WorldWideScience

Sample records for public ethnic regard

  1. Public attitudes regarding nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper traces the history of public attitudes regarding nuclear waste issues. A majority of the public has recently developed the attitude that nuclear wastes are a serious problem, and a small percentage of the public opposes nuclear power mainly because of nuclear waste issues. However, a majority of the public has confidence in the ability of technologists to solve the problems associated with nuclear waste disposal. Finally, the attitudes of nuclear technologists regarding waste disposal differed greatly from the attitudes of other groups, especially environmentalists

  2. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  3. Ethnicity and Public Space in the City: Ethnic Precincts in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4 is constructed on representations of ethnicity and ‘immigrantness’. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (“Little Turkey” and Cabramatta (“Vietnamatta”. This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are ‘co-ethnic’, ‘co-cultural’ or ‘Others”. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.

  4. Explanations for inter-ethnic differences regarding immigrants' preferences for living in ‘ethnic enclaves’ or in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    In European countries there are large differences between the settlements patterns of different ethnic immigrant groups. One explanation is that different groups to a different extent have been successful immigrants. Differences regarding their social and cultural integration and their economic...... network they can rely on, so-called ethnic enclaves, or for preferences for living in so-called multi-ethnic neighbourhoods, where there are few Danes but many other ethnic groups. The results of the study thus supports that the American ‘spatial assimilation theory’ has some importance also in Europe...

  5. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  6. PUBLIC POLICIES REGARDING PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Barbu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study: the study aims to analyze public policies regarding people with disabilities. The research methods used are the qualitative research method and the observation method. Results and implications of the study: children, and as they continue to become adults, in the short term, in order to diminish suicide attempts, they must be monitored so that the traceability of the integration of persons with disabilities can be determined from the moment of their institutionalization. In the long run, these people with disabilities will integrate and from sustained people will become supporters of social health, unemployment and pension insurance institutions, relevant to the change process.

  7. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding public health inspections of restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Grimm, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Foodborne diseases cause 76 million illnesses in the U.S. each year, and almost half of all money spent on food is spent in restaurants. Restaurant inspections are a critical public health intervention for the prevention of foodborne disease. A telephone survey of randomly selected Tennessee residents aged > or =18 was performed. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and expectations regarding restaurant inspections. Of 2000 respondents, 97% were aware that restaurants are inspected regularly by the health department. More than half of the respondents believed that inspections should be performed at least 12 times per year; only one third were aware that inspections currently occur only twice per year in Tennessee. More than one third of the respondents considered an inspection score of > or =90 acceptable for a restaurant at which they would eat; the mean score in Tennessee is 82. When presented with a variety of scenarios, an overwhelming number of respondents felt that public health responses to safety violations should be far more draconian than they actually are. Survey answers did not differ consistently based on respondents' race, gender, or history of having worked in a restaurant. This study identified a number of public misconceptions and unrealistically high expectations of the public health restaurant-inspection system. It is important to improve consumers' understanding of inspection scores and the limitations of regulatory inspections, as well as the role of such inspections in disease prevention.

  8. Delivery of public services in ethnic minority states: Gender equality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Delivery of public services in ethnic minority states: Gender equality and decentralization in Myanmar. In 2017, to sustain Myanmar's democratic transition, IDRC and Global Affairs Canada ... and staff from the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs (Asia ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.

  9. Everyday spaces of inter-ethnic interaction: the meaning of urban public spaces in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.B.M.; Haan, de H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic diversity is manifest in public spaces by the presence of people originating from all over the world. It is also manifest in typical ethnic spaces that are predominantly used by specific ethnic groups. This article focuses on how people from various ethnic backgrounds use urban public spaces

  10. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible

  11. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  12. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  13. 15 CFR 2007.4 - Publication regarding requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication regarding requests. 2007.4...)) § 2007.4 Publication regarding requests. (a) Whenever a request is received which conforms to these... publication of any Presidential action modifying the GSP, a summary of the decisions made will be published in...

  14. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers? awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that...

  15. Ethnic Identity and Power: Quilombos in Brazilian Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Peres Calheiros

    2010-06-01

    Extension Assistance (Pnater, this article examines the relation of power between public policies and ethnic identities. It discusses how the reformulated concept of development influences government activity in rural contexts and the adoption of compensatory actions for excluded portions of the population. It briefly presents the social, legal and conceptual trajectory of the quilombos, localizing the dynamics of power in the construction of quilombola identity, a project in constant re-elaboration by Brazilian society.

  16. Ethnic Identity in Diverse Schools: Preadolescents' Private Regard and Introjection in relation to Classroom Norms and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaei, Nadya; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2018-06-19

    Ethnic identity plays a key role in the normative development of children and adolescents, and efforts to provide a positive and safe environment for ethnic identity benefit from an understanding of its context-dependency. Following the social identity perspective, we add to research on ethnic identity by considering the role of the classroom context and by conceptualizing ethnic identity in terms of two key dimensions. Specifically, the present study aims to investigate the role of the classroom context for ethnic private regard (positive ethnic self-feelings) and for the under-researched construct of ethnic introjection (subjective self-group merging). These two dimensions of ethnic identity were examined in 51 Dutch school classes among grade 4-6 students (N = 573; M age  = 10.77, SD = 1.02; 54% girls) of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic background. We focused on teachers' multicultural norms and classmates' evaluation of the ethnic in-group (peer group norms) in combination with the ethnic class composition. It was found that ethnic introjection was empirically distinct from ethnic private regard, and that the former dimension depended on the classroom context more than the latter. Multicultural teacher norms affected minority preadolescents' private regard positively, but only when the share of in-group classmates was low. Positive peer group norms of in-group classmates strengthened students' introjection, while those of out-group classmates lowered it. The findings indicate that ethnic identity research will be enhanced by more fully considering the conceptual and contextual implications of the social identity perspective.

  17. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay.

  18. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  19. Parental attitudes regarding analgesic use for children: differences in ethnicity and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Michelle A; Martin, Sarah R; Kain, Danielle I; Tan, Edwin T

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of ethnicity and language on parental attitudes regarding analgesic use to treat children's pain. A total of 206 parents of children undergoing outpatient surgery were recruited to complete the Medication Attitudes Questionnaire, a measure of parental beliefs about using analgesic medications to treat children's pain. Parents were grouped into one of 3 categories according to ethnicity and primary language spoken: English-speaking white, English-speaking Hispanic, and Spanish-speaking Hispanic. Group differences in pain medication attitudes were examined. After controlling for socioeconomic status, English-speaking Hispanic parents endorsed higher levels of misconceptions about pain medication use, including a tendency to avoid analgesic use for children, compared with English-speaking white and Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents. This study highlights parental characteristics, including ethnicity and language, which may place children at higher risk for undertreatment of acute pain based on misconceptions about analgesic use for children. Specifically, English-speaking Hispanic parents may be most likely to undertreat children's pain at home. Future studies are needed to identify the most appropriate means of providing education to counter parental misconceptions and support optimal pain management of children's pain in the home setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethnicity, equity and public benefit: a critical evaluation of public umbilical cord blood banking in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, G N; Kerridge, I H; Vowels, M; Trickett, A; Chapman, J; Dobbins, T

    2007-10-01

    Over the past decade umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been increasingly used as a source of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for patients who require a HSC transplant but do not have an HLA-matched donor. It was anticipated that using UCB as an alternative source of HSCs would increase the chance of finding a donor, particularly for the otherwise underrepresented ethnic minority groups. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Australian public UCB banks to increase the ethnic diversity of available HSC donations, this paper analyses the ethnic diversity of the Sydney Cord Blood Bank (SCBB), comparing this diversity to that of the Australian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (ABMDR). It also examines the ethnic diversity of those patients who, after requesting a haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the 2-year period between 2003 and 2005, managed to find a suitably matched bone marrow or UCB donor. We show that the ethnic mix of donors to the SCBB has remained generally broad in source, is comparative to the Australian population, and is more diverse than the ABMDR. This, however, may still not be sufficient to substantially increase the likelihood of finding a donor for some ethnic minority groups.

  1. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  2. 15 CFR 2016.3 - Publication regarding requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication regarding requests. 2016.3 Section 2016.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE... Presidential proclamation modifying the application of benefits under the ATPA to countries or articles in the...

  3. [Latin-American public policy regarding social determinants of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Jorge A; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at identifying Latin-American countries' public policy which has been related to the social determinants of health. A topic review was thus made of papers kept in the 22 Latin-American countries' databases and official documents issued by their multilateral organisations and ministries of health. The World Health Organization's concept of the social determinants of health has been summarised and a history given of the pertinent work developed worldwide in regions such as Europe and Latin-America. Public policy regarding the field of study in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México and Venezuela has been described. It was concluded that Latin-America provides a panorama of inequality regarding the application of policy concerning the social determinants of health and that there was segmented intervention, mainly regarding intermediate determinants of health, without taking an integrated approach from different entrance points into account, according to the stated conceptual framework.

  4. LANDMARKS REGARDING THE EXTERNAL PUBLIC AUDIT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRINCU-DRĂGUŞIN CRISTINA-PETRINA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper falls within the category of those about the external public audit in Romania and is intended to be an investigative approach through which we propose to bring in the light of the scientific reflectors certain significant landmarks in the field, starting from the premise that it is a subject of considerable interest from multiple directions. In the described context, the coordinates of the article focus on the topical elements of the approached field and include conceptual delimitations regarding the external public audit, normative approaches in our country, aspects regarding the organization, functioning and management of the supreme audit institution, the presentation of competencies, the field of application for the activities of the Romanian Court of Accounts, as well as its specific attributions related to the external public audit. At the end of the paper, the conclusions on the debated topic are outlined.

  5. Households' ethnic background and crowding in public housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crowded housing is one of the housing stresses that bother policy makers and housing ... ethnic and cultural origins occupying Lagos State Development and Property ... groups should be deliberately mixed to achieve ethnic and social integration. ... FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  6. Lecturer and Student Perspective Regarding Teaching Public Aministration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana PROFIROIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available considerable progress in developing public administration teaching. However the need to increase student interest and involvement in the learning process is a largely widespread issue in all Romanian universities, which impacts on both teaching/learning methodology and student assessment methods. The present study aims to analyze (1 teaching practices, (2 students’ preferences and perceptions regarding these practices, and (3 the relationship between these preferences and real practices. I focused on teaching of public administration (or administrative sciences as a discipline and the possible variations in students’ preferences as opposed to teachers’ beliefs and real practices. Moreover, I was concerned with educational effectiveness in terms of acquired competencies and aspects that could increase the effectiveness of students’ learning. In respect of these objectives I designed two questionnaires: one for students in public administration enrolled in undergraduate programs and another for the teaching staff. The two questionnaires addressed comparable research questions. Some questions were similar in order to allow the comparison of responses for both categories of respondents. Seven public universities were selected through a convenience sampling method from more than 32 Romanian universities which have developed accredited public administration programs. I have chosen the seven most important programs according to student numbers, from all geographic areas of the country. The last part shows that the three hypotheses were not fully validated and for a further research, I should investigate the problem of poor results of my students by a qualitative research among the students with poor attendance and lower thanaverage academic performance.

  7. Ethnic variations regarding clinical profiles and symptom representation in prisoners with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzel, A Dorina; Harte, Joke M; van den Bergh, Mattis; Scherder, Erik J A

    2018-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are known to have higher prevalences of psychotic disorders and are over-represented in western penitentiaries and forensic psychiatric institutions. Research from regular mental healthcare settings suggests that they could show different and more severe psychotic symptoms. Aims To explore ethnic variations in severity of symptomatology of BME and non-BME detainees with psychotic disorders. In this study, 824 patients with psychotic disorders from seven different ethnic groups, imprisoned in a penitentiary psychiatric centre in the Netherlands, were compared on symptom severity and symptom representation using the BPRS-E clinical interview. Data were analysed by means of a multilevel analysis. BME patients with psychotic disorders are over-represented in forensic psychiatry, and symptom profiles of prisoners with psychotic disorders vary by ethnicity. Additionally, severity levels of overall psychopathology differ between ethnic groups: patients with an ethnic majority status show more severe levels of psychopathology compared with BME patients. There are differences in symptom severity and symptom profiles between BME patients and non-BME patients. Disregarding these differences could have an adverse effect on the outcome of the treatment. Possible explanations and clinical impact are discussed. Declaration of interest None.

  8. Effects of classroom education on knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation in ethnically diverse urban high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Vicky; Thornton, John Daryl; Wong, Kristine A.; Spigner, Clarence; Allen, Margaret D.

    2010-01-01

    School-based health education is a promising approach for improving organ donation rates, but little is known about its efficacy among ethnically diverse youth. The impact of a classroom intervention was examined in a multicultural high school population where students’ ethnicities were 45% African American, 30% Asian American, and 33% Caucasian (allowing for multiracial choices). A baseline survey was administered to all health classes within 2 weeks prior to intervention. On the intervention day, classes randomly assigned to the intervention group received an educational session, followed by a second survey; in control classes, the second survey was taken before the educational session. At baseline, non-Caucasian ethnicity and male gender were each associated with lower levels of willingness to donate. Following the intervention, students in the intervention group demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge scores (p<0.001), as well as positive movement of opinion regarding willingness to donate (p<0.0001). Most importantly, the positive changes in opinion occurred independently of ethnicity and gender, in spite of these both being negative predictors of opinion at baseline. These results demonstrate that even a single classroom exposure can impact knowledge levels, correct misinformation, and effect opinion change on organ donation among an ethnically diverse adolescent population. PMID:20088915

  9. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap

  10. Ethnic Studies, Citizenship Education, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, ethnic studies and other components of multicultural education have been criticized by neo-conservative and assimilationist scholars who maintain that school diversity initiatives weaken national identity and fail to help students attain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in the national mainstream…

  11. Attitudes and risk perception of parents of different ethnic backgrounds regarding meningococcal C vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, D.R.M.; Henneman, L.; Hirasing, R.A.; Wal, G. van der

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the attitudes of parents toward vaccination as well as their risk perception of disease and vaccination. We interviewed 1763 parents of different ethnic groups (among others, Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese parents). Results show that there were

  12. Ethnic inequalities in doctor-patient communication regarding personal care plans: the mediating effects of positive mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo F

    2017-04-06

    There is limited understanding of ethnic inequalities in doctor-patient communication regarding personal care plans (PCPs). This study investigated the mediating effects of positive mental wellbeing on differences in PCP-related doctor-patient communication amongst South Asian and Caucasian UK residents. Data from 10,980 respondents to the 2013 Health Survey for England was analysed using bootstrapping methods. Constructs from the WEMWBS (Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale) (Stewart-Brown, S., and K. Janmohamed. 2008. Warwick, UK) were assessed as mediators of relations between ethnicity and several doctor-patient communication variables, including PCP-related interactions; (a) had a PCP-related discussion about a long-term condition with a doctor/nurse, and (b) had this conversation within the past year, (c) agreed to a PCP with a health professional; and (d) talked to a doctor in the past 2 weeks. Bootstrapped mediation analysis (Hayes, A. F. 2013. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-based Approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press) showed that three positive mind-sets mediated associations between ethnicity and doctor-patient contact, including PCP-related communication. Being able to make up one's mind (ab = -0.05; BC a CI [-0.14, 0.01]) mediated the effect of ethnicity on agreeing to a PCP, while having energy to spare (ab = 0.07; BC a CI [-0.04, 0.12]), and feeling good about oneself (ab = 0.03; BC a CI [0.01, 0.07]), mediated ethnic effects on talking to a doctor during the past fortnight. The mediating effect of reported energy persisted after controlling for medical history, perceived health, and other covariates. Ethnic disparities in doctor-patient interaction, including PCP-related communication, are partly explained by positive mental wellbeing. Gauging positive psychological moods in patients, particularly self-worth, self-perceived vigour and decisiveness, are relevant to

  13. Public Consultation Processes in Greenland Regarding the Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackrén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the Greenland Self-Government Act came into force in 2009, economic development and the right to utilize natural resources in Greenland lies in the hands of the Self-Government. Earlier efforts to establish this authority were made back in the 1970s, when discussions on Home Rule were first on the agenda. Mining industries are not a new activity in Greenland. During the Second World War, Greenlandic cryolite was used to produce aluminum for the North American aircraft industry. Other essential natural resources, such as gold and gemstones, have also received international interest over the years. Greenland's new development aim is to build up a large-scale mining industry. This article elucidates the form of public consultation processes followed in Greenland in connection with two large-scale mining projects and the different views various actors have regarding these events. How did the deliberative democratic process unfold in Greenland regarding these projects? Was the process followed an effective way to manage these kinds of projects? The article shows that two projects that received a lot of media attention: the 2005 iron ore mine project in Isukasia, and the 2001 TANBREEZ-project to extract rare earth elements, used highly different approaches when it comes to deliberative democracy. In the former case, a limited degree of deliberative democracy was used, while in the latter case, the opposite applies.

  14. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Smith Jervelund, Signe; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational...... study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. Conclusions:The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite...... settings as sites for recruitment. Methods: Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion...

  15. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. Results: More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). Conclusion: These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings. PMID:28503216

  16. Doing race and ethnicity – exploring the lived experience of whiteness at a Danish Public School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012...... as racial enables everyday racism while blocking the positions available to speak out against ethnic and racial discriminatory experiences....

  17. PROPOSAL REGARDING THE REFORMATION OF THE ROMANIAN PUBLIC PENSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social insurance system from Romania, reformed continuously since the 90`s, is undergoing a period of serious crisis, with huge and growing deficits, while being far from the principle of social reasonability. Similar situations are found also internationally. The paper aims to answer the following question: how could we implement the principle "equality between present and future generations"? Taking into account the data provided by the National Institute of Statistics from Romania, Eurostat, the World Bank and EU regarding: developments in the birth rate, the number of contributors, life expectancy, the forecasts made in Romania, but also internationally, on sustainability and reasonability of public pension systems, are pessimistic. This paper proposes a solution as simple as it is effective. Why could it not exist in Romania a decent unique minimum pension linked to a decent minimum wage through the mandatory pension contribution rates? Why the welfare of pensioners in 2065 must depend on the existing number of employees in 2065, particularly given the pessimistic demographic forecasts that indicate a population decrease of 20% since 2060? The current PAYG pension system it will not be sustainable in future. Therefore it has to be changed.

  18. Regarding zygotes as persons: implications for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L Lewis; Brown, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the notion put forward by certain groups (largely as a consequence of their opposition to elective abortion) that the immediate post-fertilization cellular entity - the zygote - is a person and should be given full moral status. Because the zygote has none of the inherent characteristics necessary to be regarded as a person in the traditional philosophical sense (e.g., John Locke or Immanuel Kant), some advocates of this position attempt to advance their case with arguments based on the genetic potential of the human zygote to develop into a person. We argue that this position represents a flawed use of human genetics and ignores the extraordinarily inefficient and wasteful nature of human reproduction. We then explore the public policy consequences that would follow from granting the zygote full moral status. We conclude that the logical consequences of granting the zygote full moral status would require a revolutionary restructuring of many basic social institutions, especially the health care system. The social, political, and economic changes that would be required if the zygote is enshrined as a person in law constitute a convincing reductio ad absurdum that demonstrates the danger in taking this position seriously.

  19. Public practice regarding disposal of unused medicines in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Akke; Cormican, Sarah; Driscoll, Jacqueline; Furey, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Mai; Cormican, Martin

    2014-04-15

    Over recent years, a global increase in the use of pharmaceutical products has been observed. EU directives state that "Member states shall ensure that appropriate collection systems are in place for medicinal products that are unused or have expired" (Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2004/27/EC). There is no published data on how people in Ireland dispose of unused medicines; therefore the purpose of this study is to establish baseline information on storage and disposal of medicines. Data was collected over two 2-week periods a year apart. People in the streets of Galway and Cork were approached randomly and invited to participate by filling out a questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 398 individuals (207 in Galway and 191 in Cork). Unused medicines were kept in the home by 88% of the respondents. The most cited reason for keeping unused medicines was "in case they are needed later" (68%). Of the respondents who had disposed of medicine in the past, 72% had done so inappropriately. Environmentally inappropriate disposal methods were through general waste disposal and via the sewage system. Interestingly, of the people who had received advice on disposal practices from a healthcare professional, 75% disposed of their medicine appropriately. There is little awareness among members of the public regarding appropriate ways to dispose of unused medicines. Our findings suggest that effective communication and established protocols will promote appropriate disposal practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in Malaysia's multi-ethnic society: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's organ and tissue donation rates are among the lowest in the world. The study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in the diverse ethnic communities in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview exploring multi-ethnic participants' knowledge, attitudes, practices and behavioral on deceased organ donation and transplantation was conducted from February to April 2009. Although only 5.5% of the total participants (N = 1174) reported that they have registered to be organ donor, a further 35.2% of those who have not register for organ donation indicated willingness to donate their own. Significant socio-demographic disparities with respect to knowledge and attitudes scores were observed. In particular, Malays (20.7%) indicated lower willingness to donate organs compared to the Chinese (36.6%) and Indians (51.4%) (p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, willingness to donate one's own organ was associated with knowledge score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.22), attitude score (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31), secondary school education (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.02), and Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.03-0.94). Findings assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach out the diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities with cultural-specific information about organ donation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Harmony of Coastal Community Regarding Its Ethnic Religion and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghsari, Diah; Suardi Wekke, Ismail; Abbas, Nurlaelah

    2018-05-01

    West Papua is often known to be the miniature of Indonesia. The diversity of ethnicity, religion and culture embraced by the people of West Papua is very much like the concept of Bhinneka and Tunggal Ika. However, there is a negative stigma towards the people of West Papua, namely in its underdevelopment and conflicts. This research was conducted in West Papua using the observation method, library research and interview. This study aimed at providing an overview of West Papua using emic and etic approaches. The people of West Papua have an ingredient to maintain harmony, namely through local wisdom such as the term “One Stove Three Stones”, “One House Four Doors” and the principle of brotherhood that is held firmly. Ultimately, this forms a culture of understanding in the community and establishes religious harmony. Apparently, the negative stigma of outsiders about West Papua is formed by the mass media as well as films containing negative elements about West Papua. Therefore, there is a misperception about the people of West Papua.

  2. The Relationship between Teacher Regard and College Attendance Expectations: Socioeconomic and Racial-Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchak, Nicolo P.

    2018-01-01

    This study uses data from wave one of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health to analyze the relationship between middle and secondary school students' perceptions of their teachers, or "teacher regard," and students' expectations for college attendance. Variation in this relationship is further examined by…

  3. What a public-relations-model regarding radioactive waste implicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)]|[Energy Research Center Wakasa Bay, Fukui (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The behavior of public attitude to radioactive waste with time was investigated by using a mathematical model which was developed for estimating the extent of attitude change, being based on the assumption that the change of public attitude to a certain subject is caused by the information environment mainly formed by the newsmedia. Investigations were also made on the extent the public relations activity can contribute to the change of public opinion for the radioactive waste, and on the method of assortment and execution of various types of activity which brings the maximum change of attitude under a given condition of budget.

  4. Representation and Salary Gaps by Race-Ethnicity and Gender at Selective Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diyi; Koedel, Cory

    2017-01-01

    We use data from 2015-2016 to document faculty representation and wage gaps by race-ethnicity and gender in six fields at selective public universities. Consistent with widely available information, Black, Hispanic, and female professors are underrepresented and White and Asian professors are overrepresented in our data. Disadvantaged minority and…

  5. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a

  6. Leadership and Ethnicity in Public Companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Lai Yew Hock

    2014-01-01

    Corporate Governance gained prominence in Malaysia during the Asian financial crisis of 1997, which operated as a wake up call that the existing corporate governance structures in public listed companies were insufficient. In response, Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange issued the Listing Requirements on 22 January 2001 to regain investors’ confidence and attract foreign direct investments. The Listing Requirements included a Code of Best Practices in Corporate Governance that favours the leadership...

  7. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly se...

  8. Doing race and ethnicity – exploring the lived experience of whiteness at a Danish Public School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012......–2013 using multiple qualitative methods. Taking a phenomenological practice approach, the article addresses how racial (and ethnic) practices affect everyday school life. The analysis shows how a common-sense, habitual background of whiteness positions non-white bodies as different and ‘non-belonging’, thus...

  9. Importance of reportable events with regard to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Although risk assessments have shown that the transport of radioactive material (RAM) only contributes a very small part of the overall risk of nuclear energy, the public is still concerned about the safety of these transport operations. This is due to the fact that during such an operation RAM may come in the vicinity of everybody and that most people are familiar with the effects of ordinary transport accidents. It is therefore important to achieve public acceptance, that means, to convince the public that transport of RAM is really safe. Four points are of special importance in this connection: (1) information of the public about the safety philosophy and the radiation protection principles developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the transport of RAM. The planned edition of explanatory material to the IAEA Safety Series No. 6 - the so-called why document - is very important for this point; (2) information about the average and maximal individual annual doses for members of the public from normal transport of RAM; (3) information of the public about accident experiences in transport of RAM and the excellent safety standard reached in this field; and (4) information of the public about the extent and the results of governmental controls in this field. In the Federal Republic of Germany the states are requested to report to the Federal Ministry of the Interior all special events occurring during handling and carriage of RAM. The main purpose of these reports is to inform the competent authorities and to draw - if necessary - the conclusion for the improvement of protective measures

  10. 75 FR 61706 - Request for Public Comments Regarding Small and Medium Enterprises' Understanding of and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Public Comments Regarding Small and Medium Enterprises' Understanding of and Compliance With the Export... the public regarding small and medium enterprises' (SMEs) understanding of and compliance with export... report, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Overview of Participation in U.S. Exports (USITC Publication...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING SOCIAL INSURANCE IN THE ROMANIAN PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracsia-Magdalena Benţia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study: the study aims to analyze the issue of social health insurance in Romania and to provide legislative solutions in combating them. The research methods used are the qualitative research method and the observation method. Results and implications of the study: 1 establish a 2020-2030 Strategy to prevent disease by launching national campaigns for healthy eating, reducing smoking and alcohol consumption, and introducing the color scheme for food; 2 decentralizing the system, establishing a public-private partnership, increasing the patient's freedom in choosing doctors and services; 3 limiting the cost of medical care by introducing caps, as well as co-payments; 4 institutional reform of the public sector in this area. In some opinions, "Experience in other countries consistently suggests that introducing a private funding system would create more problems than it would solve. That is why efforts should be focused rather on institutional reform of the public sector"; 5 developing legislation to make differentiated payments for medical services; 6 closure of non-accredited hospitals and their privatization; 7 establishment of private health insurance houses.

  12. 75 FR 5281 - Notice of Intent To Hold Public Forums To Solicit Feedback From the Public Regarding the Section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... public forums to solicit feedback from the public on whether the current method of delivering the self... Feedback From the Public Regarding the Section 523 Mutual Self-Help Housing Program AGENCY: Rural Housing... solicit feedback, recommendations, and comments from all sectors of the public. All information relative...

  13. Exploration of public acceptance regarding CO2 underground sequestration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, M.; Tokushige, K.; Mori, Y.; Furukawa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms for gaining public acceptance of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) aquifer sequestration were investigated through the use of questionnaires and focus group interviews. The study was performed as part of a CO 2 sequestration technology promotion project in Japan. The questionnaire portion of the study was conducted to determine public opinions and the extent of public awareness of CO 2 sequestration technologies. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students majoring in environmental sociology. Participants were provided with newspaper articles related to CO 2 sequestration. The focus group study was conducted to obtain qualitative results to complement findings from the questionnaire survey. Results of the survey suggested that many participants were not particularly concerned about global warming, and had almost no knowledge about CO 2 sequestration. The opinions of some students were influenced by an awareness of similar types of facilities located near their homes. Attitudes were also influenced by the newspaper articles provided during the focus group sessions. However, many older participants did not trust information presented to them in newspaper format. Results suggested that many people identified afforestation as an alternative technology to CO 2 sequestration, and tended to think of CO 2 in negative terms as it contributed to global warming. Some participants assumed that CO 2 was harmful. The majority of respondents agreed with the development of CO 2 sequestration technologies as part of a program of alternative emissions abatement technologies. The provision of detailed information concerning CO 2 sequestration did not completely remove anxieties concerning the technology's potential negative impacts. It was concluded that a confident communications strategy is needed to persuade Japanese residents of the need to implement CO 2 sequestration technologies. 11 refs., 2 figs

  14. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chung-Lin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue. Methods Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics. Results Current smokers (OR = 0.34 and former smokers (OR = 0.68 were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy. Conclusions Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette

  15. Survey of public participation potential regarding the Muria NPP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarianto-SBS; Sri Hariani Syarif; Heni Susiati; Imam Hamzah; Fepriadi

    2003-01-01

    Socio-culture aspect is a part of site feasibility evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)program. Indonesia is under going democratization, therefore the paradigm of development has also been changed where the people have freedom or liberty and they can express their opinion independently. The people are significant factor that involving in the decision making of regional development.Even the socio-culture, such as social riot can reject the site. Therefore socio-culture aspect should be considered in the NPP site evaluation. The first step of the study,mapping of public participation potential should be conducted by field survey. The method used in there search is quantitative approach with field survey guided by questioner without any treatment of object sampled. Qualitative approach was also conducted by in-depth interview technique to collect more detailed information. Information were collected from general public without any stratification in the 10 km radius from NPP site. Sampling method used was full random sampling technique. The results of survey show that the most of the people have significant potential for participating in the NPP Program. Conducive atmosphere should be maintained by social setting, therefore the present good momentum will not be lost. (author)

  16. Reflections Regarding the Concept of Local Interest within Public Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Georgeta ALEXANDRU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we aim at performing an analysis of the concept of local interest, having as prerequisites the doctrinal debates regarding the general interest. The examination of this concept occurs in relation with the new trends, as concerns the exercise of competences at local level, respectively with the elements that define the interest of the community and its means of application within the life of the local community. Our research aims to establish theoretically the notion of local interest, an approach that we carry out within a difficult environment, whereas the notion of interest is fluctuating, being constantly modified under the pressure of the evolutions of social and economic needs. The results and the essential contribution of the material consist in the establishment of a framework that would offer to local authorities the practical possibilities for identifying the landmarks that surround this concept and that has to be harmonised with the values of modernity in order to respond better to the needs that are expressed.

  17. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Sabrina T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Methods Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. Results The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30% of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23 and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22. Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98. Conclusions This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  18. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Vivian W; Morgan, Steve; Wong, Sabrina T; Hanley, Gillian E; Black, Charlyn

    2010-06-17

    In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30%) of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23) and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22). Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98). This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  19. Influence of Ethnic-Related Diversity Experiences on Intercultural Sensitivity of Students at a Public University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of ethnic-related diversity experiences on intercultural sensitivity among Malaysian students at a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual Malaysian public university. Results reveal a significant differential level of ethnic-related diversity experiences (but not at the level of intercultural…

  20. State Public Policies and the Racial/Ethnic Stratification of College Access and Choice in the State of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.; Steele, Patricia; Woda, Susan; Hibbert, Taifa

    2005-01-01

    This study uses descriptive analyses of data from multiple sources to examine changes during the 1990s in the racial/ethnic stratification of college access and choice in Maryland and to explore state public policies that may have influenced changes in the demand for and supply of higher education for students of different racial/ethnic groups…

  1. 75 FR 28622 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U...: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: As part of the second phase of the Transparency... Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U.S. Food and...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1445-8 - Special rules regarding publicly traded partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real estate investment trusts (REITs). 1.1445-8 Section 1.1445-8... estates upon the disposition of U.S. real property interests. Except as otherwise provided in this... Bonds § 1.1445-8 Special rules regarding publicly traded partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real...

  3. Public Knowledge and Behaviours Regarding Antibiotics Use: A Survey among the General Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Y Abujheisha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is associated with increased number of illness, mortality, and health care costs. The incorrect use, excessive prescription and prolonged administration of antibiotics are some factors which allow the growth of resistant bacteria leading to the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Several studies about antibiotic use have shown that behaviour towards antibiotics differs among countries, depending on culture, habits, education, and health care organization. The aim of this pilot study was to inspect the attitudes and knowledge regarding antibiotics among the public in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a validated questionnaire was carried out from January to February 2017 within the public, including hospital attendees and patients come for a consultation at the Prince Sattam university hospital. A total of 670 participants were included in this study. They have been chosen using a suitable sampling method. Persons incorporated in this survey who were above 18 years old and familiar with the term “antibiotics”. Results: The majority of respondents get informed about the use of antibiotics from Pharmacists (79.94%, and Physicians (76.14% and 50.3% (n=331 of the respondents reported using antibiotics six months before the survey. Regarding the source of antibiotics, (42.55% of the respondents usually gets the antibiotics after a consultation with the doctor, while 53.8% declared that their antibiotics were acquired from a retail pharmacy and a few of them (3.65% get the antibiotics from family and friends. The justification of participants for having antibiotics was mostly due to fever (41.34% or respiratory infections (22.19%. About 33.5% stated that they did not complete the treatment course and the reason was they felt better. Almost 57% indicated that they had ever kept an antibiotic at home for emergency need while 28.57% use leftover antibiotics in case they

  4. Behind the ethnic-civic distinction: Public attitudes towards immigrants' political rights in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2015-09-01

    Public opinion research has sought to distinguish between ethnic and civic conceptions of citizenship and examined the differential associations of these conceptions with policy preferences in the realm of immigration. What has not been examined empirically is why exactly these conceptions are related to people's preferences. In two survey studies conducted among national samples of native Dutch we tested the proposition that the endorsement of ethnic citizenship is related to lower acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights (Study 1) and their political participation (Study 2) because of a weaker normative sense of common national belonging and higher adherence to autochthony (primo-occupancy) beliefs. In contrast, the endorsement of civic citizenship was expected to be associated with higher acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights and their political participation because of a stronger sense of common belonging and lower belief in autochthony. The findings of the two studies are similar and in support of these expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 75 FR 1492 - Commission Guidance Regarding Independent Public Accountant Engagements Performed Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Guidance Regarding Independent Public Accountant Engagements Performed Pursuant to Rule 206(4)-2 Under the... independent public accountants in connection with the adoption of amendments to Rule 206(4)-2 under the... least once during each calendar year by an independent public accountant \\1\\ (``accountant''), pursuant...

  6. Stigma, public awareness about intellectual disability and attitudes to inclusion among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, K; Addai-Davis, J; Kenyon, M; Sheridan, J C

    2013-11-01

    Attitudes to the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have been studied extensively, yet evidence on public awareness about ID and stigma is limited. The relationship between attitudes, knowledge and stigma associated with ID is poorly understood. The present study examined these factors and the relationships between them in the context of a multicultural society. UK residents of working age (n = 1002) were presented with a diagnostically unlabelled vignette of someone with a mild ID. They were asked to label the difficulties presented and to complete measures of social distance and attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs. While attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs were relatively positive overall, social contact was viewed with ambivalence. Inclusion attitudes and social distance were only moderately correlated. Across the whole sample 28% recognised typical symptoms of mild ID. Recognition of ID was associated with lower stigma and more positive attitudes than attribution of the difficulties presented to other causes. White Westerners showed increased knowledge, lower stigma and favoured inclusion more than participants from ethnic minorities. Among the latter group, Asians showed lower stigma and attitudes more in line with inclusion policies than participants of Black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Once a host of contextual factors were considered jointly, only contact was consistently associated with the variables measured. Stigma associated with ID is of concern across all ethnic groups, although it appears to be increased among the public from ethnic minorities. Given that contact and awareness are associated with reduced stigma, they should be considered as prime foci for efforts to tackle ID stigma. The current findings serve as baseline for attempts to increase public awareness and tackle stigma. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  7. The Relationship of Ethnicity-Related Stressors and Latino Ethnic Identity to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Chavez, Noe R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the risk and resilience model, the current study examined the effect of ethnicity-related stressors (perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure) and ethnic identity (centrality, private regard, public regard, and other-group orientation) on the well-being of 171 Latino American college…

  8. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study and the America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series...

  9. 77 FR 24669 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... collection in the U.S. recreational yellowfin tuna fishery and the relationship to international yellowfin...-XB162 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public conference call. SUMMARY: In order to better inform the...

  10. Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; van Stralen, Maartje M; Singh, Amika S; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; te Velde, Saskia J

    2014-06-17

    To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10-12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based survey among 10-12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested -and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs.

  11. Differences in STEM doctoral publication by ethnicity, gender and academic field at a large public research university.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton

    Full Text Available Two independent surveys of PhD students in STEM fields at the University of California, Berkeley, indicate that underrepresented minorities (URMs publish at significantly lower rates than non-URM males, placing the former at a significant disadvantage as they compete for postdoctoral and faculty positions. Differences as a function of gender reveal a similar, though less consistent, pattern. A conspicuous exception is Berkeley's College of Chemistry, where publication rates are tightly clustered as a function of ethnicity and gender, and where PhD students experience a highly structured program that includes early and systematic involvement in research, as well as clear expectations for publishing. Social science research supports the hypothesis that this more structured environment hastens the successful induction of diverse groups into the high-performance STEM academic track.

  12. Reoccupying Public Space by Hatred and Ethnic Cleansing. Case study: Banja Luka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Šušnica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the symbolism and the meaning of ethno-religious graffiti, slogans and stickers especially as they are used on the streets of Banja Luka. The city used to be a strategic centre for armed forces but is today the political centre of Republika Srpska (RS, supposedly a legitimate military conquest of the people of Serbia. Responses in ethno-religious graffiti can be turbulent. In our case, narrative and visual codes transmit dominant messages and myths of the Serbian ethnical corpus which can easily become hate speech, especially in the post-war context, in which ethno-religious differences are being brought to the fore, war crimes and armed victories are being exalted and expressions of non-tolerance are common. This aggressive visibility of »ours« pushes all the rest and anyone who is different into invisibility and self-censoring. The article researches characteristics and the quality of connection between the production and the results of ethno-fascistic speech in graffiti and in the messages of the RS ethno-political elites in public forums, regulations and media spaces. A contextual interpretation of a graffiti discourse, which was formed in the midst of civil war, ethnic cleansing, attacks on and the separation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and activities of political elites in RS, is offered. The intimate connection between street discourse and that of political elites shows that a populist legitimization of the activities of the RS is still a political goal that also triggers the process of forgetting the region’s multi-ethnic past. In Banja Luka, this process offers a »national and spiritual« legitimacy for the existence of RS and seeks to make the city a part of the Serbian ethnic community. It offers an unconvincing cultural-political and war-emancipatory »continuity« and »normality« for the RS and covers up its real intention of bloodshed from which it had emerged. In this it is consistent with Eco’s notion

  13. Practices regarding hospital waste management at public and private sector hospitals of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Din, N.U.; Mohsin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Health care (Biomedical) waste is a term used for all waste arising from health care establishments. In most of health care centers of Pakistan, including Lahore, hospital wastes are simply mixed with the municipal waste in collecting bins at road-sides and disposed off similarly. Proper Management of biomedical waste, especially the hazardous one, being produced in hospital settings is important in terms of their ability to cause harm to the related per-sons and the environment as well. To Observe and compare the practices regarding Hospital Waste management of the public sector hospital with private sector hospital. Descriptive, Cross sectional. Methodology: Standardized checklist was used to assess the practices of nursing and sanitary staff. Practices regarding waste segregation were same at both hospitals. While practices regarding waste collection and transportation were better at The Children's Hospital. Public sector hospital has, paradoxically, better practices regarding hospital waste management in comparison to private sector hospital. (author)

  14. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Kannapatch Srithong,1 Pratumpan Manokulanan,1 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,2 Myo Nyein Aung1,31Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 3Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo, JapanBackground and purpose: The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community.Methods: Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand.Results: A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. Whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males.Conclusion: The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.Keywords: health education, gender differences, ethnic minority, diabetes, Karen

  15. INDIGENOUS STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN URBAN RONDÔNIA: THE OMISSION OF PUBLIC POLICY FAILURE OF ETHNIC ORIGINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanubia Sampaio Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the outline of a study that is underway, seeking evidence and question the reality of Indian students in schools not as the situations of indigenous affirmation and omission identity (ethnic belonging in urban public schools in Rondônia. The obtained data show everyday situations that characterize violence and prejudice against students indígenas.Essas and other situations that reveals the interethnic tension remains dormant and can manifest in many different situations. At school, occurs in intercultural interaction. To discuss these and other issues raised in the survey, support for authors who discuss indigenous education, management, public policy, anti-colonialist project, empowerment, autonomy and leadership indigenous perspective of the indigenous movement with Grupioni (2001, Lopes da Silva (2000; D'Angelis (2012; Bergamaschi (2012, Both (2009; Mendonça (2009; Castoriadis (1988; Secchi (2008; Tadeu da Silva (1999 and Paulo Freire (1982 with their outstanding contribution to the dialogue on indigenous education. Keywords: Indian student. Urban school. Prejudice. Omission identity.

  16. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...] Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for Petitions for..., Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737... process changes APHIS is making to our petition process, go to http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet...

  17. Ethnic Tourism and the Big Song: Public Pedagogies and the Ambiguity of Environmental Discourse in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinting

    2017-01-01

    The article examines two forms of public pedagogies in a rural region of Southwest China-tourism and ethnic songs-to illustrate their contested roles in transforming local relations with natural and built environment. While tourism development daily alters the village landscape by spatial intervention, demolition, and construction, the…

  18. A survey of Canadian public health personnel regarding knowledge, practice and education of zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, K G; Anderson, M E C; Sargeant, J M; Weese, J S

    2013-11-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can spread under natural conditions between humans and other animals, are become a major public health concern in many countries including Canada. In Canada, investigations of zoonotic disease incidents are often conducted by public health inspectors (PHIs). However, little is known about PHIs' knowledge of transmission of zoonotic pathogens, their perceptions of zoonotic disease importance or their education regarding zoonotic diseases. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the knowledge, perceptions and education of Canadian PHIs regarding zoonotic diseases. Data were collected from December 2008-January 2009 using an internet-based survey distributed to members of the Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors national listserv. Responses were received from 229 PHIs in four provinces, with a response rate of approximately 20%. The majority of respondents reported at least 10 years of experience in the public health sector, 80% (181/225) were in frontline positions, and 62% (137/222) were routinely involved in investigations of infectious diseases. Two-thirds believed that the importance of zoonotic diseases with regards to public health would increase in the next 5 years. Whilst most respondents were able to correctly identify animals capable of directly transmitting common zoonotic pathogens, there were gaps in knowledge, particularly with regard to rabies and transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens by companion animals. PHIs tended to feel that their training on zoonotic diseases prior to working as PHIs was deficient in some areas, or left some room for improvement. Their responses also suggested that there is a need for improvement in both the quantity and the quality of continuing education on zoonotic diseases. In particular, less than one-third of PHIs received ongoing continuing education regarding zoonotic diseases, and of those that did, nearly two-thirds rated the quantity and quality as only fair.

  19. Final-year medical students′ perceptions regarding the curriculum in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrakrishnan Rayno Navinan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, has an integrated curriculum in which teaching of public health takes place through a series of modules which span the full five-year study programme. Aim: To assess final year medical student perceptions regarding the public health curriculum and to identify factors which influence this. Materials and Methods: The study was cross sectional. Convenience sampling was utilized on final-year students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. A self-administered 4-point Likert scale questionnaire covered general opinion on public healthcare and perceptions about the curriculum. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Results: One hundred and eighty four students (94% participated in the study. Eighty-two percent (148 viewed public health as an important field. Only 9% (16 were interested in a career in public health. A significant association was found between choosing public health as career and the following: perception of public health as an important field; holding a good opinion about public health prior to commencement of the course; having found the field-based experience enjoyable and beneficial to the community; and feeling competent to work in the community at the end of the course (P < 0.01. With regard to teaching methods, group activities and discussion-centered activities were identified positively (153, 83% and 125, 68% respectively. The majority of students indicated that they were not stimulated to read more on the subject or regularly revise what they have learnt, both during the introductory public health programme and during the final year. Conclusions: The curriculum has been able to create a positive opinion about public health. However, students lack enthusiasm to learn independently. Experiential, group-centered teaching activities and a constructivist approach may be more effective in promoting independent learning

  20. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Srithong, Kannapatch; Manokulanan, Pratumpan; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Aung, Myo Nyein

    2012-01-01

    The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI) assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand. A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were "not sure". Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males. The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.

  1. [Public health stewardship and governance regarding the Colombian healthcare system, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Deubel, André N; Molina-Marín, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Analysing decision-making concerning public health issues regarding the Colombian healthcare system from a market economy-based approach. This study involved applying Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory in six Colombian cities during 2012: Bogotá, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Leticia, Medellin and Pasto. 120 individual interviews were conducted with professionals involved in decision-making, running public healthcare programmes and making policy within public and private institutions. Fourteen focus groups were held with community organisation leaders. The findings suggested national and municipal health authorities' weak stewardship and ineffective governance regarding public healthcare policy and programmes, related to a lack of staff trained in public health management issues. In turn, this was related to political parties' interference and private insurers' particular interests and the structural fragmentation of functions and actors within the health system, thereby limiting public health development. A new axiology is necessary for achieving effective governance (I.e. cooperation between Colombian Healthcare Social Security System actors) to overcome current incompetence and financial self-interest predominating within the Colombian healthcare system.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding HPV vaccination: ethnic and cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Clark, Jack A; Bauchner, Howard; Walsh, Jared P; Mercilus, Glory; Figaro, Jean; Bibbo, Caroline; Perkins, Rebecca B

    2012-01-01

    Black women have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of HPV vaccination than White women in the United States, and Haitians may be an especially vulnerable subgroup of Black women. To reduce these disparities, understanding differences among subgroups of Black women is crucial. The objective of our study was to assess similarities and differences in the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices toward HPV vaccination and actual vaccination rates among African-American and Haitian immigrant women and their daughters. We used validated surveys of HPV knowledge, trust in physicians, acculturation, and constructs of the health belief model: Perceived susceptibility, severity, and barriers. We probed women's thought processes about vaccination using open-ended questions. We then reviewed medical records to determine vaccination rates. Nineteen African Americans and 51 Haitians participated. Although 75% of Haitians and 63% of African Americans intended to vaccinate their daughters, only 47% of African-American and 31% of Haitian daughters were vaccinated. African Americans were more knowledgeable than Haitians and had more prior experience with HPV disease. Most African Americans felt that vaccination fell within the parental role, whereas many Haitians felt uncomfortable vaccinating against sexually transmitted infections because they felt children should not be having sex. Both ethnic groups wanted more information about HPV vaccines. Cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant mothers revealed distinct barriers for vaccine acceptance. Improving HPV vaccine rates in Black women may require culturally competent and sensitive approaches that address ethnic-specific barriers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Text mining analysis of public comments regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to narrow the risk perception gap as seen in social investigations between the general public and people who are involved in nuclear industry, public comments on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal have been conducted to find the significant talking points with the general public for constructing an effective risk communication model of social risk information regarding HLW disposal. Text mining was introduced to examine public comments to identify the core public interest underlying the comments. The utilized test mining method is to cluster specific groups of words with negative meanings and then to analyze public understanding by employing text structural analysis to extract words from subjective expressions. Using these procedures, it was found that the public does not trust the nuclear fuel cycle promotion policy and shows signs of anxiety about the long-lasting technological reliability of waste storage. To develop effective social risk communication of HLW issues, these findings are expected to help experts in the nuclear industry to communicate with the general public more effectively to obtain their trust. (author)

  4. A NEW APPROACH REGARDING THE EXPENSES IN LOCAL BUDGETS FOR PUBLIC AUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a new approach regarding the expenditures for public authorities covered by localbudgets to streamline their positive impact on the improvment of the financial activitiy of local administrations. Thestudy begins with fixing the place of these expenses within the sphere of public costs from the local budget and continueswith presenting the new legislative framework of their manifestation. In the last part of the study I conceived twoalternatives to reduce the costs involved in the functioning of the local administrative system closely correlated with theterritorial and administrative reorganization of Romania.

  5. Some Considerations Regarding the Reform in the Field of Civil Status Activity and Public Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupsan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives imposed by the European Union on Romania regarding upgrading local public administration on the basis of information technologies, including the one in the marital status activity, which includes, in addition to setting the legal framework and setting up technological infrastructure and the identification of the organizational tools necessary to achieve operational objectives. In our work we present, based on the normative acts, a short history of the reform in the domain of marital status activity and population records.

  6. The Revealed Influence of Class, Race, and Ethnicity on Local Public-School Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Byron W.; Saks, Daniel H.

    1985-01-01

    Findings include (1) poor and upper middle classes want to spend more on schools than the middle classes; (2) Blacks and ethnics of European stock want to spend more on schooling than other Americans; and (3) there is no difference in demands for school expenditures between Northern and Southern/Eastern European ethnics. (RM)

  7. Using Twitter to Understand Public Perceptions Regarding the #HPV Vaccine: Opportunities for Public Health Nurses to Engage in Social Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mitchell, Emma M; Sun, Emily; Kennedy, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Given the degree of public mistrust and provider hesitation regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, it is important to explore how information regarding the vaccine is shared online via social media outlets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content of messaging regarding the HPV vaccine on the social media and microblogging site Twitter, and describe the sentiment of those messages. This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive approach. Over a 2-week period, Twitter content was searched hourly using key terms "#HPV and #Gardasil," which yielded 1,794 Twitter posts for analysis. Each post was then analyzed individually using an a priori coding strategy and directed content analysis. The majority of Twitter posts were written by lay consumers and were sharing commentary about a media source. However, when actual URLs were shared, the most common form of share was linking back to a blog post written by lay users. The vast majority of content was presented as polarizing (either as a positive or negative tweet), with 51% of the Tweets representing a positive viewpoint. Using Twitter to understand public sentiment offers a novel perspective to explore the context of health communication surrounding certain controversial issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 49 CFR 1570.13 - False statements regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... checks by public transportation agency or railroad carrier. 1570.13 Section 1570.13 Transportation Other... regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad carrier. (a) Scope. This... employee of a public transportation agency or a contractor or subcontractor of a public transportation...

  9. Public contracts in the Dutch energy sector. A strategic investigation with regard to normalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Feen, E.J.; Maas, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of strategic investigations is carried out to determine if and to what extent normalization of public contracts can support the position of the Dutch businesses and industry in the European market. The strategic investigation in this report is limited to clusters within the Dutch energy utilities' sector concerning the production, transportation and distribution of electricity and heat, and the distribution of natural gas in the Netherlands. The results of this report can support those companies that will acquire orders via public contracts in the future; companies that wish to continue existing relations with tender services, if they will change to public contracts; and tender services that will have to put their orders via public contracts.Relevant European guidelines and accompanying procedures are outlined. The economic interest of the total Dutch energy sector and the different energy clusters in the Netherlands is discussed. Also attention is paid to the process of normalization, the role of standards and other technical documents regarding the guidelines Public Contracts. An inventory of available standards and conceptual standards is given for each energy cluster. Finally, an indication is given of the actual compliance of the guidelines. 5 figs., 4 tabs., 16 appendices

  10. Through which looking glass? Distinct sources of public regard and self-esteem among first- and second-generation immigrants of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Krystal; Wiley, Shaun; Deaux, Kay

    2014-04-01

    How we think other people see us has long been believed to influence how we see ourselves, a phenomenon known as reflected appraisal. Among members of ethnic minority groups and immigrant groups, however, inconsistent patterns have been found. This study examined how immigrants' views of their ethnic group and of themselves are tied the appraisals of specific others. We hypothesized that members of the heritage culture and of White Americans are implicated in the reflected appraisal process to differing degrees. Moreover, we hypothesized that immigrants (first-generation) and the children of immigrants (second-generation) are affected differently by the appraisals of White Americans and heritage culture members. Results showed that perceived appraisal by members of the heritage culture was linked to how immigrants felt about their group and to their personal self-esteem. Perceived appraisal of White Americans was not related to how immigrants felt about their group and was only weakly related to personal self-esteem. The results highlight the distinction between public regard from the heritage culture and from White Americans and underscore the importance of the former for immigrants' private regard and self-esteem.

  11. Non-linear behavior of public opinion on the issues regarding inhabitants' polls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki; Suganuma, Jyun-ichi

    2003-01-01

    The observed change of public attitude around the time of inhabitants' poll in Japan was compared with model calculation to investigate its non-linear behavior. Two inhabitants' polls regarding nuclear issues, the approval and disapproval of the construction of Maki nuclear station, and of the MOX fuel use at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear station, were considered together with the poll on the reconstruction of the tenth weir in Yoshino river carried out in Tokushima. By using a mathematical model such that the individual attitude is mainly subject to two factors of the information environment and the mutual communication between the public, it was found that the change and the unification of public attitude around the time of inhabitants' poll can be interpreted as a manifestation of self-organization resulted from the cooperative phenomenon of those two factors. Moreover, it was also found that the abrupt change of public attitude just before the poll can be interpreted as a result of positive feedback of the information environment formed by the various types of propaganda activities to the attitude change, though the extent of such non-linear effects differs from case to case. (author)

  12. Perceptions Regarding Importance and Skill at Policy Development Among Public Health Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Policy development is recognized as a core function of public health and a core competency in formal public health education. However, relatively little is known nationally about worker perceptions and competencies related to policy development in the governmental public health workforce. To characterize perceived importance and presence or absence of competency gaps related to policy development. As part of the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), a nationally representative stratified sample of permanently employed state health agency (SHA) central office staff was created. Descriptive and inferential analyses examined correlates of perceived importance and competency gaps related to policy development. Permanently employed central office employees of SHAs. Analyses focus on 2 self-reported measures of perceived importance and ability related to policy development skills, as well as awareness and perceptions regarding Health in All Policies (HiAP). Seventy-two percent of SHA central office staff (95% confidence interval, 71-73) indicated "influencing policy development" was somewhat or very important to their day-to-day work. Among that group, 35% (95% confidence interval, 34-36) reported that they were unable to perform this or they considered themselves to be a beginner at this skill. Approximately three-fourths of staff indicated "understanding the relationship between a new policy and many types of public health problems" was somewhat or very important, and 30% of those who did said they were unable to perform this skill or were a beginner at it. Nationally, one-half of staff have not heard of HiAP. Among those who have, 86% indicated it was somewhat or very important to public health, and 41% reported they would like to see more emphasis on HiAP. Workforce development, both formal education and on-the-job training, may benefit from placing a greater emphasis on the development of policy skills. HiAP is an important approach to policy

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis among immigrants of Somalian ethnic origin in London: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, N; Shemko, M; Abbas, A

    2004-03-01

    The objectives were to study knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding tuberculosis (TB) among Somalian subjects in inner London. We administered structured, fixed response KAP questionnaires to 23 patients (culture proved TB), and two groups of controls: 25 contacts (family members) and 27 lay controls (general Somali immigrant population). Responses were summed on a five-point scale. Most were aware of the infectious nature of TB but uncertain of other risk factors. Many were uncertain about coping with the disease and its effect on lifestyle. Belief in biomedicine for TB was unequivocal with men having a significantly higher belief score than women (p = 0.02); the need to comply with TB medication was unambiguously understood. Somalians interviewed were educated, multilingual, and aware of important health issues. Uncertainties in core TB knowledge need to be addressed with direct educational input, especially in women and recent entrants into the country. Volunteers from the established Somalian community could play a valuable part as links in the community to fight TB.

  14. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 10(7)-107 × 10(7). The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future.

  15. Issues regarding transient analysis examined by the Sizewell B Public Inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, P.R.; Dunnicliffe, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Issues on PWR safety transient analysis that were discussed at the Sizewell B Public Inquiry are presented. The Public Inquiry was set up by the UK Government under an Inspector, Sir Frank Layfield, to examine all aspects of the construction, safety and operation of a 1200 MW(e) PWR on the Sizewell site. The terms of reference were broad ranging, and the constitution of the Inquiry was to make a recommendation under three Acts of Parliament which apply to the construction and operation of nuclear electrical plant. The Inquiry also covered local planning aspects, which are the responsibility of the Local Authority - in this case the Suffolk County Council. The Inspector examined and made recommendations on the safety of the Station, but consideration by Public Inquiry is outside the formal safety and licensing process, which is the business of the Utility (the CEGB) and the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (the NII). The paper therefore takes a broader look at the question of safety, dealing with the licensing process, the requirements of the safety case and the forward strategies adopted by the CEGB in terms of research and development. This is considered for transient analysis, and the aim is to set the discussions and conclusions of the Public Inquiry into their proper context with regard to nuclear safety in the UK. The Inquiry went into some depth on the topic of LOCA, as an example of safety analysis. In the summary of the evidence and cross-examination the Inspector accepted the adequacy of the LOCA safety case without major reservations, and was satisfied further work in progress would resolve any residual criticisms. In particular support was given for the CEGB commitment to the development and use of more physically realistic calculational methods

  16. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Oladimeji; Ottenbacher, Allison; Martin, Marcus; Harrison, Roderick; James, Thomas; Martin, Eddilisa; Murdoch, James; Linnear, Kim; Cardarelli, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the awareness of public health professionals regarding racial and ethnic disparities in health in the United States of America (USA). Our study objective was to assess the awareness and perceptions of a group of public health workers in Texas regarding racial health disparities and their chief contributing causes. We surveyed public health professionals working on a statewide grant in Texas, who were participants at health disparities' training workshops. Multivariable logistic regression was employed in examining the association between the participants' characteristics and their perceptions of the social determinants of health as principal causes of health disparities. There were 106 respondents, of whom 38 and 35 % worked in health departments and non-profit organizations, respectively. The racial/ethnic groups with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS and hypertension were correctly identified by 63 and 50 % of respondents, respectively, but only 17, and 32 % were knowledgeable regarding diabetes and cancer, respectively. Seventy-one percent of respondents perceived that health disparities are driven by the major axes of the social determinants of health. Exposure to information about racial/ethnic health disparities within the prior year was associated with a higher odds of perceiving that social determinants of health were causes of health disparities (OR 9.62; 95 % CI 2.77, 33.41). Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer.

  17. GAP-REACH: a checklist to assess comprehensive reporting of race, ethnicity, and culture in psychiatric publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E; Alarcón, Renato D; Oquendo, María A; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N; Jacobsen, Frederick M; Foulks, Edward F; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-10-01

    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-item GAP-REACH checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article.

  18. Variation of public opinion regarding nuclear energy with the change of nuclear information by the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of the secular variation of public opinion with respect to nuclear energy since 1973 was simulated by using an already developed mathematical model with the assumption that the public opinion, regardless of the local resident or of the average Japanese, has been subject almost solely to the quality and quantity of information by the newsmedia. The quality and quantity of nuclear information was assumed here to be measurable by the amount of information with positive or negative contents regarding the promotion of nuclear generation, which is released by the press, television and magazines. From the comparison of the quality and quantity of information by several newspapers, a major difference was found to exist between the information made by the press in the located region of nuclear station and the information by the national press, such that the former has released everyday information of both positive and negative contents for local residents with the amount several times higher than the latter. Model calculation showed that the attitude of local residents to nuclear energy is quite stable in time as compared to that of average Japanese. Such an essential difference of nuclear attitude between the local resident and the average Japanese became clear to originate from the above-cited difference of the characteristics of information between the local and national media. With the use of such model calculation as this, useful knowledge concerning the method of disclosure of nuclear information is expected to obtain. (author)

  19. Knowledge, perceptions and media use of the Dutch general public and healthcare workers regarding Ebola, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schol, Lianne G C; Mollers, Madelief; Swaan, Corien M; Beaujean, Desirée J M A; Wong, Albert; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-08

    The Ebola outbreak in West-Africa triggered risk communication activities to promote adequate preventive behaviour in the Netherlands. Our study investigated the level of knowledge, perceptions, and media use regarding Ebola. In December 2014, an online questionnaire was administered to the Dutch population (n = 526) and Health Care Workers (HCW) (n = 760). The mean knowledge score (range 0-15) of HCW (m = 13.3;SD = 1.4) was significantly higher than the general public (m = 10.8;SD = 2.0). No significant difference was found in perceived severity and susceptibility. Perceived fear of the general public (m = 2.5; SD = 0.8) was significantly higher than among HCW (m = 2.4; SD = 0.7). Respondents primarily used television to obtain information. While Ebola was perceived severe, it did not lead to excessive fear or perceived susceptibility for developing the disease. Nonetheless, our research showed that knowledge with respect to human-to-human transmission is low, while this is crucial to complying with preventive measures. Our study reveals priorities for improving risk communication.

  20. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  1. Reducing the potential for conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    Sources of potential conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities are identified and analyzed. Programs and policies are suggested that could reduce conflict over the siting and operation of such facilities

  2. 75 FR 19335 - Premium Review Process; Request for Comments Regarding Section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Parts 146 and 148 Premium Review Process; Request for Comments Regarding Section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act AGENCY..., which added Section 2794 to the Public Health Service Act (the PHS Act). Section 2794 of the PHS Act...

  3. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  4. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  5. Governing public nuisance: collaboration and conflict regarding the presence of homeless people in public spaces of Montreal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baillergeau, E.

    2014-01-01

    Exclusionary policing has been a strong, enduring trend for responding to the presence of marginalised groups in public spaces of Western cities - at times so dominant that it overshadows the existence of alternative rationalities such as public health and social justice. Are such alternatives

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue infection among public sector healthcare providers in Machala, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Handel, Andrew S.; Ayala, Efra?n Beltr?n; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Fessler, Abigail G.; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Espinoza, Roberto Xavier Robalino; Ryan, Sadie J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging infection throughout the tropics and subtropics with extensive public health burden. Adequate training of healthcare providers is crucial to reducing infection incidence through patient education and collaboration with public health authorities. We examined how public sector healthcare providers in a dengue-endemic region of Ecuador view and manage dengue infections, with a focus on the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) Dengue Guidelines. Metho...

  7. Variations in clinicopathologic characteristics of thyroid cancer among racial ethnic groups: analysis of a large public city hospital and the SEER database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Tricia A; Panergo, Jessel; Wang, Chih E; Patel, Subhash; Duh, Hong Yan; Winchester, David J; Prinz, Richard A; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2013-11-01

    Clinicopathologic variables influence the treatment and prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer. A retrospective analysis of public hospital thyroid cancer database and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 17 database was conducted. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic data were compared across ethnic groups. Within the public hospital database, Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites were younger and had more lymph node involvement (34% vs 17%, P ethnic groups. Similar findings were demonstrated within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. African Americans aged ethnic groups. Such disparities persist within an equal-access health care system. These findings suggest that factors beyond socioeconomics may contribute to such differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge, perceptions and media use of the Dutch general public and healthcare workers regarding Ebola, 2014.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schol, Lianne G C; Mollers, Madelief; Swaan, Corien M; Beaujean, Desirée J M A; Wong, Albert; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak in West-Africa triggered risk communication activities to promote adequate preventive behaviour in the Netherlands. Our study investigated the level of knowledge, perceptions, and media use regarding Ebola.

  9. Are Public School Teacher Salaries Paid Compensating Wage Differentials for Student Racial and Ethnic Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between public school teacher salaries and the racial concentration and segregation of students in the district. A particularly rich set of control variables is included to better measure the effect of racial characteristics. Additional analyses included Metropolitan Statistical Area fixed effects and…

  10. Improving capacity in ethnicity and health research: report of a tailored programme for NHS Public Health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Sarah; Piercy, Hilary; Chowbey, Punita; Brewins, Louise; Dhoot, Permjeet

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether an intervention designed to enhance research capacity among commissioners in the area of ethnicity and health was feasible and impactful, and to identify programme elements that might usefully be replicated elsewhere. How healthcare commissioners should be equipped to understand and address multiethnic needs has received little attention to-date. Being able to mobilise and apply evidence is a central element of the commissioning process that requires development. Researching ethnicity and health is widely recognised as challenging and several prior interventions have aimed to enhance competence in this area. These have, however, predominantly taken place in North America and have not been evaluated in detail. An innovative research capacity development programme was delivered to public health staff within a large healthcare commissioning organisation in England. Evaluation methodology drew on 'pluralistic' evaluation principles and included formative and summative elements. Participant evaluation forms gave immediate feedback during the programme. Participants also provided feedback at two weeks and 12 months after the programme ended. In addition, one participant and one facilitator provided reflective accounts of the programme's strengths and weaknesses, and programme impact was traced through ongoing partnership work. The programme was well received and had a tangible impact on knowledge, confidence and practice for most participants. Factors important to success included: embedding learning within the participants' work context; ensuring a balance between theory and practical tips to enhance confidence; and having sustained interaction between trainers and participants. Despite positive signs, the challenging nature of the topic was highlighted, as were wider structural and cultural factors that impede progress in this area. Although it is unrealistic to expect such programmes to have a major impact on commissioning practices, they may well

  11. 77 FR 60113 - Acceptance of Public Submissions Regarding the Study of Stable Value Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ..., and clearly indicated on written submissions. All comments must be submitted in English, or if not, accompanied by an English translation. Comments will be posted as received to www.cftc.gov . You should submit... not? Is additional guidance necessary with regard to SVCs in this context? If so, what further...

  12. Knowledge, experience and perceptions regarding Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) amongst Australian and Chilean public oral health care practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta-Tessini, K; Mariño, R; Ghanim, A; Calache, H; Manton, D J

    2016-08-18

    Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a prevalent developmental defect of tooth enamel associated with a high burden of disease. The present study aimed to survey Australian and Chilean oral health care practitioners (OHCPs) working in public dental facilities and to compare their knowledge, clinical experience and perceptions about MIH. Findings would give insights about how current knowledge has penetrated into OHCPs working into the public systems. A mixed-mode survey regarding MIH was carried out amongst Australian and Chilean OHCPs from the public sector. The survey required responses to questions regarding sociodemographics, clinical experience, perceptions, clinical management and preferences for further training. The level of knowledge regarding MIH was determined by Delphi methods for consensus. Data analysis utilised Chi-square, linear and logistic regression models using SPSS Ver. 22.0. The majority of respondents had observed MIH in their patients (88.6 %) and the level of knowledge regarding MIH was high in Australian participants (p = 0.03). Australian respondents felt more confident when diagnosing (OR 8.80, 95 % CI 2.49-31.16) and treating MIH-affected children (OR 4.56, 95 % CI 2.16-9.76) compared to Chilean respondents. Oral health therapists reported higher levels of confidence than Australian general dental practitioners when providing treatment to children with MIH (OR 7.53; 95 % CI 1.95-29.07). Continuing to update clinical guidelines may help practitioners increase their understanding when diagnosing and treating MIH-affected children. Dissemination of information and awareness regarding MIH is necessary in public clinics, and in particular Chilean general dental practitioners should be alerted to these factors.

  13. VARIOUS HISTORICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE PUBLIC LAW–PRIVATE LAW DICHOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of law, has been structured logically in law institutions and branches being considered in a divided or unitary manner. But legal norms have obtained general recognition either taken as a unitary system or divided into divisions or branches as maximum logical-organizational structures. The law originally intersects with the process of formation and evolution of the state. The law has been formed unconsciously as the result of a psychological process in which the individual reacts to certain external stimuli. At the beginning, the law came under the form of nonunitary chaotic customs or practices. In the second phase, the law, though yet rudimentary, became a conscious action being imposed by a public force. The difference between the public law and the private law results from the fact that private law may be attributed to the structure of society, and the public law may be attributed to the superstructure of society. Even nowadays, the delimitation between the public law and the private law is not clear, because the most numerous legal relations refer both to the general interest and the private interest and, basically, the legal norms contribute to public order as the observation thereof brings social peace.

  14. The significance of democratic participation of the public with regard to nuclear fuel cycle safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessenharter, W.; Diekmann, T.

    1989-01-01

    Three statements can characterise the current situation: (1) Nuclear industry faces a credibility gap; (2) there is no (more) 'nuclear consensus'; (3) the nuclear problems now are completely politicised. Participation of the public can develop into a political discourse only if that part of society concerned with nuclear energy sincerely joins the public debate. Experience so far has shown that those concerned with nuclear energy only appeared in public debates when a consensus pro nuclear energy could be expected. This attitude so far has done nothing but to foster emotionality on both sides, which reduced the chances of the nuclear industry to really come up to its social duties, and also reduced the chances of society to really tackle the problems of life in a world facing increasing risks and hazards. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1991-01-01

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author)

  16. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki (CRC Research Inst., Chiba (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author).

  17. Institutional Metamorphoses regarding the Exercise of External Public Audit in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts a synthetic approach of the evolution of institutional organization and the exercise of public financial audit in Romania, emphasizing on historical, as well as on modern elements. Recent changes, based, obviously, on legal regulations, aim at implementing the types of audit specific to the audit supreme institutions and founded on the basis of their own external public audit standards, adopted according to the INTOSAI audit standards, the European guidelines for their application and other standards relevant to the public sector, elaborated by IFAC and accepted by the European Union. The finding of the accounts in order is followed by issuing of a conformity certificate for the audited entity.

  18. Trends in publications regarding evidence-practice gaps: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Ann E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D'Este, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2010-02-03

    Well-designed trials of strategies to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines are needed to close persistent evidence-practice gaps. We studied how the number of these trials is changing with time, and to what extent physicians are participating in such trials. This is a literature-based study of trends in evidence-practice gap publications over 10 years and participation of clinicians in intervention trials to narrow evidence-practice gaps. We chose nine evidence-based guidelines and identified relevant publications in the PubMed database from January 1998 to December 2007. We coded these publications by study type (intervention versus non-intervention studies). We further subdivided intervention studies into those for clinicians and those for patients. Data were analyzed to determine if observed trends were statistically significant. We identified 1,151 publications that discussed evidence-practice gaps in nine topic areas. There were 169 intervention studies that were designed to improve adherence to well-established clinical guidelines, averaging 1.9 studies per year per topic area. Twenty-eight publications (34%; 95% CI: 24% - 45%) reported interventions intended for clinicians or health systems that met Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) criteria for adequate design. The median consent rate of physicians asked to participate in these well-designed studies was 60% (95% CI, 25% to 69%). We evaluated research publications for nine evidence-practice gaps, and identified small numbers of well-designed intervention trials and low rates of physician participation in these trials.

  19. Socio-economic and ethnic group inequities in antenatal care quality in the public and private sector in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G; Matijasevich, A; Silveira, Mf; Santos, Is; Barros, A J D; Barros, F C

    2010-07-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers. Quality of care for women giving birth in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, was assessed by measuring how many of 11 procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health were performed. Information on family income, self-assessed skin colour, parity and type of provider were collected. Antenatal care was used by 98% of the 4244 women studied (mean number of visits 8.3), but the number of consultations was higher among better-off and white women, who were also more likely to start antenatal care in the first trimester. The quality of antenatal care score ranged from 0 to 11, with an overall mean of 8.3 (SD 1.7). Mean scores were 8.9 (SD 1.5) in the wealthiest and 7.9 (SD 1.8) in the poorest quintiles (P differences seemed to be due to attendance patterns rather than discrimination. Mean quality scores were higher in the private 9.3 (SD 1.3) than in the public sector 8.1 (SD 1.6) (P differences were not explained by maternal characteristics or by attendance patterns. Special efforts must be made to improve quality of care in the public sector. Poor and black women should be actively encouraged to start antenatal care early in pregnancy so that they can fully benefit from it. There is a need for regular monitoring of antenatal attendances and quality of care with an equity lens, in order to assess how different social groups are benefiting from progress in health care.

  20. Aspects Regarding the Use of Coco Model for Public Entities� Internal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Beldiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Control, from the semantic analysis point of view, is a permanent or regular activity, a situation, to track the overall progress and improvement measures. According to the Romanian legislation, internal control is defined as all forms of control exercised at the level of the public entity, including internal audit, established by management in accordance with its objectives and legal regulations, to ensure the management of public funds economically, efficiently and effective. In general, the audit includes organizational structures, methods and procedures.

  1. [A case study regarding the technical and public health feasibility of collecting water from fog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ubaque, César A; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L; García-Ubaque, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the collection of water for human consumption from fog nets in San Antonio (Cundinamarca department). Water was collected from fog using a prototype 6 m²sensor unit which was installed In the area for 53 days; this water was analysed to assess its quality regarding human consumption. The collection area's average daily volume was 43.26 L/day and the parameters evaluated met the minimum values established by local regulations for drinking water (RAS 2000), except for pH. This technique represents an alternative for obtaining water fit for human consumption and can be scaled-up to produce the quantity needed for communities living in low rainfall areas. It can thereby lead to improving such populations' health conditions. Its economic feasibility should thus be assessed regarding its implementation and sustainability.

  2. Freedom and Information. Assessing Publicly Available Data Regarding U.S. Transportation Infrastructure Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    know or can learn may be advantageous to defenders. If defend- ers are unaware that a terrorist group knows about a particular vulnerability, that...cases, this information is necessarily in the public domain because it provides an important service. For instance, as noted above, ecommerce sites for

  3. Public Opinion regarding Juvenile Life without Parole in Consecutive Statewide Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Allen, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Abolition of the death penalty results in life without parole (LWOP) as the most severe sanction for convicted juveniles. Although internationally the use of LWOP for juveniles is rare, 2,225 youth have been sentenced to LWOP within the United States. To address the dearth of public opinion on the issue, the authors proposed questions to the…

  4. 78 FR 25255 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call and Webinar Regarding Updates to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... towards accomplishing the objectives listed therein. The presentation will be followed by a discussion... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC621 Atlantic... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Announcement of public conference call and webinar. SUMMARY: NMFS will...

  5. Knowledge, perceptions and media use of the Dutch general public and healthcare workers regarding Ebola, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Schol, Lianne G. C.; Mollers, Madelief; Swaan, Corien M.; Beaujean, Desirée J. M. A.; Wong, Albert; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    Background The Ebola outbreak in West-Africa triggered risk communication activities to promote adequate preventive behaviour in the Netherlands. Our study investigated the level of knowledge, perceptions, and media use regarding Ebola. Methods In December 2014, an online questionnaire was administered to the Dutch population (n = 526) and Health Care Workers (HCW) (n = 760). Results The mean knowledge score (range 0–15) of HCW (m = 13.3;SD = 1.4) was significantly higher than the general pub...

  6. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Schroepfer

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165 watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1 a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2 commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3 control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.

  7. A Systematic Review of Global Publication Trends Regarding Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  8. A systematic review of global publication trends regarding long-term outcomes of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  9. Dealing With Legal Loopholes and Uncertainties Within EU Public Procurement Law Regarding Framework Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2016-01-01

    the clarification of the governing rules and the introduction of further guidelines. Unfortunately, clarifications were not fully provided in the new Directive 2014/24/EU. This article is a study of legal loopholes and uncertainties that occur during public procurement of framework agreements as a result of current...... EU rules and national practices in Denmark and the United Kingdom. The article highlights the need for clarification of the existing rules and introduction of transparency to the subsequent call-off stage of framework agreements. To achieve study aims, three methods were applied: a doctrinal analysis...

  10. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  11. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Survey of public knowledge and responses to educational slogans regarding cold-water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Pretorius, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Cold water temperature is a significant factor in North American drownings. These deaths are usually attributed to hypothermia. Survey questions were administered to 661 attendees of cold-stress seminars-including medical, rescue, law enforcement and lay attendees-to determine general knowledge of the effects of ice water immersion and responses to 2 public service educational slogans. Five questions were posed at the beginning of seminars to 8 groups (ranging in size from 46 to 195) during a 2-year period. Pi(2) analyses were used to determine if responses within any occupational category differed from the group responses. A high portion of respondents greatly underestimated the time to become hypothermic in ice water (correct answer >30 minutes; 84% stated 15 minutes or less) and the time until cooling was life threatening (correct answer >60 minutes; 85% stated 30 minutes or less). There were no occupational differences in these responses. Most of the respondents identified a correct cause of death during cold stress (81% stated cardiac arrest, hypothermia, or drowning). Although both educational slogans had some advantages, between 40% (Slogan #1) to 50% (Slogan #2) of respondents did not respond correctly. The majority of respondents underestimated the time available for survival during ice water immersion. It is important to educate the public accurately to decrease the probability of panic under these circumstances. More work is required to develop effective educational slogans that provide proper information and actions for victims of cold-water immersion.

  13. FEEDBACK REGARDING THE CONTRIBUTION OF DIRECT TAXATION IN THE FORMATION OF PUBLIC FINANCIAL RESOURCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORINA NIȚĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies the place and role of direct taxes in the formation of public financial resources in Romania, and also in relation to other EU member countries. Monitoring the development of the business environment, fostering entrepreneurial initiative and investment through relaxing fiscal measures concerning mainly direct income for individual and corporate taxpayers, the declared goal is the increase of budgetary revenues at a pace that is far ahead expenditures. Developments from the past years reveal our country's last position when analyzing the share of direct taxes in the GDP or the contribution of income taxes of individuals in the GDP, but also a relatively high position considering the share of income of legal entities in the total of taxes. The macroeconomic analysis is completed by a microeconomic presentation of the share of direct taxes in the total expenditure at the level of one individual household.

  14. Public perception and risk communication in regard to bioterrorism against animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G S

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the total international prohibition on the use of disease to attack humans, animals and plants, noting that in the past several countries had developed programmes for attacks on animals and plants as well as humans. Current activities undertaken by intergovernmental organisations - the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)--to counter the threat of attacks on humans, animals and plants are examined. Effective countermeasures to deliberate attacks need to be developed in harmony with existing measures to control natural or accidental outbreaks of disease. Finally the paper assesses the risk and the public perception of it, and considers what risk communication is needed and to whom. Clear mandates are needed for the FAO and OIE to be prepared to deal with outbreaks of disease, and with contamination of the food supply chain, whether accidental or intentional.

  15. Public Opinion Regarding Financial Incentives to Engage in Advance Care Planning and Complete Advance Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Catherine L; Chen, Lucy; Olorunnisola, Michael; Delman, Aaron; Nguyen, Christina A; Cooney, Elizabeth; Gabler, Nicole B; Halpern, Scott D

    2017-09-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently instituted physician reimbursements for advance care planning (ACP) discussions with patients. To measure public support for similar programs. Cross-sectional online and in-person surveys. English-speaking adults recruited at public parks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from July to August 2013 and online through survey sampling international Web-based recruitment platform in July 2015. Participants indicated support for 6 programs designed to increase advance directive (AD) completion or ACP discussion using 5-point Likert scales. Participants also indicated how much money (US$0-US$1000) was appropriate to incentivize such behaviors, compared to smoking cessation or colonoscopy screening. We recruited 883 participants: 503 online and 380 in-person. The status quo of no systematic approach to motivate AD completion was supported by 67.0% of participants (63.9%-70.1%). The most popular programs were paying patients to complete ADs (58.0%; 54.5%-61.2%) and requiring patients to complete ADs or declination forms for health insurance (54.1%; 50.8%-57.4%). Participants more commonly supported paying patients to complete ADs than paying physicians whose patients complete ADs (22.6%; 19.8%-25.4%) or paying physicians who document ACP discussions (19.1%; 16.5%-21.7%; both P < .001). Participants supported smaller payments for AD completion and ACP than for obtaining screening colonoscopies or stopping smoking. Americans view payments for AD completion or ACP more skeptically than for other health behaviors and prefer that such payments go to patients rather than physicians. The current CMS policy of reimbursing physicians for ACP conversations with patients was the least preferred of the programs evaluated.

  16. [Drawing up indicators regarding success in public health programmes having a social-sports approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortês-Neto, Ewerton Dantas; Alchieri, João Carlos; Miranda, Hênio Ferreira de; Dantas-Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo

    2010-04-01

    The present study was aimed at analysing how social sports projects are evaluated so as to draw up and develop indicators of success regarding social programmes' efficacy and effectiveness. This was a descriptive survey. The sample consisted of 51 participants, male (n=29) and female (n=22), from the Nova Descoberta project whose ages ranged from 8 to 17. Data was obtained from a semi-directed survey having open items covering 10 topics; it was carried out with children and adolescents over a 2-year period (2007-2008). Documental data was also obtained from schools which had agreed to cooperate with the project. There were no statistically significant differences (pperformance of survey group participants and those who had not joined the project in terms of scholastic performance during 2007. A significant difference (psports projects. The manifestation of other characteristics in the environment could have interfered with participation and involvement in physical activity and, consequently, with the children and adolescents' health and quality of life. It was found that school work performance indicators could be taken together with other indicators, such as development of various abilities, participation in other activities, activity motivation, behaviour and attitudes at home and at school, for evaluating social projects.

  17. Violence in social memory intimate beliefs regarding operation storm in the Croatian and Serbian publics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This text is part of a research conducted under the working title "What do we talk about when we are silent and what are we silent about when we are talking? - premises for the anthropology of silence about the nearest past." In the first part the author investigates the meaning of silence in the Croatian and Serbian press right before and during Croatia's Operation Storm. The ratio between silence, suppression of information and forgetting, on the one hand, and social memory, on the other, has been elaborated in the final part of the text by following reports about the anniversaries of Operation Storm in both Croatian and Serbian publics. The starting point lies in the belief that the phenomenon of silence (and suppression of information, being an immanent part of each discourse, represents an important factor in the creation of social relationships and system of value models, that it has important communication and cognitive functions and that the performance character lies in its essence. In short, silence makes it possible to form the prevailing image about this event, even if it does not construct it indirectly - through speech. The author has elaborated on the meaning of silence in the context of Operation Storm partly because studies about the breakup of Yugoslavia frequently mention silence as a manipulation strategy employed by some of the sides in the conflict (or analysts dealing with Yugoslav topics, while not a single study systematically investigates the semantic of silence and suppression of information in these conflicts. Most importantly, taking into account the frequency of direct silence in the newspaper discourse and rhetoric strategies that point at silence indirectly from the context and discourse, the author focuses on the relationship between the event (situation and silence. In order to shed light on the way in which Operation Storm is remembered, i.e. forgotten, in the stakeholders' publics and political imageries, she

  18. Reimagining publics and (non)participation: Exploring exclusion from science communication through the experiences of low-income, minority ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Emily

    2018-01-01

    This article explores science communication from the perspective of those most at risk of exclusion, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork. I conducted five focus groups and 32 interviews with participants from low-income, minority ethnic backgrounds. Using theories of social reproduction and social justice, I argue that participation in science communication is marked by structural inequalities (particularly ethnicity and class) in two ways. First, participants' involvement in science communication practices was narrow (limited to science media consumption). Second, their experiences of exclusion centred on cultural imperialism (misrepresentation and 'Othering') and powerlessness (being unable to participate or change the terms of their participation). I argue that social reproduction in science communication constructs a narrow public that reflects the shape, values and practices of dominant groups, at the expense of the marginalised. The article contributes to how we might reimagine science communication's publics by taking inclusion/exclusion and the effects of structural inequalities into account.

  19. Public Opinions Regarding Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioners in a High-Need State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah E; Chubinski, Jennifer; Sallee, Toby; Rademacher, Eric W

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: The new Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioner (ADHP) profession is expected to increase access to oral health care for the general population, particularly in rural and underserved areas. In order for this strategy to be successful, the public must feel comfortable with the care provided by ADHPs and seek out their services, yet consumer receptivity has been overlooked in the literature. The current study explores comfort with ADHPs for one high-need state: Kentucky. Methods: Consumer receptivity to the ADHP was assessed using a large, random sample telephone survey. As a point of comparison, respondents were first asked about their comfort with care provided by two other advanced practice clinicians already licensed in the state: advanced practice registered nurses (APRN) and physician assistants (PA). Results: After hearing a brief description of the profession, nearly 3 in 4 Kentucky adults said they would be somewhat (35.4%) or very (38.2%) comfortable seeing an ADHP for routine dental care. The total proportion of Kentucky adults who were comfortable seeking care from an ADHP (73.6%) was slightly less than the proportion indicating comfort seeing an APRN (79.7%) or PA (81.3%). Conclusion: Overall, this study demonstrates that adults are receptive to new models of care delivery and report high levels of comfort with ADHPs. Consumer concerns are unlikely to be a barrier to expanded licensure for dental hygienists in high-need areas like Kentucky. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. Legal basis of the environmental impact assessment - with special regard to the question of public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbguth, W.

    1992-01-01

    The article examines by way of example the compatibility of the national procedural law of the E/A with constraints imposed by EC law. All the isolated questions that remain unsolved point to a principal shortcoming in the implementation of the E/A. The strategy of incorporating the E/A into the existing regulations of the legal landscape of the Federal German Republic wherever possible must inevitably lead to violations and discrepancies of legal dogma, which at first sight appear partial but upon closer scruting prove to be of a fundamental nature. This has been underscored by the functional discrepancy between public participation as provided by the directive and the participation of national procedural law. Taking this into account there appears no way around a principal reorientation in the near future. This will mean complementing the forms of participation that are derived from constitutional considerations and oriented to legal impact with forms derived from the duties of a welfare state. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Public Awareness regarding Common Eye Diseases among Saudi Adults in Riyadh City: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed A. Al Rashed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of eye disease and awareness of eye care among the Saudi adults and to explore existing eye-related misconceptions in the community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh city during May and June 2016. A self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was used to explore the most common misconceptions related to eye diseases and eye care. Results. Out of 1000 individuals, only 711 (71.1% participant responses were received. The participants’ acceptable knowledge (score ≥50% was high about the eye problem in diabetes (88.6%, ocular trauma (81.2%, and other general eye diseases (91.3%, whereas low about refractive errors (63%, pediatric eye problems (51.5%, and glaucoma (14.8%. The variation in knowledge about specific ocular morbidities was significant (p<0.001. The majority of participants reported sources of information about the common eye diseases and eye care encountered from the community, internet-based resources, and social media. Conclusions. The majority of the participants had awareness about the common eye diseases, whereas low percentage of participant’s awareness about specific condition of eye diseases. Public eye health awareness should be more focused on social media and the internet to be able to cover the younger individuals of the community.

  2. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  3. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James R; Fox, Kathleen M; Grandy, Susan

    2011-07-05

    Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD US survey ascertained self-reported health intentions and behaviors for regular exercise, diet, and weight management among Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 2526), Non-Hispanic African-American (n = 706), and Hispanic (n = 179) respondents with type 2 diabetes. A similar proportion of respondents from each race-gender group (43%-56%) reported receiving healthcare advice to increase their exercise (P = 0.32). Significantly more minorities reported an intention to follow the exercise recommendation compared with Non-Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.03). More Non-Hispanic African-American (29%) and Hispanic (27%) men reported exercising regularly compared with other race-gender groups (P = 0.02). Significantly more Non-Hispanic Caucasian women (74%) and Hispanic women (79%) reported trying to lose weight compared with other groups (P Differences in health intentions and healthy behaviors were noted across race-gender groups. More Non-Hispanic African-American men reported an intention to follow advice on exercising and self-report of exercising regularly was also higher compared with other race-gender groups. More Hispanic men reported high physical activity levels than other groups. Despite an increased willingness to follow healthcare recommendations for diet, >50% of respondents were obese among all race-gender groups.

  4. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD US survey ascertained self-reported health intentions and behaviors for regular exercise, diet, and weight management among Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 2526, Non-Hispanic African-American (n = 706, and Hispanic (n = 179 respondents with type 2 diabetes. Results A similar proportion of respondents from each race-gender group (43%-56% reported receiving healthcare advice to increase their exercise (P = 0.32. Significantly more minorities reported an intention to follow the exercise recommendation compared with Non-Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.03. More Non-Hispanic African-American (29% and Hispanic (27% men reported exercising regularly compared with other race-gender groups (P = 0.02. Significantly more Non-Hispanic Caucasian women (74% and Hispanic women (79% reported trying to lose weight compared with other groups (P Conclusions Differences in health intentions and healthy behaviors were noted across race-gender groups. More Non-Hispanic African-American men reported an intention to follow advice on exercising and self-report of exercising regularly was also higher compared with other race-gender groups. More Hispanic men reported high physical activity levels than other groups. Despite an increased willingness to follow healthcare recommendations for diet, >50% of respondents were obese among all race-gender groups.

  5. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  6. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to 7 CFR 1744.30... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to 7 CFR 1744.30 D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 1744...

  7. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to 7 CFR 1744.30... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to 7 CFR 1744.30(c) B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1744...

  8. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT FACTORS EFFECTS ON ARTICLES PUBLICATION REGARDING SURVEY INTERVIEWER CHARACTERISTICS USING MULTILEVEL REGRESSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MOROŞANU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to evaluate the effects which some factors could have on articles publication regarding survey interviewer characteristics. For this, the author studied the existing literature from the various fields in which articles on survey interviewer characteristics has been published and which can be found in online articles database. The analysis was performed on 243 articles achieved by researchers in the time period 1949-2012. Using statistical software R and applying multilevel regression model, the results showed that the time period when the studied articles are made and the interaction between the number of authors and the number of pages affect the most their publication in journals with a certain level of impact factor.

  9. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  10. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Stephanie S; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly Sm; Rijmen, Frank; Cornel, Martina C; de Kinderen, Marja; Plass, Anne Marie C

    2009-09-15

    In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Perceived behavioural control, i.e. the feeling that they could actually get tested if they wanted to, increased in the targeted age group of 18-45 years (N = 41; p ethnic groups was positive, yet they did not show strong intention to effectuate carrier testing of their patients on the basis of ethnicity. The main factor which explained their (lack of) intention was social norm, i.e. their perception of negative peer opinion (41% variance explained). The majority of primary health care providers felt that policy change was

  11. Energy and climate change: the main analyses of Regards sur la Terre. An annual publication on sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Tubiana, L.; Colombier, Michel; Loup, Jacques; Laponche, Bernard; Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie; Chateau, Bertrand; Kieken, Hubert; Kleiche, Mustapha; Heller, Thomas C.; Mathy, Sandrine; Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Goldemberg, Jose; Pizer, William A.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the French Development Agency, AFD (Agence francaise de developpement) and the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, IDDRI (Institut du developpement durable et des relations internationales) launched an annual publication on sustainable development in a global perspective, Regards sur la Terre, published by Les Presses de Sciences Po (Paris). Regards sur la Terre includes an analysis of the most important international events of the last twelve months in the field of sustainable development, along with a thematic section, which in the first edition focused on energy and climate change. This booklet presents the overall introduction of the 2007 publication and the introduction of its thematic section, as well as a selection of the main chapters dealing with the theme of energy and climate change. Contents: Awakening and crisis of confidence; Reorienting our Societies; Energy in the world: Challenges and prospects; Challenges and constraints for energy supply: The coal hard facts; Satisfying energy growth in emerging countries; Diversifying power generation in China; From Rio to Marrakech: Development in climate negotiations; An international coordination regime come what may; The perspective of developing countries; An American 'point of view'

  12. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Methods Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Conclusion The "infotainment" programme may have a positive effect on people from high-risk groups, but informed general practitioners and midwives were reluctant to facilitate their patients' getting tested. Additional initiatives are needed to motivate primary care providers to facilitate haemoglobinopathy carrier testing for their patients from high-risk backgrounds.

  13. STUDY REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF LOCAL POLICEMAN CAREER WITHIN THE REŞIŢA LOCAL POLICE DIVISION PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERGHINA LILIANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled Study regarding the Management of Local Policemen Career within the Reşiţa Local Police Division Public Service aims at highlighting the need for this public service in the Reşiţa municipality community, the importance of the public office in this context, of the public service, of the public servant with special statute and, last but not least, of the managerial act in the administration of this type of human resources, and implicitly this type of career. Starting from the theoretic identifications and their translation into the practice of the field chosen for research we could conclude that in the development of the local policemen career, a special role is played by the human resources management, especially the management of the career of this value-bearing resource. Our investigation was based on the opinion poll-type inquiry, the main instrument being the questionnaire conceived, administered and then valorised and interpreted. The conclusions generated by this research highlighted step by step, along the activities of the analysed human resources management and implicitly their career management, the actual positive or negative aspects and the fact that the management of human resources and implicitly of their career which, we scrutinised – that of police officer or policeman in short – assures with priority: the observance of the legislation specific to the investigated field, support for the development of the local policemen’s career, their prompt availability in due time, the knowledge and fulfilment of the tasks according to the job and position requirements, all this assures the understanding of the employees’ expectations, of the change of employees’ roles within the organisation depending on their experience and solves the conflicts among the employees. Nevertheless, we identified, in a less significant percentage , some cases of discontent and dissatisfaction, cases that could generate ideas for

  14. Use of Twitter Polls to Determine Public Opinion Regarding Content Presented at a Major National Specialty Society Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Twitter polls to assess public opinion regarding session content at a national specialty society meeting. Twitter polls allow users to embed multiple-choice questions within tweets and automatically aggregate responses. Two radiologists attending the 2016 annual meeting of the ACR posted a Twitter poll containing the hashtag #ACR2016 during 10 meeting sessions addressing socioeconomics/advocacy, patient experience, and social media/informatics (20 polls total). Each poll contained a question asking for an opinion regarding the session's content. Polls were open for responses for 24 hours. The average number of responses per poll was significantly higher for the user with the larger number of Twitter followers (24.3 ± 14.4 versus 11.2 ± 9.8, P = .015). A total of 57% of respondents agreed that radiologists' payments should shift to value-based payments, and 86% agreed that radiologists should routinely survey their patients to monitor quality; however, 83% disagreed with basing physician payments on patient satisfaction scores. A total of 85% disagreed that the artificial intelligence supercomputer Watson will entirely replace radiologists. A total of 76% agreed that social media can drive business at less cost than standard marketing. A total of 56% agreed with the direction of the ACR's advocacy and regulatory efforts, whereas 74% considered the ACR's advocacy efforts to be moderately or very useful for their practice. A total of 50% planned to change their practice on the basis of keynote remarks by Dr Ezekiel Emanuel. Twitter polls provide a free and easy infrastructure to potentially capture global public sentiment during the course of a medical society meeting. Their use may enrich and promote discussions of key session content. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transport of radioactive materials on public roads - with regard to the authorizations granted to the Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.U.

    1992-10-01

    This report shall be a help for scientific and technical personal of the nuclear research center in the choice of the modalities of the transport of radioactive materials on public roads in accordance to regulations and authorizations. Not only the atomic law, the radiation protection ordinance and the ordinance on dangerous goods on roads, which are binding in any case, are regarded in this report but also as the scope and the impositions of the transport authorization of the nuclear research center as the internal instructions of the nuclear research center. With regard to the transport of nuclear fuel material only the cases of transport exempted of authorization and transport of such kinds waste containing nuclear fuel material treated where the waste has a density at most of 15g/cm 3 or where the package contains at most 15g of nuclear fuel material. The reader is guided by dialogue (pretty much as a book for' programmed learning') to the solution of his special problem of transport. In order to narrow down the size of this report, all technical or administrative details are treated in 11 brochures, which are published as technical supplements of this report. These supplements are available on request. (orig.) [de

  16. Knowledge and attitude regarding euthanasia among medical students in the public and private medical schools of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wafa; Ahmad, Farah; Malik, Aisha; Ali, Saba

    2013-02-01

    To assess the awareness about and perception of euthanasia among medical students of Karachi. The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 among students of private-sector and one public-sector medical college in Karachi. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17, and associations were worked out using chi-square test. Out of the 493 students, 226 (46%) were from the matriculation system and 194 (39%) from the Cambridge system, while the remaining 15% were from the American High School. The male-female ratio was 1:3. There were 284 (58%) students from the private medical college. Majority of the private medical school students (n = 284; 99.6%) knew about euthanasia, compared to the public-sector facility where only 161 (77%) knew of it. Of the total, 405 (82%) students agreed that it is physician-assisted suicide; 255 (52%) agreed to the idea of palliative care, claiming it was sufficient to maintain life; 226 (54%) disagreed that a doctor should not be allowed to administer a lethal dose while only 162 (33%) agreed to the idea of it; 285 (58%) disagreed that a law regarding the practice of euthanasia should not be introduced, whereas 134 (27%) agreed to it; 70 (14%) agreed to the practice of euthanasia, while 311 (63%) disagreed, mostly for religious reasons. The awareness of euthanasia was high, but a very small proportion of students approved of it. There is need to include palliative care and euthanasia in the Behavioural Science module in the under-graduation programme of both public and private medical schools.

  17. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health......European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  18. Attitudes toward Shock Advertising of Western-European and Serbian University Students With Regard To Public Health Context (Anti-Smoking and Anti-HIV/AIDS Campaigns)

    OpenAIRE

    Krstic, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to examine attitudes toward shock advertising of western-European and Serbian university students with regard to public health context (anti-smoking and anti-HIV/AIDS campaigns). Although the use of shock advertising is widely adopted in practice, there has not been extensive research with regard to this topic. Public health context is of special interest in this dissertation as there is an urge for social marketing on Serbian market. The results of ...

  19. Improving capacity in ethnicity and health research: report of a tailored programme for NHS Public Health practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Salway, Sarah; Piercy, Hilary; Chowbey, Punita; Brewins, Louise; Dhoot, Permjeet

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether an intervention designed to enhance research capacity among commissioners in the area of ethnicity and health was feasible and impactful, and to identify programme elements that might usefully be replicated elsewhere.\\ud Background: How healthcare commissioners should be equipped to understand and address multiethnic needs has received little attention to-date. Being able to mobilise and apply evidence is a central element of the commissioning process that requires d...

  20. To determine the level of satisfaction among medical students of a public sector medical university regarding their academic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzar Bushra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ongoing evaluation system is essential to determine if the academic system in place has worked to produce a better product, hence the objective of our study was to evaluate the satisfaction level among medical students regarding their academic teaching and assessment method and what measures will they suggest for the future to rectify the current situation. This questionnaire based cross sectional study was conducted in a public sector medical university from February to July 2010. A well structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 375 final year medical students. However 292 of the students provided informed consent and filled in the questionnaire which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Data was entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.16 and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings The male to female ratio in our study was 1:2. Most of the students (57.2% were dissatisfied with the quality of teaching in the university. Fifty-seven percent of the participants believed that the current standard of their institute were not at par with those of international medical universities. BCQ's were the mode of examination questions preferred by the majority of the students. Most of the students (66.1% wanted the university to conduct career planning seminars to help them plan their career. Conclusions These results suggest that the students of public sector medical universities are unsatisfied from current academic facilities and teaching activities. Students recommend increased emphasis on better lectures and practical training as well as a need to incorporate career planning sessions for the students to help plan them their future career paths.

  1. On the need of a correct information of the public regarding the benefits and risks of medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, Constantin

    1998-01-01

    Medical exposure represents the main source of artificial irradiation of the population and it is determined by the use of diagnostic and therapeutic purposes of X-ray generators and sealed and unsealed sources in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Benefits of use of ionizing radiation in medicine are very well recognized and they can be expressed in obtaining morphologic and functional information on lesions determined by a pathologic situation, undetected by other diagnostic methods and/or the destroy of neo-formative tissues, particularly malign, resisting to other medical treatments. Finally, the result is the reduction of lethality of those diseases which benefited from an early diagnostic and the extension of life expectancy, following radiotherapy. The potential risks of medical exposure are accepted as a fact. Epidemiological studies are known on increased incidences of leucoses in patients after irradiation of the spine for spondyl-arthritis and in children irradiated in-utero, high frequency of thyroid cancer in children irradiated for thymus persistence, diseases and hereditary malformations in children from irradiated parents. A special situation is the radiation protection of the unborn child. Do to the increased number of radiological medical procedures, there is a clear need for correct information of the public regarding the benefits (i.e. to not avoid any necessary procedure) and the risks (to reduce non-useful irradiation) of the medical exposure

  2. Comparison of Public Perception in Desert and Rainy Regions of Chile Regarding the Reuse of Treated Sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Segura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the public perception in desert and rainy regions of Chile regarding the reuse of treated sewage water. The methodology of this study consisted of applying a survey to the communities of San Pedro de Atacama (desert region and Hualqui (rainy region to identify attitudes about the reuse of sewage water. The survey was applied directly to men and women, 18 to 90 years old, who were living in the studied communities. The results indicate that inhabitants of San Pedro de Atacama (desert region were aware of the state of their water resources, with 86% being aware that there are water shortages during some part of the year. In contrast, only 55% of residents in Hualqui (rainy region were aware of water shortages. With respect of the reuse of treated sewage water, 47% of respondents in San Pedro de Atacama understood the concept, as compared to 27% in Hualqui. There was more acceptance of using treated sewage water for non-potable purposes than as drinking water.

  3. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Labinot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. Methods We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Results Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P Conclusions Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being have not gone. The level of lifetime exposure to violence, the proportion of family members reporting pain and lifetime violence-related injury, and family's financial burden were found to be inter-correlated. The sample confined to one ethnic group in one district

  4. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research: An interpretive synthesis of experiences from six interlinked Danish studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Vitus, Kathrine; Ditlevsen, Kia; TØrslev, Mette Kirstine; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational settings as sites for recruitment. Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion of experiences among the researchers involved. Success in recruitment seemed to depend partly on recruitment site. Using healthcare facilities as the recruitment site and healthcare professionals as gatekeepers was less efficient than using schools and employees from educational institutions. Successful study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite their interest in high-quality health research into all population groups, fail to facilitate research access to some of the most disadvantaged groups, who need to be included in order to understand the mechanisms behind health disparities. This happens despite the genuine wish of many healthcare professionals to help facilitate such research. In this way, the findings indirectly emphasize the specific challenge of accessing more vulnerable and sick groups in research studies.

  5. Public Perceptions Regarding Use of Virtual Reality in Health Care: A Social Media Content Analysis Using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michelle Sophie; Park, Hannah J; Cunningham, Maria Elena; Fouladian, Joshua Eleazar; Chen, Michelle; Spiegel, Brennan Mason Ross

    2017-12-19

    Virtual reality (VR) technology provides an immersive environment that enables users to have modified experiences of reality. VR is increasingly used to manage patients with pain, disability, obesity, neurologic dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. However, public opinion regarding the use of VR in health care has not been explored. Understanding public opinion of VR is critical to ensuring effective implementation of this emerging technology. This study aimed to examine public opinion about health care VR using social listening, a method that allows for the exploration of unfiltered views of topics discussed on social media and online forums. In March 2016, NBC News produced a video depicting the use of VR for patient care. The video was repackaged by NowThis, a social media news website, and distributed on Facebook by Upworthy, a news aggregator, yielding 4.3 million views and 2401 comments. We used Microsoft Excel Power Query and ATLAS.ti software (version 7.5, Scientific Software Development) to analyze the comments using content analysis and categorized the comments around first-, second-, and third-order concepts. We determined self-identified gender from the user's Facebook page and performed sentiment analysis of the language to analyze whether the perception of VR differed by gender using a Pearson's chi-square test. Out of the 1614 analyzable comments, 1021 (63.26%) were attributed to female Facebook users, 572 (35.44%) to male users, and 21 (1.30%) to users of unknown gender. There were 1197 comments coded as expressing a positive perception about VR (74.16%), 251 coded as expressing a negative perception and/or concern (15.56%), and 560 coded as neutral (34.70%). Informants identified 20 use cases for VR in health care, including the use of VR for pain and stress reduction; bed-bound individuals; women during labor; and patients undergoing chemotherapy, dialysis, radiation, or imaging procedures. Negative comments expressed concerns about radiation

  6. Hospital doctors' Opinions regarding educational Utility, public Sentiment and career Effects of Medical television Dramas: the HOUSE MD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboubi, Hasan N; Morgan, Holly; Aldalati, Omar

    2015-12-14

    To evaluate the opinions of practicing clinicians on medical television dramas and the effects these series have on society as well as their own practice. Observational study using a structured questionnaire disseminated among doctors of all grades and specialties at one tertiary centre and two large secondary care district general hospitals in Wales, United Kingdom. Three hundred and seventy-two questionnaires were distributed over a 3-month period, with 200 completed questionnaires received (response rate, 54%). Frequency and reasons for watching these programs, and opinions regarding realism, educational value and public perception, evaluated by doctors' grades and specialties. Identification of work practice with any observed traits in fictional doctors was also analysed. 65% of doctors surveyed admitted to watching these programs on more than one occasion. Junior doctors (interns and resident medical officers) were more regular viewers. Most doctors who admitted to watching medical dramas did so for entertainment purposes (69%); 8% watched for educational purposes and, of these, 100% watched House MD, 82% felt that these dramas were unrepresentative of daily practice, and 10% thought that they accurately portrayed reality. Most of the positive responses were from junior doctors. 61% of doctors identified some aspect of their clinical practice with another doctor (fictional or non-fictional; most junior doctors identified with a fictional doctor, compared with non-fictional role models for more senior practicing clinicians. This survey shows that a large body of the medical workforce watches medical television dramas and that such programs exercise a growing influence on the practice of junior doctors, particularly those in physicianly specialties. The reasons for certain role model selections remain unknown and may require further evaluation.

  7. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  8. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Mexican American (MA) adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA), added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium) by NHW, NHB, and MA adults. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811), NHB (2,062), and MA (n=1,950) adults 19+ years. The 2003-2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied. Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate.

  9. “We Are All Part of the Same Family”: China’s Ethnic Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Brady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Communist Party (CCP government works hard to promote an image of ethnic harmony in China and downplays ethnic conflict by carefully controlling public information and debate about ethnic affairs. Despite such efforts, the recent clashes in Tibetan areas in 2008 and violent riots in Urumqi in 2009 reveal the weaknesses of this approach. This paper surveys the broad themes of ethnic propaganda (民族宣传, minzu xuanchuan in present-day China, looking at the organisations involved, the systems of information management they utilise, and the current “go” and “no-go” zones for debate. The paper forms part of a larger study of the politics of ethnicity in China. It is based on primary- and secondary-source research in Chinese, secondary sources in English, and extensive interviews with Chinese bureaucrats and scholars regarding China’s ethnic affairs conducted during fieldwork in China in 2002, 2004, 2005–2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2012. Ethnic issues in China concern not only the minority peoples there, but also the majority Han – hence, my definition of ethnic propaganda incorporates materials relating to all of China’s ethnic groups. The paper uses the events in Tibetan areas in 2008 and in Urumqi as case studies to demonstrate how these policies play out in periods of crisis. It concludes with a discussion of the role that ethnic propaganda plays in maintaining China’s long-term political stability and its international affairs.

  10. Diversifying the academic public health workforce: strategies to extend the discourse about limited racial and ethnic diversity in the public health academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L; Fletcher, Faith E; Weis, Megan A; Fernandes, Pearl R; Clary, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    While public health has gained increased attention and placement on the national health agenda, little progress has been made in achieving a critical mass of underrepresented minority (URM) academicians in the public health workforce. In 2008, a telephone-based qualitative assessment was conducted with URM faculty of schools of public health to discuss this issue. As a result, we present successful strategies that institutional leaders can employ to extend the discourse about addressing limited diversity in the public health academy.

  11. A RESEARCH THRU A LOGISTIC PERSPECTIVE REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF IMAGE-CRISES OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniu Ovidiu BALINT

    2015-01-01

    Image Crises are explained by the specialists in this field of study as a process of damaging an organization's / institution’s reputation through loss of public confidence in the products and / or services provided to the targeted public / consumers. The main reason why we chose this topic, for this paper, is to find out how image crisis can affect public institutions in Romania at national (central) and local (regional) level. Based on the studies we conducted in several public institutions...

  12. Contested Cowboys: Ethnic Mexican Charros and the Struggle for Suburban Public Space in 1970s Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    While most studies of Mexican American suburbanization since the 1970s focus on the transformation of residential (private) space, it is in suburban public space that some of the most important struggles over belonging and rights have occurred. This article builds a theoretical framework to analyze the relationships between public space,…

  13. "What We Should Strive for Is Britishness": An Attitudinal Investigation of Ethnic Diversity and the Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdi, Briony; Wilson, Kerry; Mansoor, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the public library in ameliorating relations between communities, and the appropriateness of a multicultural or assimilationist approach via which to deliver socially inclusive services. Qualitative findings from two inductive studies, each of which focused on different aspects of the capacity of public library…

  14. Civil rights as determinants of public health and racial and ethnic health equity: Health care, education, employment, and housing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R A; Truman, B I; Williams, D R

    2018-04-01

    This essay examines how civil rights and their implementation have affected and continue to affect the health of racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Civil rights are characterized as social determinants of health. A brief review of US history indicates that, particularly for Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians, the longstanding lack of civil rights is linked with persistent health inequities. Civil rights history since 1950 is explored in four domains-health care, education, employment, and housing. The first three domains show substantial benefits when civil rights are enforced. Discrimination and segregation in housing persist because anti-discrimination civil rights laws have not been well enforced. Enforcement is an essential component for the success of civil rights law. Civil rights and their enforcement may be considered a powerful arena for public health theorizing, research, policy, and action.

  15. Ethnic heterogeneity, social capital and psychological distress in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Singh, Charisse M; Rostila, Mikael; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Forsell, Yvonne; Engström, Karin

    2018-05-25

    Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born. This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances. Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual

  16. Ethnic Differences for Public Health Knowledge, Health Advocacy Skills, and Health Information Seeking Among High School Students: Community Agents of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Rao, Satya; Marquez, Ruben

    2018-03-06

    Although adult health advocacy programs have been examined in communities, little is known about integrated adolescent health advocacy programs in high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the health advocacy program impact and ethnic differences among high school students. Using a cross-sectional study, high school students participating in the school-based program completed evaluation surveys. The program domains included upstream causes of health, community assets, and public health advocacy. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine ethnic differences for public health knowledge, health advocacy skills, and health information seeking behaviors. Using thematic analysis, open-ended survey item responses were coded to identify themes for students' perceptions of community health. Non-Hispanic (n = 72) and Hispanic high school students (n = 182) in ten classes reported owning smartphones (95%) and laptops (76%). Most students (72%) reported seeking online health information. Non-Hispanic students reported significantly higher health advocacy skills for speaking with the class about health issues, identifying community services, or creating health awareness at school than Hispanic students. Non-Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from fathers and television than Hispanic students. Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from hospital or clinic staff than non-Hispanic students. Emergent themes included health advocacy skills, community awareness, and individual and community health changes. High schools benefit from integrating health advocacy programs into the core curriculum. Adolescents gain important skills to improve their individual health and engage in changing community health.

  17. The effect of public transit on social opportunities for ethnic minority populations : case study of Huston-Tillotson University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Travel time to destinations in the Austin area continues to rise during both peak and off-peak hours. With : increased congestion and higher gas prices, some individuals are traveling more selectively and viewing public : transit as a cost-saving alt...

  18. ISSUES REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL CONTROL/ MANAGERIAL AND COMBATING SOME NEGATIVE EFFECTS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS' ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stegaroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the importance and impact of the management of internal control/ managerial in Romanian public institutions, as well as the consequences arising as a result of not implementing it. It also analyzed the legal framework governing the internal control/managerial and the main conclusions issued by the Romanian Court of Accounts on the status of its implementation in Romanian public institutions. At the same time, it is stressed the role of management carried out by heads of public institutions in terms of combating the negative effects that have a direct impact on their activity.

  19. 75 FR 19297 - Medical Loss Ratios; Request for Comments Regarding Section 2718 of the Public Health Service Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... public comments in advance of future rulemaking. DATES: Submit written or electronic comments by May 14... 2718, and specifies that the Secretary may provide for appropriate penalties. F. Taxation of Certain...

  20. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents’ Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; O’Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P.; Roosa, Mark W.; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents’ ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths’ psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers’ and fathers’ ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ ethnic identity, although fathers’ ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths’ school ethnic composition in 5th grade to influence ethnic identity in 7th grade. Furthermore, adolescents’ ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents’ normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition. PMID:24465033

  1. Searching for Methods on Evaluation Alternatives and Studying Decision Making System Regarding Enhancing Publicity of Nuclear Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Choi, Seungho; Kim, Hyerim; Song, Jiyeon; Lee, Yoonsup; Sohn, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in order to anticipate the aspect of publicity enhancement on nuclear spent fuel so that it can find the evaluation methods of alternative ways of management which could applied actually and make the decision making system of Publicity Enhancement Committee in advance. In Korea, the nuclear spent fuel is temporarily stored inside of the nuclear facility field, and it is expected that Gori nuclear facility is going to be saturated since 2016 but the solutions are still incomplete. The problem of management of nuclear spent fuel is an important issue in terms of not only the nuclear power policy but also of safe management of the already made nuclear spent fuel. This study has its meaning to draw the evaluation criteria of the management alternatives on nuclear spent fuel which can be applied in Korean case, and to find the necessity of verifying the evaluation of management alternatives through Publicity Enhancement because of different stands according to the interests. As a result, rather than technological engineering safety evaluation, qualitative analysis in terms of social costs, quantitative evaluation in terms of economic costs, this study advises the methods of public hearings and citizen juries which are effective, which makes it meaningful

  2. Public preferences regarding use and condition of the Baltic Sea – an international comparison informing marine policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Jane; Czajkowski, Mikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Marine environments and the ecosystem services they provide are threatened throughout the world. Marine policy, including the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive, can be informed by public perceptions of the importance of the state of the marine environment. Using an extensive data...

  3. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...

  4. Considerations regarding the unconstitutionality of articles 55¹ and 99¹ of the law on local public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian Apostolache

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its entry into force and to date, Law no. 215/2001 on local public administration has undergone many amendments and completions. One of the questionable additions to this act is done by GEO (OUG no. 41/2015, a regulation which brought two new articles to the body of the framework-law on local public administration, i.e. Article 55¹ and Article 99¹. These two articles regulate a unique way of establishing the local or county council, namely by reconstituting these autonomous collegial bodies. This article examines the legislative intervention made by GEO no. 41/2015 and highlights the unconstitutionality aspects of this legislative intervention, recommending the legislature to urgently repeal the regulations governing the reconstitution of the local and county councils.

  5. Sources of traffic and visitors' preferences regarding online public reports of quality: web analytics and online survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Naomi S; Hibbard, Judith H; Greaves, Felix; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-05-01

    In the context of the Affordable Care Act, there is extensive emphasis on making provider quality transparent and publicly available. Online public reports of quality exist, but little is known about how visitors find reports or about their purpose in visiting. To address this gap, we gathered website analytics data from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality and surveyed real-time visitors to those websites. Websites were recruited from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality. Analytics data were gathered from each website: number of unique visitors, method of arrival for each unique visitor, and search terms resulting in visits. Depending on the website, a survey invitation was launched for unique visitors on landing pages or on pages with quality information. Survey topics included type of respondent (eg, consumer, health care professional), purpose of visit, areas of interest, website experience, and demographics. There were 116,657 unique visitors to the 18 participating websites (1440 unique visitors/month per website), with most unique visitors arriving through search (63.95%, 74,606/116,657). Websites with a higher percent of traffic from search engines garnered more unique visitors (P=.001). The most common search terms were for individual hospitals (23.25%, 27,122/74,606) and website names (19.43%, 22,672/74,606); medical condition terms were uncommon (0.81%, 605/74,606). Survey view rate was 42.48% (49,560/116,657 invited) resulting in 1755 respondents (participation rate=3.6%). There were substantial proportions of consumer (48.43%, 850/1755) and health care professional respondents (31.39%, 551/1755). Across websites, proportions of consumer (21%-71%) and health care professional respondents (16%-48%) varied. Consumers were frequently interested in using the information to choose providers or assess the quality of their provider (52.7%, 225/427); the majority of those choosing a

  6. Sources of Traffic and Visitors’ Preferences Regarding Online Public Reports of Quality: Web Analytics and Online Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Judith H; Greaves, Felix; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of the Affordable Care Act, there is extensive emphasis on making provider quality transparent and publicly available. Online public reports of quality exist, but little is known about how visitors find reports or about their purpose in visiting. Objective To address this gap, we gathered website analytics data from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality and surveyed real-time visitors to those websites. Methods Websites were recruited from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality. Analytics data were gathered from each website: number of unique visitors, method of arrival for each unique visitor, and search terms resulting in visits. Depending on the website, a survey invitation was launched for unique visitors on landing pages or on pages with quality information. Survey topics included type of respondent (eg, consumer, health care professional), purpose of visit, areas of interest, website experience, and demographics. Results There were 116,657 unique visitors to the 18 participating websites (1440 unique visitors/month per website), with most unique visitors arriving through search (63.95%, 74,606/116,657). Websites with a higher percent of traffic from search engines garnered more unique visitors (P=.001). The most common search terms were for individual hospitals (23.25%, 27,122/74,606) and website names (19.43%, 22,672/74,606); medical condition terms were uncommon (0.81%, 605/74,606). Survey view rate was 42.48% (49,560/116,657 invited) resulting in 1755 respondents (participation rate=3.6%). There were substantial proportions of consumer (48.43%, 850/1755) and health care professional respondents (31.39%, 551/1755). Across websites, proportions of consumer (21%-71%) and health care professional respondents (16%-48%) varied. Consumers were frequently interested in using the information to choose providers or assess the quality of their provider (52.7%, 225

  7. Do private hospitals outperform public hospitals regarding efficiency, accessibility, and quality of care in the European Union? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Florien M; Stadhouders, Niek W; Adang, Eddy M; Groenewoud, Stef; Jeurissen, Patrick P T

    2018-03-02

    European countries have enhanced the scope of private provision within their health care systems. Privatizing services have been suggested as a means to improve access, quality, and efficiency in health care. This raises questions about the relative performance of private hospitals compared with public hospitals. Most systematic reviews that scrutinize the performance of the private hospitals originate from the United States. A systematic overview for Europe is nonexisting. We fill this gap with a systematic realist review comparing the performance of public hospitals to private hospitals on efficiency, accessibility, and quality of care in the European Union. This review synthesizes evidence from Italy, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Greece, Austria, Spain, and Portugal. Most evidence suggests that public hospitals are at least as efficient as or are more efficient than private hospitals. Accessibility to broader populations is often a matter of concern in private provision: Patients with higher social-economic backgrounds hold better access to private hospital provision, especially in private parallel systems such as the United Kingdom and Greece. The existing evidence on quality of care is often too diverse to make a conclusive statement. In conclusion, the growth in private hospital provision seems not related to improvements in performance in Europe. Our evidence further suggests that the private (for-profit) hospital sector seems to react more strongly to (financial) incentives than other provider types. In such cases, policymakers either should very carefully develop adequate incentive structures or be hesitant to accommodate the growth of the private hospital sector. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE PUBLIC SERVANT. ASPECTS REGARDING THE COMPETENCE OF THE COURT IN CHANGING THE MARK GRANTED BY THE ASSESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia IOVANAȘ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the performance – aims to analyze the way in which the job tasks are being accomplished and the work tasks related to the professional standards. The results obtained are considered in fulfilling the tasks specific to the job he/she is on and other gathered tasks, the results of the professional training in the assessed time, the performance obtained related to the individual performance objectives and to the performance standards, contribution in fulfilling the tasks of the unit and the deficiencies in activity. The evaluation of the performance characteristics highlights the strong and the weak points, under the form of certain levels which will be taken into consideration, as a synthesis reflection, in establishing the general mark of the performance. The general evaluation of the performance, under narrative form, considers the detailing and the explaining of the performance characteristics, of the way in which the objectives and the performance standards of the assessed public servant are reached, so that it can distinguish his/her professional particularity and personality. The law issue subject to debate aims at the competence of the court in proceeding to a new assessment of the public servant activity, which contests the mark granted by the assessor.

  9. Answers to questions at public meetings regarding implementation of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 on operators' licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This document presents questions and answers based on the transcripts of four public meetings (and from written questions submitted after the meetings) conducted from April 9 to April 20, 1987 by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The meetings discussed implementation of the Commission's final rule governing Operators' Licenses and Conforming Amendments (10 CFR Parts 55 and 50). The rule became effective May 26, 1987 and is intended to clarify the regulations for issuing licenses to operators and senior operators; revise the requirements and scope of written examinations and operating tests for operators and senior operators, require a simulation facility; clarify procedures for administering requalification examinations; and describe the form and content for operator license applications

  10. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara E.; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age 14) attending 4 high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard for adolescents who were highly identified with their ethnic group and who attended predominantly White or ethnically heterogeneous schools. In addition, using time lag analyses, contact with same-ethnic others yesterday was positively related to ethnic private regard today, but ethnic private regard yesterday was unrelated to contact with same-ethnic others today, suggesting that adolescents' identity is responsive to their environments. The implications of these findings for the development of ethnic identity are discussed. PMID:23294295

  11. CRE orientations regarding tariffs for the use of public electricity grids. Report to the Parliament. June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    After a presentation of the applicable legal framework, this report analyses the stakes of the elaboration of the future tariffs for the use of public electricity networks (TURPE): a strong increase of the production of renewable energies, a low growth of consumptions, a still high electric power peak, the existence of flexibility technologies which could allow a greater pro-activity of consumers, and an always higher number of consumers-producers. It presents the TURPE as a tool that goes along the evolution of network use modes: presentation of its main principles, discussion of power and energy as the both relevant variables for network tariffing. Then, the report describes how the TURPE will implement evolutions to face the stakes of energy transition: a higher taking into account of time and season in tariffs, the question of articulation between electric vehicles and networks, and the question of the articulation between self-production and networks. Several specific cost issues and aspects are more precisely addressed in appendix

  12. New inclinations of research, development and innovation for public forest in regard to bio-economy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, Christine; Richter, Claudine; Ulrich, Erwin; Musch, Brigitte; Descroix, Laurent; Pousse, Noemie; Legay, Myriam; Dreyfus, Philippe; Bock, Jerome; Riond, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The area of French forest has grew by 60% in a century, and is at the fourth position on the European rank; Its harvesting was doubled at the same time; however the national trade-balance of the wood products sector is still in deficit. This forest is also facing important changes: climatic (composition and productivity of forest are affected, frequency and intensity of forest disturbances increase), societal (workers are fewer in the forest and we are more aware of benefits and services to society provided by forest) and bio-economic (fossil resources decrease and we need of renewable materials). Wood is a versatile material which is renewable and can be used from construction, furniture to pulp and composite material, with a final recycling in energy. This cascading use of wood products enables a low carbon production of materials and energy, particularly effective for new challenges in bio-economy. To address this joint challenge of stronger and differentiated demands on wood resource and threats and constraints on the forest, some innovations and research of the public forest service are presented in this paper. The diversity of solutions (in harvesting, silvicultural treatment, species, soil monitoring...) underlines the potential of innovations in forest management and the need to mix and transfer them. (authors)

  13. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dhakal

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people's personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs.

  14. Nuclear power in Australia: A comparative analysis of public opinion regarding climate change and the Fukushima disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Haynes, Katharine; Honert, Rob van den; McAneney, John; Poortinga, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    A nation-wide survey was conducted in 2010 to investigate the Australian public's attitudes to nuclear power in relation to climate change and in comparison to other energy alternatives. The survey showed a majority of respondents (42%) willing to accept nuclear power if it would help tackle climate change. Following the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Complex in Japan, an event triggered by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, it was expected that support for nuclear power in Australia would change. In light of this, a follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Indeed, the post-Fukushima results show a majority of respondents (40%) were not willing to accept nuclear power as an option to help tackle climate change, despite the fact that most Australians still believed nuclear power to offer a cleaner, more efficient option than coal, which currently dominates the domestic production of energy. Expanding the use of renewable energy sources (71%) remains the most popular option, followed by energy-efficient technologies (58%) and behavioural change (54%). Opposition to nuclear power will continue to be an obstacle against its future development even when posed as a viable solution to climate change. - Highlights: • Australia-wide survey assessed opinions of nuclear power in 2010 and 2012. • Study examined attitudes in relation to climate change and Fukushima disaster. • Australians believe nuclear power offers a cleaner, more efficient option to coal. • Australians are against nuclear power due to safety concerns and distrust. • Reluctant acceptance of nuclear power is a fragile attitudinal state easily swayed

  15. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Mazińska

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance.To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns.The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents. The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI.A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents' gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%. In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80% but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%, who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use.The survey generated information about

  16. A culturally competent education program to increase understanding about medicines among ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Kassem, Dumoue; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2014-01-01

    specific ethnic minority groups compared to the majority population. OBJECTIVE: The focus of this study was on reducing medicine-related problems among Arabic-speaking ethnic minorities living in Denmark. The aim was twofold: (1) to explore the perceptions, barriers and needs of Arabic-speaking ethnic...... minorities regarding medicine use, and (2) to use an education program to enhance the knowledge and competencies of the ethnic minorities about the appropriate use of medicines. SETTINGS: Healthcare in Denmark is a tax-financed public service that provides free access to hospitals and general practitioners...... focus group interviews were conducted before and four after the education program. Thirty Arabic-speaking participants were recruited from language and job centers in Copenhagen. Participants received teaching sessions in Arabic on appropriate medicine use. The education program was evaluated by two...

  17. Ethnicity and the ethics of data linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Kenneth M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linking health data with census data on ethnicity has potential benefits for the health of ethnic minority groups. Ethical objections to linking these data however include concerns about informed consent and the possibility of the findings being misused against the interests of ethnic minority groups. While consent concerns may be allayed by procedures to safeguard anonymity and respect privacy, robust procedures to demonstrate public approval of data linkage also need to be devised. The possibility of findings being misused against the interests of ethnic minority groups may be diminished by informed and open public discussion in mature democracies, but remain a concern in the international context.

  18. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M.

    2017-01-01

    created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving......Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from...... an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic...

  19. Public perceptions and preferences regarding large scale implementation of six CO2 capture and storage technologies. Well-informed and well-considered opinions versus uninformed pseudo-opinions of the Dutch public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Best-Waldhober, M.; Daamen, D.

    2006-03-01

    Three research projects were carried out within the framework of the programme 'Sustainable use of fossil fuels'. Two research projects focussed on technical aspects of advanced fossil fuel options with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). The focus of the third project was on studying informed opinions of the general public regarding advanced fossil fuel options. This study has investigated the choices the general public would make after having received and evaluated expert information on the consequences pertaining to these choices. The method to collect these informed preferences is called the Information-Choice Questionnaire (ICQ). By comparing informed public preferences, obtained through administration of the ICQ, with current public opinions and preferences regarding fossil fuel options, collected in a more conventional survey, the outcomes of this project can indicate what options would be considered acceptable given sufficient knowledge, and how much and in what respect the current situation deviates from this possible future situation. Answering these questions constitutes the main goal of this project. This report describes the development and deployment of the Information-Choice Questionnaire on advanced fossil fuel options. It furthermore describes the parallel deployment of a more traditional questionnaire without expert information and a second measure of this more traditional questionnaire. This report encompasses all parts of the project 'Informed opinions of the general public as a tool for policy measures regarding advanced fossil fuel options'. This report will explain the ICQ methodology and its usefulness for this project. Furthermore, the development of the current ICQ, the method of the ICQ and of the more traditional questionnaires, and the results thereof, are described.

  20. Ethnic Diversity in Geography Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.; Montalvo, Edris J.

    2008-01-01

    The discipline of geography in the United States has not done a good job of attracting people, other than Asians, from underrepresented ethnic groups. This article examines undergraduate geography programs in the United States to understand better the status of their ethnic diversity, particularly regarding Hispanics and African Americans, and to…

  1. Managerial factor of ethnic minority cultural space: changes (1990 – 2000 – years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pekarchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of archival, statistical materials, analytical inputs predecessors considered the place and role of management factor in the development of cultural space Ethnic minorities during 1990 - 2000 - ies. Nonfiction includes problems of participation of public authorities in the cultural renaissance of ethnic minorities in part addresses the issue of directions, principles, nature management decisions involving relevant administrative instruments regarding implementation in practice of the basics of cultural - artistic policy. Importance designated problem caused primarily by the need to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms of decision independent state problems of interethnic relations, promoting the principles of many cultural, ethnic and national tolerance and harmony. Fundamental approaches to the creation of prerequisites cooperation executive authorities and representative bodies of national - cultural society, the maintenance of ethnic and cultural needs of ethnic groups in Ukraine. We considered the prospect of continuity and management activities in the direction of improving the principles of such support. Considerable attention is paid to the current management mechanism (mosaic bodies involved in financing, material support, investment projects. At first, in the historiography on the basis of specific methodological tools to analyze conformity issued by the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry departments strategic objectives - development of social and cultural environment Ethnic minorities of Ukraine. Particular attention is given to explaining the problems of social - political participation of ethnic minorities, ethnic consolidation of the principles of conservation of space. Stressed that the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine actively promoted satisfaction ethno-cultural needs of ethnic groups, the revival of their customs and traditions. A significant part of the articl is devoted to clarify

  2. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Perceived Efficacy and Intentions Regarding Seeking Mental Healthcare: Impact of Deepika Padukone, A Bollywood Celebrity's Public Announcement of Struggle with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Pandey, Uma Shankar; Roy, Enakshi

    2017-08-01

    The current research examines the impact of Deepika Padukone's (one of the most popular Bollywood celebrities) public announcement of struggle with depression on people's perceived efficacy and intentions to seek help for mental healthcare. A survey conducted with 206 participants from India, the country with the highest depression rates in the world, revealed that parasocial interaction with the celebrity mediated the effect of exposure on intentions and efficacy perceptions regarding seeking mental healthcare. Our study expands the research on celebrity influence on health conditions in an international realm and in a mental health context. The findings have immense practical implications and may raise awareness about mental health in India given the popularity and reach of Bollywood among audiences in India and beyond, the level of stigmatization attached to mental health issues in India, and the lack of available resources for care. Theoretically, the study explores processes and effects of involvement with a celebrity and discusses potential implications for the behaviors related to health.

  4. Ethnic Conflicts in Schools. Multicultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Susan

    This book for young readers explores ethnic conflict in the schools. Public schools in the United States are among some of the places where members of a country's different ethnic and racial groups are brought together and required to work together more closely. A racial group is a group of people who share certain physical traits and often share…

  5. The Imperious Need of Change Of Law 6.015/1973: A Record Public Regarding Transsexuality and the Right to Social Name Without the Power of Judicial Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Mattos do Amaral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comes this study on changing the legal name of origin by social behalf of transgender individuals, without the need for judiciary intervention. To this end, it is imperative to change the art. 58 of Law 6.015/1973 - Laws of Public Records. Justified this amendment by the legislative admissibility already portrayed by the State in the use of the social name by transsexuals, to identify themselves various situations, including in public bodies and activities. Depicts the brief study the problem of discrimination suffered by these people in their daily lives, embedded in a society where intolerance and discrimination permeate the social fabric, fueling abuses and promoting the kick man on his journey. Relevant is the subject of analysis, as regards the conquest of rights by transgender individuals and the consequent non-discrimination in society of sexual freedoms, combined with the change in their marital name for the social name as well as the identification of sex without that to it have that bail laws that dignify man and the Judiciary. Still, due to the subject, it shows the need for without the need for transsexual name change to undergo a sex reassignment process on the grounds that such a procedure is not necessary to register peace and comfort in their transgender status.

  6. Ethnic Differences in Suicidal Ideation and Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors.

  7. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity: lessons learned from a Danish community pharmacy intervention for ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M; El-Souri, Mira; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-05-01

    To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds. Involving healthcare professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in encounters with ethnic minorities holds potential for the adaptation of services to ethnically diverse populations, thus improving access to and quality of care. However, it is important to ensure sufficient personal and organisational support and to acknowledge the delicate balance between simultaneously serving as a peer and as a professional.

  8. Ethnic Motives in Russian Mass Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    2000-12-01

    nation, which fuels nationalism. Yet Russian nationalism has not yet assumed a massive level, although the mass awareness of Russians is marked by a form of traditionalism, which manifests itself not so much in adherence to traditions, as in preventing the penetration of universal (foreign values. The author (N.P. further summarised some results on the level of anti-Semitism in Russia. In this regard she presents the conclusions of the American researcher, R. Brim, who found that after the 1998 devaluation of the ruble attitudes towards Jews were divided, but with a preponderance of the negative stance. Brim concluded that political factors and leaders had the most effect on the fate of Jews in Russia. At more stable times, as Gudkov claimed, the Russian attitude towards Jews was either positive or neutral, no different then the relationship to other ethnic groups and less negative than the attitudes of non-Russians, especially in the autonomous entities, to minorities (including Jews. All in all, one researcher (Zdravomyslov estimated that ethnic nationalism in Russian society effected no more than 10% of the population. The author (N.P. also summarises the results of some comparative analyses between Russia and other former Soviet republics. First, the image of the CIS as a threat to Russia has fallen in recent years and the great majority of Russians favour peaceful methods in regard to protecting the rights of Russian minorities in the former Soviet republics (Sedov. Comparative research in the Russia, the Baltic states and the Ukraine, shows that Russians and Estonians have similar attitudes to state paternalism and a similarly divided opinion on reforms and socialism (however state paternalism has more support in Russia and reforms are slightly more favoured in Estonian public opinion. As to social fears, comparative study of public opinion in Lithuania, Russia and the Ukraine showed that respondents in Lithuania felt relatively the least social fears, while those

  9. Analysis of the French system for persons in complex situation in regard of the implementation of a public policy aiming to integrate health and social services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somme, Dominique; de Stampa, Matthieu; Périsset, Catherine; Dupont, Olivier; Ankri, Joël; Saint-Jean, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The French Alzheimer plan, states that one of its principle orientations is the implementation of ‘Homes for Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients’. Alzheimer disease is taken as a model to implement integration for all persons in complex situation (handicap…). Method Seventeen experimental sites were selected in January 2009 for the first two years. They were selected by policy-makers taking into account the readiness of the local policy-makers to implement the program, the diversity of sizes of sites, the diversity of the experimentation leaders' organizational link (public administrations, not for profit organizations, private organizations) and the diversity of societal structure (rural, urban and mega-urban). The experimental sites were analyzed considering six components of integration: coordination boards, unique point of access, case-management, standardized assessment tool, individualized services plan and information system. A complete and computerized tool was specifically developed for the organizational diagnosis. Results During the session, results will be exposed. These results will give a contrasted image of the French system for persons in complex situation. The tool will be also exposed and the receptivity will be discussed. Conclusion The French Alzheimer plan gives a unique opportunity to have a portrait of the French system in regard of integration challenges.

  10. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gro Hellesdatter

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns...... the meeting between citizens with an ethnic minority background and the Danish state, represented by welfare institutions, in this case public elementary schools, and changes the character of this meeting for the individuals involved. In the article, I concentrate on two rights at stake in this meeting......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...

  11. Teacher Ethnicity, Student Ethnicity, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2015-01-01

    A review of the empirical literature was conducted to establish the relation between teacher and student ethnicity, and cognitive and noncognitive student outcomes. It was hypothesized that ethnic teacher-student congruence results in more favorable outcomes for especially minority students. A total of 24 quantitative studies focusing on primary…

  12. Survey results of the American public's values, objectives, beliefs, and attitudes regarding forests and grasslands: A technical document supporting the 2000 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Shields; Ingrid M. Martin; Wade E. Martin; Michelle A. Haefele

    2002-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service completed its Strategic Plan (2000 Revision) in October 2000. The goals and objectives included in the Plan were developed with input from the public, some of which was obtained through a telephone survey. We report results of the survey. Members of the American public were asked about their values with respect to public lands, objectives for...

  13. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research Problemas persistentes relacionados con la raza y etnia en la investigación en salud pública y epidemiología Problemas persistentes relacionados à raça e etnia na pesquisa em saúde pública e epidemiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.Se realizó revisión reciente y amplia de la utilización de raza y etnia en investigaciones dedicadas a las disparidades de salud en epidemiología y salud pública. Se describió la base teórica sobre cual raza y etnia difieren en los métodos de trabajos en ciencia, antropología social y de salud pública. La revisión fue hecha con base en la selección de artículos publicados en revistas de alto factor de impacto en lo que

  14. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  15. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  16. Tourisme et espaces publics : de l'attractivité à la qualité d'accueil ? Paris au regard de Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Observing that metropolitan tourism takes place mostly in public spaces, the present article aims to shed light on the complex and dynamic relationship between tourism and public space policies. It analyzes how urban governments reconcile the diversity of issues and usages characterizing public spaces in city centres with the economic need of tourism development. Confronting Paris and Berlin it shows how cities have given priority to prestige developments and great events in the context of ur...

  17. Ethnic divisions, trust, and the size of the informal sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ethnic fractionalization and the size of the informal, or hidden, economy. Recent experimental and empirical research links, in turn, ethnicity and trust, and trust and tax compliance. In addition, recent empirical studies have identified...... an unwillingness to contribute to public goods benefiting other ethnic groups. Combining these insights, we argue that increasing ethnic fractionalization decreases voluntary tax compliance, and we present empirical evidence at the macro level in a cross-section of more than 50 countries that more ethnically...

  18. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  19. Ethnicity and perception of dental shade esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Muhammad Omar; Naseem, Mustafa; Elcock, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether or not people from different ethnic backgrounds have different attitudes towards dental esthetics and chose different dental appearances in terms of tooth shade, and to determine whether the dental professional's choice and the individual's own choice have any relationship with what the individual ideally perceives as esthetically pleasing. For this cross-sectional analytical study, 120 volunteer students from the University of Sheffield (excepting dental students) from various ethnic backgrounds, of different ages, of both genders, and with varying degree/educational levels were recruited from the campus. The volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 9 adapted attitudinal statements regarding positive or negative dental esthetic perceptions in terms of tooth shade, with responses on a 5-point Likert scale from "Entirely agree" to "Entirely disagree". Scores for all attitudinal statements were summed up to give an attitudinal score. The participants' ideal, perceived, and actual (self-assessed and investigatorassessed) tooth shade was also determined using a shade guide and a facial mirror. No association between ethnicity and attitudinal score was found. However, statistically significant associations were found between the participants' degree/educational level (P=0.004, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=-4.18 to -0.82) and their ideal tooth shade value (P=0.038, 95% CI=-3.53 to -0.11). There were strong correlations between self-assessed and professionally assessed tooth shade value in all ethnic groups, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) being ρ>0.6. Regarding ideally desired and perceived tooth shade value, weak correlations were found in all ethnic groups (Spearman's rho being ρethnicity and attitude towards dental esthetics with regard to tooth shade, both ethnicity and dental esthetics are very diverse terms with multiple dimensions, each of which needs further investigation with regard to their mutual

  20. The census categorization of ethnic identity: Between theoretical comprehensions and statistical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical debates about ethnic identity during the second half of the 20th century did not just attract attention of academic circles, but they influenced creation of political discourse which determined public life in almost every multinational society, regardless the level of socio-economic development. In recent decades, many theories about ethnic identity have emerged, especially those about ethnicity as a relatively new concept, which caused a great deal of controversy that has been ongoing since the 1960s. Modern demography deals with problems of great social importance, especially when it comes to anthropological, social and political demography, whose results often take lead in the modern political debate. In that sense, a lot of theoretical approaches tried to emphasize the decline of importance of traditional elements of ethnic identity, even their disappearance in favor of supranational concepts, over the past more than half a century. However, in practice, the opposite processes are constantly repeating and the awareness of belonging to certain ethnic group, not only remained the important part of social life, but its significance rapidly grew in certain periods and societies. Ethnic and social pluralism of modern societies, together with massive migration flows, have initiated the review of sustainability, not only the traditional definitions of ethnic identity, but also the various supranational concepts which have mostly emerged from ethnic identification and legal nationality. The fear that ethno-cultural pluralism will have negative effects on ethno-demographic differentiation increased the need for quantitative researches of demographic characteristics of population towards ethnic marks, also for reviewing of methodological solutions of ethno-statistic evidence, starting from definitions, categorizations and statistic classification, as far as the ways of collecting and publishing the data. In that sense the censuses are

  1. AWARENESS REGARDING MODES OF TRANSMISSION AND RELATED MISCONCEPTION ABOUT HIV/AIDS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL GOING FEMALES OF PUBLIC AND GOVT SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabi Mohan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available .Research Question: What is the level of awareness about different modes of transmission and related misconception about HIV/AIDS among secondary school going females of public and Govt. Schools of Kanpur city. Study Area: Public and Govt. Schools of Kanpur city. Participatns: 120 Govt. and 120 Public secondary School females students. Results: 100% Public school female students knew about heterosexual mode of transmission of HI V/AIDS as compared to 80% of Govt. School students. Among Public School students knowledge about transmission of HIV/AIDS by contaminated needle and syringe intravenous drug abuse, blood transfusion and mother to child was known to almost 80% student. Among Govt. School students except for knowledge about transmission by contaminated needle and syringe (60% and mother to child transmission (55% the other modes were poorly known (<50%.

  2. Public health officials and MECs should be held liable for harm caused to patients through incompetence, indifference, maladministration or negligence regarding the availability of hospital equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, David Jan

    2016-06-17

    There have been several reports of state hospitals not having functional equipment such as radiological equipment. Where these are due to incompetence, Indifference, maladministration or negligence by the public officials concerned, they may be held personally liable for the resulting harm to patients. However, the courts have often observed that where the State has been sued vicariously for the wrongs of public officials, it has not obtained reimbursement from the offending official. It has therefore been suggested that irresponsible public servants should be sued in their personal capacity (in addition to the State), to prevent taxpayers always having to pay for their misdeeds. If an individual public official cannot afford to pay all the damages awarded, the injured party can recover the balance from the State by citing it as a vicarious joint wrongdoer.

  3. Ethnic density is not associated with psychological distress in Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, A.C.; Peen, J.; de Wit, M.A.S.; van Ameijden, E.J.C.; Erdem, O.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Ethnic density, the proportion of people of the same ethnic group in the neighbourhood, has been identified as a protective factor with regard to mental health in ethnic minorities. Research on the putative intermediating factors, exposure to discrimination and improved social support, has

  4. Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic amplitude measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, Ishak A.; Nash, Ira S.

    2004-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding ethnic differences in electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns because of the potentially confounding socioeconomic, nutritional, environmental and occupational factors. We reviewed the first 1000 medical files of a multiethnic community, where all individuals shared similar living conditions. Only healthy adults age 15 to 60 years were included. Wave amplitudes were measured manually from the standard 12lead ECG. Minnesota coding was used. ECG from 597 subjects were included in the study: 350 Saudi Arabians, 95 Indians, 17 Sri-Lankans, 39 Filipinos, and 57 Caucasians; 349 were men. the mean +-SD of Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) in men was signifcantly different among ethnic groups (2.9+-0.86, 2.64+-0.79, 2.73+-0.72, 3.23+-0.61, 2.94+-0.6, 2.58+-0.79 mV, P=0.0006, for Saudi's, Indians, Jordanians, Filipinos, Sri-Lankans, and Caucasians, respectively). SLV was similar among ethnic groups in women. The prevalence of early transition pattern was also different among ethnic groups in men but not women (15.8%, 34.6%, 17.9%, 21.7%, 35.3%, 26.8% in Suadi, Indian, Jordanian, Filipino, Sri-Lankan, and Caucasian, respectively, P=0.037). T wave amplitude was significantly different among ethnic groups in selected lead. ECG wave amplitude differs with ethnic region even when other factors are similar. Using SLV of 3.5 mV as a criterion may overestimate the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in some ethnic groups. The pattern of high R wave in lead V1is common in healthy adults in certain ethnic groups. T wave height differs with ethnic origin and sex. (author)

  5. Tourism and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Azeredo Grünewald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant issues confronting studies in the anthropology of tourism is that of cultural change precipitated in host societies as a result of an influx of tourists. Many times those changes are accompanied by a reorganization of the host population along ethnic lines, that is, by the creation of tourism- oriented-ethnicities. This article's purpose is to examine the relationship between tourism and ethnicity in theoretical terms and to contribute to a better academic understanding of ethnic tourism.

  6. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex...

  7. Do doctors have a moral duty to work in the public health sector? Ethical considerations regarding the social obligations of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Dreyse, Bernardo; López Gaete, Gonzalo

    2017-12-22

    This article discusses whether physicians have social obligations and whether these obligations imply a moral duty to work in the public sector. The article focuses on the context of the Chilean health system, which has an unequal distribution of physicians to the detriment of the public sector, thus making the issue a particularly pressing one. After addressing arguments from different ethical theories and some empirical evidence, the article concludes that the physician has some social obligations in relation to a fair distribution of health resources, and that professional excellence should incorporate cultivating virtues related to social justice. In addition, it is argued that the moral duty to work in the public sector can be placed in the context of prima facie obligations which admit exceptions and allow the possibility of conflict with other professional obligations.

  8. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  9. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  10. Practical Aspects Regarding Conditions of Closing Traffic and Setting Traffic Restrictions for Both the Execution of Works in Public Roads Area and/or the Protection of Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Vasile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutions and authorities involved in organizing, structuring and signaling traffic are represented, on one hand, by the Romanian Police through its structures of traffic police as the main body with responsibilities in the field and, on the other, by the administrators of public roads depending on material and territorial competence.

  11. A Comparison of Centralized and Decentralized Developmental Education Courses in Four Public Appalachian Community Colleges and Students' Perceptions regarding the Seven Principles for Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental education courses have become a standard in community colleges in the United States. An overwhelming majority of these public two-year schools offer developmental courses to a wide array of students. At the same time, developmental programs are under a constant barrage of attacks from a variety of stakeholder organizations that view…

  12. The role of ethnic school segregation for adolescents’ religious salience

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school composition for intergenerational differences in religious salience. We perform analyses on religious salience, one five-point Likert scale item me...

  13. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  14. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  15. Do attitudes, intentions and actions of school food coordinators regarding public organic food procurement policy improve the eating environment at school? Results from the iPOPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P environment.

  16. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document

  17. Explaining Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety: A Qualitative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Jeanine; Uiters, Ellen; de Bruijne, Martine C.; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored characteristics of in-hospital care and treatment of immigrant patients to better understand the processes underlying ethnic disparities in patient safety. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with care providers regarding patient safety events involving immigrant

  18. 'Present nuclear emergency responses in India: tracing requirements and guidelines suggested after Fukushima accident in regards to public and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawale, Priyanka M.

    2014-01-01

    In this poster the primary initiative is to educate the public at large and instill confidence about the present Emergency Response Systems of DAE and the imminent agencies in India. Poster attempts to analyse present regulatory and safety systems, mechanisms like plant and site emergency response plans are in place to handle radiation emergencies and how public will not be affected in any manner. In India also we needed some supplementary provisions to cope up with major disasters in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) apart from the existing one. Some of the NPPs are not under the UN safeguards, which can not import Uranium also need extra care and protection. Regulatory and safety functions of Atomic Energy in India are carried out by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (Atomic Energy Regulatory Board), the poster attempts to explain the present regulatory and safety mechanism under Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. We have the plant and site emergency response plans in place. The well planned functioning of these is demonstrated here. India is equipped with detail plans of emergency response system, to handle the radiation emergencies in public domain even at the locations where DAE facility is not available

  19. Ethnic Identity and Perceived Stress Among Ethnically Diverse Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre

    2018-02-01

    Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.

  20. Ethnic Maps: Between Reality and Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Klemenčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic maps provide insight into the ethnically complex populations of certain areas. They are a cartographic way of portraying a part of geographic reality. Southeastern Europe appears as an ideal area for ethnic maps drawers: there is a variety of different ethnic groups living in a relatively small area. Moreover, political boundaries often do not correspond with so-called ethnic borders, i.e. divisions between majority areas of different nations and/or ethnic groups. The history of South-Eastern Europe offers a number of examples of ethnic maps drawing and their use in political context. The paper focused on ethnic maps drawn and published in the context of the break-up of Yugoslav federation during the first half of the 1990’s. The maps were produced mainly by scientific institutions or under the supervision of such institutions or experts, but always with the specific goal to back and justify political standpoints of their respective country's governments during a turbulent period of geopolitical change and transition. Generally, figures and statistics were presented professionally and correctly. Map authors and compilers did not try to falsify figures. The degree of intent in mapmaking is registered primarily through the choice of cartographic technique, including certain elements of the map design (choice of colours. In that regard, one can identify a technique favoured by Croatian sources (pie charts and another one often used by Serbian mapmakers (choropleth maps. Maps were understood to be powerful media tools and influential visual images that could be used to create a particular perception.

  1. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document.

  2. Preparedness activities regarding the protection of public health in case of a major oil or chemical spill on the St-Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrier, P.; Manon, P.

    1996-01-01

    A project was initiated to protect the health of people living in the St-Lawrence basin from contaminants associated with an oil or chemical spill. Between 1980 and 1990, more than 240 chemical spills and 300 oil spills were recorded in the region which has prompted concerns regarding the possible contamination of drinking water sources. 45% of Quebec's population relies on the St-Lawrence River as a source of drinking water. Thus far, the project has identified the major chemical and oil products transported on the St-Lawrence River, and the main health risks associated with these products. Computerized dispersion models which can determine the migration of the contaminants in water, are available. Simulation exercises have been carried out to train personnel in the event of an actual spill. 1 ref

  3. Apprendre les genres du secteur wallon de l’énergie. Un regard croisé sur les professionnels et le grand public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available L’apprentissage des discours de spécialité demande la maîtrise de lexiques, mais aussi la reconnaissance d’une situation de communication, à savoir les conventions textuelles d’une communauté de discours. La linguistique de corpus appliquée à l’étude des genres, a montré sa validité et sa pertinence pour l’étude du lexique et d’autres caractéristiques linguistiques et textuelles de genres différents. Cet article présente la construction du corpus spécialisé ENERWAL, consacré au secteur de l’énergie en Région wallonne et visant deux publics (professionnels vs. grand public. Nous illustrons quelques exemples concernant des caractéristiques morphologiques, syntaxiques, phraséologiques et discursives des genres d’ENERWAL. Chaque exemple présente des suggestions pratiques et des aspects critiques qui concernant ces caractéristiques ainsi que l’emploi d’un corpus spécialisé en vue d’une prise de conscience de la part des apprenants en salle de cours.

  4. Ethnic identity, territory and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona Maya, Sergio Ivan

    1998-01-01

    This article explores, within the relationship between territory and society, the various points concerning cultural, social and ethnic identity through which the social contract on sustainable development must confront its greatest contradictions. The political position taken as regards sustainable development seeks cultural unity as a necessary condition for establishing modern forms of behavior to deal with styles of development and the management of the environment, for which to reconcile cultural diversity and the permanent social interaction between different ethnic groups, which is both imperative and of the utmost urgency

  5. Perspectives of Patients, Doctors and Medical Students at a Public University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro Regarding Tuberculosis and Therapeutic Adherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth da Trindade de Andrade

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target.To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment.Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis.Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence.The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health

  6. Perspectives of Patients, Doctors and Medical Students at a Public University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro Regarding Tuberculosis and Therapeutic Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Elizabeth da Trindade; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; de Siqueira, Hélio Ribeiro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Mannarino, Celina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO’s cure target. Goal To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Methods Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis. Results Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students’ education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. Conclusion The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship

  7. Perspectives of Patients, Doctors and Medical Students at a Public University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro Regarding Tuberculosis and Therapeutic Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Elizabeth da Trindade; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Siqueira, Hélio Ribeiro de; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Mannarino, Celina

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target. To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis. Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health strategies.

  8. The impact of assumptions regarding vaccine-induced immunity on the public health and cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination: Is one dose sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Desmond; de Ridder, Marc; Van Effelterre, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis A vaccination stimulates memory cells to produce an anamnestic response. In this study, we used a mathematical model to examine how long-term immune memory might convey additional protection against clinical/icteric infections. Dynamic and decision models were used to estimate the expected number of cases, and the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), respectively. Several scenarios were explored by assuming: (1) varying duration of vaccine-induced immune memory, (2) and/or varying levels of vaccine-induced immune memory protection (IMP), (3) and/or varying levels of infectiousness in vaccinated individuals with IMP. The base case analysis assumed a time horizon of 25 y (2012 – 2036), with additional analyses over 50 and 75 y. The analyses were conducted in the Mexican public health system perspective. In the base case that assumed no vaccine-induced IMP, the 2-dose hepatitis A vaccination strategy was cost-effective compared with the 1-dose strategy over the 3 time horizons. However, it was not cost-effective if we assumed additional IMP durations of at least 10 y in the 25-y horizon. In the 50- and 75-y horizons, the 2-dose strategy was always cost-effective, except when 100% reduction in the probability of icteric Infections, 75% reduction in infectiousness, and mean durations of IMP of at least 50 y were assumed. This analysis indicates that routine vaccination of toddlers against hepatitis A virus would be cost-effective in Mexico using a single-dose vaccination strategy. However, the cost-effectiveness of a second dose depends on the assumptions of additional protection by IMP and the time horizon over which the analysis is performed. PMID:27428611

  9. Race and Ethnicity: Powerful Cultural Forecasters of Science Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Mary M.; Lance, Jennifer; Woodard, UrLeaka; Johnson, Natasha Hillsman

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the impact of race and ethnicity on students' science learning in US schools. Specifically, it discusses (a) the constructs of race, ethnicity, and culture, and the racial and ethnic student composition in US public schools; (b) effective classroom practices for curriculum, instruction, and assessment related to race…

  10. Allaying public concern regarding CO{sub 2} geological sequestration through the development of automated stations for the continuous geochemical monitoring of gases in the near surface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziatellis, A.; Beaubien, S.E.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S. [La Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Several carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhanced oil recovery projects conducted in North America have demonstrated that the deep, onshore geological sequestration of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} is technically feasible. However, the technology has yet to be proven to regulators and the general public. It must be demonstrated that carbon sequestration will result in the long-term isolation of the injected CO{sub 2} and that there is no health risk for local residents due to the leakage of CO{sub 2} at surface. It was suggested that in order to alleviate these concerns, low-cost, early warning systems should be installed to monitor gas compositions and concentrations in the soil gas and groundwater. Doing so, would trigger a warning if any increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} or other associated gases were noted in these phases, and allow for early examination of the cause of the anomalous value. In addition, since gas flow is typically along natural faults or abandoned bore holes, installation of monitoring stations around these higher risk sites would help maximize efficiency while minimizing costs. In this study, gas permeable tubing was used to sample soil gas or gases dissolved in groundwater via diffusion. In the case of equilibration with a gas phase the gas concentration within the tubing will eventually match that of the surrounding environment, whereas in the aqueous phase the internal volume of the tube will represent a head space where equilibrium concentrations will be governed by Henry's Constant. CO{sub 2}, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide from either soil-gas or groundwater were analyzed with low cost infra-red electrochemical detectors. The data was processed with an integrated computer and the results were sent automatically via modem to a central laboratory. The prototype was installed in the San Vittorino Plain in central Italy where it has collected over 5 months of continuous CO{sub 2} data in an area susceptible to sinkhole formation caused by the

  11. Decree no. 85-449 of 23 April 1985 in implementation of Act no. 83-630 of 12 July 1983 on democratisation of public inquiries and environmental protection with regard to major nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Act No. 83-630 of 19 July 1983 on democratisation of public inquiries and environmental protection prescribes a public inquiry procedure for work likely to affect the environment. This Decree was made in implementation of the Act. Its scope is set out in an annexed table which provides that this new procedure applies to major nuclear installations governed by Decree No. 63-1128 of 11 December 1963 on nuclear installations and their radioactive effluent releases. The definition of a major nuclear installation which, until now, was set out in orders, is henceforth included in the 1963 Decree which is amended by the above Decree. As regards substance, the main modifications concerning nuclear installations are those directly resulting from the 1983 Act: one month's duration at least for the inquiry, designation of an inquiry commissioner by the president of the administrative court, stay of execution decided ipso facto by the judicial authority in case of the inquiry commissioner's negative opinion. (NEA) [fr

  12. Ethnic disparities in access to care in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Zeida R; Lackan, Nuha

    2008-12-01

    We investigated ethnic disparities in obtaining medical care among the 4 major ethnic groups (Blacks, Whites, Coloreds [i.e., those of mixed race], and Asians) in post-apartheid South Africa. Data for the study came from the 2002 Afrobarometer: Round II Survey of South Africa. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine differences across racial and ethnic groups in how often respondents went without medical care. A total of 40.8% of Blacks and 22.9% of Coloreds reported going without medical care at some point in the past year, compared with 10.9% of Whites and 6.9% of Asians. Disparities were found not only in health but in education, income, and basic public health infrastructures. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions regarding democracy, markets, and civil society were similar for Blacks and Coloreds and for Whites and Asians. Fourteen years after the end of apartheid, Blacks and Coloreds in South Africa are still underserved and disadvantaged compared with their White and Asian counterparts, especially regarding health care.

  13. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  14. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  15. Attitudes to deceased organ donation and registration as a donor among minority ethnic groups in North America and the U.K.: a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Kenten, Charlotte; Deedat, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review and synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research were undertaken to examine attitudes to deceased donation and registration as an organ donor among ethnic minorities in the U.K. and North America. A systematic search and assessments of relevance and quality were conducted. Parallel syntheses were then undertaken of 14 quantitative and 12 qualitative papers followed by their integration. The synthesis was organised around five barriers that emerged as key issues: (1) knowledge regarding deceased donation and registration as a donor; (2) discussion of donation/registration with family members; (3) faith and cultural beliefs; (4) bodily concerns including disfigurement and intactness; and (5) trust in doctors and the health care system. In all countries, knowledge of organ donation and registration remained low despite public campaigns, with African-Americans and Black African and Black Caribbean populations in the U.K. often regarding organ donation as a 'white' issue. Each of the four attitudinal barriers was also more prevalent among ethnic minorities compared with the majority population. However, the significance of trust and uncertainties regarding religion/faith differed between groups, reflecting salient aspects of ethnic identity and experiences. Differences were also identified within ethnic groups associated with age and generation, although respect for the views of elders often influenced younger peoples' willingness to donate. There is a need for a more nuanced understanding of ethnicity and of variations in attitudes associated with country of origin, age/generation, socio-economic status and area of residence, to inform public campaigns and promote sensitive discussions with bereaved ethnic minority families. The traditional focus on knowledge and attitudes also requires to be complemented by a greater emphasis on organisational and service-related barriers and changes required to enhance ethnic minorities' access to

  16. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  17. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  18. Revitalization of ethnic identity among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krel Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's, many members of the German national minority have awaken from the several decades long sleep in 'ethnic hibernation'. Several associations have been founded at that time, with an aim to gather and encourage ethnic feelings of the Germans living in Vojvodina. These associations work toward revitalization and reconstruction of the German ethnic and cultural identity. There are quite a few of such institutions today, and one of them is German association promoting good neighbor relations Karlowitz, Sremski Karlovci. This paper will discuss transformation of an ethnic identity strategy among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci; in addition, I will analyze modus operandi by which this local association aims at keeping and encouraging certain elements of the ethnic and cultural particulars. The results of the research point out how a relatively small group, without social power, can define and redefine its own identity, in regards to historical, social and economic conditions.

  19. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  20. Public attitude formation regarding animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    research involves a distinct experience of value conflict - between the possible human benefits, on the one hand, and a concern for costs to the animal, on the other. Different ways of dealing with this conflict gives rise ti different attitudinal stances on animal research: Disapprovers, Reserved...

  1. Racial/ethnic variations in the main and buffering effects of ethnic and nonethnic supports on depressive symptoms among five ethnic immigrant groups in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined variations in the main and buffering effects of ethnic and nonethnic social support on depressive symptoms associated with discrimination among five immigrant groups in Toronto. Data were taken from the Toronto Study of Settlement and Health, a cross-sectional survey of adult immigrants from five ethnic communities (Vietnamese, Ethiopian, Iranian, Korean, and Irish) in Toronto. A total of 900 surveys were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted between April and September 2001. Significant ethnic variations were observed in the effects of both ethnic and nonethnic social supports on discrimination-related depressive symptoms. Regarding the main effect, ethnic social support was significantly stronger for Iranian, Ethiopian, and Korean immigrants than for Irish immigrants. The benefits of nonethnic support were stronger for Iranian immigrants compared to the effect found in the Irish sample. With respect to stress-buffering or stress-moderating effects of social support, ethnic support was significant in all ethnic groups, except the Vietnamese group. Nonethnic support aggravated the negative impact of discrimination on depressive symptoms in the Irish group, but exerted a stress-buffering effect in the Iranian group. Overall, social supports received from fellow ethnic group members had significant main effects (suppressing depressive symptoms) and stress-buffering effects and were most pronounced in the minority ethnic immigrant groups of Ethiopians, Koreans, and Iranians. The effects were least evident among the Vietnamese and Irish. Evidence for the stress-suppressing and stress-buffering role of cross-ethnic group supports was unclear, and even inverted among Irish immigrants. Empirical evidence from the current study seems to support the sociocultural similarity hypothesis of social support.

  2. The relation between ethnic classroom composition and adolescents’ ethnic pride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leszczensky, Lars; Flache, Andreas; Stark, Tobias H.; Munniksma, Anke

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how students? ethnic pride was related to variation in ethnic composition between classrooms as well as within the same classroom over time. Predictions derived from optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT) were tested among 13- to 14-year-old ethnic majority and minority

  3. Ethnic Identity and Conflicts: Lessons from the Kosovo Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Negash, Mossa Hussen

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic identity and conflicts often inter-married in countries where diversities on such grounds were seen as a threat. Conflicts in the post-cold war period have attained a new dimension. The Balkan region has been one of the most conflict prone regions in the world where conflicts arising from ethnic difference were not uncommon. Kosovo, former province of Serbia is a case in point. The roots of Serbia and Albanian communities' conflict regarding Kosovo dated back since the medieval pe...

  4. Race, Ethnicity and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.

  5. Ethnic Minorities and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the Netherlands recently about the integration of ethnic minorities. The tenor of that discussion is sombre: some observers speak of a 'multicultural drama', while others claim that the government's integration policy has failed completely. Recent

  6. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  7. Ethnic Disparities in Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmer, Nyingi

    2011-01-01

    End-stage liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among ethnic minorities. In the United States, ethnic minorities comprise approximately 30% of all adult liver transplantations performed annually. Several studies have suggested that ethnic populations differ with respect to access and outcomes in the pre- and post-transplantation setting. This paper will review the existing literature on ethnic variations in the adult liver transplantation population.

  8. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  10. Analysis of Decision C-355 of 2006 of the Constitutional Court of Colombia regarding the liberalization of abortion in Colombia: Jusphilosophical arguments underlying the debate within Habermas perspective on the role of religion in the public sphere with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aguirre Román

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This text is a product of a research project focused on the perspective that the Constitutional Court of Colombia has taken with regard to the religious arguments presented in constitutional legal actions. The theoretical framework used to develop the analysis is Habermas’ account of the role of religion in the public sphere as well as his ideas on the role of the constitutional tribunals. In this particular text the case selected was the case law C-355 of 2006. In this case, the Court decriminalize, in some cases, the voluntary interruption of pregnancy. In order to develop a full analysis of such a controversial issue, Habermas’ perspective is complemented with Dworkin’s own view on the topic.

  11. Children's evaluations of interethnic exclusion: The effects of ethnic boundaries, respondent ethnicity, and majority in-group bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem

    2017-06-01

    Two vignette studies were conducted in which preadolescent children (Study 1: N=542; Study 2: N=137; aged 8-13years) evaluated the exclusion, for unknown reasons, of an immigrant minority child by a native majority peer (majority interethnic exclusion). Study 1 compared children's evaluations of majority interethnic exclusion with their evaluations of (majority and minority) intraethnic exclusion and minority interethnic exclusion, and Study 2 examined children's underlying explanations. Each study compared ethnic majority and ethnic minority respondents and examined the role of in-group bias for the former. Overall, both ethnic majority and ethnic minority respondents regarded majority interethnic exclusion more negatively than the other exclusion types (majority intraethnic, minority interethnic, and minority intraethnic). All children, but especially older minority respondents, were more likely to reject majority interethnic exclusion if they perceived it to be discriminatory (ethnicity based). Among the majority children, a strong in-group bias was associated with a weaker condemnation of majority interethnic exclusion, but this was not due to a larger tolerance of ethnicity-based discrimination. Biased majority children were also less likely to reject minority intraethnic exclusion, indicating an overall weaker concern for out-group victims. Taken together, the studies show that children are relatively negative about majority (prototypical) interethnic exclusion because it implies the possibility of ethnic discrimination, and they concur with previous evidence for a developmental increase in the awareness of discrimination in ethnic minority youths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  13. Ethnic differences in all-cause mortality rates in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletov, K; McKee, M; Berkinbayev, S; Battakova, Z; Zhussupov, B; Amirov, B; Junusbekova, G; Rechel, B

    2016-04-01

    This article explores mortality rates in Kazakhstan by ethnic group and some of the potential lifestyle factors that might help to explain the observed differences on a population level. Repeated cross-sectional data analysis. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates from all causes by ethnic group, gender and age for 2009-2012. We analysed data on self-reported alcohol and tobacco consumption and other lifestyle factors from the nationally representative 5th National Behavior Study, conducted in 2012. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates are generally much higher among ethnic Russians than among ethnic Kazakhs, both among women and men and in rural as well as urban areas. These differences are most pronounced in the age group 20-59 years. Information on self-reported alcohol consumption and smoking by ethnic group, gender and age shows major differences between ethnic groups, with consistently higher rates of alcohol consumption and smoking among ethnic Russians, both in women and men and across all adult age groups. Policies to improve the health of the population of Kazakhstan must take account of ethnic differences. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent alcohol use in the Netherlands : the role of ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, and ethnic school composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van; Poortman, A.-R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, ethnic composition of schools and adolescent alcohol use. Design. Data were derived from the National Survey of Students in the Netherlands, a repeated, nationally representative, cross-sectional study of students aged

  15. Public opinion of the electricity supply: Opinions and preferences of the Dutch with regard to the present and future electricity supply; Publieke oordelen over de elektriciteitsvoorziening: Oordelen en voorkeuren van de Nederlander met betrekking tot de huidige en toekomstige elektriciteitsvoorziening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daamen, D.D.L.; Kips, J. [Werkgroep Energie en Milieu-onderzoek, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Monitor is a periodical survey of the public opinion on the use of nuclear energy, coal and other energy sources for the production of electric power. The first three chapters of this report deal with the Energy Monitor measurements of November 1993, May 1994, and November 1994. The Energy Choice Questionnaire is carried out in 1993/94. The questionnaire differs from traditional inquiries in the fact that respondents were confronted with a real policy problem (make a choice from a number of energy supply options to provide for the electricity demand in the year 2010), and provided with information on the consequences of the different options by experts in the field. The authors reported on the impact of that information on the preferences of the public with regard to the future electricity supply. In chapter 4 the results of the follow-up of the Energy Choice Questionnaire, carried out in November 1994, are discussed. Finally, attention is paid to the differences and agreements between the Monitor survey and the Questionnaire survey. The overall conclusion is that a comparison of the results of both surveys is not relevant, while the difference in method and object of investigation is too dominant. It is much more useful to compare the results of the Monitor in time. The same goes for a comparison of the trends in the Questionnaire. 12 figs., 28 tabs., 7 appendices, 35 refs.

  16. Decision 13-2009 in the matter of a review by the NWT Public Utilities Board regarding customer complaints of high consumption on power bills from Northland Utilities Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acorn, J.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2009, in response to customer complaints, the Northwest Territories Public Utilities Board requested that Northland Utilities conduct a review of at least the last 3 billing cycles to detect and explain unusually high power bills. Northland responded that the complaints were based primarily on price, not usage, and that the findings can be attributed to rate adjustments as well as colder weather. However, the Board decided to examine certain aspects of Northland's response in detail and initiated an inquiry under section 52 of the Public Utilities Act. The Board determined that Northland Utilities' process for investigating customer complaints was too informal and without any clear structure, resulting in confusion for some customers. The Board directed the utility to develop a document for dealing with customer concerns that clearly outlines the rights and responsibilities of both the utility and the customers. The Board also directed Northland Utilities to reduce the $500 threshold for a company-initiated review of an account to $400. This document addressed issues regarding estimated versus actual meter readings; the number of days in a billing cycle; the prominence of consumption and overall cost on a bill; bill calculators; customer consumption monitoring; pre-paid meters; and meter accuracy. Specific customer complaints were included along with a summary of Board directives.

  17. 服务购买型公私合作(PPP)项目财政补偿的有效区间研究%The Study on the Effective Range of Fiscal Compensation of Public Private Partnerships Project Regarding Services Sold to the Public Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振; 王秀婧; 刘华

    2013-01-01

    Through the comparison of investment and operating costs occurred under traditional development and Public Private Partnerships (PPP) regarding services sold to the public sector, this paper studies the fundamental model regarding the effective range of fiscal compensation, as well as its evolution in the context of the existence of advanced supply of public service. The model shows that due to the advantages in finance, technology and management, the private entities could produce the "win-win range" of PPP projects, and both public and private stakeholders can gain benefit by fiscal compensation on the range.%通过对比传统开发与公私合作(PPP)两种模式下的投资和经营成本,研究服务购买型PPP项目财政补偿有效区间的基础模型;考虑公共服务提前供应条件下基础模型的演变,表明由于民间实体利用其资金、技术以及管理优势,能够创造出PPP项目的“双赢区间”,在该区间内进行财政补偿,公私双方都能获益.

  18. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Moche: Archaeology, Ethnicity, Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Quilter, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The two different modes of investigation in Art History and Anthropological Archaeology are discussed. This is followed by a consideration of these issues in relation to the Mochica archaeological culture. The “Mochica” have come to be considered a political or ethnic group and, in particular, considered as a prehistoric state. This essay questions these ideas and suggests that Moche is best considered as primarily a religious system. The ceremonial centers were likely places of pilgrimage wi...

  20. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  1. Ethnic variations in upper gastrointestinal hospitalizations and deaths: the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezard, Genevieve I; Bhopal, Raj S; Ward, Hester J T; Bansal, Narinder; Bhala, Neeraj

    2016-04-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are common, but there is a paucity of data describing variations by ethnic group and so a lack of understanding of potential health inequalities. We studied the incidence of specific upper GI hospitalization and death by ethnicity in Scotland. Using the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study, linking NHS hospitalizations and mortality to the Scottish Census 2001, we explored ethnic differences in incidence (2001-10) of oesophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, gallstone disease and pancreatitis. Relative Risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression, multiplied by 100, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, country of birth (COB) and socio-economic position. The White Scottish population (100) was the reference population. Ethnic variations varied by outcome and sex, e.g. adjusted RRs (95% confidence intervals) for oesophagitis were comparatively higher in Bangladeshi women (209; 124-352) and lower in Chinese men (65; 51-84) and women (69; 55-88). For peptic ulcer disease, RRs were higher in Chinese men (171; 131-223). Pakistani women had higher RRs for gallstone disease (129; 112-148) and pancreatitis (147; 109-199). The risks of upper GI diseases were lower in Other White British and Other White [e.g. for peptic ulcer disease in men, respectively (74; 64-85) and (81; 69-94)]. Risks of common upper GI diseases were comparatively lower in most White ethnic groups in Scotland. In non-White groups, however, risk varied by disease and ethnic group. These results require consideration in health policy, service planning and future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Unemployment, ethnicity and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, J; Bebbington, P; Bhavsar, V; Kravariti, E; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Dutta, R

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the incidence of psychosis in unemployed people and determines whether unemployment has a greater impact on the development of psychosis amongst Black minority groups than White groups. Patients with a first diagnosis of Research Diagnostic Criteria psychosis, in a defined area of London from 1998 to 2004, were identified. Crude and standardised incidence rates of psychosis amongst unemployed people for each ethnic group were calculated. Poisson regression modelling tested for interactions between unemployment and ethnicity. Hundred cases occurred amongst employed people and 78 cases occurred amongst the unemployed people. When standardised to the employed White population of the area, White unemployed people had a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 11.7 (95% CI 6.4-19.7), Black Caribbean people had a SIR of 60.1(95% CI 39.3-88) and Black African people had a SIR of 40.7 (95% CI 25.8-61.1). There was no interaction however between ethnicity and unemployment (Likelihood ratio test P = 0.54). Rates of psychosis are high amongst unemployed people in south London and extremely high amongst Black Caribbean and Black African unemployed people. There was no evidence however that the minority groups were particularly sensitive to the stresses, limitations or meaning of unemployment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Ethnic Harassment, Ethnic Identity Centrality, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona

    2018-02-12

    In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.

  4. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities.

  5. Attributions of Mental Illness: An Ethnically Diverse Community Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services.

  6. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  7. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  8. I am more than an ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    Christian Franklin Svensson elaborates on the social and political position of the Indian ethnic minority in Malaysia. Based on a total of five months field research, he investigates why Indian students at a public university in peninsular Malaysia consciously attempt to transform their life...... argues that the students construct identifications from belonging to communities of practice rather than from religion, ethnicity and nationality. Their resilience is made manifest in hybrid identities, as an individuated way of understanding their cultural negotiation as Indian Malaysians....... situation in order to gain personal realisation in the era of globalisation. Indian students are a group who are particularly prone to trauma in their current situation, as individuals lacking a sense of full citizenship. As strategies of transformation based on education take on many different forms, he...

  9. [The activity of the State Sanitary Inspectorate after implementation of the act of January, 23 2009 "Amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaś, Dariusz; Skórczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The restructuring of the State Sanitary Inspectorate was determined by the need to adjust the existing system to the new structure- and task-oriented standards introduced by the administrative reforms at the provincial level. This brought about a lot of changes in the way State County Sanitary Inspectors operate. For first few months after the enforcement of the Act of January 23.2009 amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level (Journal of Laws, No. 92, item. 753, 2009) brought about a lot of ambiguities and expectations. Such unresolved issues are typical for the initial or transition period after implementation of a new law. The approach to the operation of the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level depicted in the article lays the emphasis on the challenges in the legal and task-oriented domain that arose after coming into force of the aforementioned amendment. By way of conclusion, the authors of the article briefly summaries the practical outcomes of the transformations undergone by the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level.

  10. Meta-analysis of congenitally missing teeth in the permanent dentition: Prevalence, variations across ethnicities, regions and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshan, Vahid; Rakhshan, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are of concern to many fields of dentistry. Only a few reviews have been published in this regard. The aim was to analyze the literature on CMT in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, and to identify potential links with ethnicity, geographical regions, and time. A total of 118 reports on CMT were collected by two authors by interrogating databases. Sample homogeneity, publication bias, publication year (in Caucasian and Mongoloid samples, and in general), ethnicities, and geography of CMT prevalence were statistically analyzed using a Q-test, Egger regression, linear regression, a Spearman coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, a Dunn post-hoc (α = 0.05), and a Mann-Whitney U test (α = 0.0125, α = 0.0071). The mean CMT prevalence was 6.53% ± 3.33%. There were significant geographic differences in CMT rates (P = 0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis) and between ethnicities (P = 0.0002, Kruskal-Wallis). According to the Mann-Whitney U test (α = 0.0071), eastern Asians (P = 0.0008) and Europeans (marginally significant, P = 0.0128) showed an elevated prevalence, while Western Asians (P = 0.0001) and Americans (marginally significant, P = 0.0292) had lower prevalence rates. Compared with other ethnicities, Mongoloids showed higher prevalence (P = 0.0009) while Asian Caucasians showed lower rates (P = 0.0005, Mann-Whitney U, α = 0.0125). The year of publication was not significantly correlated with any of the subsamples studied (P > 0.3, linear regression). Clinicians should be vigilant in the assessment of CMT in Mongoloids. No increase of this condition was detected during the last century. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Michelle S; Agyemang, Charles O; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative health outcomes. The goal of this article was to identify effective interventions that improve social participation, and minimise social isolation and loneliness in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. An electronic database (PubMed) was systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for intervention studies in English, French, Dutch of German, without time limit. Additional articles were found using references. Articles were included if they studied an intervention aimed to improve social participation or minimise social isolation or loneliness and were focusing on community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Data regarding studies characteristics and results were extracted. Six studies (three randomized controlled trials, three non-controlled intervention studies) were included in the review. All studies were group-based interventions and had a theoretical basis. Five out of six studies showed improvement on a social participation, -isolation or loneliness outcome. Type of intervention included volunteering-, educational- and physical activities. In three studies active participation of the participant was required, these interventions were not more effective than other interventions. Some interventions improved the included social determinants of health in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Investment in further development and implementation of these interventions may help to improve social determinants of health in these populations. It is necessary to evaluate these interventions in the European setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Counselor Bilingual Ability, Counselor Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Mexican Americans' Perceived Counselor Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of counselor bilingual ability and counselor ethnicity on client-perceived counselor credibility and cultural competence. Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions created by crossing counselor ethnicity with counselor language. No significant differences were found. Regarding rank ordering of the…

  13. Inter-ethnic Marriages, “Indigeneship,” Women's Rights and National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates gender inequalities relating to indigene-ship in Nigeria. The growing population of mixed ethnic marriages in Nigeria has created challenges relating to indigene-ship especially with regards to women who have married into ethnic groups other than theirs. The growing population of women who are ...

  14. Ethnic Prejudice in Young Children in Indonesia: Intervention Attempts Using Multicultural Friendship Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Tam, Michelle; Aboud, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic prejudice, even among very young children, is a universal occurrence. Yet, little research has been conducted on this issue outside of Westernized contexts. The current study evaluated a storybook intervention in Indonesia, a country of historically high racial tensions, designed to reduce young children's ethnic bias regarding out-groups…

  15. Ethnic Pride and Cardiovascular Health among Mexican American Adults along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; Balcazar, Hector G; Lee Rosenthal, E.; Cardenas, Victor M; Schulz, Leslie O.

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed the association between items from the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and cardiovascular health. Specifically, we assessed whether ethnic pride was associated with health outcomes after controlling for items regarding language, place where the childhood was spent, and ethnic interaction. The study was a cross-sectional…

  16. The Impact and Role of the Yi Civil Corps on Ethnic Work in Liangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Linying

    2013-01-01

    The formation and growth of Yi Civil Corps of the CPLA ( Chinese People ’ s Lib-eration Army ) Chengdu military region began and developed with the establishment of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture .From the beginning to the end of its 34 year mission of military develop-ment the Yi Civil Corps made an irreplaceable con-tribution to the liberation of the people and the e-conomic development in Liangshan .However , due to various reasons , this unique historical episode which linked the military and civil people only re-mains in folk memory and was recorded only in some unpublished internal materials .So, the ma-jority of the public does not know about it .Based upon references taken from publications by Liang Wenying , Mao Junru , Li Shian and the Chinese Academy of Sciences , this article , for the first time, discusses the special military history of the CPLA by taking Yi Civil Corps as an example . After the CPLA liberated Liangshan in March , 1950 , in order to maintain local social or-der, speed up production and construction , and cultivate ethnic cadres , Liao Zhigao , the Party secretary of Sichuan province of the time , together with the Party Committee in Tibetan and Yi re-gions, established the Yi and Tibetan Civil Corps of the CPLA in November 1952.They did this by taking into account the reality and characteristics of ethnic works in the Tibetan and Yi regions , and af-ter reporting to the central military commission for approval .The establishment of Yi Civil Corps adds a new historical page for the glorious history of the Yi people .Just like the establishment of all levels of governments of the Yi people , it marks a new beginning in the lives of the Yi people .It declared a revival for the Yi people who had experienced great vicissitudes , the separation of their family clans, constant internal warfare , and who were generally in a poor and backward situation .The establishment of the Yi Civil Corps not only em-bodied the Chinese Communist

  17. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes.

  18. Ethnic groups in Tuva and their adaptation to market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina F. Balakina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studying the issue of how ethnic groups in Tuva adapt to contemporary social and economic transformations is of special importance at the moment due to the fact that Tuva is an ethnically heterogeneous region, and also because the issue of such adaptation has not been sufficiently studied so far. The ethnic and cultural profile of the population of a certain region is also important for assessing the prospects of its development. In order to study the whole scope of techniques, pace and scale of ethnic groups’ adaptation to the transforming environment, the authors of this article launched and led two public opinion polls (2010 and 2014. A representative sample of 400 residents of Tuva of working age was polled by means of a questionnaire. The analysis of the data thus obtained shows that the adaptation patterns in various ethnic groups (primarily Tuvans and Russians are different. An additional obstacle ethnic Russians face is that they have to adapt to both new socioeconomic situation and new ethnopolitical reality. While basic value orientations of ethnic Russians and Tuvans are quite similar, in the issues of equality and social mobility Russians, including the younger generation, still feel more disadvantaged than Tuvans. Low confidence in the future cripples their self-esteem, especially concerning career prospects and social mobility. Ethnic Tuvans feel more confident in their future due to their trust in kinship and territorial networks. Nevertheless, the overall adaptation level remains rather low, with a marked prevalence of paternalist expectations and passive outlook. In general, it is quite clear that the level of adaptation to the realities of the new economy does not match the requirements of the region’s social and economic development. The degree of frustration and deprivation among the population of Tuva is still high. Opinion polls show a rise of pro-migration mood: while Russians aim to move out of the region, ethnic

  19. The Hutsul Ethnicity (Ethnic Group with Medieval Origins in the Romanian Space. The Transfer of Hutsul Households in the National Village Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Dumitrache

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the ethnographic natives, the attention of the Village Museum in Bucharest was focused, from the outset, on minority representation in the Romanian space, with their traits of life and the evolution of their material culture, spiritual experiences and last, but not least, with links regarding mutual cultural connections with the native population and other inhabitant minorities. Although a modest share and a hard custom culture, Guzuls’ ethnicity is real from a historical and folkloric point of view that could not be ignored by specialized museums and research institutes in history. The motivation for this research has been undertaken in Northern Moldavia, an area where the minority has been most present, the results of this research can be pursued today in exhibitions open in our museum and in specialized publications.

  20. Maori intellectual property rights and the formation of ethnic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This article questions and contextualizes the emergence of a discourse of intellectual property rights in Māori society. It is argued that Māori claims regarding intellectual property function primarily to demarcate ethnic boundaries between Māori and non-Māori. Māori consider the reinforcement of

  1. Research on Race and Ethnic Relations among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, William; Shammas, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted in the past two decades on race and ethnic relations among community college students. The atheoretical underpinnings of this research have led to vague and conflicting findings regarding such concepts as campus climate, discrimination, and the benefits of campus diversity. This article briefly reviews…

  2. Ethnic Identity and Cultural Achievement: Popular Mythology and Archeological Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ron

    The difficulties faced by ethnic groups today are related not only to widespread unfamiliarity with the cultural evolution of specific groups, but to an inadequate popular understanding of the processes of cultural evolution itself, i.e., man's prehistory. Archeology can make significant contributions in this regard by counteracting the…

  3. The Case Against Romantic Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal, Gunnar

    1974-01-01

    Characterizes the new ethnic movement as an upper-class intellectual romanticism, which has focused on an abstract craving for historical identity. Criticizes it for avoiding the principal problems of poverty and possivity of the poor, among whom the ethnics are so prominent. (EH)

  4. Tribal Hands and Ethnic Votes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic politics is a serious domestic challenge in Iran. Non-Persian communities are mobilizing to claim their rights and to demand representation in a system that activists claim is biased against minorities and the peripheral regions. Yet the inner workings of contemporary Iranian ethnic politi...

  5. Ethnic Differences in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette; Kallehave, Tina; Hansen, Sune Jon

    2010-01-01

    ethnic” adolescents in school? How do these factors intervene in forming educational strategies, and how are they reflected in longer-term career options? 2. How do “minority ethnic” students and their families relate to actual school experiences and to schooling in general? How do they interpret success......, failure and variations in advancement? What are their views on issues of justice, discrimination and equality in the context of schooling? 3. What are the typical strategies of identity formation for “minority ethnic” youth, and what roles do schools, families, peer relations and the broader inter......-ethnic environment play in the process? How do experiences of “othering” inform the shaping of “minority ethnic” identity? 4. Who are the agents (institutions, persons) responsible for promoting equal opportunities in the education of “minority ethnic” youth, and for diminishing the gap between majority and minority...

  6. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  7. Debating the viability of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilna Bashi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Immigration and the Political Economy of Home: West Indian Brooklyn and American Indian Minneapolis, 1945-1992. RACHEL BUFF. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 2001. xv + 240 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 Black Cuban, Black American: A Memoir. EVELIO GRILLO. Houston TX: Arte Püblico Press, 2000. xvi + 134 pp. (Paper US$ 13.95 West Indian in the West: Self Representations in an Immigrant Community. PERCY C. HINTZEN. New York: New York University Press, 2001. x + 200pp. (Paper US$ 18.50 Caribbean Families in Britain and the Transatlantic World. HARRY GOULBOURNE & MARY CHAMBERLAIN (eds.. Oxford UK: Macmillan, 2001. xvi + 270 pp. (Paper £15.50 Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. ALEJANDRO PORTES & RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press/ New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001. xxiv + 406 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 "Ethnicity" and its meaning, both as an identity and as a resilient cultural influence, has dominated late twentieth-century social scientific analyses of the process of immigrant incorporation. Perhaps we may mark the crowning of the term with the publication of Glazer and Moynihan's The Melting Pot, one famous tome that "explained" varying "assimilation" outcomes among the "new" (post-1965 newcomers by examining their ethnic culture for flaws or strengths that justified socioeconomic failure or success. Muddying the ensuing policy debate was the use of buzzwords, like mainstream, deviant, assimilated, minority, black matriarch, absent father, and underclass, that were themselves categorizing and hierarchical. The tautology of hierarchically labeling groups and then asking why groups with different labels have different outcomes seems to be perpetually invisible to the parties in the assimilation debate, but the debate itself rages on. Newer scholarship has added a different voice to that debate, arguing that variance in "assimilation" is instead explained by incorporation into

  8. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  9. Prioritizing Identities: Cross Categorization of Ethnicity and Religious Sects in Turkey Identities: Ethnicity and/or Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goklem Tekdemir Yurtdas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how different ethnic groups (Turkish/Kurdish and religious sects (Alevi/Sunni are perceived in Turkey. These groups have a long history of conflicts. In order to examine the perception of these conflicting group identities, we adopted the theoretical frameworks of simple and cross categorization developed by the Social Identity Theory and the Category Differentiation Model. Both theories converge on the idea of in-group favoritism in the case of simple categorization while they offer different explanations for cross categorization condition. In order to test these differing theoretical propositions, we asked our participants to evaluate simple and cross categorization conditions based on variables of ethnicity and sect.  Our sample consisted of 106 individuals from two ethnic groups (Kurdish/Turkish and two religious sects (Alevi/Sunni. The participants completed a questionnaire based on Zavalloni’s focused introspection technique. Within subjects repeated measures ANOVA analysis were carried out for both simple and cross categorization. The results of the analysis revealed that the participants emphasized in-group similarities and out-group differences both for ethnicity and religious sect in the simple categorization condition. Moreover, in-group similarities based on religious sects rather than ethnicity were prioritized in the cross categorization condition. The results confirmed the Social Identity Theory’s assumptions generally. Results were discussed in terms of relevant literature, and in relation to historical and political issues regarding ethnicity and sects in Turkey.

  10. Ethnicity and the experience of work: job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G V F; Travers, C J

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'.

  11. Cherish Our Differences: A Source Book for Cincinnati's Ethnic Heritage. A Bibliographical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul L.; Simon, Regina A.

    This selective bibliography lists books and some dissertations and theses relating to ethnicity. It is intended for junior and senior high school students, undergraduate college students, and the general public. The objective is to help ethnic groups, community agencies, and individuals in Cincinnati locate relevant source material concerning…

  12. Peer Influence on Ethnic-Racial Identity Development: A Multi-Site Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Kornienko, Olga; Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    The peer context features prominently in theory, and increasingly in empirical research, about ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development, but no studies have assessed peer influence on ERI using methods designed to properly assess peer influence. We examined peer influence on ERI centrality, private, and public regard using longitudinal social network analysis. Data were drawn from two sites: a predominantly Latina/o Southwestern (SW) school (N = 1034; Mage = 12.10) and a diverse Midwestern (MW) school (N = 513; Mage = 11.99). Findings showed that peers influenced each other's public regard over time at both sites. However, peer influence on centrality was evident in the SW site, whereas peer influence on private regard was evident in the MW site. Importantly, peer influence was evident after controlling for selection effects. Our integration of developmental, contextual, and social network perspectives offers a fruitful approach to explicate how ERI content may shift in early adolescence as a function of peer influence. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Ethnic density is not associated with psychological distress in Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch ethnic minorities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Agnes C; Peen, Jaap; de Wit, Matty A S; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Erdem, Ozcan; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Dekker, Jack J M; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic density, the proportion of people of the same ethnic group in the neighbourhood, has been identified as a protective factor with regard to mental health in ethnic minorities. Research on the putative intermediating factors, exposure to discrimination and improved social support, has not yielded conclusive evidence. We investigated the association between ethnic density and psychological well-being in three ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. We also assessed whether a protective ethnic density effect is related to the degree to which each group experiences discrimination and social support at group level. Using multi-level linear regression modelling, we studied the influence of ethnic density at neighbourhood level on psychological distress, measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10), in 13,864 native Dutch, 1,206 Surinamese-Dutch, 978 Turkish-Dutch and 784 Moroccan-Dutch citizens of the four major cities in the Netherlands. Based on a nationwide survey among ethnic minorities on social integration, ethnic groups were ordered with respect to the intermediating factors. Ethnic density was not associated with psychological distress in any of the three ethnic minority groups. As a consequence, we found no support for either experiences of discrimination or for own-group social interactions at group level as intermediating factors. In all three ethnic minority groups, as well as in the native Dutch group, individual demographic and socio-economic factors emerged as the main explanations for individuals' mental well-being. These results suggest that individual demographic and socio-economic risk characteristics outweigh the influence of neighbourhood attributes on mental health.

  14. Ethnicity and Occupational Pension Membership in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reflecting a relatively low‐value Basic State Pension, occupational pensions have historically been a key aspect of pension protection within Britain. Existing research shows that minority ethnic groups are less likely to benefit from such pensions and are more likely to face poverty in later life, as a result of the interaction of their labour market participation and pension membership patterns. However, the lack of adequate data on ethnic minorities has so far prevented the direct comparison of different ethnic groups, as well as their comparison to the White British group. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, this article explores patterns of employment and the odds ratios of membership in an employer's pension scheme among working‐age individuals from minority ethnic groups and the White British population, taking into account factors not used by previous research, such as one's migration history and sector of employment (public/private). The analysis provides new empirical evidence confirming that ethnicity remains a strong determinant of one's pension protection prospects through being in paid work, being an employee and working for an employer who offers a pension scheme. However, once an individual is working for an employer offering a pension scheme, the effect of ethnicity on that person's odds of being a member of that scheme reduces, except among Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals for whom the differentials remain. The article also provides evidence on the pension protection of Polish individuals, a relatively ‘new’ minority group in the UK. PMID:27563161

  15. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Målqvist

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective: The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design: Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results: Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion: Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a

  16. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  17. Genomic medicine and ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of health disparities are a poorly understood public health problem. The effects of culture, environmental hazards, and social marginalization differ between ethnicities and have strong effects on health differences. The role of the genome in health is well established and we present a s...

  18. Ethnic inequalities in early overweight: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, M.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight is a major public health issue that is often occurring during childhood. Approximately 14% of the 2-21 year old children are overweight or obese. Although the current obesity epidemic in children seems to be levelling off, children from ethnic minority groups do not seem to benefit from

  19. Effects of ethnicity and gender on youth health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalsingh Rambaree

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ethnicity and gender on the health of young people (14–25 years old living in Mauritius. Combinations of female and male by four ethnic groups—“Creole”, “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “Mixed”—were used for multivariate analysis of variances. “Mixed” ethnic group consumed most tobacco, alcohol and drugs compared to other ethnic groups. They were also the ones that mostly skipped breakfast and lunch and were found to eat most fast food. Moreover, “Mixed” ethnic group had heard most about HIV/AIDS programmes, but were least satisfied with such programmes and with public hospitals and health services. Females were shown to perceive more physical and mental health issues than did males; although males smoked more cigarettes and drunk more alcohol. However, females consumed more fast food and deep fries and rated public hospitals and sexual and reproductive health services as less good than did males. The findings call for further research on the health of young people living in Mauritius with respect to socio-economic variables in order to promote social justice in the Mauritian society. In addition, this article also emphasises on the need of having a new National Youth Policy for Mauritius, which is long overdue.

  20. The ethnic composition of the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts: three unresolved issues

    OpenAIRE

    Flap, H.D.; Dagevos, J.J.; Vervoort, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is frequently supposed that the ethnic composition of a neighbourhood affects ethnic minorities’ social contacts with natives, co-ethnics and other ethnic minorities. Research to date, however, falls short in several ways. First of all, previous studies often did not consider social contacts with co-ethnics and other ethnic minorities. Second, although different mechanisms (i.e. meeting opportunities, ethnic competition theory, ‘third parties’ and constrict theory) point to different dimen...

  1. Military Strategy in Ethnic Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... It is therefor ironic to find so many of today's observers of the international scene arguing that the Cold War kept a lid on ethnic conflict and that with its passing this type of conflict is likely to proliferate...

  2. Ethnicity as a moderator of how parents' attitudes and perceived stigma influence intentions to seek child mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Erlanger A; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Heffer, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    Research has identified several variables that affect utilization of mental health services. However, more could be explored regarding ethnic differences among parents seeking help for their children. In our study, 238 caregivers were recruited from the southern United States to examine ethnic differences in intentions to access child mental health services with the Parental Attitudes Toward Psychological Services Inventory (Turner, 2012) as the primary measure. Group comparisons indicated that African-American parents reported less positive attitudes and more stigma than European-American or Hispanic-American parents. Moderation analyses found (a) attitudes were associated with a higher level of parental help-seeking intention among European Americans, but not among African Americans or Hispanic Americans and (b) stigma was associated with a lower parent-reported likelihood of help-seeking for Hispanic Americans, but not for European Americans or African Americans. Ethnicity deferentially impacts attitudes and stigma associated with seeking mental health services. Public education efforts to increase service use should be tailored toward under-served groups to be more effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Examining Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nursing Home Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefele, Jennifer Gaudet; Ritter, Grant A; Bishop, Christine E; Acevedo, Andrea; Ramos, Candi; Nsiah-Jefferson, Laurie A; Katz, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    Identifying racial/ethnic differences in quality is central to identifying, monitoring, and reducing disparities. Although disparities across all individual nursing home residents and disparities associated with between-nursing home differences have been established, little is known about the degree to which quality of care varies by race//ethnicity within nursing homes. A study was conducted to measure within-facility differences for a range of publicly reported nursing home quality measures. Resident assessment data on approximately 15,000 nursing homes and approximately 3 million residents (2009) were used to assess eight commonly used and publicly reported long-stay quality measures: the proportion of residents with weight loss, with high-risk and low-risk pressure ulcers, with incontinence, with depressive symptoms, in restraints daily, and who experienced a urinary tract infection or functional decline. Each measure was stratified by resident race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic), and within-facility differences were examined. Small but significant differences in care on average were found, often in an unexpected direction; in many cases, white residents were experiencing poorer outcomes than black and Hispanic residents in the same facility. However, a broad range of differences in care by race/ethnicity within nursing homes was also found. The results suggest that care is delivered equally across all racial/ethnic groups in the same nursing home, on average. The results support the call for publicly reporting stratified nursing home quality measures and suggest that nursing home providers should attempt to identify racial/ethnic within-facility differences in care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethnic Identity in Context: Variations in Ethnic Exploration and Belonging within Parent, Same-Ethnic Peer, and Different-Ethnic Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Within an ethnically diverse sample of young adults (n = 223, 26% Latin American, 14% Asian American, 32% Filipino American, 28% European American), average levels of ethnic identity was found to vary significantly across different relational contexts. Regardless of ethnicity, young adults reported highest levels of ethnic exploration and ethnic…

  5. Ethnicity and Politics. IRSS Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mark

    This research report examines the role of ethnicity in politics. The concept of ethnicity encompasses at least four distinct dimensions: nationality identification, religious identification, old vs. new ethnic stock, and racial membership. In the national sample analyzed, several interesting patterns of ethnic differentiation emerged. First, none…

  6. Ethnicity, Social Support, and Depression Among Elderly Chilean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena P; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; López De Roda, Ana Barrón; Arias Astray, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Various dimensions of social support were considered: structural elements, functional social support according to source, and community participation. The results show the existence of significant differences in the characteristics and dimensions of social support depending on sex, ethnicity, and marital status. Further, the central role of the family group is observed for both Aymara and nonindigenous elderly people. The hierarchical regression models obtained result in notable differences in the role of the structural, functional, and community elements of support in explaining depression for the ethnic groups considered.

  7. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  8. Q-Analysis of Inter-Ethnic Relationships can Support Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodcock, Alexander E; Heath, James E

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of Q-analysis to study the degree of inter-ethnic linkages among the Serbs, Croats, and Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina as reflected in the results of public opinion poll...

  9. Regional socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity as predictors of regional infant mortality rate in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Kollarova, Jana; Rosic, Martin; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exploring the associations of regional differences in infant mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity could offer important clues for designing public health policy measures. Methods Data included perinatal and infant mortality in the 79 districts of the Slovak

  10. Urban, ethnic, provincial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how professional and public stakeholders in the development of film projects negotiate economic and symbolic risk related to representation of minorities and geographical peripheries in Denmark, and situates these negotiations within the Danish public sphere...... and the contemporary subsidy and production system. The main argument is on the one hand, that the national cinema potentially works as an arena for social inclusion; on the other, anxiety related to economic and symbolic risk, which promotes industry myths and postulates about target groups put constraints...

  11. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  12. Regional Patterns of Ethnicity in Nova Scotia: A Geographical Study. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh A.

    In this sixth volume of the Ethnic Heritage Series, the pattern of ethnicity in Nova Scotia (Canada) is examined by deriving indices of diversity for counties and larger towns. The historical development of ethnic patterns from 1767 to 1971 and recent changes in the ethnic pattern are discussed. Ethnic origin data is mapped for 1871 and 1971 and…

  13. Meteorology and ethnicity as critical factors in HRIPT: Comparing responses between Chinese and Indian ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Wang, Xue-Min; Galzote, Carlos; Tan, Yi-Mei; Bhagat, Kamlesh V; Yuan, Zhi-Kang; Du, Jian-Fei; Tan, Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT) is regarded as one of the confirmatory test in determining the safety of skin sensitizers. A number of important factors should be considered when conducting and interpreting the results of the HRIPT. To investigate for probable critical factors that influence the results of HRIPT with the same protocol in Shanghai and Mumbai. Two HRIPTs were carried out in Shanghai and Mumbai in 2011. Six identical products and 1% sodium lauryl sulfate were tested. Two Chinese dermatologists performed the grading in the two cities. Climate conditions of Shanghai and Mumbai were also recorded. For four lower reaction ratio products, cumulative irritation scores in the induction phase were higher in individuals whose ethnicity was Indian rather than Chinese. Reaction ratio of the same four products was highly correlated to the climatic parameters. The other two higher reaction ratio products and the positive control had no difference between the two ethnicities. Greater attention ought to be paid to the impact of climate on the results of HRIPT, especially for the mild irritation cosmetics when giving the interpretation. Greater emphasis also needs to be placed on the ethnicity of the subjects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Breastfeeding Perceptions and Attitudes: The Effect of Race/Ethnicity And Cultural Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been generating a lot of publicity in the past years largely due to new legislation promoting breastfeeding -friendly policies. However, the United States is far below many developed nations in regards to its populations’ breastfeeding prevalence and despite the unprecedented benefits of breastfeeding being documented, many are not breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in the U.S. varies dramatically by race, with individuals identifying as Black or African American breastfeeding much less at 6 months postpartum than Asian or Pacific Islander, White, or Hispanic. Overall, Individuals identifying as Asian or Pacific Islander have a higher breastfeeding rate 6 months postpartum with Hispanics coming in second. This study uses survey data to analyze the impact of race/ethnicity and cultural background on college students’ attitudes towards breastfeeding. This study found that respondents identifying as Hispanic had a more positive attitude towards breastfeeding than any other race or ethnicity. Also, respondents having at least one parent born outside of the United States had a more positive perception of breastfeeding than those who had parents born in the United States. These findings suggest that there are some cultural and racial influences on one’s perception and attitudes as it pertains to breastfeeding.

  15. Integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in a globalized world: challenges and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Paronikian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the challenges and trends in integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in the world of globalization. Established that ethnic disintegration is inevitable consequence of ethnic integration, and its intensity depends on what method is carried Integration: voluntary or forced. What is important is the fact that in the era of globalization integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities that are inherent in the very essence of ethnicity, greatly amplified. It was found that entering to the cultural field of ethnic communities of other ethnic entities, penalized sustainable ethnic balance, contributes to the phenomenon of «rejection of other» causes of ethnic conflict and the consequent threat of disintegration of ethnic communities. Disintegration often leads to weakening of the linkages and interactions between components of the integrated system in a multi-ethnic society. However, the author concludes that the process of disintegration cannot be regarded as unambiguously negative because, on the one hand, it contributes to the weakening and decline; and sometimes division of multi-ethnic countries, but on the other hand - it contributes to the birth of the new and revival of the old nation-states, which is particularly important in conditions of transformation of the global community towards the post-industrial and information epoch in the future. In general, the integration and disintegration change each other depending on global processes and their transformations. Therefore, in the era of globalization’s challenges it is important is the effective management of these processes to prevent adverse effects.

  16. Ethnic identity, school connectedness, and achievement in standardized tests among Mexican-origin youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Collins, Mary Ann

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between school connectedness and performance in standardized test scores and whether this association was moderated by ethnic private regard. The study combines self-report data with school district reported data on standardized test scores in reading and math and free and reduced lunch status. Participants included 436 Mexican-origin youth attending a middle school in a southwestern U.S. state. Participants were on average 12.34 years of age (SD = .95) and 51.8% female and 48.2% male. After controlling for age, gender, free and reduced lunch status, and generational status, school connectedness and ethnic private regard were both positive predictors of standardized test scores in reading and math. Results also revealed a significant interaction between school connectedness and ethnic private regard in predicting standardized test scores in reading, such that participants who were low on ethnic private regard and low on school connectedness reported lower levels of achievement compared to participants who were low on ethnic private regard but high on school connectedness. At high levels of ethnic private regard, high or low levels of school connectedness were not associated with higher or lower standardized test scores in reading. The findings in this study provide support for the protective role that ethnic private regard plays in the educational experiences of Mexican-origin youth and highlights how the local school context may play a role in shaping this finding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Race, Ethnicity and Participation in the Arts: Patterns of Participation by Black, Hispanic and White Americans in Selected Activities from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, Paul; Ostrower, Francie

    This report utilizes data from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts to describe differences in patterns of participation in selected arts related activities by Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Arts participation by Whites is greatest for all selected activities, except for Black attendance at jazz music activities.…

  18. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Akthar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Method Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46% and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38% in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL was used as a measure of psychological distress. Results Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p Conclusion Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions and social support system of immigrant communities simultaneously.

  19. Lifecourse approach to racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child's diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children.

  20. Historicizing the ‘ethnic’ in ethnic entrepreneurship: The case of the ethnic Chinese in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, J.B.M.; Verver, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to come to a better understanding of the meaning of 'ethnic' in ethnic entrepreneurship for second- and third-generation ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in Bangkok, Thailand. Research on ethnic Chinese entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia typically investigates the dominance, attributed to specific 'Chinese' cultural values and strong intra-ethnic networks, of the ethnic Chinese in business and entrepreneurship. Our research among second- and third-generations shows an inclination ...

  1. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Barriers and Bridges to Positive Cross-Ethnic Relations: African American and White Parent Socialization Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jill V.

    2001-01-01

    Using interviews and focus groups, lower and middle socioeconomic status (SES) African American parents and middle SES white parents discussed their objectives regarding cross-ethnic relations and how they helped their children forge positive cross-ethnic relations. The groups relied on different methods to promote socialization. Parents' efforts…

  3. Tainted visions: The effect of visionary leader behaviors and leader categorization tendencies on the financial performance of ethnically diverse teams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L. L.; Homan, A.C.; de Hoogh, A. H. B.; Den Hartog, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We

  4. Tainted visions: the effects of visionary leader behaviors and leader categorization tendencies on the financial performance of ethnically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Homan, A.C.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We

  5. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    of political instability. These two types of conflict result from distinct principles of group solidarity – ethnicity and class – and since each individual is simultaneously a member of an ethnic group (or many such groups) and a particular class, these two principles vary in the degree to which......Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms......-group inequalities are high, and within-group inequalities low, ethnicity should be the dominant principle of group solidarity and serve as the primary basis of group conflict. By contrast, in countries where between-group inequalities are low, and within-group inequalities high, class is more likely to serve...

  6. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  7. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2018-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....

  8. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Hammad Raza; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Hussain, Akthar; Selmer, Randi; Ahlberg, Nora

    2006-07-10

    In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000-2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46%) and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38%) in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) was used as a measure of psychological distress. Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p < 0.005). The Pakistani immigrants also reported higher distress, mean HSCL score 1.53(1.48-1.59), compared to the ethnic Norwegians, HSCL score 1.30(1.29-1.30). The groups differed significantly (p < 0.005) with respect to social support and feeling of powerlessness, the Pakistanis reporting less support and more powerlessness. The expected difference in mean distress was reduced from 0.23 (0.19-0.29) to 0.07 (0.01-0.12) and 0.12 (0.07-0.18) when adjusted for socioeconomic and social support variables respectively. Adjusting for all these variables simultaneously, the difference in the distress level between the two groups was eliminated Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions

  9. Birth Rates of Ethnic Groups in Croatia from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pavić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to an ethnic group can affect both socio-economic status and birth-rate (fertility of the individual. Thus women of minority ethnic groups usually have a relatively high birth-rate, and they are more often single mothers, have lower education and generally lower socio-economic status. Although numerous international researches confirmed the differences in birth rates between ethnic groups, the relationship between ethnicity and birth rates has almost not been investigated in Croatia. This research analyzed the fertility rates of ethnic groups in the Republic of Croatia as well as the relationship between mother's ethnicity and socio-economic variables: age at birth, education, economic activity, nuptiality and birth order. The birth data from DEM-1 forms were used for years 1998 to 2008 as well as the data from the 2001 Census. The links between the mother’s ethnicity and all of the socio-economic variables was established although the magnitude of this correlation was small. Also, there were significant differences in the fertility rates of ethnic groups. The women of Albanian, Bosniak, Romani and other ethnicities, and to some degree Serbian women as well, had lower socio-economic status while the Romani and Albanian women had high fertility. However, it is not possible to establish a clear relationship between ethnicity and fertility owing to methodological difficulties and the way of keeping vital statistics. The inclusion of the variable ethnicity and the presentation of socio-economic variables according to mother’s ethnicity in the official statistical publications would facilitate future research and enable to create a more efficient demographic and social policy.

  10. ETHNIC TOURISM: AN EXAMPLE FROM ISTANBUL, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.

  11. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  12. Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Radiology Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Derek L; Nguyen, HaiThuy

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess ethnic and gender diversity in US radiology fellowship programs from 2006 to 2013. Data for this study was obtained from Journal of the American Medical Association supplements publications from 2005 to 2006 to 2012-2013 (Gonzalez-Moreno, Innov Manag Policy Pract. 15(2):149, 2013; Nivet, Acad Med. 86(12):1487-9, 2011; Reede, Health Aff. 22(4):91-3, 2003; Chapman et al., Radiology 270(1):232-40, 2014; Getto, 2005; Rivo and Satcher, JAMA 270(9):1074-8, 1993; Schwartz et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 149(1):71-6, 2013; Simon, Clin Orthop Relat Res. 360:253-9, 1999) and the US census 2010. For each year, Fisher's exact test was used to compare the percentage of women and under-represented minorities in each Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-certified radiology fellowship to the percentage of women and under-represented minorities in (1) all ACGME-certified radiology fellowships combined, (2) radiology residents, (3) ACGME-certified fellows in all of medicine combined, (4) ACGME-certified residents in all of medicine combined, and (5) graduating medical students. Chi-Squared test was used to compare the percentage of women and under-represented minorities and the 2010 US census. p gender and ethnic disparities. Outreach efforts, pipeline programs, and mentoring may be helpful in addressing this issue.

  13. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano

    2017-01-01

    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  14. "Foreign brides" meet ethnic politics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2011-01-01

    A great number of women from China, Vietnam, and Indonesia recently arrived in Taiwan to marry men of lower social strata. Such an unusual pattern of migration has stimulated debates about the status and the citizenship of the new arrivals. This study analyzes Taiwanese responses toward these marriage migrants by using a national survey conducted in 2004. Three aspects of restrictive attitudes were tapped concerning these newcomers: (1) rights to work; (2) access to public health insurance; and (3) full citizenship. Immigrants from China were most opposed, compared to women with other origins (Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe, and the US). The seemingly unrelated regression estimation regression results do not support the split labor market hypotheses, as marriage migrants do not appear to be economic threats toward members of the lower classes. In contrast, ethnic nationalism plays a key role in determining the natives’ restrictive attitudes. The case of Taiwan represents a special genre, where ethnic politics selectively arouses the social rejection of women immigrants of certain origins.

  15. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  16. Colin Mackerras, China’s Ethnic Minorities and Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Allès, Élisabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this short work, the Australian political scientist Colin Mackerras offers a general overview of the situation of ethnic minorities in China over the past twenty years. He takes as the basis for his study principal works published recently and his own interviews conducted in China since the beginning of the 1980s, while also collating statistical data. He synthesises data and elements of understanding of China’s policies with regard to minority peoples there. He analyses the economic data ...

  17. Ethnicity, social support, and depression among elderly chilean people

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; Barrón López de Roda, Ana; Arias Astray, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Vario...

  18. Psychosocial Intervention with ethnic minority families in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    that relatively newer conceptualizations such as identities with multiple dimensions, transnationalism, resilience orientation and health promotion play a salient role in family intervention in this era of globalization perceived as the growing interconnectedness between people around the world with regards...... Team for ethnic minority youth and families (TTT), NGO in Copenhagen, established in 1991. The paper would illustrate TTT’s major principles and the above mentioned theoretical conceptualisations through a case study. This session additionally involves comments from discusssants and interactive...

  19. Study Regarding Romanian Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela MARCHIS

    2011-01-01

    Romanian entrepreneurship is still under construction, even if in Europe it has a long tradition and an increasing evolution. First-born in USA, the entrepreneurship represents today the key of economic development all over the word and an important exit from the economic crisis. This study intends to summaries the main aspects regarding Romanian entrepreneurship in the context of European business environment development and the world macroeconomic framework. With a great potential of develo...

  20. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  1. Race matters: a systematic review of racial/ethnic disparity in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa F; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Baker, Valerie L; Barrington, Debbie S; Broomfield, Diana; Catherino, William H; Richard-Davis, Gloria; Ryan, Mary; Thornton, Kim; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2012-08-01

    To systematically review the reporting of race/ethnicity in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) Clinic Outcome Reporting System (CORS) publications. Systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology of literature published in PubMed on race/ethnicity that includes data from SART CORS. Not applicable. Not applicable. In vitro fertilization cycles reported to SART. Any outcomes reported in SART CORS. Seven publications were identified that assessed racial/ethnic disparities in IVF outcomes using SART data. All reported a racial/ethnic disparity. However, more than 35% of cycles were excluded from analysis because of missing race/ethnicity data. Review of current publications of SART data suggests significant racial/ethnic disparities in IVF outcomes. However, the potential for selection bias limits confidence in these findings, given that fewer than 65% of SART reported cycles include race/ethnicity. Our understanding of how race/ethnicity influences ART outcome could be greatly improved if information on race/ethnicity was available for all reported cycles. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnic Differences in Nonverbal Pain Behaviors Observed in Older Adults with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brianne; Snow, A Lynn; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Research supports using nonverbal pain behaviors to identify pain in persons with dementia. It is unknown whether variations exist among ethnic groups in the expression of nonverbal pain behaviors in this special population. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine ethnic differences in the presentation and intensity of nonverbal pain behaviors among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic older adults with dementia when screened for pain by certified nursing assistants. Six certified nursing assistants were trained to review and score 28 video recordings of subjects with dementia for nonverbal pain behaviors using the Non-Communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument. Chi-square was used to examine differences among ethnic groups with regard to the display of nonverbal pain behaviors, and ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in the intensity of overall pain across ethnic groups. Of the 168 assessments, pain words (28%), pain noises (29.8%), and pain faces (28%) were observed most often as indicators of pain. Rubbing, bracing, and restlessness were rarely noted. Chi-square analysis revealed ethnic differences in the expression of pain words (χ(2) = 19.167, p ethnic groups with regards to overall pain intensity. These findings are the first to examine ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors for older adults with dementia. However, future work should examine assessment tendencies of providers in a larger, more diverse sample. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.

  3. UK ethnicity data collection for healthcare statistics: the South Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Gulnaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnicity data collection has been proven to be important in health care but despite government initiatives remains incomplete and mostly un-validated in the UK. Accurate self-reported ethnicity data would enable experts to assess inequalities in health and access to services and help to ensure resources are targeted appropriately. The aim of this paper is to explore the reasons for the observed gap in ethnicity data by examining the perceptions and experiences of healthy South Asian volunteers. South Asians are the largest ethnic minority group accounting for 50% of all ethnic minorities in the UK 2001 census. Methods Five focus groups, conducted by trained facilitators in the native language of each group, recruited 36 South Asian volunteers from local community centres and places of worship. The topic guide focused on five key areas:1 general opinions on the collection of ethnicity, 2 experiences of providing ethnicity information, 3 categories used in practice, 4 opinions of other indicators of ethnicity e.g. language, religion and culture and 5 views on how should this information be collected. The translated transcripts were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach. Results The findings of this Cancer Research UK commissioned study revealed that participants felt that accurate recording of ethnicity data was important in healthcare with several stating the increased prevalence of certain diseases in minority ethnic groups as an appropriate justification to improve this data. The overwhelming majority raised no objections to providing this data when the purpose of data collection is fully explained. Conclusions This study confirmed that the collection of patients' ethnicity data is deemed important by potential patients but there remains uncertainty and unease as to how the data may be used. A common theme running through the focus groups was the willingness to provide these data, strongly accompanied by a desire

  4. Race/ethnicity and workplace discrimination: results of a national survey of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Jones, Beth A; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-11-01

    Promoting racial/ethnic diversity within the physician workforce is a national priority. However, the extent of racial/ethnic discrimination reported by physicians from diverse backgrounds in today's health-care workplace is unknown. To determine the prevalence of physician experiences of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination at work and to explore physician views about race and discussions regarding race/ethnicity in the workplace. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007. Practicing physicians (total n = 529) from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds in the United States. We examined physicians' experience of racial/ethnic discrimination over their career course, their experience of discrimination in their current work setting, and their views about race/ethnicity and discrimination at work. The proportion of physicians who reported that they had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination "sometimes, often, or very often" during their medical career was substantial among non-majority physicians (71% of black physicians, 45% of Asian physicians, 63% of "other" race physicians, and 27% of Hispanic/Latino(a) physicians, compared with 7% of white physicians, all p discrimination in their current work setting was substantial (59% of black, 39% of Asian, 35% of "other" race, 24% of Hispanic/Latino(a) physicians, and 21% of white physicians). Physician views about the role of race/ethnicity at work varied significantly by respondent race/ethnicity. Many non-majority physicians report experiencing racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace. Opportunities exist for health-care organizations and diverse physicians to work together to improve the climate of perceived discrimination where they work.

  5. UK ethnicity data collection for healthcare statistics: the South Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Gulnaz; Johnson, Mark Rd; Szczepura, Ala; Wilson, Sue; Gumber, Anil; Dunn, Janet A

    2012-03-27

    Ethnicity data collection has been proven to be important in health care but despite government initiatives remains incomplete and mostly un-validated in the UK. Accurate self-reported ethnicity data would enable experts to assess inequalities in health and access to services and help to ensure resources are targeted appropriately. The aim of this paper is to explore the reasons for the observed gap in ethnicity data by examining the perceptions and experiences of healthy South Asian volunteers. South Asians are the largest ethnic minority group accounting for 50% of all ethnic minorities in the UK 2001 census. Five focus groups, conducted by trained facilitators in the native language of each group, recruited 36 South Asian volunteers from local community centres and places of worship. The topic guide focused on five key areas:1) general opinions on the collection of ethnicity, 2) experiences of providing ethnicity information, 3) categories used in practice, 4) opinions of other indicators of ethnicity e.g. language, religion and culture and 5) views on how should this information be collected. The translated transcripts were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach. The findings of this Cancer Research UK commissioned study revealed that participants felt that accurate recording of ethnicity data was important in healthcare with several stating the increased prevalence of certain diseases in minority ethnic groups as an appropriate justification to improve this data. The overwhelming majority raised no objections to providing this data when the purpose of data collection is fully explained. This study confirmed that the collection of patients' ethnicity data is deemed important by potential patients but there remains uncertainty and unease as to how the data may be used. A common theme running through the focus groups was the willingness to provide these data, strongly accompanied by a desire to have more information with regard to its use.

  6. Victimized Majority: Latent Politics of Ethnic Discrimination in post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill N. Babichenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the brief analysis of one of the most important problems of the Russian Federation – the ethnic conflicts. Such a phenomenon has various dimensions and manifestations: from discrimination on the labor market to the extreme of ethnic cleansing during wars in Chechnya. The author focuses on the previously unexplored side of the problem: structural oppression conducted by minorities against the cultural majority of the country with a special regard to the republics of North Caucasus where the scope and intensity of ethnic strife found the most dangerous and explosive forms threatening with disintegration of the state.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Consistent Reporting of Smoking-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Soulakova, Julia N; Huang, Huang; Crockett, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of race/ethnicity on the prevalence of inconsistent reports regarding ever smoking, time since smoking cessation, and age of initiating regular smoking. We used the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey data, which came from a test-retest reliability study, and considered three racial/ethnic subpopulations, Hispanics, Non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks and NH Whites. Initial exploration of highly disagreeing reports of time since smoking cessation and ag...

  8. Ethnicity and politics in the Romanian space. The case of northwestern Transylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    The ethnic structure of this region has been heavily influenced by the evolution of the various historico-geographical factors and policies. Most of this structure, however, is linked to the evolution of the denominational structure. Ethnicity in this case is closely related to religion. The political reality, the events with political overtones that occurred during these centuries had a direct influence regarding the conduct of processes and phenomena related to the ethno-confessional evolut...

  9. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  10. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  11. Trilingual Education and Mongolian Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilik, Naran; Erdene, Has

    2016-01-01

    Anxieties about Chinese-Mongolian-English trilingual program in Inner Mongolia reflect three linguistic ideologies, that is, the instrumental and the essentialist among Mongolian elites and the assimilationist among Han elites. Mongolian ethnicity is on trial in front of an upsurge of Chinese nationalism. Both pro and con trilingual education…

  12. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  13. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  14. RACE, ETHNICITY, AND NIH RESEARCH AWARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Donna K.; Schaffer, Walter T.; Schnell, Joshua; Masimore, Beth; Liu, Faye; Haak, Laurel L.; Kington, Raynard

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 applicant’s self-identified race or ethnicity and the probability of receiving an award by using data from the NIH IMPAC II grant database, the Thomson Reuters Web of Science, and other sources. Although proposals with strong priority scores were equally likely to be funded regardless of race, we find that Asians are 4 percentage points and black or African-American applicants are 13 percentage points less likely to receive NIH investigator-initiated research funding compared with whites. After controlling for the applicant’s educational background, country of origin, training, previous research awards, publication record, and employer characteristics, we find that black or African-American applicants remain 10 percentage points less likely than whites to be awarded NIH research funding. Our results suggest some leverage points for policy intervention. PMID:21852498

  15. Attending to the role of race/ethnicity in family violence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley-Morrison, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A

    2007-08-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers and public health and/or social policy communities have devoted increasing attention to family violence. Although officially reported crime figures for family violence appear to be declining, rates continue to be high in broadly defined racial and/or ethnic minority groups. More careful assessments of the potential role of race/ethnicity in family violence, and similarities and differences occurring across and within groups categorized based on race/ethnicity, are essential if adequate interventions are to be developed and utilized. This article provides suggestions on conducting better studies on family violence in the United States, particularly with respect to issues of race/ethnicity. The authors begin by considering conceptions and definitions of race/ethnicity and providing a broad definition of family violence. They then suggest issues for consideration at each stage of the research process, from reviewing previous research, to making methodological decisions, selecting samples, choosing measures, and analyzing and interpreting findings.

  16. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    .... Two justifications ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim...

  17. The intersection of gender and ethnicity in HIV risk, interventions, and prevention: new frontiers for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Gómez, Cynthia A; Hamilton, Alison B; Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Gant, Larry M; Graham, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    This article articulates a contextualized understanding of gender and ethnicity as interacting social determinants of HIV risk and acquisition, with special focus on African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos--2 ethnic groups currently at most risk for HIV/AIDS acquisition in the United States. First, sex and gender are defined. Second, a conceptual model of gender, ethnicity, and HIV risk and resilience is presented. Third, a historical backdrop of gender and ethnic disparities is provided, with attention to key moments in history when notions of the intersections between gender, ethnicity, and HIV have taken important shifts. Finally, new frontiers in psychology are presented, with recommendations as to how psychology as a discipline can better incorporate considerations of gender and ethnicity as not only HIV risk factors but also as potential avenues of resilience in ethnic families and communities. Throughout the article, we promulgate the notion of a syndemic intersectional approach, which provides a critical framework for understanding and building the conditions that create and sustain overall community health by locating gendered lived experiences and expectations within the layered conceptual model ranging from the biological self to broader societal structures that define and constrain personal decisions, behaviors, actions, resources, and consequences. For ethnic individuals and populations, health disparities, stress and depression, substance abuse, and violence and trauma are of considerable concern, especially with regard to HIV risk, infection, and treatment. The conceptual model poses new frontiers for psychology in HIV policy, research, interventions, and training.

  18. The potential for measuring ethnicity and health in a multicultural milieu--the case of type 2 diabetes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Marian; Bhopal, Raj S; Dunbar, James A; Janus, Edward D

    2014-08-01

    Ethnicity influences health in many ways. For example, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is disproportionately prevalent among certain ethnic groups. Assessing ethnicity is difficult, and numerous proxy measures are used to capture its various components. Australian guidelines specify a set of variables for measuring ethnicity, and how such parameters should be categorised. Using T2DM data collections as an illustrative example, this study sought to examine how ethnicity is measured in Australian health databases and, by comparing current practice with Australia's existing benchmark recommendations, to identify potential areas for improvement of the health data landscape. We identified databases containing information from which ethnic group-specific estimates of T2DM burden may be gleaned. For each database, details regarding ethnicity variables were extracted, and compared with the Australian guidelines. Data collection instruments for 32 relevant databases were reviewed. Birthplace was recorded in 27 databases (84%), but mode of birthplace assessment varied. Indigenous status was commonly recorded (78%, n=25), but only nine databases recorded other aspects of self-perceived race/ethnicity. Of 28 survey/audit databases, 14 accommodated linguistic preferences other than English, and 11 either excluded non-English speakers or those for whom a translator was not available, or only offered questionnaires in English. Considerable variation exists in the measurement of ethnicity in Australian health data-sets. While various markers of ethnicity provide complementary information about the ethnic profile within a data-set, non-uniform measurement renders comparison between data-sets difficult. A standardised approach is necessary, and identifying the ethnicity variables that are particularly relevant to the health sector is warranted. Including self-identified ethnicity in Australia's set of recommended indicators and as a core component of the national census should be considered

  19. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%).

  20. Historicizing the ‘ethnic’ in ethnic entrepreneurship: The case of the ethnic Chinese in Bangkok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.B.M.; Verver, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to come to a better understanding of the meaning of 'ethnic' in ethnic entrepreneurship for second- and third-generation ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in Bangkok, Thailand. Research on ethnic Chinese entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia typically investigates the dominance, attributed

  1. The seriousness of ethnic jokes : Ethnic humor and social change in the Netherlands, 1995-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; van der Ent, B.

    2016-01-01

    How serious are ethnic jokes? This article investigates this question by looking at the relation between ethnic jokes and ethnic relations in the Netherlands. It analyzes two corpora covering the range of ethnic jokes collected using an (almost) identical survey among high school students in 1995

  2. The ethnic composition of the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts : three unresolved issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flap, H.D.; Dagevos, J.J.; Vervoort, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is frequently supposed that the ethnic composition of a neighbourhood affects ethnic minorities’ social contacts with natives, co-ethnics and other ethnic minorities. Research to date, however, falls short in several ways. First of all, previous studies often did not consider social contacts with

  3. What turns migrants into ethnic minorities at work? : Factors Erecting Ethnic Boundaries among Dutch Police Officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, Hans

    Transnational migration flows have revitalised the interest in ethnicity in social sciences. The ethnic boundary approach (Barth, Wimmer) argues for a non-essentialist understanding of ethnicity and calls for detecting the factors that turn migrants into ethnic minorities. Based on ethnographic

  4. Bibliography of Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Greta; And Others

    The Ethnic Heritage Studies Program was designed to teach students about the nature of their heritage and to study the contributions of the cultural heritage of other ethnic groups. This is a bibliography of materials developed by projects which received Federal Ethnic Heritage Studies Program grants during fiscal year 1974-75 and 1975-76.…

  5. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  6. Ethnic Dilemmas in Comparative Perspective: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James H. Jr.; Oliver, Melvin L.

    1988-01-01

    The papers which comprise this volume were produced by a group of these nationally known scholars who are engaged in research on comparative aspects of ethnicity and ethnic group behavior. Organized around a series of themes which run through the extant comparative ethnicity literature and which reflect the expertise and current research foci of the conference presenters, the volume i...

  7. Images of the "Other" with "Alien" Ethnicity in the Conscience of Russian Population Living in Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Daria A.; Maximova, Svetlana G.; Noyanzina, Oksana E.; Maximov, Maxim B.; Avdeeva, Galina S.

    2016-01-01

    In the age of dense international relations, heightened by intensive migration flows and local ethnic identity strengthening, the study of social representations of ethnic "others" in public consciousness permit to fulfill the evaluation of the current interethnic situation in the country, explore the latent unconscious groundings for…

  8. Ethnic minority children’s active commuting to school and association with physical activity and pedestrian safety behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examine...

  9. Racial/ethnic disparities in the associations between environmental quality and mortality in the contiguous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Understanding racial/ethnic disparities in mortality is an important goal for public health in the U.S. We examined the role environmental quality may have on mortality across race/ethnicity. Methods: The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) and its domain indices (air...

  10. A systematic review of asthma and health literacy: a cultural-ethnic perspective in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj M; Rootman, Irving; Balka, Ellen; Devarakonda, Rajashree; Hatch, James; Fitzgerald, J Mark

    2007-08-21

    Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory lung diseases and its prevalence and incidence have increased in many developed and developing countries. Asthma places a heavy burden on healthcare expenditures and productivity, which in turn diminishes the quality of life of the individuals involved as well as their families. The goal of improving a patient's knowledge about asthma management should include the enhancement of the individual's skills with the hopeful outcome of improving how the individual manages the condition. However, when health professionals prepare a training program, they are faced with the challenging cosmopolitan reality of individuals with different ethnic backgrounds. In order to find links between asthma and health literacy in a cultural/ethnicity perspective, we performed a systematic review of all publications on the topic of asthma, health, and literacy among cultural groups from 1980 to 2006 using the Internet and journals: Medline (Ovid), ERIC, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Google, Google Scholar, Sociological Abstracts, and Anthropology Plus. Key words included the following: "asthma," "culture," "ethnicity," "literacy," "health," "health literacy," "health beliefs," "adults," "disease management," "chronic condition," "ethnocultural groups," "minority groups," and "newcomers/immigrants." More than 650 articles were initially identified in our review; 65 met our inclusion criteria. From these, we examined the factors related to asthma and literacy/health literacy with a cultural lens. All of these are categorized and summarized below. We chose what we considered to be the most relevant and important articles/documents in the research literature to date. Because many of the studies were qualitative, a formal meta-analytic review was not undertaken. We found that current asthma management techniques - including patient education - are not culturally sensitive, linguistically sensitive, or relevant, which creates further difficulties for

  11. UPDATES REGARDING AUDIT REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the International Federation of Professional Accountants - IFAC initiated a process of reviewing reporting standards. The purpose of this process is to improve the auditor's way of communicating and to increase the relevance of the audit globally, meaning that the auditor's report is more informative by presenting more information about the entity and about the audit of the financial statements. Thus, reporting standards have been amended, a new standard has been published, and the impact of these changes on other standards used by the auditor has been reported. The most relevant aspects concern the introduction of new paragraphs in the auditor's report regarding key aspects of the audit and the assumption of business continuity. Also, the structure of the report has been modified.

  12. Variations in breast cancer histology and treatment patterns between the major ethnic groups of South West Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunji; Yap, Mei Ling; Boxer, Miriam M; Chong, Shanley; Duggan, Kirsten; Kaadan, Nasreen; Delaney, Geoffrey P

    2017-12-19

    Studies in the United States and United Kingdom have demonstrated ethnic variations in breast cancer receptor status, histology, and treatment access. This study aimed to investigate whether ethnicity variation similarly exists in Australia. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2006 and 2011 across all public hospitals in the South Western Sydney Local Health District were identified and patient data collected retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between various biologic and treatment parameters and ethnicity. Ethnicity was found to have an influence on age of diagnosis, histology, treatment utilization, and recurrence in breast cancer patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ethnic Forces in Collective Action: Diversity, Dominance, and Irrigation in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Waring

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that ethnic interactions damage cooperation in the provision of public goods, yet very few studies of collective action in common pool resource management have found strong evidence for the effects of ethnic diversity. Research on both public goods and common pool resource management that does find negative ethnic effects on cooperation tend to ignore the importance of interethnic relationships, particularly ethnic inequality, stratification, or dominance. This study presents data from agricultural villages in Tamil Nadu's Palani Hills to test the importance of a range of ethnic effects using caste interactions in a traditional irrigation system. I provide corroborating evidence of a negative cooperative effect of ethnic diversity, but also demonstrate that factors of ethnic dominance such as hierarchical stratification and demographic dominance strongly determine outcomes in collective irrigation management. I argue that the most important measure of equity, irrigation access, is socially, technologically, and institutionally embedded, and demonstrate that the distribution of irrigation channels is explained by measures of inequality, such as wealth inequality, Dalit status, and demographic dominance.

  14. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  15. Ethnicity and fertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollehlon, Konia T

    2003-01-01

    Using a sample of Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant difference in the net fertility of Ibo, Yourba, and Other women. But, among currently married women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba women to be lower than that of Other women, while the net fertility of Ibo women is higher than that of Other women. Overall, the findings of this study are more consistent with the cultural hypothesis, because statistically significant fertility differentials by ethnicity remain, even after controlling for selected socioeconomic and demographic variables.

  16. The changing immigrant cartography of Auckland, New Zealand: An Asian ethnic precinct

    OpenAIRE

    Spoonley, P.; Meares, C.; Peace, R.; Cain, T.

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand’s post-1987 business and skill-focussed immigrant recruitment policies have had several consequences for Auckland, including the transformation of numerous public spaces. One manifestation of this process of change has been the co-location of immigrant-dominated retailing in ethnic business precincts, which provides both economic and social network spaces for immigrant interaction with co-ethnics, and a zone of contact between immigrants and others. This paper describes the exampl...

  17. Hospital based patient coordination for ethnic minority patients - a health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    A cross diciplinary, cross specialty, cross sectoral hospital based approach to cultural management of ethnic minority patients is effective in creating more approprite patient flows, better quality of care and increases functional level of patients. Surprisingly the aggregated effect saves...... especially on public medicine expenses and social services. Ethnic minority patients can achieve increased empowerment & Equity in type and quality of hospital care through cross dicplinary cross specialty cultural case management & support between hospital departments and primary sectors...

  18. Racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric renal allograft survival in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Patzer, Rachel E; Mohan, Sumit; Kutner, Nancy; McClellan, William M; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to describe the association of patient race/ethnicity and renal allograft survival among the national cohort of pediatric renal allograft recipients. Additionally, we determined whether racial and ethnic differences in graft survival exist among individuals living in low or high poverty neighborhoods and those with private or public insurance. Among 6,216 incident, pediatric End Stage Renal Disease patients in the United States Renal Data System (kidney transplant fr...

  19. Social Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William R.; Mandorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between ethnicity, occupational choice, and entrepreneurship. Immigrant groups in the United States cluster in specific business sectors. For example, the concentration of Korean self-employment in dry cleaners is 34 times greater than other immigrant groups, and Gujarati-speaking Indians are similarly 108 times more concentrated in managing motels. We develop a model of social interactions where non-work relationships facilitate the acquisition of sector-specific sk...

  20. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may review any new... experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding whether the new...

  1. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  2. Acculturation conflict among Latino youth: Discrimination, ethnic identity, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Nadia; Stein, Gabriela L; Gonzalez, Laura M

    2016-07-01

    Patterns of parent-adolescent conflict differ between immigrant and nonimmigrant families living in the United States (Fuligni, 1998). Despite this, there is limited empirical literature examining the nuanced nature of parent-adolescent conflict in immigrant families. To fill this gap, the current study examined the role of 2 types of conflict (i.e., general and acculturation) in predicting psychosocial outcomes (i.e., depressive symptoms and ethnic identity) among Latino adolescents, and whether these relationships differ within the context of peer discrimination. All survey administration was completed in the participating school's cafeteria. The sample consisted of 7th through 10th graders (n = 172) with a mean age of 14.01 years (SD = 1.32.) The sample consisted of 53% females, and was primarily Mexican in origin (78%). As hypothesized, parent-adolescent acculturation conflict uniquely predicted greater depressive symptoms and lower ethnic private regard, even when controlling for parent-adolescent general conflict. However, acculturation conflict predicted lower ethnic private regard only in the presence of greater peer discrimination. More specifically, peer discrimination moderated the relation between acculturation conflict and ethnic private regard such that adolescents who reported the highest levels of acculturation conflict and peer discrimination reported the lowest levels of ethnic private regard. These results suggest that for Latino youth and their families, acculturation conflict may be particularly problematic, as compared with general conflict. In addition, youth who face ethnicity-based stressors in both familial and school contexts are especially at risk in their ethnic identity development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Investigating approaches to improving appropriate antibiotic use among higher risk ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Tice, Alan D; Berthiaume, John T

    2010-11-01

    A field study with follow up investigations sought to: 1. determine whether cold packs (over-the-counter symptomtic treatments), coupled with in-office education, improve antibiotic-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors more than in-office education alone in patient populations with high percentages of Asian Americans and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders; 2. identify possible reasons for intervention outcomes as described by physicians who participated in the field study; and 3. explore potential future directions based on a large sample survey of physicians in the field study's highly ethnic county. The intervention resulted in a pre- to post-consultation decrease in perceived need for and an increase in knowledge about antibiotic risks but had no impact on frequency of reported receipt of an antibiotic prescription. Unexpectedly, in-office education alone was more effective in increasing knowledge than in-office education plus the cold pack. In-depth interviews of field study physicians and a large scale physician survey suggest that cold pack interventions targeting patient populations with high percentages of Asian Americans and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders may be more likely to succeed if accompanied by mass public education regarding risks and physician training regarding effective ways to talk to patients. Use of in-office education with cold packs alone may not achieve desired results. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  4. Feasibility of using self-reported ethnicity in pregnancy according to the gestation-related optimal weight classification: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, E; McCarthy, E A; Hui, L; Churilov, L; Walker, S P

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of self-reported ethnicity using the gestation-related optimal growth (GROW) classification in a contemporary multicultural antenatal population. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary obstetric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. We surveyed pregnant women during April-June 2016 regarding their understanding of the term 'ethnicity', and how they would classify the ethnicity of themselves, their partner, and family members according to the Australian GROW classification. Two hundred and thirty-five women completed the survey. When describing 'ethnicity', most women (103, 44%) chose multiple descriptors, most frequently country of birth (54%) and region of ancestry (47%). Interpretation of 'ethnicity' varied significantly between ethnic groups: those choosing 'country of birth' were more likely to identify as Indian (odds ratio, OR 3.5, P = 0.03), whereas those choosing 'physical appearance' were more likely to identify as Chinese (OR 3.0, P = 0.047). Thirty participants (13%) were unable to describe their ethnicity from the available GROW options. Sixty-one (26%) respondents' ethnicity was inconsistent with that of their parents' heritage. A further 35% had a partner of different ethnicity. The agreement between country of birth and self-reported ethnicity was only fair (kappa 0.73, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.64-0.82). This study confirms the complexity of defining ethnicity in contemporary multicultural settings. Self-reported ethnicity is often inaccurate, concepts of ethnicity vary by ethnic group, and country of birth is a poor descriptive surrogate. Adjustment for maternal ethnicity should be undertaken with caution in the customised assessment of fetal growth. Is self-reported maternal ethnicity reliable? We think not. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Encounters with medicines among ethnic minorities with chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna

    of the study was to explore the challenges of encounters with medicines among ethnic minorities with chronic conditions in Denmark, exemplified by policy, professional and patient perspectives. Implications for community pharmacies was a particular focus. Methods: The study drew on different methods, types...... analysis of interviews with people with Pakistani background, type 2 diabetes and at least one other chronic condition, focusing on lived experiences with medicine use during Ramadan, reasons for fasting, and experiences with counselling on medicines. Sub-study IV encompassed an analysis of interviews......-study I. Most documents agreed that skin colour and skin covering were part of the definition of ethnic minorities at risk. Major discrepancies were found regarding the importance attributed to the Islamic religion, other traditions, immigration, gender and age, and an evolutionary explanation...

  7. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  8. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    . However, the USSR did not aim to nurture traditional Russian values. It rather fostered the deethnicisation of Russians and the ethnicisation of non-Russian. Another group of scientists, including those from post-Soviet states (e.g., Žambyl Artykbaev, Otar Džanelidze, and Georgij Siamašvili as well as western scholars (e.g., Rogers Brubaker concede that positive processes such as the allotment of territory to republics and other territorial units, the constitution of authority and administrative apparatus, and the formation of the elites once characterised the ethnic history of the USSR. All these processes, however, were dominated by a lack of sovereignty, a loss of national identity, and damage to the living environment. Georgia rather than the USSR has always been regarded by the Georgian people as their mother country. The Soviet Union, which was considered to be a voluntary union of equal republics, was in fact an artificial creation that non-Russian nations were forced to join. The majority of Georgians did not therefore claim the USSR as their homeland: ‘The USSR was for its nations a socio-political state not a homeland’ [3]. Non-Russian citizens in the Soviet Union perceived the Russians to be a state-building ‘nation’ and the USSR a Russian state. The Soviet authorities, who predicated internationalism on the Russian language and new Russian culture, actively combated ethnic nationalism (including Russian nationalism, which was associated with chauvinism and a tsarist legacy. Although Russkost was considered to be a remnant of a disgraceful past, it was nonetheless used as a tool to sovietise society. Indeed, Russian language and culture were both conducive to the assimilation of non-Russians. ‘The Great Russian nation’ was to be ‘the first among equals’ and thus Russia provided. Soviet state with certain features of ethnicity. However, Russian characteristics were never treated as instrumental to the USSR, because the aim was to form a new

  9. Ethnic and gender differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.

  10. State Laws Regarding Indoor Public Use, Retail Sales, and Prices of Electronic Cigarettes - U.S. States, Guam, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands, September 30, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy; Kenemer, Brandon; King, Brian A; Tynan, Michael A; MacNeil, Allison; Reimels, Elizabeth

    2017-12-15

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most frequently used tobacco product among U.S. youths, and past 30-day e-cigarette use is more prevalent among high school students than among adults (1,2). E-cigarettes typically deliver nicotine, and the U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that nicotine exposure during adolescence can cause addiction and can harm the developing adolescent brain (2). Through authority granted by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibits e-cigarette sales to minors, free samples, and vending machine sales, except in adult-only facilities (3). States, localities, territories, and tribes maintain broad authority to adopt additional or more stringent requirements regarding tobacco product use, sales, marketing, and other topics (2,4). To understand the current e-cigarette policy landscape in the United States, CDC assessed state and territorial laws that 1) prohibit e-cigarette use and conventional tobacco smoking indoors in restaurants, bars, and worksites; 2) require a retail license to sell e-cigarettes; 3) prohibit e-cigarette self-service displays (e.g., requirement that products be kept behind the counter or in a locked box); 4) establish 21 years as the minimum age of purchase for all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes (tobacco-21); and 5) apply an excise tax to e-cigarettes. As of September 30, 2017, eight states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico prohibited indoor e-cigarette use and smoking in indoor areas of restaurants, bars, and worksites; 16 states, DC, and the U.S. Virgin Islands required a retail license to sell e-cigarettes; 26 states prohibited e-cigarette self-service displays; five states, DC, and Guam had tobacco-21 laws; and eight states, DC, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands taxed e-cigarettes. Sixteen states had none of the assessed laws. A comprehensive approach that combines state-level strategies to reduce youths' initiation of

  11. HEROD: a human ethnic and regional specific omics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian; Tao, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Qin, Chu; Chen, Shangying; He, Weidong; Tan, Ying; Xia Liu, Hong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Yu Yang; Chen, Yu Zong

    2017-10-15

    Genetic and gene expression variations within and between populations and across geographical regions have substantial effects on the biological phenotypes, diseases, and therapeutic response. The development of precision medicines can be facilitated by the OMICS studies of the patients of specific ethnicity and geographic region. However, there is an inadequate facility for broadly and conveniently accessing the ethnic and regional specific OMICS data. Here, we introduced a new free database, HEROD, a human ethnic and regional specific OMICS database. Its first version contains the gene expression data of 53 070 patients of 169 diseases in seven ethnic populations from 193 cities/regions in 49 nations curated from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), the ArrayExpress Archive of Functional Genomics Data (ArrayExpress), the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC). Geographic region information of curated patients was mainly manually extracted from referenced publications of each original study. These data can be accessed and downloaded via keyword search, World map search, and menu-bar search of disease name, the international classification of disease code, geographical region, location of sample collection, ethnic population, gender, age, sample source organ, patient type (patient or healthy), sample type (disease or normal tissue) and assay type on the web interface. The HEROD database is freely accessible at http://bidd2.nus.edu.sg/herod/index.php. The database and web interface are implemented in MySQL, PHP and HTML with all major browsers supported. phacyz@nus.edu.sg. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Ethnic diversity and employment growth in English cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing.

  13. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  15. The Effect of Parents' Ethnic Socialization Practices on Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment of Multi Ethnic Children in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chua Bee Seok; Rosnah Ismail; Jasmine Adela Mutang; Shaziah Iqbal; Nur Farhana Ardillah Aftar; Alfred Chan Huan Zhi; Ferlis Bin Bahari; Lailawati Madlan; Hon Kai Yee

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the role of parents' ethnic socialization practices contributes to the ethnic identity development, self-esteem and psychological adjustment of multi ethnic children in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 342 multi ethnic children (age range = 10 years old to 14 years old; mean age = 12.65 years, SD = 0.88) and their parents participated in the present study. The modified version of Multi group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), The Familial Ethnic ...

  16. Digitized Ethnic Hate Speech: Understanding Effects of Digital Media Hate Speech on Citizen Journalism in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gichuhi Kimotho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity in Kenya permeates all spheres of life. However, it is in politics that ethnicity is most visible. Election time in Kenya often leads to ethnic competition and hatred, often expressed through various media. Ethnic hate speech characterized the 2007 general elections in party rallies and through text messages, emails, posters and leaflets. This resulted in widespread skirmishes that left over 1200 people dead, and many displaced (KNHRC, 2008. In 2013, however, the new battle zone was the war of words on social media platform. More than any other time in Kenyan history, Kenyans poured vitriolic ethnic hate speech through digital media like Facebook, tweeter and blogs. Although scholars have studied the role and effects of the mainstream media like television and radio in proliferating the ethnic hate speech in Kenya (Michael Chege, 2008; Goldstein & Rotich, 2008a; Ismail & Deane, 2008; Jacqueline Klopp & Prisca Kamungi, 2007, little has been done in regard to social media.  This paper investigated the nature of digitized hate speech by: describing the forms of ethnic hate speech on social media in Kenya; the effects of ethnic hate speech on Kenyan’s perception of ethnic entities; ethnic conflict and ethics of citizen journalism. This study adopted a descriptive interpretive design, and utilized Austin’s Speech Act Theory, which explains use of language to achieve desired purposes and direct behaviour (Tarhom & Miracle, 2013. Content published between January and April 2013 from six purposefully identified blogs was analysed. Questionnaires were used to collect data from university students as they form a good sample of Kenyan population, are most active on social media and are drawn from all parts of the country. Qualitative data were analysed using NVIVO 10 software, while responses from the questionnaire were analysed using IBM SPSS version 21. The findings indicated that Facebook and Twitter were the main platforms used to

  17. Health literacy and primary health care use of ethnic minorities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, Marieke; van der Heide, Iris; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M M; Brabers, Anne E M; Rademakers, Jany J D J M

    2017-05-15

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority populations visit their general practitioner (GP) more often than the indigenous population. An explanation for this association is lacking. Recently, health literacy is suggested as a possible explaining mechanism. Internationally, associations between health literacy and health care use, and between ethnicity and health literacy have been studied separately, but, so far, have not been linked to each other. In the Netherlands, some expectations have been expressed with regard to supposed low health literacy of ethnic minority groups, however, no empirical study has been done so far. The objectives of this study are therefore to acquire insight into the level of health literacy of ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and to examine whether the relationship between ethnicity and health care use can be (partly) explained by health literacy. A questionnaire was sent to a sample of 2.116 members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel (response rate 46%, 89 respondents of non-western origin). Health literacy was measured with the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) which covers nine different domains. The health literacy levels of ethnic minority groups were compared to the indigenous population. A negative binomial regression model was used to estimate the association between ethnicity and GP visits. To examine whether health literacy is an explaining factor in this association, health literacy and interaction terms of health literacy and ethnicity were added into the model. Differences in levels of health literacy were only found between the Turkish population and the indigenous Dutch population. This study also found an association between ethnicity and GP visits. Ethnic minorities visit their GP 33% more often than the indigenous population. Three domains of the HLQ (the ability to navigate the health care system, the ability to find information and to read and understand health information) partly explained the association

  18. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA PATRICIA AMALIA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available International economic conditions are projected to have a favorable path in 2018. Thus, accelerating investment in infrastructure and real estate in China, as well as expectations of fiscal loosening in the United States, lead to an increased expectation for enhancement of global trade flows and to strengthen investor confidence. Instead, Britain's decision to leave the European Union, as well as political uncertainty in some euro-zone countries, may cause temporary distortions but also implications for economies in the european region. On the other hand, the divergence of the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank's monetary policies, as the US expects further increases in interest rates, can be reflected in the activity of the government bond market as a result of the reorientation of investors to assets with higher yield, a trend amplified by the context of the economic environment with low interest rates. Recent developments in the field of financial technology innovation are an important challenge for conventional financial market (payment and settlement infrastructures, especially in the context of multiple public and private initiatives and projects developed over the last few years. The digitization of financial services is an international concern due to the complexity of this phenomenon, and the lack of harmonized regulations and / or standards in the field. On the one hand, technological innovation in the field of payment systems has the potential to create a number of social benefits by improving access to financial services (financial inclusion. On the other hand, the integration of new technologies in the financial and banking field may imply additional information security risks, especially on payment and settlement systems. Financial technology innovation projects have also been developed by central banks in Europe, but also in America and Asia (for example in the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Canada, China and India. They

  19. Ethnic Minority Personnel Careers: Hindrances and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Catharine

    2004-01-01

    Personnel departments often have particular responsibility for equal opportunities within their organizations. This paper explores equal opportunities within personnel departments themselves, in relation to the careers of ethnic minority personnel practitioners. Through primary research, it identifies a range of criteria which can affect personnel careers, of which ethnic origin is often one. However, although being categorized as of ethnic minority origin often hinders personnel careers, the...

  20. Ethnic Conflict: Imperatives for US Military Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lohide, Kurtis D

    1999-01-01

    .... Recent fighting in Bosnia, Central Africa, and Kosovo seems to provide this context. Such outbreaks of internecine fighting present compelling evidence that ethnic warfare will be a major source of conflict in the new millennium. Therefore, if 21st century American military thinkers are to craft a successful strategy, they must address the imperatives of ethnic conflict. This paper discusses the theoretical imperatives, doctrinal imperatives, and force structure imperatives of ethnic warfare.

  1. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new...... refugees across locations conditional on six individual-specific characteristics. The results show that refugees with unfavourable unobserved characteristics are found to self-select into ethnic enclaves. Furthermore, taking account of negative self-selection, a relative standard deviation increase...

  2. Ethnicity and Health in Colombia: What Do Self-Perceived Health Indicators Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Martínez-Herrera, Eliana; Posada-López, Adriana; Rocha-Buelvas, Anderson

    2016-04-21

    To compare self-perceived health indicators between ethnic groups in Colombia. Cross-sectional study with data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey (ENSP-2007). Data from 57,617 people ≥18 years were used. Variables included: belonging to an ethnic group (exposure); self-rated health; mental health problems, injuries for accidents/violence (outcomes); sex, age, education level and occupation (explicative/control). A descriptive study was carried out of the explicative variables, and the prevalence of the outcomes was calculated according to ethnicity, education level and occupation. The association between the exposure variable and the outcomes was estimated by means of adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of outcomes was higher in people reporting to belong to an ethnic group and differences were found by sex, ethnic groups and health outcomes. Women from the Palenquero group were more likely to report poor self-rated health (aOR 7.04; 95%CI 2.50-19.88) and injuries from accidents/violence (aOR 7.99; 95%CI 2.89-22.07). Indigenous men were more likely to report mental health problems (aOR 1.75; 95%CI 1.41-2.17). Gradients according to ethnicity, education, occupation and sex were found. Minority ethnic groups are vulnerable to reporting poor health outcomes. Political actions are required to diminish health inequalities in these groups.

  3. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  4. Crossing Boundaries: Nativity, Ethnicity, and Mate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E.; Baston, Christie

    2016-01-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration often focuses on panethnic differences and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican, Mexican, Chinese, and Filipino origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a less extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  5. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses. Developing in the second half of the 20th century, the television, as one of the most effective mass communication media of the modern age, has combined sound and images to create a technical medium where culture is produced, transmitted, circulated and consumed and subsequently recycled to reach the target audiences, while in terms of the transmission of messages, the television has become the flagship of the media economy in comparison with other mass communication media and channels. As the influences of globalisation have been felt upon the creative processes of film and serial instruments and in the adoption and dissemination of strategic objectives, global cultural transmission is more varied, wider in scope and with more intense content than ever before. Furthermore, as a result of the constant development, regeneration and transformation of communication technology, we can postulate that television serial and film scenarios are a new form of marketing communication, as they are deeply intertwined with daily life and culture in the modern world. However, mass communication media gather groups of people with a common language and interest, causing groups to become communities. The role of mass communication media in forming communities with common characteristics and interests has developed in parallel with the development of mass communication media. These communication media have negated geographical boundaries, forming common ground for social relationships, while the importance of communication media has increased as the media reaches more isolated communities, constantly increasing the size of the masses. The experience of the world as cultural cosmopolitanism and the globalisation of the media through the simulation of metaphorical images in relation to the globalisation of communication has led to the internalisation of feelings of globalisation by individuals under the influence of the media, forming the basis for a social and industrial discourse.

  6. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses.

  7. The Work-Study Interface: Similarities and Differences between Ethnic Minority and Ethnic Majority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; de Meijer, Lonneke A.; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work-study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work-study interface model, in which the work-related factors work-study congruence, job control, job demands, work hours, job…

  8. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether

  9. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  10. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  11. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836478

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is

  12. Survey nonresponse among ethnic minorities in a national health survey - a mixed-method study of participation, barriers, and potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Algren, Maria Holst; Holmberg, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    , to alienation generated by the questions' focus on disease and cultural assumptions, or mistrust regarding anonymity. Ethnic minorities seem particularly affected by such barriers. To increase survey participation, questions could be sensitized to reflect multicultural traditions, and the impact of sender......Objectives. The participation rate in the Danish National Health Survey (DNHS) 2010 was significantly lower among ethnic minorities than ethnic Danes. The purpose was to characterize nonresponse among ethnic minorities in DNHS, analyze variations in item nonresponse, and investigate barriers...... and incentives to participation. Design. This was a mixed-method study. Logistic regression was used to analyze nonresponse using data from DNHS (N = 177,639 and chi-square tests in item nonresponse analyses. We explored barriers and incentives regarding participation through focus groups and cognitive...

  13. Family Life and Racial and Ethnic Diversity: An Assessment of Communitarianism, Liberalism, and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Gideon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the debates among communitarians, liberals, and conservatives regarding contemporary family issues and critically evaluates these perspectives. Current orientations inadequately address the impact of large-scale bureaucratic organizations on family life and do not confront problems relating to ethnic and racial discrimination. Education…

  14. Race and Ethnicity: An 11-Year Content Analysis of "Counseling and Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Caroline A.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Butler, J. Yasmine; Shavers, Marjorie C.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Dimensions of Personal Identity Model proposed by Arredondo and Glauner (as cited in Arredondo et al., 1996), the authors reviewed the last 11 years of the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling's journal, "Counseling and Values", specifically regarding the "A" dimensions of race and ethnicity. Twenty-five…

  15. Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

  16. Differences in Texas Community College Certificate Completion Rates by Ethnicity/Race, Gender, and Institution Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the first study within this journal-ready dissertation was to determine the extent to which ethnicity/race-based differences were present in Texas community college completion rates specifically within workforce certificate programs. Regarding the second study, the purpose was to determine the extent to which gender…

  17. 75 FR 29776 - Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...] Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations; Request for... FDA in fulfilling its responsibilities regarding tobacco product advertising and promotion that is... reasons, we are also interested in receiving information about the advertising and promotion of menthol...

  18. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adults in Randomized Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Thompson, Douglas R.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Davis, Angela; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Roehrig, James P.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin M.; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that binge eating disorder (BED) is as prevalent among African American and Hispanic Americans as among Caucasian Americans; however, data regarding the characteristics of treatment-seeking individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic…

  20. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  1. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  2. Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Riepe, Matthias W

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries the ethnic minority migrant populations are currently reaching an age where dementia becomes an increasingly important issue. There is no European consensus on good clinical practice with these patient groups, who often have special needs and expectations with regard...... to dementia services....

  3. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  4. Attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccination among Arab ethnic minority in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraiq, Lina; Nielsen, Dorthe; Sodemann, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine uptake among ethnic minorities is poorly explored in Denmark. The objective of this study was to explore attitudes and knowledge towards HPV vaccination among Arab mothers and their daughters. Methods: Five Arabic-speaking...

  5. Factors That Influence Student Pursuit of Science Careers; the Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Snape, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study adds to a body of research reporting on pupils' choices and outcomes in relation to science. The article reports on 536 Scottish pupils' perceptions regarding reported intention to choose careers in science, with further analysis in terms of family, friends, gender and ethnicity. The pupils, aged 14-15, from 5 schools in one Scottish…

  6. The impact of ethnicity on cochlear implantation in Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Viktoria Vedeler; Wie, Ona Bø; Myhrum, Marte; Bunne, Marie

    2017-02-01

    To explore the impact of parental ethnicity on cochlear implantation in children in Norway with regard to incidence rates of cochlear implants (CIs), comorbidies, age at onset of profound deafness (AOD), age at first implantation, uni- or bilateral CI, and speech recognition. This retrospective cohort study included all children (N = 278) aged Nordic ethnicity, of whom 46 were born in Nordic countries with two non-Nordic parents. Compared with the background population, children with non-Nordic parents were 1.9 times more likely to have received CI than Nordic children (i.e., born in Nordic countries with Nordic parents). When looking at AOD, uni-vs. bilateral CIs, and comorbidities, no significant differences were found between Nordic children and children with a non-Nordic ethnicity. Among children with AOD Nordic countries with two non-Nordic parents (n = 6) and adopted non-Nordic children (n = 6) received their first CI on average 14.9 and 21.1 months later than Nordic children (n = 104), respectively (p = 0.006 and 0.005). Among children with AOD Nordic countries with two non-Nordic parents (n = 31) received their CI at an older age than Nordic children, but this difference was not significant after adjusting for calendar year of implantation and excluding comorbidity as a potential cause of delayed implantation. The mean age at implantation for children with AOD Nordic children and 76.3% for children born in Norway with two non-Nordic parents (p = 0.002). The incidence of CI was significantly higher in children with a non-Nordic vs. a Nordic ethnicity, reflecting a higher incidence of profound deafness. Children born in Norway have equal access to CIs regardless of their ethnicity, but despite being born and receiving care in Norway, prelingually deaf children with non-Nordic parents are at risk of receiving CI later than Nordic children. Moreover, prelingually deaf children who arrive in Norway at an older age may be at risk for a worse

  7. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  8. Ethnic Minority Elders: Issues and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Henry L.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues related to culture, health, illness, ethnicity, and poverty for aging Asian and Pacific Islanders, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and African Americans. Identifies the relationship between culture and ethnicity and draws implications for mental health counseling. (SK)

  9. Ethnic Minority Women. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet contains information about the numbers and status of ethnic minority women in Great Britain. In 1991, the last full count, 1.5 million women in Britain classified themselves as other than White. Women from all ethnic groups are less likely to be economically active (paid for work or looking for it) than men. However, among ethnic…

  10. Ethnic Art Falling Out of Favor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    During the multiculturalist wave that started in the 1950s, traditional ethnic art flowed in from across the globe. Today, that wave has receded as contemporary art has gained momentum. The trend toward contemporary art became more palpable in the 1990s. Baby Boomers had been exposed to ethnic art through programs like the Peace Corps. However, as…

  11. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  12. Ethnic diversity outpatient clinic in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahhan, Nordin; Meijssen, Dominique; Chegary, Malika; Bosman, Diederik; Wolf, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Background: The health status of chronic sick ethnic minority children in the Netherlands is unequal compared with indigenous Dutch children. In order to optimize the health care for these children a specific patient-oriented clinic in ethnic-cultural diversity: the Mosaic Outpatient Clinic (MOC)

  13. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, t...

  14. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide

  15. The daily life of urban ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Het dagelijks leven van allochtone stedelingen. The integration of ethnic minorities in Dutch society is not an easy process. The present emphasis on the problems means there is little room for attention for the daily lives of people within the various ethnic groups. This

  16. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: ...

  17. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  18. Ethnic differences in the structural properties of facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Sugata, Keiichi; Hachiya, Akira; Osanai, Osamu; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlated with the appearance of those pores. A survey was carried out to elucidate ethnic-dependent differences in facial pore size and in epidermal architecture. The subjects included 80 healthy women (aged 30-39: Caucasians, Asians, Hispanics and African Americans) living in Dallas in the USA. First, surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin. Second, horizontal cross-sectioned images from cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. Finally, to compare racial differences in the architecture of the interfollicular epidermis of facial cheek skin, horizontal cross-sectioned images were obtained and the numbers of dermal papillae were counted. Asians had the smallest pore areas compared with other racial groups. Regarding the epidermal architecture around facial pores, all ethnic groups observed in this study had similar morphological features and African Americans showed substantially more severe impairment of architecture around facial pores than any other racial group. In addition, significant differences were observed in the architecture of the interfollicular epidermis between ethnic groups. These results suggest that facial pore size, the epidermal architecture around facial pores and the architecture of the interfollicular epidermis differ between ethnic groups. This might affect the appearance of facial pores.

  19. Ethnical distance in Vojvodina: Research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Žolt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the ethnical distance measuring in Vojvodina, the north Province of the Republic of Serbia. The measuring was carried out on autumn 2002, during realization of the wider project of multiculturalism research in the mentioned region. According to the results the ethnical distances in Vojvodina are quite equalized and they are grouped around the attitude "all the same". Vojvodinian Serbs are more favorable partners for the majority of social contacts, and the relatively largest distance is shown toward Roma. The ethnical distance results also discovers two very important factors for understanding the interethnic relations in Vojvodina: first, the "rational" kind of social contacts with the members of the other ethnical groups are more preferable for the majority of respondents, and second, they have very equal distances toward their own ethnical groups.

  20. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Introduction: Racial and Ethnic Conflict and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Crutchfield

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic violence takes many forms. Genocides, ethnic cleansing, pogroms, civil wars, and violent separatist movements are the most obvious and extreme expressions, but less organized violence such as rioting, and hate crimes by individuals or small groups are products of racial and ethnic conflict as well. Also, the distribution of criminal violence within societies, which may or may not be aimed at members of another group, is in some places a by-product of ongoing conflicts between superior and subordinated racial or ethnic groups. Although estimates of the number of deaths attributable to ethnic violence vary widely, range of eleven to twenty million given for the period between 1945 and the early 1990s show the gravity of this type of conflict (Williams 1994, 50. So it comes as no surprise that scholars have paid increasing attention to such conflicts over the last decades.

  2. Education and ethnic minorities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Bjørg

    The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant, ......, among ethnic minorities and native danes can be explainedby differences i parental, family and ethnic background and, second, how education resources are allocated among children within ethnic minorities families.......The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant...

  3. Do patient expectations about arthroplasty at initial presentation for hip or knee pain differ by sex and ethnicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Contreras, Juan S; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F; Barrack, Robert; Rossi, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Many studies show gender and ethnic differences in healthcare utilization and outcomes. Patients' presurgical cognitions regarding surgical outcomes also may vary by gender and ethnicity and play a role in explaining utilization and outcome differences. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent gender and ethnicity play a role in patients' presurgical cognitions. Do gender and ethnicity influence outcome expectations? Is arthroplasty-related knowledge affected by gender and ethnicity? Do gender and ethnicity influence willingness to pay for surgery? In a prospective, multicenter study we gave 765 patients an anonymous questionnaire on expectations, arthroplasty knowledge, and preferences before their consultation for hip and/or knee pain, from March 2005 to July 2007. Six hundred seventy-two of the 765 patients (88%) completed questionnaires. Non-Hispanics and men were more likely to indicate they would be able to engage in more activities. Non-Hispanics and men had greater arthroplasty knowledge. Hispanics and women were more likely to report they would not pay for a total joint arthroplasty (TJA) relative to non-Hispanics and men. Sex and ethnic differences in patients presenting for their initial visit to the orthopaedists for hip or knee pain influence expectations, knowledge, and preferences concerning TJAs. Longitudinal study of relationships between patients' perceptions and utilization or outcomes regarding TJA is warranted.

  4. The ambiguity of ethnicity as risk factor of vitamin D deficiency--a case study of Danish vitamin D policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2011-01-01

    of interpretative flexibility regarding how ethnic minorities are constructed as a risk group for vitamin D deficiency. The ten documents analysed revealed eight different constructions of the ethnic minorities groups at risk. A low degree of interpretative flexibility was found regarding the importance of skin...... colour and skin covering. Major disagreements were found regarding the importance attributed to the Islamic religion, other traditions, immigration, gender and age, and use of an evolutionary explanation for the increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic minorities at risk of vitamin D deficiency......OBJECTIVES: To explore how ethnic minorities at risk of vitamin D deficiency are constructed in Danish policy documents (current as of April 2009), regarding vitamin D supplementation. METHODS: Ten policy documents were analysed through content analysis, focusing on definitions and explanations...

  5. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE PINNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... show ethnic variations. This study describes ethnic differences in the morphology of the pinna. Both ears ... Keywords: Pinna morphology, Ethnic difference, Variations. INTRODUCTION ..... World J Med Res. 1 (5): 091-095.

  6. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  7. Religious and Ethnic Discrimination: Differential Implications for Social Support Engagement, Civic Involvement, and Political Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Ysseldyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.

  8. Principles for research on ethnicity and health: the Leeds Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Ghazala; Salway, Sarah; Kai, Joe; Karlsen, Saffron; Bhopal, Raj; Ellison, George Th; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-06-01

    There is substantial evidence that health and health-care experiences vary along ethnic lines and the need to understand and tackle ethnic health inequalities has repeatedly been highlighted. Research into ethnicity and health raises ethical, theoretical and methodological issues and, as the volume of research in this area grows, so too do concerns regarding its scientific rigour and reporting, and its contribution to reducing inequalities. Guidance may be helpful in encouraging researchers to adopt standard practices in the design, conduct and reporting of research. However, past efforts at introducing such guidance have had limited impact on research practice, and the diversity of disciplinary perspectives on the key challenges and solutions may undermine attempts to derive and promote guiding principles. A consensus building Delphi exercise--the first of its kind in this area of research practice--was undertaken with leading academics, practitioners and policymakers from a broad range of disciplinary backgrounds to assess whether consensus on key principles could be achieved. Ten key principles for conducting research on ethnicity and health emerged, covering: the aims of research in this field; how such research should be framed and focused; key design-related considerations; and the direction of future research. Despite some areas of dispute, participants were united by a common concern that the generation and application of research evidence should contribute to better health-care experiences and health outcomes for minority ethnic people. The principles provide a strong foundation to guide future ethnicity-related research and build a broader international consensus.

  9. Ethnic diversity and informal intra- and inter-ethnic contacts with neighbours in The Netherlands: A comparison of natives and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the extent to which ethnic diversity in neighbourhoods and municipalities in The Netherlands is related to personal contact with neighbours from ethnic in-groups and out-groups among the native majority as well as among ethnic minorities. The results indicate that ethnic diversity

  10. Attitude toward depression, its complications, prevention and barriers to seeking help among ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and the barriers that result in delays in seeking help among the various ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia. In June 2007 a questionnaire‐based survey was undertaken in Penang. Face‐to‐face interviews were conducted, and 1855 respondents were approached to participate in the study by adopting a cluster random sampling method. A 25‐item questionnaire was used to explore public attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and delays in seeking help. A total of 1149 (61.94%) showed willingness to participate in the survey. Ethnically, 490 (42.6%) of the respondents who participated in the survey were Malay, while 413 (35.9%) were Chinese, 149 (13%) Indian and 97 (8.4%) from other ethnic minorities. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years (SD ± 11.5). In evaluating public attitudes, the majority (n = 910, 79.2%) agreed with the statement that family and friends can enhance the depression recovery process by providing more care and attention to the patient and this was found to be statistically significant (P ≤0.001). More than one‐third of the respondents (n = 437, 38.0%) perceived depression as a normal medical condition and believed that it subsides automatically. The majority (n = 830, 72.2%) stated that depression results in social problems, while some felt that it can lead to raised blood pressure (n = 518, 45.1%). In terms of prevention, most of the respondents indicated that one can prevent depression by maintaining a good social life. In evaluating the barriers to seeking professional help, the majority (n = 582, 50.7%) stated that they did not believe they were at risk, with the next largest group identifying a lack of awareness regarding the signs and symptoms. However, a positive attitude was observed towards the complications and prevention of depression. Initiatives to increase mental health literacy will

  11. Ethnic density of regions and psychiatric disorders among ethnic minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott Daniel; Minh, Anita; Guhn, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Ethnic minorities form an increasingly large proportion of Canada's population. Living in areas of greater ethnic density may help protect mental health among ethnic minorities through psychosocial pathways such as accessibility to culturally appropriate provision of mental health care, less discrimination and a greater sense of belonging. Mood and anxiety disorders are common psychiatric disorders. This study examined whether ethnic density of regions was related to mood and anxiety disorders among ethnic minorities in Canada. Responses by ethnic minority individuals to the 2011-2014 administrations of the Canadian Community Health Survey ( n =  33,201) were linked to health region ethnic density data. Multilevel logistic regression was employed to model the odds of having mood and/or anxiety disorders associated with increasing region-level ethnic density and to examine whether sense of community belonging helped explain variance in such associations. Analyses were adjusted for individual-level demographic factors as well as region-level socio-economic factors. Higher ethnic density related to lower odds of mood and/or anxiety disorders for Canadian-born (but not foreign-born) ethnic minorities. Sense of community belonging did not help explain such associations, but independently related to lower odds of mood and/or anxiety disorders. These findings remained after adjusting for regional population density and after excluding (rural/remote) regions of very low ethnic density. Ethnic density of regions in Canada may be an important protective factor against mental illness among Canadian-born ethnic minorities. It is important to better understand how, and for which specific ethno-cultural groups, ethnic density may influence mental health.

  12. Systematic review: methodological flaws in racial/ethnic reporting for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, M R; Kia, L; O'Dwyer, L C; Stern, E; Taft, T H; Keefer, L

    2018-03-01

    Health care disparities affecting the care of multiple disease groups are of growing concern internationally. Research guidelines, governmental institutions, and scientific journals have attempted to minimize disparities through policies regarding the collection and reporting of racial/ethnic data. One area where shortcomings remain is in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This systematic review, which adheres to the PRISMA statement, focuses on characterizing existing methodological weaknesses in research focusing on studies regarding the assessment, prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of GERD patients. Search terms included GERD and typical symptoms of GERD in ethnic groups or minorities. We reviewed 62 articles. The majority of studies did not report the race/ethnicity of all participants, and among those who did, very few followed accepted guidelines. While there were diverse participants, there was also diversity in the manner in which groups were labeled, making comparisons difficult. There appeared to be a disparity with respect to countries reporting race/ethnicity, with certain countries more likely to report this variable. Samples overwhelmingly consisted of the study country's majority population. The majority of studies justified the use of race/ethnicity as a study variable and investigated conceptually related factors such as socioeconomic status and environment. Yet, many studies wrote as if race/ethnicity reflected biological differences. Despite recommendations, it appears that GERD researchers around the world struggle with the appropriate and standard way to include, collect, report, and discuss race/ethnicity. Recommendations on ways to address these issues are included with the goal of preventing and identifying health care disparities.

  13. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand......The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...

  14. The impact of housing policies and housing markets on ethnic spatial segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how ethnic segregation is connected to an ethnic division of the housing market and a spatial separation of different housing tenures in four Nordic cities. Explanations for the differences across the cities are found by comparing housing markets and housing policies....... The housing markets are in all four cities ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. We further discuss the reasons for the observed pattern. The paper shows that the spatial distribution...... housing, while co-operative housing is crucial in the fourth. It is also shown that a policy of neighbourhood tenure mix in one of the cities has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations of immigrants in social/public housing....

  15. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents : Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.

  16. Explanations for Special Neighbourhood Preferences among Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper is examined if preferences exist among ethnic minorities for living close to an ethnic social network, in so-called ethnic enclaves, or living in neighbourhoods with many residents belonging to different ethnic minorities. It is analysed to what extent these preferences can be expla......In this paper is examined if preferences exist among ethnic minorities for living close to an ethnic social network, in so-called ethnic enclaves, or living in neighbourhoods with many residents belonging to different ethnic minorities. It is analysed to what extent these preferences can...

  17. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  18. 45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a... Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how the program— (1) Will, directly or...

  19. Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.

  20. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-03-01

    School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide an assessment of this literature to explain why and when school desegregation might improve or worsen ethnic relations and to identify important future research directions. We discuss different theoretical perspectives predicting positive versus negative aspects of school ethnic diversity: intergroup contact theory and the perspectives of group threat and power differences. Subsequently, we consider a number of school and educational characteristics that can moderate the impact of ethnic diversity on students' interethnic relations and that could be considered in future research. Furthermore, we discuss the need for studying underlying psychological and social processes as well as the importance of investigating interethnic relations in combination with academic adjustment. School ethnic diversity is not enough to promote interethnic tolerance. It is important to examine diversity in relation to other aspects of the school environment that may influence how students respond to the ethnic diversity within school. Important factors to consider are the presence of multicultural education and inclusive school identities, student-teacher relationships, and peer norms and networks, but also the role of parents and of peer relations outside the school context. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The impact of geographic, ethnic, and demographic dynamics on the perception of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Peter Niclas; Juran, Sabrina; Liu, Yuen-Jong; Weichman, Katie; Tanna, Neil; Walker, Marc E; Ng, Reuben; Persing, John A

    2014-01-01

    Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder, but influenced by the individual's geographic, ethnic, and demographic background and characteristics. In plastic surgery, objective measurements are used as a foundation for aesthetic evaluations. This study assumes interdependence between variables such as country of residence, sex, age, occupation, and aesthetic perception. Computerized images of a model's face were generated with the ability to alter nasal characteristics and the projection of the lips and chin. A survey containing these modifiable images was sent to more than 13,000 plastic surgeons and laypeople in 50 different countries, who were able to virtually create a face that they felt to be the aesthetically "ideal" and most pleasing. Demographic information about the interviewees was obtained. Values of various aesthetic parameters of the nose were described along with their relationship to geography, demography, and occupation of the respondents. Interregional and ethnic comparison revealed that variables of country of residence, ethnicity, occupation (general public vs surgeon), and sex correlate along a 3-way dimension with the ideal projection of the lips and the chin. Significant interaction effects were found between variables of country of residence or ethnicity with occupation and sex of the respondents. What are considered the "ideal" aesthetics of the face are highly dependent on the individual's cultural and ethnic background and cannot simply and solely be defined by numeric values and divine proportions. As confirmed with this study, ethnic, demographic, and occupational factors impact peoples' perception of beauty significantly.

  2. The ethnic prejudice of Flemish teachers: The role of ethnic school composition and of teachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaet, Roselien; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between ethnic composition in school and the ethnic prejudice of teachers, controlling for the individual characteristics of teachers and their perceptions of pupils' teachability. Multilevel analyses were carried out on data for 499 Flemish teachers in 44 Flemish (Belgian) secondary schools, collected through an online questionnaire. In this study, ethnic prejudice means a negative attitude to Moroccans, Turks, and Eastern Europeans. A scale was created by taking the mean scores for 18 items, with higher scores indicating greater ethnic prejudice (Quillian, 1995; Witte, 1999). Teachers with long-term higher education or a university diploma are shown to be less ethnically prejudiced than teachers with a lower level of education. Moreover, teachers who work at a school with a greater number of ethnic minority pupils, and at the same time evaluate their pupils as more teachable, are less ethnically prejudiced. These findings highlight the need for more research into the underlying processes, such as pupils' teachability, that influence the relationship between school characteristics and the ethnic prejudice of teachers. More knowledge about the context-specific factors and processes that mediate and/or moderate this relationship can increase the theoretical understanding of the development of ethnic prejudice. It can also highlight particular social characteristics, which can be the focus of social and organizational policy aimed at reducing ethnic prejudices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Buryat Ethnic Mentality and National Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbaev E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on ways the national (in a regional aspect broadcasting impacts ethnic mind formation and its further development, the latter issues being under a main focus of Buryat State University scholars as well. They set an objective to investigate the issue from different angles, for this reason gathering within scientific projects into scholars’groups took place. In this case the group of educators, philologists and sociologists have focused on media which construct ethnic mind via interiorizing and cultivating ethnic-related ideas and images for five years. Providing a general outlook of the world, National Broadcasting (NB is a proper institutional mechanism that helps a person identify himself / herself among different ethnic groups. Ethnic identity and self-consciousness are manifested in various social and intercultural communications. This allows a person to become aware of the peculiarities of his / her and others’ ethnic communities. The outcomes of a sociological research held by the authors verify the significance of both the posed problems and the TV role. One may find theoretical and empirical data in Zandeeva, S.K. (2012, Dagbaeva, N.Zh.(2012, Dagbaev (2014, Dashinimaeva, P.P., et al (2015. Generally, national programs do contribute to integrating people of the same ethnicity into a common community, to shaping such moral qualities as humanity, love to motherland, respect for the elders and other ethnic nationalities. All these characteristics form proper rules of living in a tolerant community. At the same time, they contribute to strengthening of the feeling of ethnic unity. Beyond any doubt, NB needs a relevant assessment and interest to promote and advance its function in a modern society. On the one hand, telecommunications markets liberalize. On the other hand, broadcasting technologies have developed to a highest extent, leading to the increase of international competition [14]. Anyway, both directions force

  4. Ethnicity and first birth: age, smoking, delivery, gestation, weight and feeding: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narinder; Chalmers, James W T; Fischbacher, Colin M; Steiner, Markus F C; Bhopal, Raj S

    2014-12-01

    We linked census and health service data sets to address the shortage of information comparing maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes by ethnic group in Scotland. Retrospective cohort study linking the 2001 National Census for Scotland and hospital obstetric data (2001-08), comparing maternal age, smoking status, gestational age, caesarean section rates, birthweight, preterm birth and breastfeeding rates by ethnic group. In all, 144 344 women were identified as having had a first birth between 1 May 2001 and 30 April 2008. White Scottish mothers were younger [mean age 27.3 years; 95% confidence interval (CI): 27.3, 27.4] than other white groups and most non-white groups. They had the highest smoking rates (25.8%; CI: 25.5, 26.0) and the lowest rates of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks (23.4%; CI: 23.1, 23.6), with most of the other groups being around 40%. Women from non-white minority ethnic groups in Scotland tended to have babies of lower birthweight (e.g. Pakistani mean birthweight-3105 g, white Scottish-3356 g), even after adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, education, smoking and housing tenure. This effect was more noticeable for women born in the UK. White English, Irish and other white babies tended to have higher birthweights. There was little variation between groups in caesarean section rates. Pregnant women from ethnic minority populations in Scotland have more favourable health behaviour than the white Scottish, although the non-white groups tend to have lower birthweight. Further exploration of the reasons for these differences has potential to benefit women from the majority population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  6. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID

  7. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Gao, Haiyan; Redshaw, Maggie

    2013-10-22

    According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women's experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern.

  8. Attending to the Role of Race/Ethnicity in Family Violence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley-Morrison, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers and public health and/or social policy communities have devoted increasing attention to family violence. Although officially reported crime figures for family violence appear to be declining, rates continue to be high in broadly defined racial and/or ethnic minority groups. More careful assessments of the potential…

  9. Making Ethnic Citizens: The Politics and Practice of Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Graham K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the politics and practice of education in Malaysia within the context of ethnicity and nation building. Public education in Malaysia--particularly, but not exclusively, at the pre-university level--is promoted as a nation-building tool, seeking to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. Simultaneously, however,…

  10. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  11. Peer and Teacher Preference, Student-Teacher Relationships, Student Ethnicity, and Peer Victimization in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical linear…

  12. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  13. Making Sense of Uyghur Aspirations : Mobility, Ethnicity, and Everyday Narratives in Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tursun, Sajide

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of Uyghur migrants in Shanghai. Uyghurs are a Turkic Muslim ethnic minority in China, who live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region at China’s north-western borderland. In the past decade, public discourse surrounding Uyghurs and Xinjiang has

  14. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b) of...

  15. 41 CFR 101-1.107 - Agency consultation regarding FPMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agency consultation regarding FPMR. 101-1.107 Section 101-1.107 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation...

  16. 42 CFR 1001.2006 - Notice to others regarding exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Organizations; (4) Hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies and health maintenance... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to others regarding exclusion. 1001.2006 Section 1001.2006 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. Ethnic/racial disparities in adolescents' home food environments and linkages to dietary intake and weight status

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Berge, Jerica M.; Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Research is needed to confirm that public health recommendations for home/family food environments are equally relevant for diverse populations. This study examined ethnic/racial differences in the home/family environments of adolescents and associations with dietary intake and weight status. The sample included 2,382 ethnically/racially diverse adolescents and their parents enrolled in coordinated studies, EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Act...

  18. Facial-based ethnic recognition: insights from two closely related but ethnically distinct groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Henzi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on facial recognition have considered widely separated populations, both geographically and culturally, making it hard to disentangle effects of familiarity with an ability to identify ethnic groups per se.We used data from a highly intermixed population of African peoples from South Africa to test whether individuals from nine different ethnic groups could correctly differentiate between facial images of two of these, the Tswana and Pedi. Individuals could not assign ethnicity better than expected by chance, and there was no significant difference between genders in accuracy of assignment. Interestingly, we observed a trend that individuals of mixed ethnic origin were better at assigning ethnicity to Pedi and Tswanas, than individuals from less mixed backgrounds. This result supports the hypothesis that ethnic recognition is based on the visual

  19. Legislation Without Empathy: Race and Ethnicity in LIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Visconti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most people can agree that libraries are public goods, built upon ideals of egalitarianism and the democratization of information. But can we say that libraries exist without biases? LIS has been unpacking the issue of diversity for decades, particularly longstanding racial and ethnic biases, while simultaneously trying to shift the focus of diversity issues to include the full spectrum of human identity. This paper takes up the issue of racial and ethnic diversity in LIS, as two single components of the larger issue of diversity, in order to explore the dynamics of race and ethnicity amongst librarians themselves. La plupart des gens admettent que les bibliothèques sont des biens publics, construites sur les idéaux de l’égalitarisme et de la démocratisation d’information. Mais peut-on dire que les bibliothèques existent sans partialité? La science de l’information et des bibliothèques (SIB cherche à éclairer le problème de diversité pendant des décennies, en particulier les partialités ethniques et raciales de longue date, tout en essayant de recentrer l’orientation des questions de diversité pour inclure tout l’éventail de l’identité humaine. Cette dissertation aborde la question de diversité dans les SIB, comme deux seuls composants de la question plus vaste de diversité, afin d’explorer les dynamiques de race et d’ethnie parmi des bibliothécaires eux-mêmes.

  20. Do unfavourable working conditions explain mental health inequalities between ethnic groups? Cross-sectional data of the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2015-08-20

    Ethnic inequalities in mental health have been found in many high-income countries. The purpose of this study is to test whether mental health inequalities between ethnic groups are mediated by exposure to unfavourable working conditions. Workers (n = 6278) were selected from baseline data of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study. Measures included two indices of unfavourable working conditions (lack of recovery opportunities, and perceived work stress), and two mental health outcomes (generic mental health: MCS-12 and depressive symptoms: PHQ-9). Mediation of the relationships between ethnicity and mental health by unfavourable working conditions was tested using the bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals technique. Linear models with and without the mediators included, and adjusted for gender and age. Attenuation was calculated as the change in B between the models with and without mediators. The sample comprised Dutch (1355), African Surinamese (1290), South-Asian Surinamese (1121), Turkish (1090), Ghanaian (729), and Moroccan (693) workers. After controlling for age and gender, all ethnic minorities had a higher risk of mental health problems as compared to the Dutch host population, with the exception of Ghanaians in the case of depressive symptoms, and African Surinamese workers with regard to both outcomes. The Turkish group stands out with the lowest mental health on both mental health indices, followed by Moroccan and South-Asian Surinamese workers. A lack of recovery opportunities mediated the relationship between ethnic group and a higher risk of mental health problems. Perceived work stress did not contribute to the explanation of ethnic inequalities. The higher risk of mental health problems in ethnic minority groups can be partly accounted for by a lack of recovery opportunities at work, but not by perceived work stress. This may imply that workplace prevention targeting recovery opportunities have the potential to reduce ethnic inequalities, but