondly, the continuity of the changes was disrupted. They rejected any experience from the previous period and gradually liquidated almost everything that was associated with education. On the second level the author states selected "transformation" proclamation expectations, but also some practical steps associated with the transformation campaign. On the third level the author reflects some current technical problems of substitute care arising from 'political' awarding, poor quality and lack of respect for psychological and pedagogical knowledge.

  1. Foster care placement change: The role of family dynamics and household composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Jeffrey; Kothari, Brianne H; Bank, Lew; McBeath, Bowen

    2016-09-01

    Sibling co-placement and kinship care have each been shown to protect against the occurrence of placement change for youth in substitute care. However, little is known about the effects of different combinations of sibling placement and relative caregiver status on placement change. Nor does the field fully understand how family dynamics may differ in these households. Utilizing data from the Supporting Siblings in Foster Care study, this paper examines family dynamics across four typologies of living composition, and tests the effects of living composition membership on the odds of experiencing a placement change over an 18-month period of time. Findings suggest that across living composition typologies, children who were placed separately from their siblings in non-relative care were more likely to be older, have more extensive placement histories, and experience more placement changes both prior to and during the study than were children in other living composition groups. Family living composition was found to influence the occurrence of placement change. Specifically, children co-placed in kinship care were least likely to experience movement; however, sibling co-placement in non-relative care was also protective. Results reveal the need to conduct additional research into the experiences of children in different family living arrangements, and tailor case management services and supports to children in substitute care accordingly. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  2. Caregivers, school liaisons, and agency advocates speak out about the educational needs of children and youths in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetlin, Andrea; Weinberg, Lois; Shea, Nancy M

    2010-07-01

    Children in foster care comprise a population of students at great risk for school failure. The child welfare agency, schools, and home must all work together to provide the services and supports required to achieve better results. The purpose of this study was to conduct focus groups with participants from each sector to discuss their views on the educational problems and needs of students in foster care and their recommendations for what is needed to improve the academic prospects of foster students. The article provides details of the distinct themes identified by caregivers, school liaisons, and agency advocates and reveals how each group-while recognizing that foster students face substantial school problems-operates independent of each other and lacks a shared view on what is needed. The article concludes with recommendations for designing a model program that involves all the sectors and provides an arena for strategically addressing barriers to school success.

  3. Intervening to Improve Outcomes for Siblings in Foster Care: Conceptual, Substantive, and Methodological Dimensions of a Prevention Science Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H.; Blakeslee, Jennifer; Lamson-Siu, Emilie; Bank, Lew; Linares, L. Oriana; Waid, Jeffrey; Sorenson, Paul; Jimenez, Jessica; Pearson, Eva; Shlonsky, Aron

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the child welfare field has devoted significant attention to siblings in foster care. Policymakers and practitioners have supported efforts to connect siblings via shared foster placements and visitation while researchers have focused on illuminating the empirical foundations of sibling placement and sibling intervention in child welfare. The current paper synthesizes literature on sibling relationship development and sibling issues in child welfare in the service of presenting a typology of sibling-focused interventions for use with foster youth. The paper provides two examples of current intervention research studies focused on enhancing sibling developmental processes and understanding their connection to child welfare outcomes. The paper concludes by presenting an emerging agenda informing policy, practice, and research on siblings in foster care. PMID:24634558

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and psychosocial well-being of women who were in foster care as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskas, Delilah; Tessin, Dale H

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that many children in foster care later have psychosocial problems as adults; this is often attributed to cumulative adversities and a lack of supportive caregivers. The risk factors associated with foster care, such as maternal separation and multiple placements, often counteract many protective factors that can ameliorate the effects of childhood adversities. This study assessed the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychosocial well-being in women who were in foster care as children. A total of 101 women aged 18-71 years (mean, 36.83 [12.95] years) completed an anonymous online survey based on the 10-item ACE Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. More than 56% of respondents were identified as experiencing current psychological distress. Sense of coherence scores (mean, 54.26 [15.35]) showed a significant inverse association with both General Health Questionnaire (mean, 14.83 [5.88]) and ACE (mean, 5.68 [2.90]) scores (r = -0.64 and -0.31, respectively) and 97% reported at least 1 ACE, 70% reported ≥ 5 and 33% reported ≥ 8. Linear regressions indicated that ACEs reported to occur before foster care were associated with lower levels of sense of coherence (8%) and higher levels of psychological distress (6%). Physical neglect and living in a dysfunctional household (parental loss, maternal abuse, or household member associated with substance abuse or prison) significantly decreased during foster care by 16 and 19 percentage points, respectively. Rates of emotional and physical abuse did not change. The number of ACEs was associated with the level of psychological distress. Our findings suggest that children entering the foster care system are already vulnerable and at risk of experiencing ACEs during foster care and psychological distress during adulthood. Measures implemented to protect children must not cause more harm than good. Social services that preserve

  5. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: An Alternative to Residential Treatment for High Risk Children and Adolescents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC), an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960’s and 70’s. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC.

  7. The impact of fostering a child on biological children of foster parents

    OpenAIRE

    Večeřová, Štěpánka

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the impact of foster care on biological children of foster parents from the perspective of foster parents, biological children of foster parents and experts in their work with the issue of foster care encounter. Aim of this work is to propose options for social work with biological children of applicants for foster care in the way they are not negatively affected. Key words: foster care, biological children of foster parents, accompanying foster families, preparin...

  8. Common needs but divergent interventions for U.S. homeless and foster care children: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Zerger, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    Many children living in homeless situations in the U.S. have temporary stays in foster care, and both populations suffer disproportionately higher rates of physical, psychological and social difficulties compared with other children. However, very little is known about which specific interventions achieve the best outcomes for children in these overlapping transitional living situations. To address this gap, we review existing literature to identify the most promising practices for children living in transition. A standardised vocabulary specific to each of three electronic databases (i.e. Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHL) was employed to identify studies that described an intervention specifically targeting foster care or homeless children and families. Separate systematic searches were conducted for homeless and foster children, and only studies published in English between January 1993 and February 2009 were selected. The final sample (n = 43) of articles described interventions that fell into two categories: mental health (n = 17) and case management (n = 26). No article included a sample containing both homeless and foster care children, and most studies on homeless children used case management interventions while most studies on foster care children focused on mental health interventions. Few articles employed rigorous study designs. Although repeatedly studies have demonstrated the overlap between populations of homeless and foster care children, studies focused on one population or the other. Virtually all studies on both homeless and foster children devised interventions to reduce trauma and family instability; yet, no evidence-based practice addresses the overlapping needs and potentially relevant evidence-based practice for these two populations. An important and vital next step is to establish an effective evidence-based intervention that reduces the impact of trauma on both U.S. populations of children living in transition. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing

  9. History of foster care among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia: a precursor to trajectories of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2015-02-26

    It is well documented that a disproportionate number of homeless adults have childhood histories of foster care placement(s). This study examines the relationship between foster care placement as a predictor of adult substance use disorders (including frequency, severity and type), mental illness, vocational functioning, service use and duration of homelessness among a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. We hypothesize that a history of foster care predicts earlier, more severe and more frequent substance use, multiple mental disorder diagnoses, discontinuous work history, and longer durations of homelessness. This study was conducted using baseline data from two randomized controlled trials in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who responded to a series of questions pertaining to out-of-home care at 12 months follow-up (n = 442). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; vocational functioning; and service use. In multivariable regression models, a history of foster care placement independently predicted incomplete high school, duration of homelessness, discontinuous work history, less severe types of mental illness, multiple mental disorders, early initiation of drug and/or alcohol use, and daily drug use. This is the first Canadian study to investigate the relationship between a history of foster care and current substance use among homeless adults with mental illness, controlling for several other potential confounding factors. It is important to screen homeless youth who exit foster care for substance use, and to provide integrated treatment for concurrent disorders to homeless youth and adults who have both psychiatric and substance use problems. Both trials are registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and were assigned ISRCTN57595077 (Vancouver At Home Study: Housing First plus

  10. Explaining variations in state foster care maintenance rates and the implications for implementing new evidence-based programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Babiarz, Kimberly S.; Garfield, Rachel L.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Background U.S. Child Welfare systems are involved in the lives of millions of children, and total spending exceeds $26 billion annually. Out-of-home foster care is a critical and expensive Child Welfare service, a major component of which is the maintenance rate paid to support housing and caring for a foster child. Maintenance rates vary widely across states and over time, but reasons for this variation are not well understood. As evidence-based programs are disseminated to state Child Welfare systems, it is important to understand what may be the important drivers in the uptake of these practices including state spending on core system areas. Data and methods We assembled a unique, longitudinal, state-level panel dataset (1990–2008) for all 50 states with annual data on foster care maintenance rates and measures of child population in need, poverty, employment, urbanicity, proportion minority, political party control of the state legislature and governorship, federal funding, and lawsuits involving state foster care systems. All monetary values were expressed in per-capita terms and inflation adjusted to 2008 dollars. We used longitudinal panel regressions with robust standard errors and state and year fixed effects to estimate the relationship between state foster care maintenance rates and the other factors in our dataset, lagging all factors by one year to mitigate the possibility that maintenance rates influenced their predictors. Exploratory analyses related maintenance rates to Child Welfare outcomes. Findings State foster care maintenance rates have increased in nominal terms, but in many states, have not kept pace with inflation, leading to lower real rates in 2008 compared to those in 1991 for 54% of states for 2 year-olds, 58% for 9 year-olds, and 65% for 16 year-olds. In multivariate analyses including socioeconomic, demographic, and political factors, monthly foster care maintenance rates declined $15 for each 1% increase in state unemployment and

  11. Caring for Foster Children in the South. Why They Did Not Have Even One Person to Care for Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Piver, Patricia S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to seek suggestions from foster parents' as to how teachers could help foster children and their parents. Questionnaires including twelve questions were distributed to one hundred fifty foster parents through South Carolina by the Foster Parents Association and South Carolina Social Services. Only twenty were…

  12. Impact of a Supportive Housing Program on Housing Stability and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Adults in New York City Who Were Aging Out of Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Singh, Tejinder P; Gwynn, R Charon

    2017-08-01

    Former foster youth are at increased risk of housing instability and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during the transitional period following foster care. We measured housing stability using sequence analysis and assessed whether a supportive housing program in New York, New York, was effective in improving housing stability and reducing STIs among former foster youth. Matched administrative records identified 895 former foster youth who were eligible for the housing program during 2007-2010. The main outcomes included housing stability (as determined from episodes of homelessness, incarceration, hospitalization, and residence in supportive housing) and diagnosed STI case rates per 1,000 person-years during the 2 years after baseline. Marginal structural models were used to assess impacts of the program on these outcomes. Three housing stability patterns (unstable housing, stable housing, and rare institutional dwelling patterns) were identified. The housing program was positively associated with a pattern of stable housing (odds ratio = 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.9, 6.8), and negatively associated with diagnosed STI rates (relative risk = 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 0.7). These positive impacts on housing stability and STIs highlight the importance of the supportive housing program for youths aging out of foster care and the need for such programs to continue. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Practitioner Review: Children in foster care – vulnerabilities and evidence-based interventions that promote resilience processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of children are placed in foster care g(i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral, neurobiological, and social realms. Methods Areas of risk and vulnerability among foster children are described, including emotional and behavioral deficits, impaired neurobiological development, and social relationship deficits. Evidence suggesting the significance of family placement changes and prenatal exposure to substances as contributing mechanisms is presented. Based on a systematic search of the PsycINFO database (to March 2012), eight efficacious evidence-based interventions for foster families are summarized. Findings Although the development of evidence-based interventions that improve outcomes for foster children has lagged behind the delivery of interventions in other service sectors (e.g., mental health and educational sectors), several interventions across childhood and adolescence offer promise. Service system constraints offer both challenges and opportunities for more routine implementation of evidence-based interventions. Conclusions Given the increased likelihood of poor outcomes for foster children, increased efforts to understand the pathways to vulnerability and to implement interventions shown to be effective in remediating risks and improving outcomes for this population are indicated. Evaluation of efficacious interventions in countries outside of the USA is also needed. PMID:22882015

  14. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Reproductive behavior following evacuation to foster care duringWorld War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Santavirta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family disruption and separation form parents during childhood may have long-lasting effects on the child. Previous literature documents associations between separation from parents and cognitive ability, educational attainment, and health, but little is known about effects on subsequent reproductive behavior. Objective: We evaluate the associations between unaccompanied evacuation to foster care and subsequent marriage and fertility behavior by comparing Finnish children who were evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II to their non-evacuated siblings. Methods: In total, some 49,000 children were evacuated for a period ranging from months to years. We analyze a nationally representative sample of 2,009 evacuees born in 1933-1944 by combining data collected from war time government records with 1950 and 1971 censuses and 1971-2011 population registers. Results: Comparison of evacuated and nonevacuated same-sex siblings suggests no associations between evacuation and the probability of ever marrying, timing of first birth, and completed family size, although some associations are found in na¨ıve means comparisons. This difference in results across models is suggestive of negative selection of evacuee families. Conclusions: We do not find consistent evidence of any causal effect of family disruption on family formation and reproductive behavior. The results are sensitive to controlling for unobserved selection and suggest that some of the adverse outcomes documented in earlier literature could change if selection was accounted for.

  16. Fostering innovation in medicine and health care: what must academic health centers do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzau, Victor J; Yoediono, Ziggy; Ellaissi, William F; Cho, Alex H

    2013-10-01

    There is a real need for innovation in health care delivery, as well as in medicine, to address related challenges of access, quality, and affordability through new and creative approaches. Health care environments must foster innovation, not just allowing it but actively encouraging it to happen anywhere and at every level in health care and medicine-from the laboratory, to the operating room, bedside, and clinics. This paper reviews the essential elements and environmental factors important for health-related innovation to flourish in academic health systems.The authors maintain that innovation must be actively cultivated by teaching it, creating "space" for and supporting it, and providing opportunities for its implementation. The authors seek to show the importance of these three fundamental principles and how they can be implemented, highlighting examples from across the country and their own institution.Health innovation cannot be relegated to a second-class status by the urgency of day-to-day operations, patient care, and the requirements of traditional research. Innovation needs to be elevated to a committed endeavor and become a part of an organization's culture, particularly in academic health centers.

  17. Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-09-01

    This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Placement into foster care and the interplay of urbanicity, child behavior problems, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P; Wildfire, Judy; Green, Rebecca L

    2006-07-01

    Child welfare involvement is related to involvement with poverty, but the dimensions of that relationship have not been fully explored. Data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being were used to test the relationship between poverty indicators and placement into foster care. Poverty, ages of children, urban or nonurban settings, and the presence of mental health disorders interact to contribute to placement decisions. In urban areas, poverty is strongly associated with involvement with child welfare services, but children's mental health problems are not. In nonurban areas, children's mental health problems are a far greater contributor to child welfare involvement than poverty. Implications for understanding the dual functions of child welfare placements are provided. Child welfare services continue to address the needs of families with children with substantial behavioral problems--yet, federal child welfare policy includes no recognition of this important role.

  19. Demographic and placement variables associated with overweight and obesity in children in long-term foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Smith, Caitlin; Duan, Lei; Fuentes, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    Overweight and obesity is a growing problem for children in foster care. This study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in an urban, ethnic minority population of children ages 2-19 in long-term foster care (N = 312) in Los Angeles, California. It also investigates whether demographics or placement settings are related to high body mass index. The estimates of prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) were presented for gender, age, ethnicity, and placement type. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine potential associations between demographic and placement variables and weight status. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was almost 40 % and obesity was 23 % for the study population. Children placed in a group home had the highest prevalence of overweight/obesity (60 %) and obesity (43 %) compared to other types of placement. Within this study, older children (ages 12-19) were more likely to be overweight/obese than normal weight compared to children between 2 and 5 years old when controlling for gender, ethnicity and placement (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.14-3.87). These findings suggest that older age and long-term foster care in general may be risk factors for obesity. Child welfare agencies and health care providers need to work together to train caregivers with children in long-term foster care in obesity treatment interventions and obesity prevention strategies.

  20. High-Quality Foster Care Mitigates Callous-Unemotional Traits Following Early Deprivation in Boys: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; McGoron, Lucy; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-12-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in childhood are a developmental precursor to psychopathy, yet the origins and etiology of CU traits are not known. We examined CU traits among 12-year-old children exposed to severe early deprivation and evaluated whether a high-quality foster care intervention mitigated the development of high levels of CU traits. Participants were from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for children in institutions. Children were recruited from institutions in Bucharest, Romania, along with age- and sex-matched children who were never institutionalized. Children raised in institutional settings were randomized (mean age = 22 months) to either a foster care group (n = 68) or a care-as-usual group (n = 68). CU traits were assessed at age 12.75 years in available participants from the randomized trial (n = 95) and children who were never institutionalized (n = 50). Children who experienced institutional rearing as young children had significantly higher levels of CU traits in early adolescence compared to children who were never institutionalized. Intent-to-treat analysis indicated that, among boys, CU traits were significantly lower among those who received the foster care intervention compared to those randomized to care as usual. Caregiver responsiveness to distress, but not caregiver warmth, mediated the intervention effect on CU traits in boys. These findings provide the first evidence to date that psychosocial intervention can prevent the onset of CU traits. Although severe early deprivation predicted higher levels of CU traits, high-quality foster care that emphasized responsive caregiving reduced the impact of deprivation on CU trait development for boys. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00747396. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pregnancy Rates Among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two RCTs of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. The present study examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (ages 13–17) with histories of criminal referrals (Mdn = 10) were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as part of two randomized controlled trials. Pregnancy histories were assessed from baseline through 24 months. Fewer postbaseline pregnancies were reported for MTFC girls (26.9%) than for GC girls (46.9%), an effect that remained significant after controlling for baseline criminal referrals, pregnancy history, and sexual activity. MTFC has previously been shown to decrease arrest and lock-up rates. The present findings support the long-term preventive effects of MTFC on adolescent girls’ pregnancy rates. Findings are consistent with the notion that programs that target delinquency by impacting general risk behavior pathways and contexts may more successfully prevent teen pregnancy than those that directly target sexual behaviors. PMID:19485598

  2. Foster Care: State Practices for Assessing Health Needs, Facilitating Service Delivery, and Monitoring Children's Care. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Income Security and Family Support, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. GAO-09-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kay; Bascetta, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Providing health care services for foster children, who frequently have significant health care needs, can be challenging. The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) oversees foster care, but state child welfare agencies are responsible for ensuring that these children receive health care services, which are often financed by Medicaid. In…

  3. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Preparing for a "Next Generation" Evaluation of Independent Living Programs for Youth in Foster Care: Project Overview. OPRE Report No. 2014-71

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Marla; Courtney, Mark E.; Pergamit, Michael R.; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care and into adulthood need multiple supports to navigate the challenges they face. Over the past three decades, federal child welfare policy has significantly increased the availability of those supports. In 1999, the Chafee Foster Care Independence Program was created, increasing the amount of funds potentially…

  5. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 2: Financial Literacy and Asset Building Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-69

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Sara; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This issue brief is one of three that focus on programs providing services to youth transitioning out of foster care in three common service domains: education, employment, and financial literacy and asset building. This brief highlights why financial literacy and asset building services are important to youth currently or formerly in foster care,…

  6. Individual-Level Predictors of Nonparticipation and Dropout in a Life-Skills HIV Prevention Program for Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.; Alonzo, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify individual-level characteristics of foster care adolescents who are more likely to not participate in, and drop out of, a life-skills HIV prevention program delivered over 8 months. Structured interviews were conducted with 320 foster care adolescents (15-18 years). Logistic regression and survival analyses…

  7. Mental Health Issues and the Foster Care System: An Examination of the Impact of the Adoption and Safe Families Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWey, Lenore M.; Henderson, Tammy L.; Tice, Susan N.

    2006-01-01

    Although marriage and family therapists are being called on to help at-risk families, some say that clinicians have insufficient knowledge about the impact of policies on families involved in the foster care system. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to identify how the Adoption and Safe Families Act informs decision making, to…

  8. Trajectories of Behavioral Adjustment Following Early Placement in Foster Care: Predicting Stability and Change over 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J.; Skriner, Laura C.; Roesch, Scott; Litrownik, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify trajectories of behavioral adjustment from age 6 through 14 years for youth placed in early foster care, and to examine links between trajectories and early cognitive ability and social competence, caregiver stability, and frequency, timing, and type of maltreatment. Method: Participants were 279 youth from the Southwest…

  9. In-Home Treatment of Reactive Attachment Disorder in a Therapeutic Foster Care System: A Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheperis, Carl J.; Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; Doggett, R. Anthony

    2003-01-01

    When trauma precedes a child's placement in the foster care system, it can lead to lasting mental health difficulties. Often, children who experience extreme, chronic trauma prior to age 5 develop Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). This article discusses the characteristics of RAD as well as diagnostic criteria and possible etiology. (Contains 26…

  10. Caregivers, School Liaisons, and Agency Advocates Speak Out about the Educational Needs of Children and Youths in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetlin, Andrea; Weinberg, Lois; Shea, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Children in foster care comprise a population of students at great risk for school failure. The child welfare agency, schools, and home must all work together to provide the services and supports required to achieve better results. The purpose of this study was to conduct focus groups with participants from each sector to discuss their views on…

  11. Diagnosis and Medication Overload? A Nurse Review of the Psychiatric Histories of Older Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Bertram, Julie; McMillen, J. Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has raised concern about the appropriateness of psychotropic medication use and the validity of psychiatric diagnosing for youth in child welfare but has lacked in-depth case information. This study reports results from a psychiatric nurse review conducted with eight youth entering a foster care intervention using case records and…

  12. 45 CFR 302.52 - Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interests of the child including: (i) Setting aside amounts for the child's future needs; or (ii) Making all... of children for whom the State is making foster care maintenance payments under the title IV-E State... support obligation for future months, the amount shall be applied to those future months. However,...

  13. Overcoming Social Disconnection and Its Consequences for Transition into Adulthood: Case Studies of Adults Who Exited Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglianetti, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Devastating life experiences continually plague many foster care youth throughout their entire lives on social, emotional, educational, psychological, and physical levels. Oftentimes, the cumulative effect of these events results in large numbers of individuals dropping out of school and becoming increasingly disconnected from people and many…

  14. Building Resilience in Students at the Intersection of Special Education and Foster Care: Challenges, Strategies, and Resources for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Parker; Folkman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform educators (general educators, special educators, teacher educators, and administrators) about ways to teach, advocate for, and empower students with disabilities who are also engaged in the foster care system. The conclusion includes authors' suggestions for how teacher educators might incorporate the…

  15. After Foster Care and Juvenile Justice: A Preview of the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Ravett, Sara; Jacobs, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Young people who are leaving the foster care and juvenile justice systems often experience a difficult transition to adulthood that is characterized by a number of troubling outcomes, including poverty, low levels of education and employment, and housing instability. While some services are available for these populations, there is little evidence…

  16. Meaning-Making Dynamics of Emancipated Foster Care Youth Transitioning into Higher Education: A Constructivist-Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Jacob O.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored college transition meaning-making dynamics of emancipated foster care youth and the role campus environments play in that process. It adds to the college student development theoretical base by acknowledging the needs, goals, and values of disenfranchised college students transitioning into higher education. Emancipated foster…

  17. Trajectories of Behavioral Adjustment Following Early Placement in Foster Care: Predicting Stability and Change over 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J.; Skriner, Laura C.; Roesch, Scott; Litrownik, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify trajectories of behavioral adjustment from age 6 through 14 years for youth placed in early foster care, and to examine links between trajectories and early cognitive ability and social competence, caregiver stability, and frequency, timing, and type of maltreatment. Method: Participants were 279 youth from the Southwest…

  18. The Association between Foster Care and Substance Abuse Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes: An Exploratory Secondary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Wendy Whiting; Shields, Joseph; Verdieck, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    The child welfare and substance abuse systems are integrally linked through the children and families they both serve. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, on how children who have experienced foster care fare when they are treated for substance abuse issues as adults. This article presents an exploratory study using the Alcohol and Drug…

  19. Attachment Security as a Mechanism Linking Foster Care Placement to Improved Mental Health Outcomes in Previously Institutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously…

  20. Foster Parents Speak: Preferred Characteristics of Foster Children and Experiences in the Role of Foster Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwald, Mitchell; Bronstein, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Foster parents play a pivotal role in the child welfare system. A study that employed focus groups with foster parents was conducted at a private foster care agency with the initial purpose of understanding the characteristics of foster children that foster parents both preferred and not preferred. In the qualitative research tradition, their…

  1. Mental health beliefs and barriers to accessing mental health services in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexuality and the ‘Relations of Ruling’: Using Institutional Ethnography to Research Lesbian and Gay Foster Care and Adoption.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hicks

    2009-01-01

    This article makes use of institutional ethnography to research foster care and adoption by lesbians and gay men, drawing on the work of the feminist sociologist Dorothy E. Smith in order to demonstrate the investigation of social work institutional categories and the ‘relations of ruling’. Through an analysis of the ways in which ‘gender’ and the idea of the ‘gender role model’ is used within the assessment of gay and lesbian foster carers and adopters, the author shows how these categories ...

  3. Social innovation in public elder care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilfeldt, Annette; Andersen, John

    2013-01-01

    The chapter addresses the role of action research in social innovation related to elder care work at public nursing homes in Denmark. It is shown how critical utopian action research can contribute to the development of humanity in elder care to the benefit of the residents life quality...

  4. Social innovation in public elder care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilfeldt, Annette; Andersen, John

    2013-01-01

    The chapter addresses the role of action research in social innovation related to elder care work at public nursing homes in Denmark. It is shown how critical utopian action research can contribute to the development of humanity in elder care to the benefit of the residents life quality...... and the employees working life....

  5. Listening to the voices of children in foster care: youths speak out about child welfare workforce turnover and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been largely overlooked.The purpose ofthis study was, first, to explore the experiences and opinions about child welfare workforce turnover and retention of youths in the child welfare system; second, to explore a relationship between the number of caseworkers a youth has had and his or her number of foster care placements; and third, to harness the suggestions of youths in resolving the turnover problem. Youths in the child welfare system (N = 25) participated in focus groups and completed a small demographic survey. Findings suggest that youths experience multiple effects of workforce turnover, such as lack of stability; loss of trusting relationships; and, at times, second chances. The article concludes with suggestions for caseworkers, state trainers, local and state administrators, and social work researchers on engaging with youths in relationships that facilitate genuine systems change around social work practice and the child welfare workforce crisis.

  6. Juvenile Justice Girls’ Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation Nine Years After Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; DeGarmo, David S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) has been found to reduce delinquency among girls in juvenile justice through 2-year follow-up. Given that such girls are at elevated risk for suicide and depression into adulthood, we tested MTFC effects on long term trajectories of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. Method Girls [n =166; mean (SD) age = 15.3 (1.2) years; 68 % Caucasian] with a recent criminal referral who were mandated to out-of-home care were enrolled in two sequential cohorts. Girls were randomized to receive MTFC (n =81) or group care (GC) treatment as usual (TAU; n =85); the second MTFC cohort also received modules targeting substance use and risky sexual behavior. Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed repeatedly through early adulthood [mean (SD) follow-up = 8.8 (2.9) years]. Suicide attempt history was assessed in early adulthood. Results Girls assigned to MTFC showed significantly greater decreases in depressive symptoms across the long-term follow-up than GC girls (π = −.86, p < .05). Decreases in suicidal ideation rates were slightly stronger in MTFC than in GC as indicated by a marginal main effect [odds ratio (OR) = .92, p < .10] and a significant interaction that favored MTFC in the second cohort relative to the first [OR = .88, p < .01]. There were no significant MTFC effects on suicide attempt. Conclusions MTFC decreased depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking beyond the decreases attributable to time and TAU. Thus, MTFC has further impact on girls’ lives than originally anticipated. PMID:24731234

  7. Comparisons of substance abuse, high-risk sexual behavior and depressive symptoms among homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence of substance use, high-risk sexual behaviors, and depression symptoms between homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement. Approximately 26,000 young persons exit foster care annually in the United States. Once they 'age out' of foster care, however, many young persons do not have access to comprehensive health care. They also are at risk for substance abuse, homelessness, or mental illness. Because persons with a history of foster care are at risk for negative psycho-social outcomes, it is unclear if these young people might be different than homeless youth without this history. The design is descriptive and cross-sectional. A total of 156 homeless young persons, of whom 44 had a history of foster care placement, were recruited from a drop-in center that caters to homeless youth and young adults. The sample was majority male and white; ages were 16-25. Significantly higher proportion of homeless former foster youth used methamphetamine within the last six months compared to non-fostered homeless youth p = 0.03). Homeless former foster youth were significantly older (p = 0.02) and less educated (p = 0.02) than their homeless counterparts without a history of foster care placement. Prevalence of using tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, crack cocaine, and powder cocaine were similar for both groups. Although not significant, a higher proportion of homeless former foster youth reported trading sex for money or drugs compared to non-fostered, homeless youth (19% versus 12% [trading sex for money], and 26% versus 14% [trading sex for drugs], respectively. Findings from this study show that, in general, homelessness is a negative outcome, irrespective of having a foster care history. However, those with that history need continued support when transitioning to independent living, such as access to health care, and encouragement to further their education. It is important that nurses, who serve homeless

  8. Does Extending Foster Care beyond Age 18 Promote Postsecondary Educational Attainment? Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Although foster youth approaching the transition to adulthood have postsecondary educational aspirations similar to those of young people in the general population, for too many foster youth with these aspirations, a college education remains an unfulfilled dream. Previous analyses of data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of…

  9. Parent adjustment over time in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent families adopting from foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals and couples are adopting children, gay men and lesbian women continue to face increased scrutiny and legal obstacles from the child welfare system. To date, little research has compared the experiences of gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents over time, limiting conceptual understandings of the similarities they share and the unique challenges that gay and lesbian adoptive parents may face. This study compared the adoption satisfaction, depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and social support at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 parents (60 heterosexual, 15 gay, 7 lesbian) adopting children from foster care in Los Angeles County. Few differences were found between heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents at any of the assessments or in their patterns of change over time. On average, parents in both household types reported significant increases in adoption satisfaction and maintained low, nonclinical levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress over time. Across all family types, greater parenting stress was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower adoption satisfaction. Results indicated many similarities between gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents, and highlight a need for services to support adoptive parents throughout the transition to parenthood to promote their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Predicting risk of entry into foster care from early childhood experiences: A survival analysis using LONGSCAN data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Diana J; Thompson, Richard; White, Catherine Roller

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether a multi-domain model of maltreatment informed by an ecological framework-including factors related to the child, caregiver, family, neighborhood, and dimensions of maltreatment experience-predicted entry into foster care between the ages of 4 and 18 among children with no prior foster care experience. To determine which factors predict entry into foster care, secondary data analyses were conducted utilizing a sub-sample from LONGSCAN (Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect) of 942 children and their primary caregivers. Results demonstrate that there are important predictors for entry into out-of-home placement across multiple ecological domains. Characteristics related to child, caregiver, and family characteristics, and neighborhood context, as well as dimensions of maltreatment (particularly emotional maltreatment), predicted risk of placement in out-of-home care. Implications for child welfare practice are discussed. This examination of the effects of multiple ecological domains adds to our understanding of children's risk of removal and entry into out-of-home placement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. “I Want to be There When He Graduates:” Foster Parents Show Higher Levels of Commitment than Group Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Albert; Roben, Caroline K.P.; Maier, Collin; Fabian, Kim; Shauffer, Carole; Dozier, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Group care is a frequent placement for adolescents placed in out of home care when their birth parents’ care is deemed unsafe. In the present study, we assessed whether foster parents show greater commitment to children than group care providers. Given that group care represents a number of living arrangements, we considered both shift care (where staff work shifts and do not live with the children) and cottage care (where staff live for extended periods of time with the children in a group living context). Commitment was assessed using the This Is My Child Interview (adapted for adolescents). Thirty-one foster parents, 18 shift workers, and 28 cottage care providers were interviewed. As predicted, foster parents showed higher levels of commitment than both shift care workers and cottage care providers, and the associations held when children’s externalizing behaviors and the number of children the caregivers had cared for were controlled. The results suggest that foster care promotes greater commitment among caregivers than other out of home placements, and add to other findings that favor foster care as the out of home placement of choice for adolescents. PMID:25937687

  12. Signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years: Effects of institutional care history and high-quality foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2017-05-01

    Two disorders of attachment have been consistently identified in some young children following severe deprivation in early life: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder. However, less is known about whether signs of these disorders persist into adolescence. We examined signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years in 111 children who were abandoned at or shortly after birth and subsequently randomized to care as usual or to high-quality foster care, as well as in 50 comparison children who were never institutionalized. Consistent with expectations, those who experienced institutional care in early life had more signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years than children never institutionalized. In addition, using a conservative intent-to-treat approach, those children randomized to foster care had significantly fewer signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder than those randomized to care as usual. Analyses within the ever institutionalized group revealed no effects of the age of placement into foster care, but number of caregiving disruptions experienced and the percentage of the child's life spent in institutional care were significant predictors of signs of attachment disorders assessed in early adolescence. These findings indicate that adverse caregiving environments in early life have enduring effects on signs of attachment disorders, and provide further evidence that high-quality caregiving interventions are associated with reductions in both reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder.

  13. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households.

  14. Sharing Data between Child Welfare and Education to Improve Outcomes for Children and Youth in the Foster Care System. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When a child is placed in the state's foster care system because of a parent's abuse or neglect, the state--represented by teams of social workers, lawyers, judges, foster parents, and other caregivers or guardians--steps into many aspects of the parental role. Too often, though, the state's representatives are attempting to fulfill a parental…

  15. FOSTER FAMILY AS A FORM OF UNITS FOR ORPHANS AND CHILDREN WITHOUT PARENTAL CARE (CASE STUDY OF SARATOV AND BELGOROD REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vladimirovna Besschetnova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and functioning of foster families, one of the priority interventions for children without parental care in Russia and abroad. The paper analyzes the current official statistics on the problem of child abandonment in Russia as a whole and in the Saratov and Belgorod regions of Russia in particular. The mechanism of social adaptation of children in foster care is based on the qualitative and quantitative methods (surveys and interviews of foster parents and foster children. The author identifies obstacles to the development of social institutions in the regions and the necessity of its active implementation in domestic social practices. The study found that foster care has been successful in areas where accepted legal basis allowed the recruiting, selecting candidates for adoptive parents, and foster care maintenance are carried out by social services. In addition, in order to reduce risk factors such as the secondary abandonment of foster children it is necessarily to increase assistance from the social guardianship bodies and professionals as well as building trusting parent-child relationships that use the democratic parenting style by foster parents.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-8

  16. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  17. Psychosocial pathways to sexually transmitted infection risk among youth transitioning out of foster care: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-10-01

    To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included (1) historical abuse and foster care experiences; (2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence; and (3) STI risk in young adulthood. We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race, and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than five partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 years decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Interventions/policies that (1) address externalizing trauma sequelae; (2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships; and (3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implications of public understanding of avian influenza for fostering effective risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Brenda L; Brand, Michael; Regens, James L; Boatright, Daniel T

    2008-10-01

    Avian influenza has three of the four properties necessary to cause a pandemic. However, are we as individuals and communities prepared for a pandemic flu in the United States? To help answer this question, 12 focus groups (N = 60) were conducted in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to determine the level of awareness of avian and pandemic flu for the county health department to develop effective communication messages. The overall findings indicate that the general Tulsa public lacks information about avian influenza or pandemics, does not believe a pandemic will occur, and believes if one does occur the government will take care of it. Finally, the groups agreed that education would be the key to preventing widespread panic if a pandemic occurred. Five themes emerged: confusion about terminology, seriousness of avian influenza, disaster fatigue, appropriate precautions, and credibility of health information. Each should be considered in developing effective risk communication messages.

  19. Black-White Differences in Child Maltreatment Reports and Foster Care Placements: A Statistical Decomposition Using Linked Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Tim; Jiang, Nan; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Dalton, Erin; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Official statistics have confirmed that relative to their presence in the population and relative to white children, black children have consistently higher rates of contact with child protective services (CPS). We used linked administrative data and statistical decomposition techniques to generate new insights into black and white differences in child maltreatment reports and foster care placements. Methods Birth records for all children born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, between 2008 and 2010 were linked to administrative service records originating in multiple county data systems. Differences in rates of involvement with child protective services between black and white children by age 4 were decomposed using nonlinear regression techniques. Results Black children had rates of CPS involvement that were 3 times higher than white children. Racial differences were explained solely by parental marital status (i.e., being unmarried) and age at birth (i.e., predominantly teenage mothers). Adding other covariates did not capture any further racial differences in maltreatment reporting or foster care placement rates, they simply shifted differences already explained by marital status and age to these other variables. Discussion Racial differences in rates of maltreatment reports and foster care placements can be explained by a basic model that adjusts only for parental marital status and age at the time of birth. Increasing access to early prevention services for vulnerable families may reduce disparities in child protective service involvement. Using birth records linked to other administrative data sources provides an important means to developing population-based research.

  20. Does poor school performance cause later psychosocial problems among children in foster care? Evidence from national longitudinal registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Hilma; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Research has shown that children in foster care are a high-risk group for adverse economic, social and health related outcomes in young adulthood. Children's poor school performance has been identified as a major risk factor for these poor later life outcomes. Aiming to support the design of effective intervention strategies, this study examines the hypothesized causal effect of foster children's poor school performance on subsequent psychosocial problems, here conceptualized as economic hardship, illicit drug use, and mental health problems, in young adulthood. Using the potential outcomes approach, longitudinal register data on more than 7500 Swedish foster children born 1973-1978 were analyzed by means of doubly robust treatment-effect estimators. The results show that poor school performance has a negative impact on later psychosocial problems net of observed background attributes and potential selection on unobservables, suggesting that the estimated effects allow for causal interpretations. Promotion of school performance may thus be a viable intervention path for policymakers and practitioners interested in improving foster children's overall life chances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maltreatment histories of foster youth exiting out-of-home care through emancipation: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about maltreatment among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. Multiple entries into out-of-home care and unsuccessful attempts at reunification may nevertheless reflect extended exposure to chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. This study used administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services to identify all unduplicated allegations of maltreatment in a cohort of 801 foster youth transitioning to adulthood in the state of Illinois. A latent variable modeling approach generated profiles of maltreatment based on substantiated and unsubstantiated reports of maltreatment taken from state administrative data. Four indicators of maltreatment were included in the latent class analysis: multiple types of maltreatment, predominant type of maltreatment, chronicity, and number of different perpetrators. The analysis identified four subpopulations of foster youth in relation to maltreatment. Study findings highlight the heterogeneity of maltreatment in the lives of foster youth transitioning to adulthood and draw attention to a need to raise awareness among service providers to screen for chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Public trust in Dutch health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed,or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used in

  3. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used i

  4. Health care quality improvement publication trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gordon H; MacEachern, Mark P; Perla, Rocco J; Gaines, Jean M; Davis, Matthew M; Shrank, William H

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the extent of academic interest in quality improvement (QI) initiatives in medical practice, annual publication trends for the most well-known QI methodologies being used in health care settings were analyzed. A total of 10 key medical- and business-oriented library databases were examined: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ABI/INFORM, and Business Source Complete. A total of 13 057 articles were identified that discuss at least 1 of 10 well-known QI concepts used in health care contexts, 8645 (66.2%) of which were classified as original research. "Total quality management" was the only methodology to demonstrate a significant decline in publication over time. "Continuous quality improvement" was the most common topic of study across all publication years, whereas articles discussing Lean methodology demonstrated the largest growth in publication volume over the past 2 decades. Health care QI publication volume increased substantially beginning in 1991.

  5. Infants' responsiveness, attachment, and indiscriminate friendliness after international adoption from institutions or foster care in China: application of Emotional Availability Scales to adoptive families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L. van den; Juffer, F.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Alink, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    In a short-term longitudinal design we investigated maternal sensitivity, child responsiveness, attachment, and indiscriminate friendliness in families with children internationally adopted from institutions or foster care in China. Ninety-two families with 50 postinstitutionalized and 42 formerly

  6. Funding child care and public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, E F; Finn-Stevenson, M

    1996-01-01

    Ensuring the availability of high-quality, affordable child care to all families who need it is a goal of national importance. The authors suggest that a comprehensive financing and service delivery system for child care is needed to achieve this goal, and the system should ideally be grounded in an existing institution, already present in every community--the public school. The linkage of child care with the public education system would eliminate the false distinction between child care and education, and would create a universally accessible system of child care services for children. The School of the 21st Century is an example of such a system. Initially conceptualized by Zigler, it has now been implemented in 400 schools across 13 states, with the leadership and direction of Finn-Stevenson. This article describes how school districts that have implemented the program employ a mixture of parent fees and local, state, federal, and private dollars to fund it, and then proposes an ideal financing model for the program. In the ideal model, the same mix of funding sources would be retained, but a per-pupil expenditure of about $9,000 per year is advocated to deliver child care and other social services to three- and four-year-olds. Funds for initial start-up could be derived from reallocation of existing dollars, especially state prekindergarten programs, but eventually new funds would be needed to support ongoing operations.

  7. Acolhimento familiar: uma alternativa de proteção para crianças e adolescentes Family foster care: a protective alternative for children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rosa do Amaral Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O acolhimento de crianças e adolescentes que vivenciam violação de direitos tem sido discutido no âmbito do desenvolvimento de políticas públicas e no meio acadêmico. Tais discussões visam elaborar diretrizes que garantam o direito à convivência familiar e comunitária e evidenciam um campo em reordenamento. Este artigo contextualiza o acolhimento familiar no cenário nacional, considerando-o como uma medida de proteção possível para crianças e adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade. Discute-se também o reflexo de algumas perspectivas teóricas que abordam as relações de vínculo afetivo em situações de acolhimento. Argumenta-se que ao fomentar uma nova cultura de acolhimento são necessárias mudanças nas concepções de infância e juventude, nas significações de vinculação afetiva e nas políticas de assistência à infância e juventude.Foster care of children and adolescents who have had their rights violated is being discussed both in the scientific literature and in agencies involved in the development of public policies. Such discussions, which aim to define some guidelines to guarantee the right to family and community inclusion, expose a field under change. This paper focuses on foster care in the Brazilian context and presents it as one of the possible alternatives for children and adolescents in risk situations. The (misleading influences of some theoretical perspectives that deal with affective bonds in foster care are also discussed. It is argued that a new foster culture requires changes in the conceptions of infancy and youth, in the meanings of affectionate bonds, and in welfare policies for children and adolescents.

  8. Does informal care reduce public care expenditure on elderly care? Estimates based on Finland's Age Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehusmaa, Sari; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Helenius, Hans; Rissanen, Pekka

    2013-08-15

    To formulate sustainable long-term care policies, it is critical first to understand the relationship between informal care and formal care expenditure. The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent informal care reduces public expenditure on elderly care. Data from a geriatric rehabilitation program conducted in Finland (Age Study, n = 732) were used to estimate the annual public care expenditure on elderly care. We first constructed hierarchical multilevel regression models to determine the factors associated with elderly care expenditure. Second, we calculated the adjusted mean costs of care in four care patterns: 1) informal care only for elderly living alone; 2) informal care only from a co-resident family member; 3) a combination of formal and informal care; and 4) formal care only. We included functional independence and health-related quality of life (15D score) measures into our models. This method standardizes the care needs of a heterogeneous subject group and enabled us to compare expenditure among various care categories even when differences were observed in the subjects' physical health. Elder care that consisted of formal care only had the highest expenditure at 25,300 Euros annually. The combination of formal and informal care had an annual expenditure of 22,300 Euros. If a person received mainly informal care from a co-resident family member, then the annual expenditure was only 4,900 Euros and just 6,000 Euros for a person living alone and receiving informal care. Our analysis of a frail elderly Finnish population shows that the availability of informal care considerably reduces public care expenditure. Therefore, informal care should be taken into account when formulating policies for long-term care. The process whereby families choose to provide care for their elderly relatives has a significant impact on long-term care expenditure.

  9. Foster Care and Parent Visitation - Acogimiento en Familia Ajena y Visitas de los Menores con sus Padres Biológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Salas Martínez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Family foster care is a measure of protection little studied in our country. The aim of this research is to analyse the situation of children in foster care and to evaluate the quality of the visits between children with biological parents. The participants were 95 children, 72 biological families and 69 foster families. The instrument used was the “Child File Summary Form” which was designed for the study. Access to the information about the care situations was done through the Child and Family Protection Service and the associations which supervise foster care in Malaga. The results show: a the presence of maltreatment in all the children and previous residential care in the majority of children; b great incidence of biological parents with problems of substance abuse; c a low percentage of foster care is remunerated and few contacts are observed between foster and biological parents; d parental visits are infrequent and sporadic; e many contacts are evaluated negatively by the technical staff.

  10. The effectiveness of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) for young children with severe behavioral disturbances: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Caroline S; Schuengel, Carlo; Lindeboom, Robert; Oosterman, Mirjam; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramon J L

    2013-07-05

    Among children placed out of home, behavioral and relationship functioning is often problematic. When placed in foster care, problems tend to persist or even worsen and increase the risk of placement breakdown. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers is an intensive behavior-focused program for young foster children (3 to 7 years) aiming to provide children with a positive and stimulating foster family setting and individually tailored behavioral interventions. This study will be the first to examine the effectiveness of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers outside the US and to examine the effectiveness across a broader range of problems related to foster care. This is a randomized controlled trial, wherein we expect to include 80 child-foster carer dyads. Forty dyads will be assigned to Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers and 40 to treatment as usual, following pre-randomization. Data to be gathered concern problem behavior, symptoms of attachment disorder, post-traumatic stress symptoms, quality of life, hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis functioning, parental stress and autonomic reactivity, to be collected via questionnaires, observations, interviews, saliva and recording at six time-points over 24 months. To compare treatment outcomes, Fisher's exact tests and repeated measures (mixed models) and independent t-tests will be used. All analyses will be performed following the intention-to-treat principle. Examining the generalizability of previous findings in the US and extending these previous findings is a step towards improving knowledge about treatment of young foster children with severe behavioral, emotional and attachment problems. NTR1747.

  11. Cortisol production patterns in young children living with birth parents vs children placed in foster care following involvement of Child Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Butzin-Dozier, Zachary; Rittenhouse, Joseph; Dozier, Mary

    2010-05-01

    To examine differences in waking to bedtime cortisol production between children who remained with birth parents vs children placed in foster care following involvement of Child Protective Services (CPS). Between-subject comparison of cortisol patterns among 2 groups of children. Children referred from the child welfare system. Three hundred thirty-nine children aged 2.9 to 31.4 months who were living with birth parents (n = 155) or placed in foster care (n = 184) following CPS involvement as well as 96 unmatched children from low-risk environments. Main Exposures Involvement by CPS and foster care. Main Outcome Measure Salivary cortisol samples obtained at waking and bedtime for children on 2 days. Child Protective Services-involved children who continued to live with birth parents and CPS-involved children placed in foster care differed in cortisol production, with children living with their birth parents showing flatter slopes in waking to bedtime values. Continuing to live with birth parents following involvement of CPS is associated with greater perturbation to the diurnal pattern of cortisol production than living with foster parents. Foster care may have a regulating influence on children's cortisol among children who have experienced maltreatment.

  12. Caring and Fun: Fostering an Adolescent-Centered Community within an Interdisciplinary Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study analyzed how one interdisciplinary team within a large middle school fostered a responsive adolescent-centered community for eighth-grade team students. Data were collected during the spring semester of the 2009 school year via observations, individual interviews, and focus group interviews with nine participants,…

  13. Emerging versus Emancipating: The Transition to Adulthood for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Singer, Erin; Hokanson, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood has been defined as a distinct developmental stage in which youth experience opportunities for identity development and transition toward independence. While this period has been examined for youth in the general population, less is known about how foster youth experience this transition. This study uses qualitative interviews…

  14. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls' school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls' days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described.

  15. The Use of Expressive Therapies and Social Support with Youth in Foster Care: The Performing Arts Troupe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra Holmes Greene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Performing Arts Troupe is a program that provides youth in foster care and youth from low income neighborhoods with expressive therapies and social support. The program is designed to assist youth in addressing the effects of trauma and developing competencies as they prepare to transition to adulthood. The article discusses the literature base for the program, the program activities and describes the impact of the program on youth through preliminary evaluations and case studies. The program offers an innovative combination of expressive therapies and social supports that has effectively met the needs of vulnerable youth.

  16. "How Can You Know? You're Not a Foster Child":

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, H.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Axel Honneth's Theoty of Recognition and an empirical action research project entitled "Børnetinget" (Children's Parliament), conducted in Denmark by the author, this article discuss dilemmas and possibilities of giving voice to children in foster care. The Børnetinget project aimed...... to give voice to foster children so that their knowledge about "the life as a child in foster care" could find its way to social workers and foster parents as well as politicians, thus influencing, democratizing and qualifying social work with children and youth in foster care. "Børneting" was established...... with a core group of 15 foster children, aged 10-13, and a web-based "foster children's public forum". This article focuses on learning about participation from the Børnetinget experience, both as a model of participatory research practice and for the insights it provides in relation to how we understand...

  17. Insights in public health: Building support for an evidence-based teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention program adapted for foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R

    2015-01-01

    Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth.

  18. Opportunities for Palliative Care in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, Liliana; Pastrana, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the World Health Assembly, of the World Health Organization (WHO), unanimously adopted a palliative care (PC) resolution, which outlines clear recommendations to the United Nations member states, such as including PC in national health policies and in the undergraduate curricula for health care professionals, and highlights the critical need for countries to ensure that there is an adequate supply of essential PC medicines, especially those needed to alleviate pain. This resolution also carries great challenges: Every year over 20 million patients (of which 6% are children) need PC at the end of life (EOL). However, in 2011, approximately three million patients received PC, and only one in ten people in need is currently receiving it. We describe this public health situation and systems failure, the history and evolution of PC, and the components of the WHO public health model. We propose a role for public health for PC integration in community settings to advance PC and relieve suffering in the world.

  19. Public trust in health care : Exploring the mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how public trust in health care is formed, by studying the mechanisms behind it, addressing the following research question: ‘Which mechanisms explain differences in public trust in health care?’. Public trust in health care is important. Low levels of trust

  20. Fostering the Public Voice: Blogging as a Pedagogical Practice in Ministerial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsupan-Jerome, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    In the evolution of the World Wide Web toward a more participatory experience, the blog is one opportunity with intriguing educational potential. Among its educational benefits, the blog can offer a platform for exercising the public voice, but does so in a way that is simultaneously private and public, giving the author a safe distance through…

  1. Public trust in health care : a performance indicator?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schee, Evelien van der; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Friele, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – If public trust in health care is to be used as a performance indicator for health care systems, its measurement has to be sensitive to changes in the health care system. For this purpose, this study has monitored public trust in health care in The Netherlands over an eight-year period, fr

  2. Social media in public health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Henriksen, Helle Zinner

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of social media use in Danish public health care with respect to capabilities, interactions, orientations, and value distribution. Taking an exploratory approach, the paper draws on an array of quantitative and qualitative data, and puts forward four propositions......: social media transform the access to health-related information for patients and general practitioners, the uptake of social media can be a cost driver rather than a cost saver, social media provide empowerment to patients, and the uptake of social media is hindered by legal and privacy concerns...

  3. Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: the use of role models in an interactive group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.

  4. O acolhimento familiar em Portugal: conceitos, práticas e desafios Foster care in Portugal: concepts, practices and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Delgado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O Acolhimento Familiar assume em Portugal uma expressão reduzida, num sistema de protecção das crianças excessivamente centrado na colocação em instituições, não obstante o discurso político mais recente, defensor da desinstitucionalização, e a evolução de outros sistemas sociais em diversos países europeus. Este artigo pretende caracterizar o modelo de Acolhimento Familiar português, destacando, nomeadamente, a sua evolução histórica mais recente, os conceitos e tipologias que mobiliza, as práticas que manifesta e os desafios que se colocam ao seu desenvolvimento.The Foster Care in Portugal takes a reduced expression, in a system of protection of children excessively focused on institutional placements, despite the political discourse more recent, advocate of deinstitutionalization, and the development of other social systems in several European countries. This paper aims to analyze the Portuguese Foster Care model, highlighting in particular its historical evolution latest concepts and typologies that mobilize the practices that expresses, and challenges to its development.

  5. Development and testing of a multimedia internet-based system for fidelity and monitoring of multidimensional treatment foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Edward G; Sprengelmeyer, Peter G; Davis, Betsy; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-10-16

    The fields of mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice are jointly faced with the challenge of reducing the prevalence of antisocial behavior among adolescents. In the last 20 years, conduct disorders have moved from being considered intractable difficulties to having complex but available solutions. The treatments for even long-standing offending behavior among adolescents are now well documented and supported by a growing and compelling body of evidence. These empirically validated interventions are being widely disseminated, but the replication of the results from clinical trials in community settings has yet to be documented. The treatments, which produced impressive effects in a research context, are difficult to replicate without intensive monitoring of fidelity by the developers. Such monitoring is a barrier toward adoption; as the distance between the adopter and developer increases, so does cost. At the same time, states, communities, and agencies are under increasing pressure to implement those intervention services that have been shown to be most effective. The use of the Internet offers a potential solution in that existing reporting and data collection by clinicians can be subject to remote supervision. Such a system would have the potential to provide dissemination teams with more direct access to higher-quality data and would make adopters more likely to be able to implement services at the highest possible conformity to research protocols. To create and test such an innovative system for use with the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) program, which is an in-home treatment (alternative to a residential- or group-home setting) for antisocial youths. This research could advance the knowledge base about developing innovative infrastructures in community settings to disseminate empirically validated treatments. The fidelity system was used and reviewed by parent and professional users: 20 foster parent users of the Parent Daily

  6. Cumulative teen birth rates among girls in foster care at age 17: an analysis of linked birth and child protection records from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; King, Bryn

    2014-04-01

    This study used linked foster care and birth records to provide a longitudinal, population-level examination of the incidence of first and repeat births among girls who were in foster care at age 17. Girls in a foster care placement in California at the age of 17 between 2003 and 2007 were identified from statewide child protection records. These records were probabilistically matched to vital birth records spanning the period from 2001 to 2010. Linked data were used to estimate the cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth before age 20. Birth rates and unadjusted risk ratios were generated to characterize foster care experiences correlated with heightened teen birth rates. Between 2003 and 2007 in California, there were 20,222 girls in foster care at age 17. Overall, 11.4% had a first birth before age 18. The cumulative percentage who gave birth before age 20 was 28.1%. Among girls who had a first birth before age 18, 41.2% had a repeat teen birth. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and placement-related characteristics emerged. Expanded data and rigorous research are needed to evaluate prevention efforts and ensure parenting teens are provided with the needed services and supports.

  7. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  8. Overweight and obesity among Hispanic children entering foster care: a preliminary examination of polyvictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) in Hispanic foster children aged 2-18 years in Los Angeles, California. Logistic regression was used for boys and girls separately to analyze polyvictimization (i.e., one vs. two or more types of maltreatment), type of maltreatment (abuse vs. neglect), and age-group as risk factors for overweight and obesity. Almost 40% of participants were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence (47.7%) observed among children aged 12-18. Children aged 6-18 were at an increased risk of overweight/obesity and obesity compared with children aged 2-5. Although polyvictimization has been shown to have adverse health effects, in this study, it was related to slightly lower odds of obesity for boys but was unrelated to high weight for girls. Addressing the obesity epidemic among Hispanic foster children is vital to preventing continued obesity and the development of obesity-related health problems, especially by focusing on important community and family influences.

  9. Effects of institutional rearing and foster care on psychopathology at age 12 years in Romania: follow-up of an open, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Drury, Stacy S; Miron, Devi; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-07-01

    Early social deprivation can negatively affect domains of functioning. We examined psychopathology at age 12 years in a cohort of Romanian children who had been abandoned at birth and placed into institutional care, then assigned either to be placed in foster care or to care as usual. We used follow-up data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a randomised controlled trial of abandoned children in all six institutions for young children in Bucharest, Romania. In the initial trial, 136 children, enrolled between ages 6-31 months, were randomly assigned to either care as usual or placement in foster care. In this study we followed up these children at age 12 years to assess psychiatric symptoms using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (4th edition; DISC-IV). We also recruited Romanian children who had never been placed in an institution from paediatric clinics and schools in Bucharest as a comparator group who had never been placed in an institution. The primary outcome measure was symptom counts assessed through DISC-IV scores for three domains of psychopathology: internalising symptoms, externalising symptoms, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared mean DISC-IV scores between trial participants and comparators who had never been placed in an institution, and those assigned to care as usual or foster care. Analyses were done by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00747396. We followed up 110 children from the BEIP trial between Jan 27, 2011, and April 11, 2014, and 49 children as comparators who had never been placed in an institution. The 110 children who had ever been placed in an institution had higher symptom counts for internalising disorders (mean 0·93 [SD 1·68] vs 0·45 [0·84], difference 0·48 [95% CI 0·14-0·82]; p=0·0127), externalising disorders (2·31 [2·86] vs 0·65 [1·33], difference 1·66 [1·06-2·25]; pcare as usual, the 55 children in

  10. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  11. Measuring Foster Parent Potential: Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Worker Version (CFAI-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Orme, John G.; Le Prohn, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Worker Version (CFAI-W), a questionnaire designed to assess the potential of foster family care applicants to provide foster care. Method: Retrospective data were collected from 208 foster care workers who completed two copies of the CFAI-W, one…

  12. Health Insurance Coverage and Use of Family Planning Services among Current and Former Foster Youth: Implications of the Health Care Reform Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population. PMID:23262773

  13. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas P Gross; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A.; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Researc...

  14. Public Relations and Religious Diversity: A Conceptual Framework for Fostering a Spirit of Communitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donn James Tilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in immigration law, globalization and increased ease of transportation have transformed modern societies into culturally diverse landscapes with religious diversity, in particular, presenting both opportunities and challenges. The author proposes a conceptual framework that embraces an interpretation of public relations as a social function, a covenantal model as a theoretical ground, an expanded worldview to include tolerance as an essential defining presupposition, and expanded communicative conceptual parameters that include religion in definitions of diversity and generic principles of excellent practice. An anecdotal review of faith communities in the U.S. reveals that public relations professionals and other communicators model the conceptual framework in interfaith initiatives and that the framework would serve as a helpful foundation for guiding communication professionals toward such behaviour. The study also illustrates that socially-responsible behaviour often has a foundation of faith common across various faith traditions.

  15. Fostering Scientific and Numerate Practices in Journalism to Support Rapid Public Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Yarnall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Journalism has the potential––and arguably the mandate––to expand public understanding of societally important phenomena. However, some methods for more effectively educating the public have been persistently underutilized: in particular, embedding informative numerical rates and efficient scientific explanations in news reports. In the current era of disrupting and downsizing the news business, the challenges to using such methods have only increased. To address this problem, this article seeks to (a raise awareness about the psychological reasons that help explain why it is crucial to use such elements in news reports, and (b exhibit some methods for doing so that require modest effort. Building on a review of relevant psychological literatures, principles, and existing reporting methods, we describe findings from a series of cognitive-scientific studies that demonstrate how using key––and relatively minimal––scientific and numerical elements can enhance public learning from news reports. We conclude by also describing curricula and resources designed to help journalists and bloggers use these methods.

  16. Fostering cooperation of selfish agents through public goods in relation to the loners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chen, Zengqiang; Liu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Altruistic behaviors in multiplayer groups have obtained great attention in the context of the public goods game, which poses a riddle from the evolutionary viewpoint. Here we focus on a particular type of public goods game model in which the benefits of cooperation are either discounted or synergistically enhanced at the appearance of multiple cooperators in a group. Moreover, we focus on the three-strategies profile by adding the role of loners, besides the often-used cooperation and defection. Using the replicator dynamic equations, we investigate a range of dynamical portraits that characterizes the properties of the steady state. Analysis results indicate that loners and cooperators both have chances to be the stable equilibrium points in the presence of perturbations, while defectors fail to do so in this three-strategy competition. Moreover, the coexistence state, in which all three strategies exist in equilibrium, can be led by suitable parameters and stabilized for perturbations. These results elucidate the interplay between the characteristics of the public goods game and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  17. Fostering cooperation of selfish agents through public goods in relation to the loners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chen, Zengqiang; Liu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Altruistic behaviors in multiplayer groups have obtained great attention in the context of the public goods game, which poses a riddle from the evolutionary viewpoint. Here we focus on a particular type of public goods game model in which the benefits of cooperation are either discounted or synergistically enhanced at the appearance of multiple cooperators in a group. Moreover, we focus on the three-strategies profile by adding the role of loners, besides the often-used cooperation and defection. Using the replicator dynamic equations, we investigate a range of dynamical portraits that characterizes the properties of the steady state. Analysis results indicate that loners and cooperators both have chances to be the stable equilibrium points in the presence of perturbations, while defectors fail to do so in this three-strategy competition. Moreover, the coexistence state, in which all three strategies exist in equilibrium, can be led by suitable parameters and stabilized for perturbations. These results elucidate the interplay between the characteristics of the public goods game and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  18. Assessment of problem behaviour by foster parents and their foster children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, Johan; van Oijen, Simon; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    This study investigates the level of agreement between foster parents and foster children about problem behaviour and how this is associated with the breakdown of a foster care placement. The study took a sample of foster parents and their foster children (n = 60), who were aged 11-17 years, and

  19. Patient-centered boundary mechanisms to foster intercultural partnerships in health care: a case study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitziger, Martin; Berger Gonzalez, Mónica; Gharzouzi, Eduardo; Ochaíta Santizo, Daniela; Solis Miranda, Regina; Aguilar Ferro, Andrea Isabel; Vides-Porras, Ana; Heinrich, Michael; Edwards, Peter; Krütli, Pius

    2017-08-08

    Up to one half of the population in Africa, Asia and Latin America has little access to high-quality biomedical services and relies on traditional health systems. Medical pluralism is thus in many developing countries the rule rather than the exception, which is why the World Health Organization is calling for intercultural partnerships to improve health care in these regions. They are, however, challenging due to disparate knowledge systems and lack of trust that hamper understanding and collaboration. We developed a collaborative, patient-centered boundary mechanism to overcome these challenges and to foster intercultural partnerships in health care. To assess its impact on the quality of intercultural patient care in a medically pluralistic developing country, we conducted and evaluated a case study. The case study took place in Guatemala, since previous efforts to initiate intercultural medical partnerships in this country were hampered by intense historical and societal conflicts. It was designed by a team from ETH Zurich's Transdisciplinarity Lab, the National Cancer Institute of Guatemala, two traditional Councils of Elders and 25 Mayan healers from the Kaqchikel and Q'eqchi' linguistic groups. It was implemented from January 2014 to July 2015. Scientists and traditional political authorities collaborated to facilitate workshops, comparative diagnoses and patient referrals, which were conducted jointly by biomedical and traditional practitioners. The traditional medical practices were thoroughly documented, as were the health-seeking pathways of patients, and the overall impact was evaluated. The boundary mechanism was successful in discerning barriers of access for indigenous patients in the biomedical health system, and in building trust between doctors and healers. Learning outcomes included a reduction of stereotypical attitudes towards traditional healers, improved biomedical procedures due to enhanced self-reflection of doctors, and improved

  20. The Innovative Medicines Initiative: a Public Private Partnership Model to Foster Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Vaudano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI is a large-scale public–private partnership between the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA. IMI aims to boost the development of new medicines across Europe by implementing new collaborative endeavours between large pharmaceutical companies and other key actors in the health-care ecosystem, i.e., academic institutions, small and medium enterprises, patients, and regulatory authorities. Currently there are more than 40 IMI projects covering the whole value chain of pharmaceutical R&D, but with a strong focus on drug discovery, as an ideal arena where the PPP concept of pre-competitive collaboration can rapidly deliver results. This article review recent achievements of the IMI consortia of relevance to drug discovery, providing proof-of-concept evidence for the efficiency of this new model of collaboration.

  1. THE INNOVATIVE MEDICINES INITIATIVE: A PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP MODEL TO FOSTER DRUG DISCOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Vaudano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI is a large-scale public–private partnership between the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA. IMI aims to boost the development of new medicines across Europe by implementing new collaborative endeavours between large pharmaceutical companies and other key actors in the health-care ecosystem, i.e., academic institutions, small and medium enterprises, patients, and regulatory authorities. Currently there are more than 40 IMI projects covering the whole value chain of pharmaceutical R&D, but with a strong focus on drug discovery, as an ideal arena where the PPP concept of pre-competitive collaboration can rapidly deliver results. This article review recent achievements of the IMI consortia of relevance to drug discovery, providing proof-of-concept evidence for the efficiency of this new model of collaboration.

  2. The impact and efficiency of public administration excellence on fostering SMEs in EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Aristovnik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the impact and efficiency of bureaucracy on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the European Union (EU. For this purpose, the article applies a non-parametric approach, i.e. data envelopment analysis (DEA, to assess the best performers in terms of transforming existing bureaucratic burdens into selected SME indicators, such as growth in their numbers, employment or value added in the 2010-2014 period. The empirical results show that Luxembourg, Sweden and, in particular, the Baltic States can serve as a good benchmark for transforming a relatively favourable environment of public administration excellence into SME indicator growth. On the other hand, Denmark and the UK, despite their top ease-of-doing-business rankings could not significantly spur SME growth in the considered period. Nevertheless, the main goal for the large majority of EU member states, especially in South-east Europe and the Mediterranean region, remains a further reduction of bureaucracy that could be useful for improving the regulatory environment of SMEs and thus aid in an even more rapid recovery from the crisis.

  3. YouTube videos of 'research in action' foster diverse public interest in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, scientific enterprises seek to diversify interest and participation in STEM fields, to both provide equitable opportunities and to push research forward. However, diversity in STEM remains low in many institutions. Internet-based video has emerged as a dominant communication medium that scientists can use to communicate the motivations, process, and products of their work to a diverse, mass audience. Here I describe my use of internet-based video about my research and career as a marine biologist as a tool to inspire broad public interest in science. With my YouTube videos, I have reached a diverse and growing global viewership, amassing >10,000 hours of watch time at the time of this writing. Viewer surveys revealed that my videos have improved individual perceptions about science and science careers, particularly among women and minority groups. I conclude that the emergence of internet-based video as a dominant, ever-expanding communication medium provides an unprecedented but largely untapped opportunity for scientists to broadly communicate their research and to inspire diverse interest in STEM careers.

  4. National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials: In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results: The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences in the average practice index for patients by ROs working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: ROs working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

  5. Long-Term Effects of Pre-Placement Risk Factors on Children's Psychological Symptoms and Parenting Stress among Families Adopting Children from Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Erum; Waterman, Jill; Foster, Jared; Paczkowski, Emilie; Belin, Thomas R.; Miranda, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory longitudinal study examined behavioral outcomes and parenting stress among families with children adopted from foster care, taking into account environmental and biological risk factors. Child internalizing and externalizing problems and parenting stress were assessed in 82 adopted children and their families at 2 months…

  6. [Ethical dilemmas in public health care organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda Vicandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Foster Placement for the Older Psychiatric Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Margaret W.; Caffey, Eugene M., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of age on foster care outcome was examined for 572 male psychiatric patients referred for foster care from five VA hospitals. Patients in foster care changed significantly compared with hospitalized controls by having less social dysfunction and better adjustment. (Author)

  8. Young Adult Outcomes Associated with Teen Pregnancy Among High-Risk Girls in an RCT of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Kerr, David C R; Harold, Gordon T

    2013-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes for girls such as drug use and poor parenting. Thus, reducing teen pregnancy rates could improve long-term developmental outcomes for girls, improving adjustment during young adulthood. Based on the positive effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to group care (GC) in a study of adolescent girls-significantly fewer pregnancies reported in the 2-year follow-up for MTFC girls-the present study followed this sample into young adulthood (approximately 7 years postbaseline) to examine the effects of adolescent pregnancy on young adult substance use and pregnancy-related outcomes. All participants were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as adolescents as part of two RCTs. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that becoming pregnant during the 2-year follow-up was significantly related to illicit drug use, miscarriage from a new pregnancy, and child welfare involvement at 7 years postbaseline. In addition, baseline marijuana use predicted marijuana use at 7 years postbaseline.

  9. Effective Early Childhood Care and Education: Successful Approaches and Didactic Strategies for Fostering Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    This research article attempts to determine strategies that can be used to support children's cognitive and social-emotional development in early childhood care and education programs. By synthesizing empirical evidence about pedagogical techniques that promote children's competencies, the article aims to identify those characteristics of programs…

  10. Exploring the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; Ryan, Caitlin; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Thomas, Preneka

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the findings from a subset of gender identity and sexual orientation questions from The Casey Field Office Mental Health Study (CFOMH). It aims to contribute the experiences of youth in the care of Casey Family Programs to the increasing body of research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) youth…

  11. Infants and Toddlers in Group Care: Feeding Practices that Foster Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscomb, Kathryn R.; Goble, Carla B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of child-teacher interactions during daily child care routines plays a significant role in young children's development. The nature of mealtimes--the pace, the caregiver's responsiveness, how food is offered--affects infants' and toddlers' emotional health. Maintaining consistency between how children are fed at home and at the center…

  12. Effective Early Childhood Care and Education: Successful Approaches and Didactic Strategies for Fostering Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    This research article attempts to determine strategies that can be used to support children's cognitive and social-emotional development in early childhood care and education programs. By synthesizing empirical evidence about pedagogical techniques that promote children's competencies, the article aims to identify those characteristics of programs…

  13. Fostering critical thinking skills: a strategy for enhancing evidence based wellness care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamison Jennifer R

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chiropractic has traditionally regarded itself a wellness profession. As wellness care is postulated to play a central role in the future growth of chiropractic, the development of a wellness ethos acceptable within conventional health care is desirable. This paper describes a unit which prepares chiropractic students for the role of "wellness coaches". Emphasis is placed on providing students with exercises in critical thinking in an effort to prepare them for the challenge of interfacing with an increasingly evidence based health care system. Methods This case study describes how health may be promoted and disease prevented through development of personalized wellness programs. As critical thinking is essential to the provision of evidence based wellness care, diverse learning opportunities for developing and refining critical thinking skills have been created. Three of the learning opportunities are an intrinsic component of the subject and, taken together, contributed over 50% of the final grade of the unit. They include a literature review, developing a client wellness contract and peer evaluation. In addition to these 3 compulsory exercises, students were also given an opportunity to develop their critical appraisal skills by undertaking voluntary self- and unit evaluation. Several opportunities for informal self-appraisal were offered in a structured self-study guide, while unit appraisal was undertaken by means of a questionnaire and group discussion at which the Head of School was present. Results Formal assessment showed all students capable of preparing a wellness program consistent with current thinking in contemporary health care. The small group of students who appraised the unit seemed to value the diversity of learning experiences provided. Opportunities for voluntary unit and self-appraisal were used to varying degrees. Unit evaluation provided useful feedback that led to substantial changes in unit structure

  14. Fostering Intimacy through Musical Beginnings: Exploring the Application of Communicative Musicality through the Musical Experience of Parents in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McLean

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the powerful role of musical moments in fostering intimacy for parents and their hospitalised infant in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Grounded in Malloch & Trevarthen’s theory of communicative musicality (2010a, a critical and contemporary perspective on this theory underpinning early musical interactions is presented, advocating for greater exploration of the parents’ perspective to support a deepened understanding of the potential of music for supporting intimacy in the beginnings of life. Two case vignettes from my doctoral research illustrate how shared musical moments can foster intimacy for the hospitalised infant and parent in a NICU, calling for consideration of context and culture when exploring how musical beginnings can foster intimacy.

  15. Health care rationing and the ethics of publicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Gerald R.

    1995-10-01

    The need to set reasonable limits on expenditures for health care has led to increased discussion of rationing. Given the fact that no single vision of justice will dominate the allocation of health care, it is becoming increasingly important to establish open, democratic procedures for setting limits. Public awareness of the need for limits and public participation in establishing the limits is essential to the development of a just health care system.

  16. The integration of public health in European primary care systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Bolibar, Y.; Bourgueil, T.; Cartier, T.; Dedeum, T.; Hasvold, A.; Hutchinson, M.; Lember, M.; Oleszczyk, D.; Rotar Pavlick, I.; Svab, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Wilson, S.; Wilm, A.; Windak, A.; Boerma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A strong primary care (PC) system provides accessible, comprehensive care in an ambulatory setting on a continuous basis and by coordinated care processes. These features give PC the opportunity to play a key role in providing public health (PH) services to their practice population. Th

  17. The integration of public health in European primary care systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Bolibar, Y.; Bourgueil, T.; Cartier, T.; Dedeum, T.; Hasvold, A.; Hutchinson, M.; Lember, M.; Oleszczyk, D.; Rotar Pavlick, I.; Svab, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Wilson, S.; Wilm, A.; Windak, A.; Boerma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A strong primary care (PC) system provides accessible, comprehensive care in an ambulatory setting on a continuous basis and by coordinated care processes. These features give PC the opportunity to play a key role in providing public health (PH) services to their practice population. Th

  18. Older adults’ networks and public care receipt : Do partners and adult children substitute for unskilled public care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, N.; Dykstra, Pearl; Maas, Ineke; van Gaalen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how (a) the reliance on public care and (b) the type of public care received by older people in the Netherlands depends on the availability of partners and adult children. Older people aged 65 years and older were surveyed in the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study at two time-po

  19. Early Elementary School Adjustment of Maltreated Children in Foster Care: The Roles of Inhibitory Control and Caregiver Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Kim, Hyoun K.; Yoerger, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 85 maltreated foster children and 56 nonmaltreated community children (M age = 3-6 years) were assessed across kindergarten and first grade to examine the hypothesis that inhibitory control and caregiver involvement mediate associations between a history of maltreatment and foster placement and early school adjustment. Specifically,…

  20. Take Good Care of Public Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 金业祥

    2004-01-01

    However,it is a great pity that in many places,some of the public facilities have been purposely damaged.Some electric bulbs were smashed; some traffic signs were damaged beyond recognition,some public telephones cannot work; some statues stand there without an arm or a leg.What's worse,some people even stole the covers of the sewers.

  1. Fostering Future Leadership in Quality and Safety in Health Care through Systems Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janet M; Stalter, Ann M; Dolansky, Mary A; Lopez, Gloria McKee

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need for leadership in quality and safety to reform today's disparate spectrum of health services to serve patients in complex health care environments. Nurse graduates of degree completion programs (registered nurse-bachelor of science in nursing [RN-BSN]) are poised for leadership due to their recent education and nursing practice experience. The authors propose that integration of systems thinking into RN-BSN curricula is essential for developing these much needed leadership skills. The purpose of this article is to introduce progressive teaching strategies to help nurse educators achieve the student competencies described in the second essential of the BSN Essentials document (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2009), linking them with the competencies in Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN; L. Cronenwett et al., 2007) using an author-created model for curricular design, the Systems-level Awareness Model. The Systems Thinking Tool (M. A. Dolansky & S. M. Moore, 2013) can be used to evaluate systems thinking in the RN-BSN curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CPC Initiative - Participating Primary Care Practices

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative is a multi-payer initiative fostering collaboration between public and private health care payers to strengthen...

  3. Fostering maternal and newborn care in India the Yashoda way: does this improve maternal and newborn care practices during institutional delivery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Varghese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Yashoda program, named after a legendary foster-mother in Indian mythology, under the Norway-India Partnership Initiative was launched as a pilot program in 2008 to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal care at facilities in select districts of India. Yashodas were placed mainly at district hospitals, which are high delivery load facilities, to provide support and care to mothers and newborns during their stay at these facilities. This study presents the results from the evaluation of this intervention in two states in India. METHODS: Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with healthcare providers and mothers and a survey of mothers who had recently delivered within a quasi-experimental design. Fifty IDIs were done and 1,652 mothers who had delivered in the past three months were surveyed during 2010 and 2011. RESULTS: A significantly higher proportion of mothers at facilities with Yashodas (55 percent to 97 percent received counseling on immunization, breastfeeding, family planning, danger signs, and nutrition compared to those in control districts (34 percent to 66 percent. Mothers in intervention facilities were four to five times more likely to receive postnatal checks than mothers in control facilities. Among mothers who underwent cesarean sections, initiation of breastfeeding within five hours was 50 percent higher in intervention facilities. Mothers and families also reported increased support, care and respect at intervention facilities. CONCLUSION: Yashoda as mothers' aide thus seems to be an effective intervention to improve quality of maternal and newborn care in India. Scaling up of this intervention is recommended in district hospitals and other facilities with high volume of deliveries.

  4. Practices to "Foster" in Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2010-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Collins, Ashleigh

    2010-01-01

    A lot has been learned about effective approaches to realizing intended out-of-school time program outcomes. As program practitioners consider fostering evidence-based practices, program administrators, staff, and stakeholders must keep in mind that it is difficult to change behavior overnight, even among children. Efforts to improve outcomes for…

  5. Adequacy of public maternal care services in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Brazil, hospital childbirth care is available to all, but differences in access and quality of care result in inequalities of maternal health. The objective of this study is to assess the infrastructure and staffing of publicly financed labor and birth care in Brazil and its adequacy according to clinical and obstetric conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies. Methods Nationwide cross-sectional hospital-based study “Birth in Brazil: national survey i...

  6. The wellbeing of foster children and their relationship with foster parents and biological parents : a child’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care

  7. The wellbeing of foster children and their relationship with foster parents and biological parents : a child’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care

  8. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Foster Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Lederman, Cindy S.

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in foster care are a vulnerable population. They are at risk for abuse, neglect, and permanent separation from birth parents and have a greater incidence of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is not surprising because these children are abused, neglected, or abandoned by the very people who are supposed to love and care…

  10. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  11. Improving Midwifery Care in Ugandan Public Hospitals: The Midwives’ Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabirye, Rose C.; Beinempaka, Florence; Okene, Cindrella; Groves, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background A serious shortage of nurses and midwives in public hospitals has been reported in Uganda. In addition, over 80% of the nurses and midwives working in public hospitals have been found to have job stress and only 17% to be satisfied on the job. Stress and lack of job satisfaction affect quality of nursing and midwifery care and puts patients’ lives at risk. This is coupled with rampant public outcry about the deteriorating nursing and midwifery care in Ugandan public hospitals. Objective To explore factors that result in poor quality of midwifery care and strategies to improve this care from the perspective of the midwives. Method It was a qualitative exploratory design. Participants were midwives and their supervisors working in four Regional Referral hospitals in Uganda. Data was collected by FGDs and KIIs. Content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed data from the voice recordings. Results Four major themes emerged from the study. They were organizational (poor work environment and lack of materials/equipment), professional (midwives’ attitudes, lack of supervision), public/consumer issues (interference) and policy issues (remuneration, promotion and retirement). Conclusions and implications for Practice Midwives love their work but they need support to provide quality care. Continuous neglect of midwives’ serious concerns will lead to more shortages as more dissatisfied midwives leave service.

  12. Prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care despite the critical public health concern and the burden of suffering on such youths. The current study examined the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment across five public sectors of care. Youths aged 11-18 (n = 1,135) enrolled in one of five public sectors of care reported on their maltreatment history using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Across all sectors, 78% of youth reported experiencing at least moderate levels of maltreatment with the majority (58%) reporting multiple types of maltreatment. The prevalence of maltreatment was highest for youths involved in the alcohol/drug (86%) and child welfare (85%) sectors, and lowest in the serious emotional disturbance sector (72%). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine differences in the likelihood of multiple types of maltreatment by sector affiliation, controlling for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and age. The results indicate that rates of maltreatment across sectors do not differ greatly from those in child welfare. The high incidence of maltreatment across all sectors, not solely child welfare, indicates that all youth in public sectors of care should be screened for a history of maltreatment when they enter into care.

  13. Public finance policy strategies to increase access to preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kay A

    2006-09-01

    Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15-44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states' experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs.

  14. Strengthening Foster Parent-Adolescent Relationships through Filial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the application of filial therapy as a means of strengthening relationships between foster parents and adolescent foster children. Adolescents in foster care experience a number of placement disruptions and while a number of therapeutic interventions are implemented to assist adolescents in foster care,…

  15. Congenital Anomalies: Public Health Interventions to Ensure its Prevention and Expansion of Care to the Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies can be defined as structural or functional anomalies, including metabolic / biochemical disorders, which are present at the time of birth. Congenital anomalies has been recognized as a major public health concern, owing to its universal distribution, associated long-term disability; social stigma; emotional / psychological stress for the family members; increased medical expenditure; and burden on the health care delivery system and societies. To prevent the occurrence of congenital anomalies, due attention should be given to establishment of appropriate surveillance systems to record cases from both community and hospital settings; strengthening of public health system; promoting research to explore the etiological factors and diagnosis/prevention strategies; fostering international cooperation; and discouraging the practice of consanguineous marriage / conception at an advanced age / further reproduction after birth of a malformed child. To conclude, there is an indispensable need to formulate a comprehensive policy, that should be well-supported by an efficient surveillance system, dedicated health care professionals and involvement of all stakeholders. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 135-137

  16. Public perceptions of health care professionals' participation in pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J; Courter, Laura; Hayes, Kristen; Shepherd, K

    2009-09-01

    Trust in the nurse-patient relationship is maintained not by how professionals perceive their actions but rather by how the public perceives them. However, little is known about the public's view of nurses and other health care professionals who participate in pharmaceutical marketing. Our study describes public perceptions of health care providers' role in pharmaceutical marketing and compares their responses with those of a random sample of licensed family nurse practitioners. The family nurse practitioners perceived their participation in marketing activities as significantly more ethically appropriate than did the public responders. Further research is warranted before conclusions can be drawn, but these early findings suggest that nurse practitioners should consider a conservative approach to participating in pharmaceutical marketing.

  17. Reducing Ex-offender Health Disparities through the Affordable Care Act: Fostering Improved Health Care Access and Linkages to Integrated Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacreisha Ejike-King

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite steadily declining incarceration rates overall, racial and ethnic minorities, namely African Americans, Latinos, and American Indians and Alaska Natives, continue to be disproportionately represented in the justice system. Ex-offenders commonly reenter communities with pressing health conditions but encounter obstacles to accessing care and remaining in care. The lack of health insurance coverage and medical treatment emerge as the some of the most reported reentry health needs and may contribute to observed health disparities. Linking ex-offenders to care and services upon release increases the likelihood that they will remain in care and practice successful disease management. The Affordable Care Act (ACA offers opportunities to address health disparities experienced by the reentry population that places them at risk for negative health outcomes and recidivism. Coordinated efforts to link ex-offenders with these newly available opportunities may result in a trajectory for positive health and overall well-being as they reintegrate into society.

  18. Reluctant rationers: public input to health care priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1997-04-01

    Members of the public can adopt any one of at least three roles when providing input to public decision-making: taxpayer, collective community decision-maker, or patient. Each of these potential roles can be mapped onto three areas of public policy decision-making in health care: funding levels and organization for the system, the services we choose to offer under public funding, and the characteristics of those who should receive the offered services. The increasing desire to involve the public across the spectrum of health care decision-making has yet to result in a clear delineation of either which of the areas are most appropriate for public input or which of the roles we wish individual participants to adopt. The average citizen (as opposed to the self-interested patient, the provider or the manager) has so far shown little interest in contributing and rarely has the requisite skills for most of the tasks asked of him or her. The widespread motivation of governments and others for seeking public input appears to be to get the public to take or share ownership in the tough rationing choices consequent on fiscal retrenchment in health care. Evaluation of existing literature leads to the conclusion that there are only limited areas where we might wish to obtain significant public input if we adopt this widespread policy motivation. Specifically, the general public should be asked to give input to, but not determine, priorities across the broad service categories that could potentially be publicly funded. Members of the public have neither the interest nor the skills to do this at the level of specific services. The role expected of such members of the public should be made explicit and should focus on collective views of the community good rather than self-interested views of individual benefit. Groups of patients, however, should be the source of input when socio-demographic characteristics are being used to decide who should receive offered services. The role

  19. Alternate Level of Care Patients in Public General Hospital Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Luis R.; Gil, Rosa M.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the interaction between psychiatric services in public general hospitals and in other institutional settings. A one-day census of patients in a New York general hospital showed the hospital was providing care to a large number of patients in need of other, less intensive institutional settings. (BH)

  20. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge claiming ... across many developing countries around the world. .... 19.8. Community Factors place of residence. Rural. 13.0. 14.0. 13.3. Urban .... hood among women who were exposed to either radio or ..... maternal health care services in Southern India.

  1. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age.

  2. Analysing the Present: Drawing on the Legacy of Vere Foster in Public Policy Debate on Futures of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John; Beckett, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out a framing analysis for a public policy debate on the future of schools that resonates with practitioners in teaching and teacher education on the island of Ireland, north and south, but also in other countries. This is informed by a democratic impulse to facilitate public policy debates, particularly on the ways schools and…

  3. Analysing the Present: Drawing on the Legacy of Vere Foster in Public Policy Debate on Futures of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John; Beckett, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out a framing analysis for a public policy debate on the future of schools that resonates with practitioners in teaching and teacher education on the island of Ireland, north and south, but also in other countries. This is informed by a democratic impulse to facilitate public policy debates, particularly on the ways schools and…

  4. Comparing public and private hospital care service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, D; O'Callaghan, M

    1998-01-01

    The study applies the principles behind the SERVQUAL model and uses Donabedian's framework to compare and contrast Malta's public and private hospital care service quality. Through the identification of 16 service quality indicators and the use of a Likert-type scale, two questionnaires were developed. The first questionnaire measured patient pre-admission expectations for public and private hospital service quality (in respect of one another). It also determined the weighted importance given to the different service quality indicators. The second questionnaire measured patient perceptions of provided service quality. Results showed that private hospitals are expected to offer a higher quality service, particularly in the "hotel services", but it was the public sector that was exceeding its patients' expectations by the wider margin. A number of implications for public and private hospital management and policy makers were identified.

  5. Violent, caring, unpredictable: public views on survivors of brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M A; Crothers, I R

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate how members of the public perceived survivors of brain injury. A 20-item list of attributes that could be used to describe characteristics of survivors of brain injury were given to 323 participants. One hundred and sixty-nine psychology students and 154 members of the public agreed to take part in the study. The effects of group (student and public), gender and socioeconomic status (low, moderate and high) on the attributes were assessed. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups with students holding more positive perceptions on 15 out of the 20 attributes. No effects of gender or socioeconomic status were found. The research suggests that members of the public hold less positive views on survivors of brain injury in respect to intellectual competency, ability to care and trustworthiness when compared to students.

  6. Using data warehousing and OLAP in public health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, D; Rogac, M; Markota, M

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the possibilities of using data warehousing and OLAP technologies in public health care in general and then our own experience with these technologies gained during the implementation of a data warehouse of outpatient data at the national level. Such a data warehouse serves as a basis for advanced decision support systems based on statistical, OLAP or data mining methods. We used OLAP to enable interactive exploration and analysis of the data. We found out that data warehousing and OLAP are suitable for the domain of public health and that they enable new analytical possibilities in addition to the traditional statistical approaches.

  7. New Public Management, Care and Struggles about Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    2009-01-01

    New Public Management (NPM) is usually perceived as a homogeneous discourse. However, when we examine it by looking at micro-politics in municipalities and understand its consequences drawing on the voices of home helpers, the picture is more complex and ambiguous. NPM is seen as disciplining paid...... of resistance. The analysis applies feminist theories of recognition and care, and its findings are based on focus group interviews and feminist discourse analysis...

  8. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: Lessons from Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Sarika Chaturvedi; Bharat Randive

    2011-01-01

    Background: The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. Objectives: The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. Materials and Me...

  9. Improving understanding, promoting social inclusion, and fostering empowerment related to epilepsy: Epilepsy Foundation public awareness campaigns--2001 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P; Kobau, R; Buelow, J; Austin, J; Lowenberg, K

    2015-03-01

    It is a significant public health concern that epilepsy, the fourth most common neurological disorder in the United States, is generally poorly understood by both the public and those living with the condition. Lack of understanding may magnify the challenges faced by those with epilepsy, including limiting treatment opportunities, effective management of symptoms, and full participation in daily life activities. Insufficient awareness of epilepsy and appropriate seizure first aid among the public and professionals can result in insufficient treatment, inappropriate seizure response, physical restraint, social exclusion, or other negative consequences. To address the need for increased public education and awareness about epilepsy, the national Epilepsy Foundation, supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has conducted yearly multifaceted public education and awareness campaigns designed to reach the broad population and targeted segments of the population including youth, young adults, racial/ethnic groups (i.e., African-, Hispanic-, and Asian-Americans), and people with epilepsy and their caregivers. Campaign channels have included traditional media, social media, and community opinion leaders and celebrity spokespersons. The key activities of these campaigns, conducted from 2001 to 2013, are summarized in this report.

  10. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…

  11. Fostering Innovation Through Robotics Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    FOSTERING INNOVATION THROUGH ROBOTICS EXPLORATION CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY JUNE 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...COVERED (From - To) JUN 2010 - JAN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FOSTERING INNOVATION THROUGH ROBOTICS EXPLORATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-10-2-0165 5b...16 Jan 09. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This effort enhanced Robotics STEM activities by incorporating Cognitive tutors at key points to

  12. [Public health care system in the Italia regions.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Alessandra; Solipaca, Alessandro; Milazzo, Rosario

    2007-01-01

    The National Health Plan 2006-2008 underlines the need to overcome the differences that exist in the health care services of the Italian regions. Because the health care systems are organised differently on the territory, the Regions provide different answers to the health needs of their residents. Therefore, the purpose of this document is that of analysing the characteristics of the Italian public health care system in 2003. While in the first part, the health system is described region by region, in the second part, a cluster analysis is used to describe the local health authorities. The results show that while both the first and second level assistance have become stronger, the centrality of the hospital system has decreased, even though it still occupies a dominant position.

  13. Reading and Writing with a Public Purpose: Fostering Middle School Students' Academic and Critical Community Literacies through Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, Nicole; Honoroff, Benjamin; Elgendy, Suzanne; Pietrzak, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Middle school is a crucial transition period for adolescents; in addition to beginning to grapple with the academic literacy demands of college and career readiness, they are working to find their place in public life and developing opinions about civic issues. This article presents debate as a literacy practice that is uniquely suited to helping…

  14. Beyond Care Avoidance and Care Paralysis : Theorizing Public Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schout, Gert; de Jong, Gideon; Zeelen, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Care avoidance refers to the condition wherein clients do not seek assistance and do not attend appointments although they are in need of help. Care avoidance is linked to another phenomenon, the inability to help clients with multiple and complex problems by social services and care facilities, in

  15. Beyond Care Avoidance and Care Paralysis : Theorizing Public Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schout, Gert; de Jong, Gideon; Zeelen, Jacques

    Care avoidance refers to the condition wherein clients do not seek assistance and do not attend appointments although they are in need of help. Care avoidance is linked to another phenomenon, the inability to help clients with multiple and complex problems by social services and care facilities, in

  16. Oral Care during Pregnancy: Attitudes of Brazilian Public Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Martins Paiva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about health professionals’ behavior regarding oral health care during pregnancy. We evaluated attitudes of obstetricians/gynecologists, nurses, and dentists working at a public community service towards pregnant women’s oral health. Health professionals responded to a self-applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis identified two clusters of respondents; Chi-square, Student’s t test, and logistic regression were used to compare the two clusters in terms of the independent variables. Respondents were categorized into cluster 1 ‘less favorable’ (n = 159 and cluster 2 ‘more favorable’ (n = 124 attitudes. Professionals that had attended a residency or specialization program (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.15–3.77, p = 0.016 and worked exclusively at the public service (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.10–4.20, p = 0.025 presented more favorable attitudes. Obstetricians/gynecologists (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.09–0.54, p = 0.001 and nurses (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.86, p = 0.013 showed less favorable attitudes than dentists. Health care providers’ attitudes regarding pregnant women’s oral health were related to their occupation, qualification, and dedication to the public service.

  17. Ambivalent implications of health care information systems: a study in the Brazilian public health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Porto de Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates social implications of the "SIGA" Health Care Information System (HIS in a public health care organization in the city of São Paulo. The evaluation was performed by means of an in-depth case study with patients and staff of a public health care organization, using qualitative and quantitative data. On the one hand, the system had consequences perceived as positive such as improved convenience and democratization of specialized treatment for patients and improvements in work organization. On the other hand, negative outcomes were reported, like difficulties faced by employees due to little familiarity with IT and an increase in the time needed to schedule appointments. Results show the ambiguity of the implications of HIS in developing countries, emphasizing the need for a more nuanced view of the evaluation of failures and successes and the importance of social contextual factors.

  18. Selection of the distributional rule as an alternative tool to foster cooperation in a Public Good Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Annarita

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation about cooperation in a Public Good Game using an Agent Based Model calibrated on experimental data. Starting from the experiment proposed in Colasante and Russo (2016), we analyze the dynamic of cooperation in a Public Good Game where agents receive an heterogeneous income and choose both the level of contribution and the distribution rule. The starting point is the calibration and the output validation of the model using the experimental results. Once tested the goodness of fit of the Agent Based Model, we run some policy experiment in order to verify how each distribution rule, i.e. equidistribution, proportional to contribution and progressive, affects the level of contribution in the simulated model. We find out that the share of cooperators decreases over time if we exogenously set the equidistribution rule. On the contrary, the share of cooperators converges to 100 % if we impose the progressive rule. Finally, the most interesting result refers to the effect of the progressive rule. We observe that, in the case of high inequality, this rule is not able to reduce the heterogeneity of income.

  19. Public dental health care program for persons with disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the organization and content of the Danish public oral health care program for persons with disability, and (2) to analyse possible variations in relation to the goals and requirements set by the health authorities. Data were collected by means...... of knowledge of oral health and oral health care for persons with disability were barriers to equal access to the program. Preventive dental services were the most frequent services delivered, although relatively few oral hygienists were involved in the program. Special training was most frequent in large...... municipalities. To secure equal access for persons with disability, it is recommended that joint collaboration between smaller municipalities should be made regarding procedures of such programs. Special training of dental personnel and of the staff responsible for selecting persons for the program should...

  20. Public trust in health care in the Netherlands: a performance indicator?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schee, E. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.; Friele, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    If public trust in health care is to be used as a performance indicator for health care systems, its measurement has to be sensitive to changes in the health care system. For this purpose, this study has monitored public trust in health care in The Netherlands over an eight-year period, from 1997 to

  1. School Stability: Improving Academic Achievement for NJ Foster Children. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Rance, Kourtney; Parello, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Children in New Jersey's foster care system are more likely to remain in their home school when they enter foster care, thanks to a law passed in 2010, giving these fragile children improved educational stability. The law allows children to remain in their "school of origin" when they are placed in foster care, even if the foster home is…

  2. Status Report on Publicly Traded Child Care Companies--An Interview with John McLaughlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Interview with editor of "Education Industry Report" reveals why child care companies choose to go public on stock exchanges and how publicly traded child care companies are faring. Discusses potential for growth in the industry, advantages of private placement, and recommended steps for going public. Describes nine publicly traded…

  3. Status Report on Publicly Traded Child Care Companies--An Interview with John McLaughlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Interview with editor of "Education Industry Report" reveals why child care companies choose to go public on stock exchanges and how publicly traded child care companies are faring. Discusses potential for growth in the industry, advantages of private placement, and recommended steps for going public. Describes nine publicly traded companies. (KB)

  4. The Local Control Funding Formula: An Opportunity for Early Childhood & Children in Foster Care. Increasing Resources for Early Childhood through the Local Control Funding Formula: A Guide for Early Childhood Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2016

    2016-01-01

    According to the new Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) law, most school districts in California are responsible for using LCFF funds to improve outcomes for children in the foster care system. Each district has created a Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP), the expenditure plan for LCFF. The LCAP is reviewed and revised annually by each…

  5. Understanding the concept of resilience in relation to looked after children: A Delphi survey of perceptions from education, social care and foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Rebecca; Jones, Fergal W; Creith, Elaine; Simonds, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    There has been a surge of interest regarding the application of resilience theory in childcare practice and how resilience can be promoted among vulnerable children, in particular, looked after children. However, little is known about how people working with looked after children understand the concept of resilience. This study aimed to explore how social workers, teachers and foster carers, working with looked after children, understand resilience and whether there is consensus as to what constitutes resilience. The study also sought to explore whether there are differences in how resilience is constructed across these groups. In total, 106 participants took part in a Delphi survey (34 teachers, 36 foster carers, 36 social workers). There was moderate consensus that resilience related to survival, coping and a sense of self-worth. Resilience was not considered a panacea but a concept that also had limitations. Participants understood resilience in ways that were both similar and different to existing conceptualisations within the literature. However, there were many aspects of resilience for which there was no consensus or significant difference of opinion between the participant groups. The need for further training and research is discussed, in order to support attempts to promote resilience among looked after children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The Effects of Staff Training on the Types of Interactions Observed at Two Group Homes for Foster Care Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Dunlap, Glen; Sager, Wayne; Neff, Bryon; Wilcox, Catherine; Blanco, Alfredo; Giddings, Tamela

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: An extensive literature base exists for behavioral parent training; however, few studies have focused on training direct care staff at group home and residential facilities for children. This study was conducted to determine whether a behavioral staff training program consisting of classroom training and in-home feedback would improve…

  7. Listening to the Voices of Children in Foster Care: Youths Speak out about Child Welfare Workforce Turnover and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been…

  8. Strategies for retaining adolescent foster children in school

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.A. South Africa is facing a high rate of children in need of care due to high escalation of the HIV/AIDS related illness. The children are being left without biological parents, and they are eventually placed in the foster care custody of their extended families. Sometimes there are challenges that are experienced by the foster parents and the adolescents’ foster children, as a result the adolescents’ foster children end up leaving school. Foster care learners who stay away from school o...

  9. Profile of hospital care for external causes in public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Victor Fonsêca de Lima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the profile of external causes in the emergency room of a public reference hospital in the state. Descriptive research document with a quantitative approach. The data analysis revealed that from January to December 2009 were made 4464 external causes. The higher frequency of injuries occurred in individuals aged 21 to 40 years (37.70%, males (68.6%. Regarding the causes, falls (29% was the biggest variable, followed by motorcycle accidents (17.98%, domestic accidents (16.53%, physical abuse (10.43% and bicycle accident (8, 84%. It was observed that 23.3% of the visits made to the emergency room were the people coming from surrounding municipalities. The study revealed the need to improve the quality of information about the grievances motivated by external causes, which are major causes of hospitalization and health care expenses.

  10. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: Lessons from Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. Objectives: The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using the rapid assessment approach was conducted in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra spanning 1-year duration ending in June 2009. Primary data were obtained through interviews with women, providers, and administrators at various levels. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: The PPP scheme for EmOC is restricted to deliveries by Caesarean section. The administrators prefer subsidization of costs for services in private facilities to contracting in. There are no PPPs executed in the study district. This study identifies barriers to women in accessing the benefit and the difficulties faced by administrators in implementing the scheme. Conclusion: The PPPs for EmOC under the JSY have minimally influenced the out-of-pocket payments for EmOC. Infrastructural inadequacies and passive support of the implementers are major barriers to the implementation of contracting-in model of PPPs. Capacities in the public health system are inadequate to design and manage PPPs.

  11. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: lessons from maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. A cross-sectional study using the rapid assessment approach was conducted in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra spanning 1-year duration ending in June 2009. Primary data were obtained through interviews with women, providers, and administrators at various levels. Data were analyzed thematically. The PPP scheme for EmOC is restricted to deliveries by Caesarean section.The administrators prefer subsidization of costs for services in private facilities to contracting in. There are no PPPs executed in the study district. This study identifies barriers to women in accessing the benefit and the difficulties faced by administrators in implementing the scheme. The PPPs for EmOC under the JSY have minimally influenced the out-of-pocket payments for EmOC. Infrastructural inadequacies and passive support of the implementers are major barriers to the implementation of contracting-in model of PPPs. Capacities in the public health system are inadequate to design and manage PPPs.

  12. [Difficulties of the care of public antigen alloimmunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor, I; Rekik, T; Louati, N; Lahiani, W; Rekik, H; Peyrard, T; Menif, H; Gargouri, J

    2016-05-01

    Alloimmunization against high-frequency erythrocyte antigens is a problematic situation in terms of laboratory diagnosis, transfusion and obstetrical management. We report the case of a pregnant woman alloimmunized against public Ag. We detail the difficulties of alloantibody (Ab) identification and transfusion management of the deliveries. A 29-year-old pregnant woman was hospitalized in gynecology and obstetrics departments at 36 weeks of gestation for assessment of hydrops fetalis. Antibody identification test revealed the presence of a pan-reactive antibody. Investigations realized in CNRGS (Paris) concluded in anti-GE2+anti-RH3+autoantibody. The red cell phenotype was GE: -2,3. A therapeutic interruption of the pregnancy was indicated. A program of autologous transfusion was organized with withdrawal of 2 units of blood. The 2nd pregnancy took place normally. Before delivery, an autologous blood reserve consisting of 2 red cell packs and 2 fresh frozen plasma was withdrawn and transfused after delivery. The management of anti-public alloimmunization poses several problems. The first one is of diagnostic nature with, on the one hand, the difficulty of Ab identification by the available red cell panels and, on the other hand, the possible presence of alloantibodies of transfusional or obstetric interest masked by anti-public Ab. The second is represented by transfusional care of these patients. In the absence of a national reserve of frozen rare blood, the autologous transfusion remains the only alternative. However, it can answer only a limited number of indications and only in case of moderate blood loss.

  13. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. What drives public health care expenditure growth? Evidence from Swiss cantons, 1970-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braendle, Thomas; Colombier, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of the determinants of public health care expenditures is key to designing effective health policies. We integrate demand and supply-side determinants and factors from political economy into an empirical analysis of the highly decentralized Swiss health care system and control for major health care finance reforms. We compile a novel data set of the cantonal health care expenditure in Switzerland, which currently amounts to about one fifth of total health care expenditure. We analyze the period 1970-2012 and use dynamic panel estimation methods. We find that per capita income, the unemployment rate and the share of foreigners are positively related to public health care expenditure growth. With regard to political economy aspects, public health care expenditures increase with the share of women elected to parliament. However, institutional restrictions for politicians, such as fiscal rules, do not appear to limit public health care expenditure growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HOBE+, a case study: a virtual community of practice to support innovation in primary care in Basque Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abos Mendizabal, Galder; Nuño Solinís, Roberto; Zaballa González, Irune

    2013-11-05

    A virtual professional community of practice (VCoP), HOBE+, has been set up to foster and facilitate innovation in primary care. It is aimed at all primary care professionals of the Basque Public Health Service (Osakidetza) in the provinces of Biscay and Araba. HOBE + is a VCoP that incorporates innovation management from the generation of ideas to their implementation in primary care practice. We used a case study method, based on the data provided by the technology platform that supports the VCoP, and from a survey completed by HOBE + users. The target population was all primary care staff (including all professional categories) from Araba and Biscay provinces of the Basque Country (Spain), who represent the target users of the VCoP. From a total of 5190 professionals across all the professional categories invited to join, 1627 (31.3%) actually registered in the VCoP and, during the study period, 90 (5.5% of the registered users) participated actively in some way. The total number of ideas proposed by the registered users was 133. Of these, 23 ideas (17.2%) are being implemented. Finally, 80% of the users who answered the satisfaction survey about their experience with HOBE + considered the initiative useful in order to achieve continuous improvement and real innovation in clinical and managerial processes. The experience shows that it is possible to create a virtual CoP for innovation in primary care where professionals from different professional categories propose ideas for innovation that are ultimately implemented.This manuscript objectives are to assess the process of developing and implementing a VCoP open to all primary care professionals in Osakidetza, including the take-up, participation and use of this VCoP in the first 15 months after its launch in October 2011. In addition, the usefulness of the VCoP was assessed through a survey gathering the opinions of the professionals involved.

  16. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood risk maps for high risk areas in all EU Member States by 2013. However, if existing at all, the current practice of risk mapping still shows some deficits: Risk maps are often seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that e.g. important local knowledge is not incorporated and forms a contrast to the understanding of capacity building which calls for engaging individuals in the process of learning and adapting to change and for the establishment of a more interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from the feedback it receives. Furthermore, the contents of risk maps often do not match the requirements of the end users, so that risk maps are often designed and visualised in a way which cannot be easily understood by laypersons and/or which is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and flood event management. The project RISK MAP aimed at improving flood risk maps as a means to foster public participation and raising flood risk awareness. For achieving this aim, RISK MAP (1) developed rules for appropriate stakeholder participation enabling the incorporation of local knowledge and preferences; (2) improved the content of risk maps by considering different risk criteria through the use of a deliberative multicriteria risk mapping tool; and (3) improved the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly risk maps by applying the experimental graphic semiology (EGS) method that uses the eye tracking approach. The research was carried out in five European case studies where the status quo of risk mapping and the legal framework was analysed, several stakeholder interviews and workshops were conducted, the visual perception of risk maps was tested and - based on this empirical work - exemplary improved risk maps were produced. The presentation and paper will outline the main findings of the project which

  17. An Evaluation of Foster Parents' Attitudes Towards Birth Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Deborah C.

    2002-01-01

    Although foster care involves many different relationships that have been examined for many years, few researchers have paid attention to the relationship that must inevitably develop between the foster parents and the child's birth parents. Foster parents have, nonetheless, been noted to express negative feelings about the behaviour of the foster child's natural family. This may have negative effects on the development of the child's self esteem and on the outcome of the entire placement. Th...

  18. Regional variations in public opinion on the affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Mollyann; Deane, Claudia; Cho, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    One year after passage, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) remains a divisive topic. Most publicly released polls on the law have focused on the views of Americans as a whole. But with much of the responsibility of implementation lying with the states, this essay explores whether opinion differs geographically. The analysis finds that views on the health reform law do differ by region, and these differences are most likely driven by the political leanings of a given area. While opinion nationally differs by age and race, this pattern does not hold when looking by region. Areas that have a larger share of uninsured and are slated to receive greater federal funding under the ACA also do not differ in their opinions. These data suggest that regional variations in attitudes about the ACA are based less on the demographic structure of a region and more on the political ideologies of residents in a given region. As implementation of the law continues, this analysis shows that national opinion data mask important regional variations in views of the ACA.

  19. Helping Foster Children in School: A Guide for Foster Parents, Social Workers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, John

    2015-01-01

    "Helping Foster Children in School" explores the challenges that foster children face in schools and offers positive and practical guidance tailored to help the parents, teachers and social workers supporting them. Children in care often perform poorly at school both in terms of their behavior and their academic performance, with many…

  20. 75 FR 43187 - Request for Public Comment and Consultation Meetings on the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on January 11, 2008 (73 FR 2082) that proposed to amend the AFCARS regulations... children receiving title IV-E are enrolled in school or have graduated, that an educational stability plan... of the webinars should register via the website for each webinar below. Persons may also...

  1. [The strategy of health care of population as a background of public social policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabriev, R U; Lindendraten, A L; Komarov, Yu M

    2014-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of underlying documents adopted during last years in area of health care first of all relate to development of public health system i.e. that most important branch targeted to rendering medical care and restoring lost health. At the same time, absence of the Federal strategy of health care of population hinders both achievement of goals stated for country and development of regional health strategies. Overall, this situation significantly decreases effectiveness of public policy in this sphere of activity. The main directions of strategy are presented. The major purpose of strategy as a public intersectoral approach to health care and health promotion of population is discussed.

  2. Peer pressure and public reporting within healthcare setting: improving accountability and health care quality in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchia, Maria Lucia; Veneziano, Maria Assunta; Cadeddu, Chiara; Ferriero, Anna Maria; Capizzi, Silvio; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, the need of public reporting of health outcomes has acquired a great importance. The public release of performance results could be a tool for improving health care quality and many attempts have been made in order to introduce public reporting programs within the health care context at different levels. It would be necessary to promote the introduction of a standardized set of outcome and performance measures in order to improve quality of health care services and to make health care providers aware of the importance of transparency and accountability.

  3. 38 CFR 17.55 - Payment for authorized public or private hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hospital care authorized under 38 U.S.C. 1703 and 38 CFR 17.52 of this part or under 38 U.S.C. 1728 and 38... shall pay the transferring hospital an amount calculated by the HCFA PRICER for each patient day of care... public or private hospital care. 17.55 Section 17.55 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...

  4. 75 FR 2562 - Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage Provided Pursuant to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Benefits Security Administration Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage... Administration, Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of the Model Health Care Continuation... document announces the availability of the model health care continuation coverage notices required by...

  5. 75 FR 26276 - Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage Provided Pursuant to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Benefits Security Administration Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage... Administration, Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of the Model Health Care Continuation... announces the availability of the model health care continuation coverage notices required by ARRA,...

  6. 75 FR 13595 - Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage Provided Pursuant to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Benefits Security Administration Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage... Administration, Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of the availability of the Model Health Care Continuation... document announces the availability of the model health care continuation coverage notices required by...

  7. Gamification in Fostering Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze gamification, as the method for fostering creativity.Design/methodology/approach – Author analyses the precognitions, which allowed gamification to attract mainstream attention, the diversity of understandings about the phenomenon, and the possible relations between usage of gamified platform and the development of creativity. The paper is based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature and related sources from sociology, business, and entertainment. The engagement is analyzed through the theories of self-determination and the “flow”. Creativity is understood as “any act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain, or that transforms an existing domain into a new one” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996. Gamification is analyzed as “use of game design elements in non-game context” (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, and Nacke (2011. Findings – Although the gamification is gaining more public attention, there is a lack of studies which would reveal its relations in fostering creativity. One of the main goals of any gamified platform is to raise the engagement of the participant while keeping subject interested in the process or activity. In some cases, there is a relation between “flow” and creativity. However, the strength of this relationship depends from the users of gamified content and the domain of interest.Research limitations / implications – There are very few empirical studies which would support correlation between experiencing the “flow” state and a raise of creativity. This issue requires more surveys, which would ground the idea.Practical implications – By developing further research in usage of gamification while fostering creativity it is possible to determine, whether or not the “creative domains” should apply more measures of gamification in their activities.Value – The article emphasizes on theoretical analysis of gamification and its applicability in fostering creativity

  8. The Fifth International Heelsum Workshop 'more synergy between primary care and public health': mission statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, van C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Binsbergen, van J.J.; Brotons, C.; Drenthen, A.J.M.; Green, L.E.; Halsted, C.H.; Koelen, M.A.; Kok, F.J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.; Ockhuizen, Th.; Truswell, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of the Heelsum Workshops is nutrition and dietary patterns as determinants of individual and public health. The meetings thus find themselves on the turning point between public health and individual health care¿a crucial turning point from a public health point of view. `Nutrition¿ has

  9. The Fifth International Heelsum Workshop 'more synergy between primary care and public health': mission statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, van C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Binsbergen, van J.J.; Brotons, C.; Drenthen, A.J.M.; Green, L.E.; Halsted, C.H.; Koelen, M.A.; Kok, F.J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.; Ockhuizen, Th.; Truswell, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of the Heelsum Workshops is nutrition and dietary patterns as determinants of individual and public health. The meetings thus find themselves on the turning point between public health and individual health care¿a crucial turning point from a public health point of view. `Nutrition¿ has al

  10. Psychosocial functioning in Dutch foster children: The relationship with child, family, and placement characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Foster care is the preferred alternative for out-of-home care, but not necessarily beneficial for foster children's psychosocial functioning. This dilemma leaves researchers with a challenge to find out more about the factors related to foster children's social and emotional functioning. In a sample of 446 Dutch foster children we examined the extent to which three clusters of characteristics, those akin to the foster child, the foster family, or foster placement, were related to foster children's functioning at the time of research. Multivariate three-step hierarchical regression analyses were performed for three outcome variables: externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and prosocial behavior. We found that all three clusters of foster care characteristics were significantly related to foster children's functioning. Foster placement characteristics, in particular interventions aimed at foster children, explained the largest amount of variance in behavior problems. Children receiving interventions had more externalizing and internalizing problems. A possible explanation is that interventions are indicated for those foster children who are in the highest need of additional support. Prosocial behavior was particularly related to foster family characteristics. The results were mostly in line with international research. Careful screening and monitoring of the social and emotional functioning of foster children may help to identify problems at an early stage. In addition (preventive) support should be offered to those foster children and families who are in need of it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Searching for effective interventions for young foster children under stress : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, Hans W.H.; Grietens, Hans; Strijker, Johan; Van der Gaag, Rutger J.; Knorth, Erik J.

    Foster children experience a lot of stress because of their life histories and changes in their family circumstances, such as foster care placement. It is important that foster parents recognize the early signs of stress in foster children and learn how to act in a non-threatening and understanding

  12. Public Policy Report. Child Care: An Endangered Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jerlean

    1990-01-01

    Presents testimony given at a Congressional briefing on findings of the National Child Care Staffing Study. The study concerned the staffing and budgeting crisis in the child care industry as a whole and the University of Pittsburgh Child Development Center in particular. (Author/BB)

  13. Respectful maternity care in Ethiopian public health facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheferaw, Ephrem D.; Bazant, Eva; Gibson, Hannah; Fenta, Hone B.; Ayalew, Firew; Belay, Tsigereda B.; Worku, Maria M.; Kebebu, Aelaf E.; Woldie, Sintayehu A.; Kim, Young-Mi; van den Akker, T.; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Disrespect and abuse of women during institutional childbirth services is one of the deterrents to utilization of maternity care services in Ethiopia and other low- and middle-income countries. This paper describes the prevalence of respectful maternity care (RMC) and mistreatment of

  14. Improving Educational Opportunities for Foster Children. Heritage Lectures. Number 1050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The more than 500,000 children currently in foster care are among the most at-risk children in American society. Research shows that adults who were formerly in foster care are more likely than the general population to succumb to poor life outcomes. Many of these problems are at least in part a product of problems in the classroom, where foster…

  15. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  16. Measuring the effects of reducing subsidies for private insurance on public expenditure for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Terence Chai

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of reducing subsidies for private health insurance on public sector expenditure for hospital care. An econometric framework using simultaneous equation models is developed to analyse the interrelated decisions on the intensity and type of health care use and private insurance. The framework is applied to the context of the mixed public-private system in Australia. The simulation projections show that reducing premium subsidies is expected to generate net cost savings. This arises because the cost savings achieved from reducing subsidies are larger than the potential increase in public expenditure on hospital care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  18. The Mutual Benefits of Listening to Young People in Care, with a Particular Focus on Grief and Loss: An Irish Foster Carer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Deirdre; Jenkinson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the mutual benefits for social workers and young people of active listening within a collaborative partnership incorporating foster carers, allowing the possibility to create a virtuous circle. The benefits for young people of increased self-esteem, positive identity and resilience among others are explored. The benefits for…

  19. Staff knowledge, attitudes and practices in public sector primary care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of diabetic nephropathy_ Knowledge of appropriate care of patients with ... other staff; Ui~ attitudes to working with diabetic patients;. (iv) suggestions for ... skin; 80% of staff - heart. Cataracts and retinopathy were correctly identified as the.

  20. patients' satisfaction with dental care provided by public dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-04

    Apr 4, 2006 ... known with regard to equity, efficiency, geographical equality of access, patient ... (vi) Physical environment features of setting in which care is delivered: (e.g. .... This exercise, which will involve equipping the clinics with the ...