WorldWideScience

Sample records for public ethnic regard

  1. Ethnic-racial socialization and adjustment among Latino college students: the mediating roles of ethnic centrality, public regard, and perceived barriers to opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2011-05-01

    Parents' efforts to socialize their children around issues of ethnicity and race have implications for well-being in several life domains, including academic and psychological adjustment. The present study tested a multiple mediator model in which parental ethnic-racial socialization was linked to psychological adjustment through two dimensions of ethnic identity (ethnic centrality and public regard) as well as two types of perceived barriers to opportunity (language and economic). Data were drawn from a sample of Latino students (N = 227; 65% women) attending a highly selective university. Results suggest that cultural socialization was related to self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and physical symptoms, and that part of its association with self-esteem was mediated by ethnic centrality beliefs. In contrast, preparation for bias had few direct associations with adjustment in this sample; this type of ethnic-racial socialization primarily functioned through its association with public regard and perceived language barriers to upward mobility. Moreover, in predicting self-esteem, public regard and perceived language barriers exhibited equally important roles as mediators of preparation for bias. These findings extend previous research, and implications for future research on ethnic-racial socialization among Latinos are discussed.

  2. Modern approaches regarding public goods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This article is trying to present general elements regarding public goods. It is presenting also all types of public goods and optimum provision of public goods. Public Goods designate goods, benefits which belong to all citizens, or community. Four categories of goods can be delimited Public goods; Private goods; Common goods; Taxable goods. We also introduce two new concepts of public goods: “Club Goods” and “Joint” Goods.

  3. Public opinion regarding alternative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammond

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Fairly widespread disillusionment in medicine since the 1950s (when many wonder drugs proved themselves either ineffective or harmful - or both, and when disease was found to be as prevalent as ever, even if in degenerative and stress-related guises, seems to have coincided with considerable public interest in alternative forms of healing. Some authors have given sympathetic attention to alternatives like homeopathy, chiropractic, herbalism and so on, but most of the literature still deals with these healers in a patronising if not blatantly biased manner. The abundance of emotive, highly critical reporting in the popular press, coupled with the relative lack of detailed, up-to-date studies and the persistence of ideas put forward by those in positions of power and status has caused a situation where most common knowledge about alternatives is nothing short of mythical.

  4. Ethnicity and Public Space in the City: Ethnic Precincts in Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins; Patrick Kunz

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as...

  5. Superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S S I; Pardhan, A; Khan, A S; Ahmed, A; Choudry, F J; Pardhan, K; Nayeem, K; Khan, M

    2002-08-01

    To find out the superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups, their implications over the socio-economic development of that group and to what extent can those superstitions be related to their level of literacy. The study was a questionnaire-based survey, 20 subjects from each ethnic group were selected by cluster sampling of residential areas where that particular group has its highest concentration, making a total of 100 subjects. It was found that most people (73%) do have some superstitious beliefs. Fifty percent of people believe in them as a part of culture and tradition, another 25% got them from their elders. No significant difference was found between different racial groups (p value = 0.9). According to literacy rate, 73.5% of literate community and 94.1% illiterate community were found to have superstitions. The occupation of the breadwinner of family didn't have a significant impact over the belief in superstitions (p value = 0.6). Majority of our population believes in superstitions, which are more common in illiterates. These superstitions not only predict health seeking behaviour of a person but also play a major role in shaping the response of a community to any health intervention program. Without the knowledge of these superstitions, effective community participation cannot be achieved.

  6. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  7. Ethnicity and Public Space in the City: Ethnic Precincts in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4 is constructed on representations of ethnicity and ‘immigrantness’. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (“Little Turkey” and Cabramatta (“Vietnamatta”. This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are ‘co-ethnic’, ‘co-cultural’ or ‘Others”. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.

  8. Demand of Rural Public Goods in Western Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Development of the West Regions and the construction of new countryside,on the basis of defining the concept of public goods,this article analyzes the status quo and layers of demand of rural public goods in western ethnic minority areas:the demand of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas shows "pyramid" structure,that is,the most basic layer is production-based rural public goods,followed by life-based rural public goods and democratic-management-based rural public goods.Finally the countermeasures for achieving effective demand of rural public goods are put forward as follows:adhere to customers(farmers)-oriented principle;innovate upon the rural residents’ demand expression mechanism of public goods in ethnic minority areas;achieve diversification of supply subject of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas.

  9. PUBLIC POLITICS REGARDING THE PENSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The said paper proposes to seak some answers regarding the long term sustainability of the pension system. Romania’s pension system originates from the invalidity insurances and pension system designed by the German cancellor Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismark in 1889. From a European perspective, Romania has to fill an obvious gap regarding the reformation of the national public pension system. International experience, particularly of the last 130 years, indicates that, in actuality, multiple pension systems have been put into function in most of the world’s countries and which are diferenciated by some elements (organizing and managing the system, defyning pension rights, method of forming the resources, the pension’s level rapported to the average income etc. and after the eficacity degree dependent on internal influences, social, economic and demographic environment, and last but not least by the political factor.

  10. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  11. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  12. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  13. Politics, public sphere and new ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Costa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The miscegenation discourse, in which the image of a tolerant nation is consolidated- the nation capable of assimilating all demands for recognition of peculiarities and cultural differences – prevailed during several decades as an hegemonic way of self representation of Brazil. However, recently, a variety of social actors (descendants of refugee slaves – quilombolas - , Unified Black Movement, indigenous organizations have been questioning such a discourse, denouncing the historical injustices and the increasing prejudice they have been victims of. The relationship among these actors and the politics and the national public space is ambivalent. On one hand, they depend on the domestic politics as a context for the articulation of their differences and for the fight for the concretizing of their demands. On the other hand, the construction of their protest identity implies denouncing the nation that has conceded them a subordinated place and in searching transnational alliances which support their initiatives. The paper discusses, in a general way, such movements, going deeper in the studies of the new mobilizations of Afrob-Brazilians. It be showed how some political achievments (implementation of compensatory policies, cultural recognition can only be properly understood when you take into account the relation of interdependence between the insertion of such actors in the national public space and their links to transnational political networks.

  14. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Sun; Moon, Seongmi; Kim, Eun Jung

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine public level of knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and potential drug resistance. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 1,177 residents aged 18 or over was conducted in Korea. A quota sampling method was used. Most respondents (70%) did not know that antibiotics are ineffective in treating coughs and colds. Two-thirds of the respondents were unaware of the conditions under which antibiotic resistance occurs, despite understanding the concept of resistance. Lower education level and older age were independently associated with inadequate knowledge. Lower education level, older age, inadequate knowledge and no exposure to the education campaign were independently associated with poor attitude. The results of this study demonstrate that the general public has misunderstandings and a lack of knowledge with regard to antibiotic use, despite a national educational campaign. However, the campaign may have had an effect on the public's attitudes towards antibiotics.

  15. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  16. The Dynamics of Public Opinion Regarding SETI: A Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, E.; Strelnitski, V.

    1999-12-01

    History abounds with examples of extreme fluctuations in attitude towards the idea of extraterrestrial life. Presently, the understanding of the public's opinion is more important than ever because the Search is dependent on such support, both morally and financially. It has been recognized that the dynamics of public opinion can be described by stochastic equations. We present the results of a mathematical simulation of the dynamics of public opinion regarding SETI based on the stochastic model of Weidlich and Haag . Critical discussion of the basic parameters of the model will precede the discussion of the results. The crucial role of the ``parameter of adaptation'' ,a, describing the readiness of the average individual to adhere to the current opinion of the majority is pointed out. The danger of high values of this parameter (a ``dogmatic'' society), is demonstrated for both a smooth and a shocked (e.g. by discovery of an ET signal) evolution of reality. In both regimes, the reaction of a high a society is less conformant with reality and less predictable. It is argued that a reasonable policy can decrease the a parameter of society and maintain optimal evolution of public opinion. This project was supported by the NSF/REU grant AST-9820555.

  17. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap.

  18. Ethnic Clusters in Public Housing and Independent Living of Elderly Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The study examines the effects of ethnic clusters and independent living arrangements on adaptation of elderly immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. The multigenerational living arrangements were compared with independent living in a dispersed ethnic community and in an ethnic cluster of public housing. The residents of the ethnic clusters of public housing reported poorer health, were more reliant on government resources, and experienced greater acculturative hassles. However, public housing residents reported significantly larger Russian-speaking and American social networks, greater American acculturation, higher social support from neighbors, as well as lower cultural alienation. In contrast, the multigenerational living arrangements were related to greater social support from extended family and higher extended family satisfaction. While, the independent living in the dispersed ethnic community was associated with smaller American social networks and higher levels of cultural alienation. The results highlight how the ecologies of different living arrangements are reflected in the nature of acculturative, social, and psychological experiences of elderly immigrants.

  19. Explanations for inter-ethnic differences regarding immigrants' preferences for living in ‘ethnic enclaves’ or in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    and the strength of their feelings of belonging to their country of origin as described by the concept of diaspora. The study concludes that differences in social integration is the most important factor explaining differences between groups concerning preferences for living in neighbourhoods with an ethnic social...

  20. On the Improvement of Public Participation in Legislation Mechanism in the Ethnic Minority Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun

    2016-01-01

    The legislative public participation in ethnic minority autonomous areas has its legal basis. The fifth regulation in the lifa fa ( The Leg-islative Law ) of China makes a general require-ment on public participation in legislation. In order to ensure the effective participation of the public in legislation, some ethnic minority autonomous re-gions have outlined some requirements on public comment, demonstration, and hearing during the legislative process through autonomous regulations. These ethnic minority autonomous areas are com-prised of both autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties. However, the breadth and depth of the public participation in legislation in ethnic minority auton-omous areas is inadequate, and a perfect mecha-nism of public participation in legislation in ethnic minority autonomous areas has yet to be formed. This is mainly reflected in the following aspects:1 ) The relevant laws of public participation in leg-islation have not been perfected;2 ) The enthusi-asm of public participation in legislation is not high;3) Legislative information is not fully open, and the feedback mechanism has not been perfec-ted;4 ) The limited approach for public participa-tion in legislation, and the lack of ethnic and re-gional characteristics. To improve the mechanism of public partici-pation in the legislation of ethnic minority autono-mous areas, we can start with the following:1 ) Improving the legal regulation of public participation in the legislation of ethnic minority autonomous areas The state and the ethnic minority autonomous areas should develop operational laws of public participation, so as to provide a legal basis for the public’s participation. The ethnic minority autono-mous areas should fully integrate the actual situa-tion of the local ethnic people and create autono-mous regulations with local characteristics, protect public participation rights, and promote public participation in legislation in an orderly and

  1. Public Consultation Processes in Greenland Regarding the Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackrén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the Greenland Self-Government Act came into force in 2009, economic development and the right to utilize natural resources in Greenland lies in the hands of the Self-Government. Earlier efforts to establish this authority were made back in the 1970s, when discussions on Home Rule were first on the agenda. Mining industries are not a new activity in Greenland. During the Second World War, Greenlandic cryolite was used to produce aluminum for the North American aircraft industry. Other essential natural resources, such as gold and gemstones, have also received international interest over the years. Greenland's new development aim is to build up a large-scale mining industry. This article elucidates the form of public consultation processes followed in Greenland in connection with two large-scale mining projects and the different views various actors have regarding these events. How did the deliberative democratic process unfold in Greenland regarding these projects? Was the process followed an effective way to manage these kinds of projects? The article shows that two projects that received a lot of media attention: the 2005 iron ore mine project in Isukasia, and the 2001 TANBREEZ-project to extract rare earth elements, used highly different approaches when it comes to deliberative democracy. In the former case, a limited degree of deliberative democracy was used, while in the latter case, the opposite applies.

  2. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings.

  3. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajmi D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. Results: More than half of respondents (58.7% have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%, followed by sore throat (20.2%, cold (13% and common cold (7.6%. 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7% received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%. Conclusion: These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings.

  4. Public Library Provision for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities--Where Are We in 2009?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses developments in public library provision for Black and minority ethnic [BME] communities in the UK since the publication in 1969 of the results of research into the needs of "Indian and Pakistani communities". It includes a brief discussion of some major societal issues, and then sets public library services in this context.…

  5. A Preliminary Analysis of Associations among Ethnic-Racial Socialization, Ethnic Discrimination, and Ethnic Identity among Urban Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic-racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this…

  6. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational...... study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. Conclusions:The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite...

  7. Attitudes and risk perception of parents of different ethnic backgrounds regarding meningococcal C vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, D.R.M.; Henneman, L.; Hirasing, R.A.; Wal, G. van der

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the attitudes of parents toward vaccination as well as their risk perception of disease and vaccination. We interviewed 1763 parents of different ethnic groups (among others, Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese parents). Results show that there were lar

  8. Central and Local Public Administration in the Dynamics of Inter-Ethnic Relations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valér VERES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to reveal the the role of central governments, represented by the deconcentrated (territorial governmental institutions, and the local governments’ public policies in ethnically mixed areas of Romania, in influencing the development of inter-ethnic relations in general, and the occasional ethnic bias that can be observed at the local level, in particular. The main research questions are: in what conditions do local governments improve or worsen inter-ethnic relations in Romania? In what conditions can the central government mitigate the local ethnic tensions and conflicts? In Romania, the ethnic minority issues local governments are confronted with spring from two main sources of tension: the tension between the Romanians and the Hungarians, and the tension between the local (relative majority and the Roma communities. The two types of relations are quite different in nature, though some similarities do exist, and are not insignificant. In this paper we will focus on the relationship between the Romanians and the Hungarians. In this respect we will distinguish between two levels of the ethnic minority issue: the national level and the local level. At the local level, the minority community is represented by the ethnic community that is statistically in minority in that settlement. In this sense the ethnic Romanians can form a minority community in some municipalities of Romania, but we keep in mind that their situation is not the same as that of the national minorities, in the more common definition.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in Malaysia's multi-ethnic society: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's organ and tissue donation rates are among the lowest in the world. The study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in the diverse ethnic communities in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview exploring multi-ethnic participants' knowledge, attitudes, practices and behavioral on deceased organ donation and transplantation was conducted from February to April 2009. Although only 5.5% of the total participants (N = 1174) reported that they have registered to be organ donor, a further 35.2% of those who have not register for organ donation indicated willingness to donate their own. Significant socio-demographic disparities with respect to knowledge and attitudes scores were observed. In particular, Malays (20.7%) indicated lower willingness to donate organs compared to the Chinese (36.6%) and Indians (51.4%) (p donate one's own organ was associated with knowledge score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.22), attitude score (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31), secondary school education (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.02), and Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.03-0.94). Findings assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach out the diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities with cultural-specific information about organ donation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Attitudes and risk perception of parents of different ethnic backgrounds regarding meningococcal C vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Danielle R M; Henneman, Lidewij; Hirasing, Remy A; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2005-05-09

    The aim of the present study is to assess the attitudes of parents toward vaccination as well as their risk perception of disease and vaccination. We interviewed 1763 parents of different ethnic groups (among others, Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese parents). Results show that there were large differences in knowledge about disease and risk perception of disease and vaccination among parents of different ethnic backgrounds. Generally, people largely overestimated the risk of contracting the disease and the risk of dying after contracting the disease. Dutch parents were best informed, least worried, had the most critical attitude toward the campaign, and the lowest vaccination level compared to other parents. The differences in knowledge about vaccination and the more critical attitude of Dutch parents emphasize the need to take more into account parents' perspectives when designing information leaflets or other information media.

  11. 76 FR 28397 - Acceleration of Broadband Deployment by Improving Policies Regarding Public Rights of Way and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Chapter I Acceleration of Broadband Deployment by Improving Policies Regarding Public... broadband deployment through improved policies regarding public rights of way and wireless facilities siting... broadband deployment by encouraging improvements in policies regarding public rights of way and...

  12. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The paper raises general questions about  ethical problems that taint public-private  partnership. Everybody talks about the  economical benefits of encouraging firms  to invest in the community using different  incentives offered by the public institutions.  In the same time, every day, newspapers  bring to our attention cases of misuse of  public resources for private gain or cases  of private investors who give bribes in order  to get a contract with a public institution.  The purpose of t...

  13. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a

  14. Corruption and Ethical Issues Regarding Public-Private Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about  ethical problems that taint public-private  partnership. Everybody talks about the  economical benefits of encouraging firms  to invest in the community using different  incentives offered by the public institutions.  In the same time, every day, newspapers  bring to our attention cases of misuse of  public resources for private gain or cases  of private investors who give bribes in order  to get a contract with a public institution.  The purpose of this paper is to synthesize  our understanding of the entrepreneurial  movement and analyze its implications for  potential problems of corruption that can  arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.

  15. Killing day-old chicks? Public opinion regarding potential alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.; Munnichs, G.M.; Beekman, V.; Vromans, E.; Aramyan, L.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the world, male chicks from layer breeds are killed just after hatching, as they are not profitable as regards the production of meat. The Dutch and European parliaments have insisted on research into possible alternatives to the killing of day-old chicks. In the present study we have inv

  16. Behind the ethnic-civic distinction : Public attitudes towards immigrants' political rights in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuijten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2015-01-01

    Public opinion research has sought to distinguish between ethnic and civic conceptions of citizenship and examined the differential associations of these conceptions with policy preferences in the realm of immigration. What has not been examined empirically is why exactly these conceptions are relat

  17. The evaluation of the internal audit risk regarding public procurements

    OpenAIRE

    Iulian Bogdan DOBRA

    2009-01-01

    The paper wants to highlight the risk evaluation only for The public procurements carried out through demands of supply. Internal auditors must report the results of their work to the general management and any significant weakness discovered during the audit mission. But, on the other hand, we must not forget that auditors also face a risk, such as the detection risk, called the audit risk. Therefore, the internal auditor must consider the audit risk at the level of each operation as being a...

  18. 75 FR 1492 - Commission Guidance Regarding Independent Public Accountant Engagements Performed Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 276 Commission Guidance Regarding Independent Public Accountant Engagements Performed... publishing interpretive guidance for independent public accountants in connection with the adoption of...: General questions about this release should be referred to Bryan J. Morris, Assistant Chief...

  19. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study and the America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series of public listening sessions...

  20. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chung-Lin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue. Methods Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics. Results Current smokers (OR = 0.34 and former smokers (OR = 0.68 were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy. Conclusions Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette

  1. Reflections Regarding the Concept of Local Interest within Public Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Georgeta ALEXANDRU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we aim at performing an analysis of the concept of local interest, having as prerequisites the doctrinal debates regarding the general interest. The examination of this concept occurs in relation with the new trends, as concerns the exercise of competences at local level, respectively with the elements that define the interest of the community and its means of application within the life of the local community. Our research aims to establish theoretically the notion of local interest, an approach that we carry out within a difficult environment, whereas the notion of interest is fluctuating, being constantly modified under the pressure of the evolutions of social and economic needs. The results and the essential contribution of the material consist in the establishment of a framework that would offer to local authorities the practical possibilities for identifying the landmarks that surround this concept and that has to be harmonised with the values of modernity in order to respond better to the needs that are expressed.

  2. Leadership and Ethnicity in Public Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Lai Yew Hock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Governance gained prominence in Malaysia during the Asian financial crisis of 1997, which operated as a wake up call that the existing corporate governance structures in public listed companies were insufficient. In response, Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange issued the Listing Requirements on 22 January 2001 to regain investors’ confidence and attract foreign direct investments. The Listing Requirements included a Code of Best Practices in Corporate Governance that favours the leadership structure of separate Chairman/Chief Executive Officer posts. Malaysia is a multi-racial country comprising predominantly of the indigenous Malays, the Chinese and the Indians. The Chinese in Malaysia continue to play a significant role in the economy. These Chinese practise a distinctive Chinese business culture in the running of their businesses. The literature reveals that the adoption of the prescribed leadership structure of separating the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer positions is not likely to improve the financial performance of Chinese controlled companies. An empirical research is conducted, using 218 Chinese controlled public listed companies in Malaysia. The data covered three years from 2001 to 2003. Financial performances of the companies were measured using return on equity, earnings per share, dividend per share, liquid asset per share and gross margin. t-test and Mann Whitney test were used. The results show that there has been widespread adoption of the leadership structure recommended under the Code by the sample companies. The results also show that adoption of the prescribed leadership structure under the Code has no significant impact on the financial performance of the sample companies.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1445-8 - Special rules regarding publicly traded partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real estate investment trusts (REITs). 1.1445-8 Section 1.1445-8... estates upon the disposition of U.S. real property interests. Except as otherwise provided in this... Bonds § 1.1445-8 Special rules regarding publicly traded partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real...

  4. Public Knowledge and Behaviours Regarding Antibiotics Use: A Survey among the General Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Y Abujheisha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is associated with increased number of illness, mortality, and health care costs. The incorrect use, excessive prescription and prolonged administration of antibiotics are some factors which allow the growth of resistant bacteria leading to the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Several studies about antibiotic use have shown that behaviour towards antibiotics differs among countries, depending on culture, habits, education, and health care organization. The aim of this pilot study was to inspect the attitudes and knowledge regarding antibiotics among the public in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a validated questionnaire was carried out from January to February 2017 within the public, including hospital attendees and patients come for a consultation at the Prince Sattam university hospital. A total of 670 participants were included in this study. They have been chosen using a suitable sampling method. Persons incorporated in this survey who were above 18 years old and familiar with the term “antibiotics”. Results: The majority of respondents get informed about the use of antibiotics from Pharmacists (79.94%, and Physicians (76.14% and 50.3% (n=331 of the respondents reported using antibiotics six months before the survey. Regarding the source of antibiotics, (42.55% of the respondents usually gets the antibiotics after a consultation with the doctor, while 53.8% declared that their antibiotics were acquired from a retail pharmacy and a few of them (3.65% get the antibiotics from family and friends. The justification of participants for having antibiotics was mostly due to fever (41.34% or respiratory infections (22.19%. About 33.5% stated that they did not complete the treatment course and the reason was they felt better. Almost 57% indicated that they had ever kept an antibiotic at home for emergency need while 28.57% use leftover antibiotics in case they

  5. State Public Policies and the Racial/Ethnic Stratification of College Access and Choice in the State of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.; Steele, Patricia; Woda, Susan; Hibbert, Taifa

    2005-01-01

    This study uses descriptive analyses of data from multiple sources to examine changes during the 1990s in the racial/ethnic stratification of college access and choice in Maryland and to explore state public policies that may have influenced changes in the demand for and supply of higher education for students of different racial/ethnic groups…

  6. Influence of Ethnic-Related Diversity Experiences on Intercultural Sensitivity of Students at a Public University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of ethnic-related diversity experiences on intercultural sensitivity among Malaysian students at a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual Malaysian public university. Results reveal a significant differential level of ethnic-related diversity experiences (but not at the level of intercultural…

  7. The Formation of the “Sichuan Model” with Regard to Legislation in Ethnic Autonomous Regions and Its Basic Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Enmei

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic regional autonomy with Chi ̄nese characteristics is a proper way to handle eth ̄nic issues, and is a fundamental national political system established in the Constitution. The legisla ̄tion in ethnic autonomous regions is important,and creates the basic laws for realizing autonomous rights. The legislation in ethnic autonomous re ̄gions is a generic term which refers to the activities that the people’s congresses of the ethnic autono ̄mous regions undertake,to formulate,amend and a ̄bolish autonomous regulations and specific regula ̄tions in accordance with relevant provisions found in the Constitution, the Law of Ethnic Regional Au ̄tonomy and the Law of Legislation, and which are based on local ethnic political, economic and cul ̄tural characteristics.

  8. [Study on promotion of improvement regarding the nutritional status in Nakhi children and adolescents of Nakhi ethnicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chengye

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the improvement of nutrition status in children and adolescents of Nakhi ethnicity, in the last 25 years so as to put forward further suggestions for improvement. 2 635 Nakhi students aged 7-18 years were selected from the 2010 national survey, with a group of Han students from the rural areas were randomly selected as controls. WHO-2006 reference was used to screen the prevalence of malnutrition, and compared with the control group. The prevalence rates in the Nakhi male and female students were 4.9% and 4.7% for stunting, 5.6% and 4.6% for wasting, and 10.5% and 9.3% for total malnutrition, respectively. Changes on secular growth in both Nakhi and Han students in the rural areas were compared and the results showed that the superiority of Nakhi children was the cause for these disparities. Nutrition status of the Nakhi children was predicted and an optional future was displayed. Positive factors for causing these superiorities were summarized. Suggestions were also put forward regarding the formulation of balanced diet, improving the skills on preventive-cure, strengthening the local maternal-child healthcare services and the development of education on better bearing and rearing, etc.

  9. Doing race and ethnicity – exploring the lived experience of whiteness at a Danish Public School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 201...... as racial enables everyday racism while blocking the positions available to speak out against ethnic and racial discriminatory experiences.......This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012...... shaping experiences of being ‘out of place’. These experiences are stressful to students in the study and foster a self-awareness that restrains the body from engaging habitually in the world and that obstructs emotional well-being. The article argues that a reluctance to acknowledge social practices...

  10. The informed society: an analysis of the public's information-seeking behavior regarding coastal flood risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kellens, W.; Zaalberg, R.; P. De Maeyer

    2012-01-01

    Recent flood risk management puts an increasing emphasis on the public's risk perception and its preferences. It is now widely recognized that a better knowledge of the public's awareness and concern about risks is of vital importance to outline effective risk communication strategies. Models such as Risk Information Seeking and Processing address this evolution by considering the public's needs and its information-seeking behavior with regard to risk information. This study builds upon earli...

  11. Stigma, public awareness about intellectual disability and attitudes to inclusion among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, K; Addai-Davis, J; Kenyon, M; Sheridan, J C

    2013-11-01

    Attitudes to the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have been studied extensively, yet evidence on public awareness about ID and stigma is limited. The relationship between attitudes, knowledge and stigma associated with ID is poorly understood. The present study examined these factors and the relationships between them in the context of a multicultural society. UK residents of working age (n = 1002) were presented with a diagnostically unlabelled vignette of someone with a mild ID. They were asked to label the difficulties presented and to complete measures of social distance and attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs. While attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs were relatively positive overall, social contact was viewed with ambivalence. Inclusion attitudes and social distance were only moderately correlated. Across the whole sample 28% recognised typical symptoms of mild ID. Recognition of ID was associated with lower stigma and more positive attitudes than attribution of the difficulties presented to other causes. White Westerners showed increased knowledge, lower stigma and favoured inclusion more than participants from ethnic minorities. Among the latter group, Asians showed lower stigma and attitudes more in line with inclusion policies than participants of Black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Once a host of contextual factors were considered jointly, only contact was consistently associated with the variables measured. Stigma associated with ID is of concern across all ethnic groups, although it appears to be increased among the public from ethnic minorities. Given that contact and awareness are associated with reduced stigma, they should be considered as prime foci for efforts to tackle ID stigma. The current findings serve as baseline for attempts to increase public awareness and tackle stigma. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  12. Perceptions of dental students regarding dentistry, the job market and the public healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Durães, Sarah Jane Alves; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti

    2012-05-01

    The scope was to analyze the perceptions of dentistry students at the State University of Montes Claros, Brazil, regarding dentistry, the job market and the public healthcare system. For this, a triangulation method was employed, using a self-administered questionnaire and interviews. The quantitative data were submitted to univariate and multivariate analysis, using Poisson regression, where pdentistry course prepares students for this market as the curriculum integrates both teaching and service, reported being in favor of greater experience in the public healthcare system and said they would not take classes in Public Health if they were optional. Contact with the social context through teaching/service integration in the advanced semesters of the dentistry course appears to contribute to the development of new professional skills for working in the public sector. However, the students' perceptions revealed contradictions, considering the low value they attributed to the classes on Public Health and their perception of the public system as a residual job option.

  13. Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; van Stralen, Maartje M; Singh, Amika S; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; te Velde, Saskia J

    2014-06-17

    To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10-12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based survey among 10-12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested -and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs.

  14. Econometric Models, Methodology and Trends regarding public debt and external debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistically-mathematically describing few econometric models as variables, this article approaches the impact and trends regarding public debt and external debt. Conceptually and practically analyzing the evolution of indicators, there are identified specific trends in the economy of Romania, some characteristic models are being parametrised and tested.

  15. 75 FR 5808 - Publication of Model Notice for Employers to Use Regarding Eligibility for Premium Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Insurance Program (CHIP). The Department of Labor (Department) is required to provide the model notice to... Benefits Security Administration Publication of Model Notice for Employers to Use Regarding Eligibility for Premium Assistance Under Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program, Notice AGENCY:...

  16. Public Awareness, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…

  17. A survey of Canadian public health personnel regarding knowledge, practice and education of zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, K G; Anderson, M E C; Sargeant, J M; Weese, J S

    2013-11-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can spread under natural conditions between humans and other animals, are become a major public health concern in many countries including Canada. In Canada, investigations of zoonotic disease incidents are often conducted by public health inspectors (PHIs). However, little is known about PHIs' knowledge of transmission of zoonotic pathogens, their perceptions of zoonotic disease importance or their education regarding zoonotic diseases. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the knowledge, perceptions and education of Canadian PHIs regarding zoonotic diseases. Data were collected from December 2008-January 2009 using an internet-based survey distributed to members of the Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors national listserv. Responses were received from 229 PHIs in four provinces, with a response rate of approximately 20%. The majority of respondents reported at least 10 years of experience in the public health sector, 80% (181/225) were in frontline positions, and 62% (137/222) were routinely involved in investigations of infectious diseases. Two-thirds believed that the importance of zoonotic diseases with regards to public health would increase in the next 5 years. Whilst most respondents were able to correctly identify animals capable of directly transmitting common zoonotic pathogens, there were gaps in knowledge, particularly with regard to rabies and transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens by companion animals. PHIs tended to feel that their training on zoonotic diseases prior to working as PHIs was deficient in some areas, or left some room for improvement. Their responses also suggested that there is a need for improvement in both the quantity and the quality of continuing education on zoonotic diseases. In particular, less than one-third of PHIs received ongoing continuing education regarding zoonotic diseases, and of those that did, nearly two-thirds rated the quantity and quality as only fair.

  18. Final-year medical students′ perceptions regarding the curriculum in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrakrishnan Rayno Navinan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, has an integrated curriculum in which teaching of public health takes place through a series of modules which span the full five-year study programme. Aim: To assess final year medical student perceptions regarding the public health curriculum and to identify factors which influence this. Materials and Methods: The study was cross sectional. Convenience sampling was utilized on final-year students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. A self-administered 4-point Likert scale questionnaire covered general opinion on public healthcare and perceptions about the curriculum. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Results: One hundred and eighty four students (94% participated in the study. Eighty-two percent (148 viewed public health as an important field. Only 9% (16 were interested in a career in public health. A significant association was found between choosing public health as career and the following: perception of public health as an important field; holding a good opinion about public health prior to commencement of the course; having found the field-based experience enjoyable and beneficial to the community; and feeling competent to work in the community at the end of the course (P < 0.01. With regard to teaching methods, group activities and discussion-centered activities were identified positively (153, 83% and 125, 68% respectively. The majority of students indicated that they were not stimulated to read more on the subject or regularly revise what they have learnt, both during the introductory public health programme and during the final year. Conclusions: The curriculum has been able to create a positive opinion about public health. However, students lack enthusiasm to learn independently. Experiential, group-centered teaching activities and a constructivist approach may be more effective in promoting independent learning

  19. Reoccupying Public Space by Hatred and Ethnic Cleansing. Case study: Banja Luka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Šušnica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the symbolism and the meaning of ethno-religious graffiti, slogans and stickers especially as they are used on the streets of Banja Luka. The city used to be a strategic centre for armed forces but is today the political centre of Republika Srpska (RS, supposedly a legitimate military conquest of the people of Serbia. Responses in ethno-religious graffiti can be turbulent. In our case, narrative and visual codes transmit dominant messages and myths of the Serbian ethnical corpus which can easily become hate speech, especially in the post-war context, in which ethno-religious differences are being brought to the fore, war crimes and armed victories are being exalted and expressions of non-tolerance are common. This aggressive visibility of »ours« pushes all the rest and anyone who is different into invisibility and self-censoring. The article researches characteristics and the quality of connection between the production and the results of ethno-fascistic speech in graffiti and in the messages of the RS ethno-political elites in public forums, regulations and media spaces. A contextual interpretation of a graffiti discourse, which was formed in the midst of civil war, ethnic cleansing, attacks on and the separation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and activities of political elites in RS, is offered. The intimate connection between street discourse and that of political elites shows that a populist legitimization of the activities of the RS is still a political goal that also triggers the process of forgetting the region’s multi-ethnic past. In Banja Luka, this process offers a »national and spiritual« legitimacy for the existence of RS and seeks to make the city a part of the Serbian ethnic community. It offers an unconvincing cultural-political and war-emancipatory »continuity« and »normality« for the RS and covers up its real intention of bloodshed from which it had emerged. In this it is consistent with Eco’s notion

  20. Public health framing of news regarding childhood obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine W; Linvill, Darren L

    2010-12-01

    Five U.S. newspapers were searched for stories regarding childhood obesity. Of the 201 stories appearing in 1996, 2001, or 2006, 97 incorporated a public health frame (i.e., connects problem to the larger social and environmental context; exposes risk factors; includes information regarding preventatives and correctives). Significant risk factors were identified as unhealthy eating practices, lack of physical activity, and ads for junk food directed at children. Prevalent categories of preventatives and correctives focused on changes in diet, particularly in the home or in areas controlled by parents. Offered less frequently were suggestions regarding increases in physical activity. Consistent with previous research, the majority of both preventatives and correctives focused on individual-level as opposed to societal-level factors. Implications of these findings for the framing of news regarding childhood obesity are discussed.

  1. [Public health stewardship and governance regarding the Colombian healthcare system, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Deubel, André N; Molina-Marín, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Analysing decision-making concerning public health issues regarding the Colombian healthcare system from a market economy-based approach. This study involved applying Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory in six Colombian cities during 2012: Bogotá, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Leticia, Medellin and Pasto. 120 individual interviews were conducted with professionals involved in decision-making, running public healthcare programmes and making policy within public and private institutions. Fourteen focus groups were held with community organisation leaders. The findings suggested national and municipal health authorities' weak stewardship and ineffective governance regarding public healthcare policy and programmes, related to a lack of staff trained in public health management issues. In turn, this was related to political parties' interference and private insurers' particular interests and the structural fragmentation of functions and actors within the health system, thereby limiting public health development. A new axiology is necessary for achieving effective governance (I.e. cooperation between Colombian Healthcare Social Security System actors) to overcome current incompetence and financial self-interest predominating within the Colombian healthcare system.

  2. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Kannapatch Srithong,1 Pratumpan Manokulanan,1 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,2 Myo Nyein Aung1,31Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 3Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo, JapanBackground and purpose: The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community.Methods: Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand.Results: A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. Whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males.Conclusion: The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.Keywords: health education, gender differences, ethnic minority, diabetes, Karen

  3. INDIGENOUS STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN URBAN RONDÔNIA: THE OMISSION OF PUBLIC POLICY FAILURE OF ETHNIC ORIGINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanubia Sampaio Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the outline of a study that is underway, seeking evidence and question the reality of Indian students in schools not as the situations of indigenous affirmation and omission identity (ethnic belonging in urban public schools in Rondônia. The obtained data show everyday situations that characterize violence and prejudice against students indígenas.Essas and other situations that reveals the interethnic tension remains dormant and can manifest in many different situations. At school, occurs in intercultural interaction. To discuss these and other issues raised in the survey, support for authors who discuss indigenous education, management, public policy, anti-colonialist project, empowerment, autonomy and leadership indigenous perspective of the indigenous movement with Grupioni (2001, Lopes da Silva (2000; D'Angelis (2012; Bergamaschi (2012, Both (2009; Mendonça (2009; Castoriadis (1988; Secchi (2008; Tadeu da Silva (1999 and Paulo Freire (1982 with their outstanding contribution to the dialogue on indigenous education. Keywords: Indian student. Urban school. Prejudice. Omission identity.

  4. SPECTS REGARDING PUBLIC DEBT SHARE IN GDP AT THE LEVEL OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-PETRINA PĂUN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and it will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the dregree of indebtedness and its implications on the social wellness are very present at national level as also at the European Union level. In this paper it is presented the share of public debt in the Gross Domestic Product in the member countries of European Union, and, respectively, the degree of indeptedness of each member country of the European Union, at the level year of 2013.

  5. Ethnic Tourism and the Big Song: Public Pedagogies and the Ambiguity of Environmental Discourse in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinting

    2017-01-01

    The article examines two forms of public pedagogies in a rural region of Southwest China-tourism and ethnic songs-to illustrate their contested roles in transforming local relations with natural and built environment. While tourism development daily alters the village landscape by spatial intervention, demolition, and construction, the…

  6. Using Twitter to Understand Public Perceptions Regarding the #HPV Vaccine: Opportunities for Public Health Nurses to Engage in Social Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mitchell, Emma M; Sun, Emily; Kennedy, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Given the degree of public mistrust and provider hesitation regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, it is important to explore how information regarding the vaccine is shared online via social media outlets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content of messaging regarding the HPV vaccine on the social media and microblogging site Twitter, and describe the sentiment of those messages. This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive approach. Over a 2-week period, Twitter content was searched hourly using key terms "#HPV and #Gardasil," which yielded 1,794 Twitter posts for analysis. Each post was then analyzed individually using an a priori coding strategy and directed content analysis. The majority of Twitter posts were written by lay consumers and were sharing commentary about a media source. However, when actual URLs were shared, the most common form of share was linking back to a blog post written by lay users. The vast majority of content was presented as polarizing (either as a positive or negative tweet), with 51% of the Tweets representing a positive viewpoint. Using Twitter to understand public sentiment offers a novel perspective to explore the context of health communication surrounding certain controversial issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Key Data Gaps Regarding the Public Health Issues Associated with Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Teresa D; Haddox, J David; Nielsen, Alexandra E; Wakeland, Wayne; Fitzgerald, John

    2015-10-01

    Most pharmaceutical opioids are used to treat pain, and they have been demonstrated to be effective medications for many. Their abuse and misuse pose significant public health concerns in the USA. Research has provided much insight into the prevalence, scope, and drivers of opioid abuse, but a holistic understanding is limited by a lack of available data regarding key aspects of this public health problem. Twelve data gaps were revealed during the creation of a systems-level computer model of medical use, diversion, nonmedical use, and the adverse outcomes associated with opioid analgesics in the USA. Data specific to these gaps would enhance the validity and real-world applications of systems-level models of this public health problem and would increase understanding of the complex system in which use and abuse occur. This paper provides an overview of these gaps, argues for the importance of closing them, and provides specific recommendations for future data collection efforts.

  8. Ethnic Heterogeneity and Public Support for Welfare: Is the American Experience Replicated in Britain, Sweden and Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2011-01-01

    The link between ethnic heterogeneity and public support for welfare policy is debated. The thesis of a negative relationship is supported by much American research.Historically the race issue has blocked a number of American welfare schemes; across the United States ethnically heterogeneous states......-group/out-group mechanisms found in the United States are being replicated in Europe....... politicised. Empirically the article is based on survey data from the United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark, in which a number of American items were directly replicated. Despite indications of American uniqueness and welfare-regime effects, the findings support the position that the in...

  9. Perceptions Regarding Importance and Skill at Policy Development Among Public Health Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Policy development is recognized as a core function of public health and a core competency in formal public health education. However, relatively little is known nationally about worker perceptions and competencies related to policy development in the governmental public health workforce. To characterize perceived importance and presence or absence of competency gaps related to policy development. As part of the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), a nationally representative stratified sample of permanently employed state health agency (SHA) central office staff was created. Descriptive and inferential analyses examined correlates of perceived importance and competency gaps related to policy development. Permanently employed central office employees of SHAs. Analyses focus on 2 self-reported measures of perceived importance and ability related to policy development skills, as well as awareness and perceptions regarding Health in All Policies (HiAP). Seventy-two percent of SHA central office staff (95% confidence interval, 71-73) indicated "influencing policy development" was somewhat or very important to their day-to-day work. Among that group, 35% (95% confidence interval, 34-36) reported that they were unable to perform this or they considered themselves to be a beginner at this skill. Approximately three-fourths of staff indicated "understanding the relationship between a new policy and many types of public health problems" was somewhat or very important, and 30% of those who did said they were unable to perform this skill or were a beginner at it. Nationally, one-half of staff have not heard of HiAP. Among those who have, 86% indicated it was somewhat or very important to public health, and 41% reported they would like to see more emphasis on HiAP. Workforce development, both formal education and on-the-job training, may benefit from placing a greater emphasis on the development of policy skills. HiAP is an important approach to policy

  10. [Knowledge and attitude of the general public regarding symptoms, etiology and possible treatments of depressive illnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, D; Stefanek, J; Hasford, J; Hegerl, U

    2002-07-01

    Within the German research network on depression, the Nuremberg Alliance against Depression aims at informing the public about depressive illness and preventing suicidality by carrying out a city-wide information campaign. Before the prevention program started, public attitudes and knowledge had been assessed in a public opinion survey in Nuremberg and in a control region. A total of 1426 randomly chosen inhabitants of Nuremberg and Würzburg completed a computer-assisted telephone interview during November and December 2000. They were asked about their knowledge and attitudes towards symptoms, causes, and treatment of depression. No relevant differences between Nuremberg and Würzburg were found. Depression is regarded as a serious illness. People seemed to be more knowledgeable as compared to the results of earlier surveys, but there are still important information deficits. This is especially true for males over 60, who show unfavorable attitudes. Eighty percent of the population consider antidepressants to be addictive, and 69% were convinced that the use of antidepressants would lead to personality changes. Future information campaigns should aim at describing depression as an often chronic disease similar to hypertonia or diabetes. Public knowledge about antidepressants must be improved.

  11. The informed society: an analysis of the public's information-seeking behavior regarding coastal flood risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, Wim; Zaalberg, Ruud; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Recent flood risk management puts an increasing emphasis on the public's risk perception and its preferences. It is now widely recognized that a better knowledge of the public's awareness and concern about risks is of vital importance to outline effective risk communication strategies. Models such as Risk Information Seeking and Processing address this evolution by considering the public's needs and its information-seeking behavior with regard to risk information. This study builds upon earlier information-seeking models and focuses on the empirical relationships between information-seeking behavior and the constructs of risk perception, perceived hazard knowledge, response efficacy, and information need in the context of coastal flood risks. Specific focus is given to the mediating role of information need in the model and to the differences in information-seeking behavior between permanent and temporary residents. By means of a structured on-line questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in the city of Ostend, one of the most vulnerable places to coastal flooding on the Belgian coast. Three hundred thirteen respondents participated in the survey. Path analysis reveals that information need does not act as a mediator in contrast to risk perception and perceived knowledge. In addition, it is shown that risk perception and perceived hazard knowledge are higher for permanent than temporary residents, leading to increased information-seeking behavior among the former group. Implications for risk communication are discussed. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Representation and Salary Gaps by Race-Ethnicity and Gender at Selective Public Universities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Diyi; Koedel, Cory

    2017-01-01

    .... However, Black faculty are an exception. We decompose racial-ethnic and gender wage gaps and show that academic field, experience, and research productivity account for most or all of the gaps...

  13. [Conceptions of nurses from a public university hospital regarding the cost management report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, William Tiago; Rodrigues, Ana Vanessa Deffaccio; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Vannuch, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Taldivo, Meire Aparecida

    2012-10-01

    This exploratory-descriptive study was performed with a qualitative approach, on the theoretical construct in the field of phenomenology, with the objective to identify the understanding of nurses of a public university hospital regarding the cost management report. Data collection was performed from August of 2009 to March of 2010, with 59 nurses, and consisted of three guiding questions: What is the meaning of cost management? How do you use the cost management report? What is the contribution of cost management reports? Results showed that nurses do not use this report in their practice, because they focus on the care issues, and justify this by the fact that they did not receive academic training in relation to cost management and also because they do not understand the report. The report, however, though little explored, contributes with the practice of nurses who hold a management position, in terms of cost management and control.

  14. Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Judy L; White, George; Roberts, Laura

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to identify the attitudes that principals held regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities, and the relationship between their attitudes and their placement recommendations for children with autism and to identify the relationship between specific demographic factors and attitudes toward inclusion and placement. A stratified random sample was drawn from the active list of 3,070 principals in the Pennsylvania public schools. From 1,500 surveys, 571 principal responses were received. The most significant factor in predicting both a positive attitude toward inclusion of children with disabilities and higher recommendations of placements for children with autism was the principal's belief that children with autism could be included in a regular education classroom.

  15. Public knowledge, attitudes, and experience regarding the use of antibiotics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Francesco; Izzo, Maria Teresa; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotics of the general population in Italy, and to assess the correlates of these outcomes of interest. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 630 parents of students attending nine randomly selected public primary and secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance, attitudes and behaviors towards antibiotic use, and sources of information. A total of 419 parents participated. Only 9.8% knew the definition of antibiotic resistance and 21.2% knew when it was appropriate to use antibiotics. Respondents with higher education, employed, with a family member working in the health care sector, and with no need for additional information on antibiotics were more likely to know the definition of antibiotic resistance. One third (32.7%) self-classified them as users of self-medication with antibiotics and those with a lower self-rated health status, who did not use the physician as source of information on antibiotics, and who have attended a physician in the last year were more likely to use self-medication. One-fourth (22.7%) of those who had never been self-medicated would be willing to take an antibiotic without a prescription of a physician. Respondents were more likely to be willing to take antibiotics without a prescription if they were under 40 years of age, if they had a lower self-rated health status, if they did not know that antibiotics are not indicated for treating flu and sore throat, and if they knew that antibiotics are not indicated for treating colds. The survey has generated information about knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotics in the general population and effective public education initiative should provide practical and appropriate means to change their behavior.

  16. Public knowledge, attitudes, and experience regarding the use of antibiotics in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Napolitano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objectives of the study were to investigate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotics of the general population in Italy, and to assess the correlates of these outcomes of interest. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 630 parents of students attending nine randomly selected public primary and secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance, attitudes and behaviors towards antibiotic use, and sources of information. RESULTS: A total of 419 parents participated. Only 9.8% knew the definition of antibiotic resistance and 21.2% knew when it was appropriate to use antibiotics. Respondents with higher education, employed, with a family member working in the health care sector, and with no need for additional information on antibiotics were more likely to know the definition of antibiotic resistance. One third (32.7% self-classified them as users of self-medication with antibiotics and those with a lower self-rated health status, who did not use the physician as source of information on antibiotics, and who have attended a physician in the last year were more likely to use self-medication. One-fourth (22.7% of those who had never been self-medicated would be willing to take an antibiotic without a prescription of a physician. Respondents were more likely to be willing to take antibiotics without a prescription if they were under 40 years of age, if they had a lower self-rated health status, if they did not know that antibiotics are not indicated for treating flu and sore throat, and if they knew that antibiotics are not indicated for treating colds. CONCLUSIONS: The survey has generated information about knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotics in the general population and effective public education initiative should provide practical and appropriate means

  17. Attitudes of Research Participants and the General Public Regarding Disclosure of Alzheimer Disease Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooblar, Jonathan; Roe, Catherine M.; Selsor, Natalie J.; Gabel, Matthew J.; Morris, John C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Results of Alzheimer disease (AD) research assessments typically are not disclosed to participants. Recent research has suggested interest in disclosure, but, to our knowledge, few studies have accounted for awareness of potential benefits and limitations of disclosure. OBJECTIVE To determine the attitudes of cognitively normal research participants and members of the general public regarding disclosure of AD research results. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Participants in a longitudinal aging study (Alzheimer Disease Research Center [ADRC]) were given preintervention and postintervention surveys about disclosure attitudes. In a general public sample (The American Panel Survey), participants responded to a similar survey about disclosure attitudes. INTERVENTIONS Participants in the ADRC sample were randomly assigned to a group (n = 119) that read an education intervention about the usefulness of AD biomarkers or to a placebo group (n = 100) that read as its intervention general information about the ADRC. Participants in the general public sample read a brief vignette describing participation in a longitudinal AD study. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Interest in disclosure of AD research results. RESULTS Cognitively normal ADRC participants (n = 219) were 60.7% (n = 133) female, 83.6% (n = 183) of white race, and reported a mean of 15.91 years of education. Twenty-nine individuals refused participation. The American Panel Survey participants (n = 1418) indicated they did not have AD and were 50.5% (n = 716) female, 76.7% (n = 1087) of white race, and reported a mean of 13.85 years of education. Overall, 77.6% of eligible participants (1583 of 2041) completed the survey in July 2014. Interest in disclosure was high among the ADRC participants (55.1% [119 of 216] were “extremely interested”). Viewing the education intervention predicted lower interest in disclosure (odds ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.15–3.53; P = .02). High subjective risk of AD, a family

  18. 78 FR 1299 - Waiver and Certification of Statutory Provisions of Section 1003 of Public Law 100-204 Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver and Certification of Statutory Provisions of Section 1003 of Public Law 100-204 Regarding the... 1987, Public Law 100-204, Title X. (U) This waiver shall be effective for a period of six months....

  19. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  20. Identified and unidentified challenges for reproductive biotechnologies regarding infectious diseases in animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the known and theoretical risks for in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos as well as for nuclear transferred or transgenic embryos in terms of animal diseases or diseases of public health consequence. For in vivo derived embryos, a considerable number of experiments and scientific investigations have resulted in recommended guidelines and procedures that ensure a high level of safety. The effectiveness of these measures has been validated by field experience with the safe transfer of several million embryos over the past three decades. In vitro produced embryos have several characteristics that differentiate them from the former, in particular a structure of the zona pellucida that results in a more frequent possible association of pathogens with the embryo. However, the guidelines prescribed by the IETS, the international standard setting body (OIE) and existing national regulatory frameworks are in place to minimize the risk of disease transmission. No specific public health risks have been identified to date with respect to in vivo or in vitro derived embryos. In regard to nuclear transferred and transgenic embryos, theoretical risks have been identified in relation to the potential effects on some intrinsic viruses such as endogenous retroviruses but very little targeted experimental work has been carried out on infectious diseases that could have adverse consequences on animal or human health. Although there has been no report of such adverse consequences associated with the limited number of animals produced to date by such reproductive technologies, a precautionary approach is warranted given the potential negative impacts and it would be prudent to restrict at this stage, the international movement of such "manipulated" embryos.

  1. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  2. Ethnicity and Ethnic Perception of Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The discourse of ethnicity, race dominance and Islamization has dominated Malaysian politics since 1957, after several centuries of colonial rule. Although the country has achieved admirable socio-economic progress, the ethnic Indians situation has somewhat remained backward compared to the Malay and Chinese communities. The objective of this article is to examine how ethnic Indians recognize their ethnic identity based on self perception of ethnic status and social upliftment and self assessment of the values of globalization that affect their thinking and opinions. Approach: The study employs a qualitative analysis of the data derived through open and close-ended questions posted on several social media forums (face book twitter and emails frequented by ethnic Indians. Results: The findings reveal that there was increased dissatisfaction among ethnic Indians regarding the status of their ethnicity and aspects of their social upliftment within the Malaysian polity. The analysis on how they perceive the values of globalization shows increased appreciation of values such as human rights, cultural rights, human security, freedom and right for social upliftment, but at the same time the analysis illustrates high level of discontentment on the actual achievements of these values. Conclusion: Therefore this study concludes that the recent socioeconomic and value changes have influenced how ethnic Indian perceives their ethnicity in the context of a multiethnic mix. Future studies into Indian ethnicity may explore aspects such as the changing ethnic worldviews, affects of human mobility and social ethnic conflicts.

  3. A Selective and Thematic Checklist of Publications Relating to Franco-Americans. Ethnic Heritage Studies Program of Rhode Island, Appendices F and G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Armand B.

    An annotated bibliography of publications relating to Franco-Americans is presented. The publication was designed for secondary school teachers of French or social studies who wish to know more about Franco Americans before initiating mini-courses on this ethnic group. Journal articles, books, and papers presented at professional meetings are…

  4. 75 FR 23760 - Notice of Public Hearing Regarding Environmental Protection Agency Region III's Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... public comment on-site the day of the public hearing. Audio-visual equipment will not be provided. If you...-0985). For those who have special needs and require auxiliary aids and/or services to fully...

  5. Medical Student Decision Making Regarding Pursuit of a Public Health Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Sarah L; Meyers, Peter; Sautter, Robin; Honsvall, Amanda; Prunuske, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    Few US medical school graduates receive a public health degree. We sought to identify factors involved in medical students' decisions to pursue dual medical and public health degrees and describe the decision-making process. We conducted focus group discussions and telephone interviews with medical students considering, or enrolled in, a public health degree program. Participants described early exposures to public health, perspectives on physician public health roles, advantages and disadvantages of a public health degree, and the relative importance of factors influencing their decision to pursue a public health degree. Data were coded using open codes, and thematic analysis was performed. Medical students' decisions about pursuing a public health degree are based on consideration of advantages and disadvantages of academic, personal, and financial factors. Students place weights on various factors and value guidance. Access to training and information about public health programs and career opportunities may facilitate decision-making. Knowledge of factors involved in students' decisions and the decision-making process will allow mentors, advisors, faculty, and staff working to recruit students into MPH programs to support students interested in earning dual medical and public health degrees. Future research should explore avenues for supporting medical student decision-making and further reducing barriers to public health training.

  6. 78 FR 53183 - Request for Public Comments Regarding the Interim Environmental Review of the Trans-Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... interim environmental review of the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). The interim... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Public Comments Regarding the Interim Environmental Review of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. [Evaluating public policy regarding the concept of healthy schools in Colombia: the formulation phase (1999-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Adriana C; Robledo-Martínez, Rocío; Arango-Soler, Juan M; Agudelo-Calderón, Carlos A

    2012-10-01

    Evaluating public policy formulation regarding the concept of healthy schools in Colombia, 1999 to 2006. This study involved qualitative research aimed at analysing the cycle of public policy. The main strategies used were collecting information, a documental review of secondary sources and holding semi-structured interviews (primary source). Thematic content was analysed. Two moments were identified regarding the formulation of policy or guidelines for the "Healthy schools in Colombia" strategy. The first was related to the publication of a document entitled, "A healthy school: the joy of living in peace," whose content was aimed at presenting national guidelines for implementing such policy whilst the second (following the enactment of the United Nations' Millennium Declaration) was an attempt at promoting housing and healthcare policy. The results were seen in terms of categories for integrating information regarding standards, observing pertinent actors, relationships, problems, objectives, lines of action and time-lines regarding policy and decision-making time-frames. The idea of a healthy school has not been a priority in the Colombian state's public policy, in spite of having been a state commitment in line with PAHO/WHO's stated policy, commitments promised by high officials during international meetings and representing a crucial strategy for achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDG).

  8. 75 FR 72816 - Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets... Commission (the ``CFTC''), to conduct a study on the oversight of existing and prospective carbon markets to... to study the oversight of existing and prospective carbon markets. The interagency group is composed...

  9. 75 FR 61758 - Public Input for the Study Regarding the Implementation of the Prohibitions on Proprietary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... information regarding this interim final rule contact the Office of Domestic Finance, Treasury, at (202) 622... Board) to high-risk assets or high-risk trading strategies; or (iii) Would pose a threat to the...

  10. Racial/Ethnic Minority Children’s Use of Psychiatric Emergency Care in California’s Public Mental Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Masland, Mary C.; Libby, Anne M.; Wallace, Neal; Fawley, Kya

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates and intensity of crisis services use by race/ethnicity for 351174 children younger than 18 years who received specialty mental health care from California’s 57 county public mental health systems between July 1998 and June 2001. Methods. We used fixed-effects regression for a controlled assessment of racial/ethnic disparities in children’s use of hospital-based services for the most serious mental health crises (crisis stabilization services) and community-based services for other crises (crisis intervention services). Results. African American children were more likely than were White children to use both kinds of crisis care and made more visits to hospital-based crisis stabilization services after initial use. Asian American/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native children were more likely than were White children to use hospital-based crisis stabilization services but, along with Latino children, made fewer hospital-based crisis stabilization visits after an initial visit. Conclusions. African American children used both kinds of crisis services more than did White children, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islander and American Indians/Alaska Native children visited only when they experienced the most disruptive and troubling kind of crises, and made nonrecurring visits. PMID:18048783

  11. [Activities and awareness of public health nurses working at local government facilities and health centers regarding potential nuclear accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamiya, Chiaki

    2011-05-01

    The purpose was to study public health service activities developed during non-emergency periods to respond to potential nuclear accidents and to contribute to an understanding of public health nurses' awareness of the possibility of such accidents. For the purpose of this study, we chose prefectural health centers located in a prefecture with a nuclear power plant and in two adjacent prefectures, along with all local administrative bodies (cities, towns, and villages) in these prefectures. For each one of 124 entities, we selected one public health nurse in charge of health crisis management from among the personnel to be targeted for a questionnaire survey conducted by mail. The survey period was from October to November 2009, and the questionnaire contained questions on the following: whether there had been any disasters over the past ten years; whether the respondent had received training in public health services regarding nuclear accidents; and public health service activities developed during non-emergency periods to respond to potential nuclear accidents (and the amount of work done in this regard). The response rate for our survey was 71.8%. Of the total of 124 entities chosen, 9 were aware of the possibility of radiation accidents and 12 had manuals on radiation accidents. Two local governments and five health centers had participated in accident drills, and at both of two local governments, public health nurses were expected to act as guides during resident evacuation in the event of a nuclear accident. Public health nurses were sent to participate in workshops on radiation at four facilities located in the prefecture with a nuclear power plant. Our analysis revealed a lack of knowledge (beta = -0.404, P manuals, provision of opportunities to gain knowledge of materials regarding past damage to the health of residents and how such damage can be coped with is likely to be effective in developing effective measures in response to disasters.

  12. 75 FR 69475 - Notice Regarding Changed Venue for Public Hearing On a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... nepacomments@nsf.gov . The presentation slides used by NSF at the public hearings are posted on the NSF Web... perceived inconsistency between the presentation and the Draft PEIS, the language in the Draft PEIS...

  13. Notice of public hearing regarding wilderness proposal : Rice Lake and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains two different announcements for the Rice Lake and Mille Lacs Wilderness area public hearing. The first is a notice for the Federal Register,...

  14. Freedom and Information. Assessing Publicly Available Data Regarding U.S. Transportation Infrastructure Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    we learn, One bit of counsel consultants say applies to just about any business : Don’t post sensitive information on the Internet. Says...about adjacent public and private spaces (e.g., small marinas near major seaports, residential 34 Freedom and Information areas, or business parks...cases, this information is necessarily in the public domain because it provides an important service. For instance, as noted above, ecommerce sites for

  15. 78 FR 4458 - Proposed Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Survey Regarding Pension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...; Survey Regarding Pension Benefit Statements AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department... pension benefit statements. Type of Review: New collection of information. OMB Number: 1210-NEW... pursuant to section 105(a) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 as amended by the Pension...

  16. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions for...

  17. Dealing With Legal Loopholes and Uncertainties Within EU Public Procurement Law Regarding Framework Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Provision on framework agreements has been introduced into European Union Law (EU) in 2004. Since then framework agreements have gained popularity and importance on the European Union (EU) public tender market. Nevertheless, the use of frameworks poses significant legal challenges necessitating...... the clarification of the governing rules and the introduction of further guidelines. Unfortunately, clarifications were not fully provided in the new Directive 2014/24/EU. This article is a study of legal loopholes and uncertainties that occur during public procurement of framework agreements as a result of current......, a small scale comparative law research and field research based on qualitative research by the means of semi-structured interviews....

  18. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  19. 76 FR 81906 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding a Competitive Process for Leasing Public Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... renewable energy resources. In Section 211 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), Congress declared that... guidelines for the administration and protection of the public lands and their resources, and directs that... order to foster the growth and development of the renewable energy sector of the economy and to...

  20. Public Opinion regarding Juvenile Life without Parole in Consecutive Statewide Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Allen, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Abolition of the death penalty results in life without parole (LWOP) as the most severe sanction for convicted juveniles. Although internationally the use of LWOP for juveniles is rare, 2,225 youth have been sentenced to LWOP within the United States. To address the dearth of public opinion on the issue, the authors proposed questions to the…

  1. Are Public School Teacher Salaries Paid Compensating Wage Differentials for Student Racial and Ethnic Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between public school teacher salaries and the racial concentration and segregation of students in the district. A particularly rich set of control variables is included to better measure the effect of racial characteristics. Additional analyses included Metropolitan Statistical Area fixed effects and…

  2. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  3. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Schroepfer

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165 watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1 a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2 commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3 control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.

  4. A systematic review of global publication trends regarding long-term outcomes of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  5. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroepfer, Kara K; Rosati, Alexandra G; Chartrand, Tanya; Hare, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165) watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1) a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2) commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3) control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.

  6. US public opinion regarding proposed limits on resident physician work hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurie Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both Europe and the US, resident physician work hour reduction has been a source of controversy within academic medicine. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended a reduction in resident physician work hours. We sought to assess the American public perspective on this issue. Methods We conducted a national survey of 1,200 representative members of the public via random digit telephone dialing in order to describe US public opinion on resident physician work hour regulation, particularly with reference to the IOM recommendations. Results Respondents estimated that resident physicians currently work 12.9-h shifts (95% CI 12.5 to 13.3 h and 58.3-h work weeks (95% CI 57.3 to 59.3 h. They believed the maximum shift duration should be 10.9 h (95% CI 10.6 to 11.3 h and the maximum work week should be 50 h (95% CI 49.4 to 50.8 h, with 1% approving of shifts lasting >24 h (95% CI 0.6% to 2%. A total of 81% (95% CI 79% to 84% believed reducing resident physician work hours would be very or somewhat effective in reducing medical errors, and 68% (95% CI 65% to 71% favored the IOM proposal that resident physicians not work more than 16 h over an alternative IOM proposal permitting 30-h shifts with ≥5 h protected sleep time. In all, 81% believed patients should be informed if a treating resident physician had been working for >24 h and 80% (95% CI 78% to 83% would then want a different doctor. Conclusions The American public overwhelmingly favors discontinuation of the 30-h shifts without protected sleep routinely worked by US resident physicians and strongly supports implementation of restrictions on resident physician work hours that are as strict, or stricter, than those proposed by the IOM. Strong support exists to restrict resident physicians' work to 16 or fewer consecutive hours, similar to current limits in New Zealand, the UK and the rest of Europe.

  7. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species.

  8. Personal needs versus national needs: public attitudes regarding health care priorities at the personal and national levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Giora; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Many stakeholders have little or no confidence in the ability of the public to express their opinions on health policy issues. The claim often arises that lay people prioritize according to their own personal experiences and may lack the broad perspective necessary to understand the needs of the population at large. In order to test this claim empirically, this study compares the public's priorities regarding personal insurance to their priorities regarding allocation of national health resources. Thus, the study should shed light on the extent to which the public's priorities at the national level are a reflection of their priorities at the personal level. A telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of the Israeli adult population aged 18 and over (n = 1,225). The public's priorities were assessed by asking interviewees to assume that they were the Minister of Health and from this point of view allocate an additional budget among various health areas. Their priorities at the personal level were assessed by asking interviewees to choose preferred items for inclusion in their personal supplementary health insurance. Over half of the respondents (54%) expressed different personal and national priorities. In multivariable logistic analysis, "population group" was the only variable found to be statistically significant; Jews were 1.8 times more likely than Arabs to give a similar response to both questions. Income level was of borderline significance. At least half of the population was able to differentiate between their personal needs and national policy needs. We do not advocate a decision-making process based on polls or referendums. However, we believe that people should be allowed to express their priorities regarding national policy issues, and that decision-makers should consider these as one of the factors used to determine policy decisions.

  9. Public Opinion Regarding Financial Incentives to Engage in Advance Care Planning and Complete Advance Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Catherine L; Chen, Lucy; Olorunnisola, Michael; Delman, Aaron; Nguyen, Christina A; Cooney, Elizabeth; Gabler, Nicole B; Halpern, Scott D

    2017-09-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently instituted physician reimbursements for advance care planning (ACP) discussions with patients. To measure public support for similar programs. Cross-sectional online and in-person surveys. English-speaking adults recruited at public parks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from July to August 2013 and online through survey sampling international Web-based recruitment platform in July 2015. Participants indicated support for 6 programs designed to increase advance directive (AD) completion or ACP discussion using 5-point Likert scales. Participants also indicated how much money (US$0-US$1000) was appropriate to incentivize such behaviors, compared to smoking cessation or colonoscopy screening. We recruited 883 participants: 503 online and 380 in-person. The status quo of no systematic approach to motivate AD completion was supported by 67.0% of participants (63.9%-70.1%). The most popular programs were paying patients to complete ADs (58.0%; 54.5%-61.2%) and requiring patients to complete ADs or declination forms for health insurance (54.1%; 50.8%-57.4%). Participants more commonly supported paying patients to complete ADs than paying physicians whose patients complete ADs (22.6%; 19.8%-25.4%) or paying physicians who document ACP discussions (19.1%; 16.5%-21.7%; both P < .001). Participants supported smaller payments for AD completion and ACP than for obtaining screening colonoscopies or stopping smoking. Americans view payments for AD completion or ACP more skeptically than for other health behaviors and prefer that such payments go to patients rather than physicians. The current CMS policy of reimbursing physicians for ACP conversations with patients was the least preferred of the programs evaluated.

  10. Violence in social memory intimate beliefs regarding operation storm in the Croatian and Serbian publics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This text is part of a research conducted under the working title "What do we talk about when we are silent and what are we silent about when we are talking? - premises for the anthropology of silence about the nearest past." In the first part the author investigates the meaning of silence in the Croatian and Serbian press right before and during Croatia's Operation Storm. The ratio between silence, suppression of information and forgetting, on the one hand, and social memory, on the other, has been elaborated in the final part of the text by following reports about the anniversaries of Operation Storm in both Croatian and Serbian publics. The starting point lies in the belief that the phenomenon of silence (and suppression of information, being an immanent part of each discourse, represents an important factor in the creation of social relationships and system of value models, that it has important communication and cognitive functions and that the performance character lies in its essence. In short, silence makes it possible to form the prevailing image about this event, even if it does not construct it indirectly - through speech. The author has elaborated on the meaning of silence in the context of Operation Storm partly because studies about the breakup of Yugoslavia frequently mention silence as a manipulation strategy employed by some of the sides in the conflict (or analysts dealing with Yugoslav topics, while not a single study systematically investigates the semantic of silence and suppression of information in these conflicts. Most importantly, taking into account the frequency of direct silence in the newspaper discourse and rhetoric strategies that point at silence indirectly from the context and discourse, the author focuses on the relationship between the event (situation and silence. In order to shed light on the way in which Operation Storm is remembered, i.e. forgotten, in the stakeholders' publics and political imageries, she

  11. The 3-I framework: a framework for developing public policies regarding pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Naazish S; Ungar, Wendy J

    2015-12-01

    The 3-I framework of analyzing the ideas, interests, and institutions around a topic has been used by political scientists to guide public policy development. In Canada, there is a lack of policy governing pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing compared to other developed nations. The goal of this study was to use the 3-I framework, a policy development tool, and apply it to PGx testing to identify and analyze areas where current policy is limited and challenges exist in bringing PGx testing into wide-spread clinical practice in Canada. A scoping review of the literature was conducted to determine the extent and challenges of PGx policy implementation at federal and provincial levels. Based on the 3-I analysis, contentious ideas related to PGx are (i) genetic discrimination, (ii) informed consent, (iii) the lack of knowledge about PGx in health care, (iv) the value of PGx testing, (v) the roles of health care workers in the coordination of PGx services, and (vi) confidentiality and privacy. The 3-I framework is a useful tool for policy makers, and applying it to PGx policy development is a new approach in Canadian genomics. Policy makers at every organizational level can use this analysis to help develop targeted PGx policies.

  12. Public knowledge, attitudes, social distance and reported contact regarding people with mental illness 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C; Robinson, E; Evans-Lacko, S; Corker, E; Rebollo-Mesa, I; Rose, D; Thornicroft, G

    2016-08-01

    To investigate whether public knowledge, attitudes, desire for social distance and reported contact in relation to people with mental health problems have improved in England during the Time to Change (TTC) programme to reduce stigma and discrimination 2009-2015. Using data from an annual face-to-face survey of a nationally representative sample of adults, we analysed longitudinal trends in the outcomes with regression modelling using standardised scores of the measures overall and by age and gender subgroups. There were improvements in all outcomes. The improvement for knowledge was 0.17 standard deviation units in 2015 compared to 2009 (95% CI 0.10, 0.23); for attitudes 0.20 standard deviation units (95% CI 0.14, 0.27) and for social distance 0.17 standard deviation units (95% CI 0.11, 0.24). Survey year for 2015 vs. 2009 was associated with a higher likelihood of reported contact (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.13, 1.53). Statistically significant interactions between year and age suggest the campaign had more impact on the attitudes of the target age group (25-45) than those aged over 65 or under 25. Women's reported contact with people with mental health problems increased more than did men's. The results provide support for the effectiveness of TTC. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Physician-industry conflict of interest: public opinion regarding industry-sponsored research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles G; DiPaola, Christian P; Noonan, Vanessa K; Bailey, Christopher; Dvorak, Marcel F S

    2012-07-01

    The nature of physician-industry conflict of interest (COI) has become a source of considerable concern, but is often not discussed in the research setting. With reduced funding available from government and nonprofit sources, industry support has enthusiastically grown, but along with this comes the potential for COI that must be regulated. In this era of shared decision making in health care, society must have input into this regulation. The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of a North American population sample on COI regarding industry-funded research and to analyze population subgroups for trends. A survey was developed for face and content validity, underwent focus group evaluation for clarity and bias reduction, and was administered via the World Wide Web. Demographic and general survey results were summarized as a percentage for each answer, and subgroup analysis was done using logistic regression. Generalizability of the sample to the US population was also assessed. Of 541 surveys, 40 were excluded due to missing information, leaving 501 surveys for analysis. The sample population was composed of more females, was older, and was more educated than a representative cross-section of the American population. Respondents support multidisciplinary surgeon-industry COI regulation and trust doctors and their professional societies the most to head this effort. Respondents trust government officials and company representatives the least with respect to regulation of COI. Most respondents feel that industry-sponsored research can involve physicians and be both objective and beneficial to patients. Most respondents in this study felt that surgeons should be involved in industry-sponsored research and that more research, regardless of funding source, will ultimately benefit patients. The majority of respondents distrust government or industry to regulate COI. The development of evidence-based treatment recommendations requires the inclusion of patient

  14. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to 7 CFR 1744.30 D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 1744...—Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to 7 CFR...

  15. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  16. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT FACTORS EFFECTS ON ARTICLES PUBLICATION REGARDING SURVEY INTERVIEWER CHARACTERISTICS USING MULTILEVEL REGRESSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MOROŞANU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to evaluate the effects which some factors could have on articles publication regarding survey interviewer characteristics. For this, the author studied the existing literature from the various fields in which articles on survey interviewer characteristics has been published and which can be found in online articles database. The analysis was performed on 243 articles achieved by researchers in the time period 1949-2012. Using statistical software R and applying multilevel regression model, the results showed that the time period when the studied articles are made and the interaction between the number of authors and the number of pages affect the most their publication in journals with a certain level of impact factor.

  17. Public concerns regarding the storage and secondary uses of residual newborn bloodspots: an analysis of print media, legal cases, and public engagement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shannon; O'Doherty, Kieran C; Sénécal, Karine; Secko, David; Avard, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Recently, public concerns have been expressed regarding the non-consented storage and secondary research uses of residual newborn bloodspot (RBS) samples. The purpose of this paper is to examine public responses to the storage and secondary uses of RBS that can be identified through analysis of media, legal cases, and documented public engagement activities. Coverage in the examined print media confirmed the importance of RBS to journalists and those people who expressed their concerns to these journalists. Several lawsuits, brought by parents concerned about the storage of newborn bloodspots, placed the practice of storing NBS into the spotlight. This resulted in controversial debates and the mandatory destruction of millions of samples. Analysis of public engagement activities across several jurisdictions indicated that across (inter)national boundaries there are common elements to what is perceived as inappropriate governance of RBS. Public concerns were grouped into five main themes: trust, transparency, confidentiality, ownership, and stigmatization/discrimination. The results of our analysis help to make a compelling case for placing citizens at the center of the debate and developing policy about the storage and secondary uses of newborn bloodspots.

  18. Social Inclusion in Swedish Public Service Television: The Representation of Gender, Ethnicity and People with Disabilities as Program Leaders for Children’s Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha M. Alatalo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the inclusion of traditionally underrepresented groups in society, females, persons of non-European ethnic background and people with apparent disabilities. Specifically we addressed their participation as program leaders in children’s programs in the Swedish Public Service Television to see if they corresponded to their relative share of the population. Using the official web site of the Swedish Public Service Television, listing all their programs, we found that of 65 program leaders in 41 television programs, 42% were female, 12% of the program leaders were of non-European ethnic background and 20% had apparent disabilities. There was a non-significant trend for women to be underrepresented as program leaders, people of ethnic non-European background had significantly higher representation than their share of the population, and people with apparent disabilities had significantly much higher percentage than their share of the Swedish population as program leaders for children programs. This case study indicates that traditionally underrepresented groups such as people of non-ethnic European background and people with disabilities do well in the competition for positions as program leaders for television programs that target children. This can be seen as an encouraging step from the present norm in Swedish society of mainly hiring people that you know.

  19. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  20. STUDY REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF LOCAL POLICEMAN CAREER WITHIN THE REŞIŢA LOCAL POLICE DIVISION PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERGHINA LILIANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled Study regarding the Management of Local Policemen Career within the Reşiţa Local Police Division Public Service aims at highlighting the need for this public service in the Reşiţa municipality community, the importance of the public office in this context, of the public service, of the public servant with special statute and, last but not least, of the managerial act in the administration of this type of human resources, and implicitly this type of career. Starting from the theoretic identifications and their translation into the practice of the field chosen for research we could conclude that in the development of the local policemen career, a special role is played by the human resources management, especially the management of the career of this value-bearing resource. Our investigation was based on the opinion poll-type inquiry, the main instrument being the questionnaire conceived, administered and then valorised and interpreted. The conclusions generated by this research highlighted step by step, along the activities of the analysed human resources management and implicitly their career management, the actual positive or negative aspects and the fact that the management of human resources and implicitly of their career which, we scrutinised – that of police officer or policeman in short – assures with priority: the observance of the legislation specific to the investigated field, support for the development of the local policemen’s career, their prompt availability in due time, the knowledge and fulfilment of the tasks according to the job and position requirements, all this assures the understanding of the employees’ expectations, of the change of employees’ roles within the organisation depending on their experience and solves the conflicts among the employees. Nevertheless, we identified, in a less significant percentage , some cases of discontent and dissatisfaction, cases that could generate ideas for

  1. An ethnic studies model of community mobilization: collaborative partnership with a high-risk public high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobredo, James; Kim-Ju, Greg; Figueroa, Julie; Mark, Gregory Yee; Fabionar, James

    2008-03-01

    In December 2001, the Department of Ethnic Studies at California State University, Sacramento initiated a community partnership project with Hiram Johnson High School and Sacramento's Healthy Start to promote ethnic understanding, improve academic performance, and reduce youth violence. This paper presents the community mobilization efforts by this partnership in developing and implementing a community service project to address emerging community-identified social and educational issues. The paper also examines the role of an Ethnic Studies Model in community mobilization and shares its key components.

  2. Cross sectional: perception of children from public and private schools regarding the esthetic impact of different types of face masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Sousa; de Oliveira, Gabriel Couto; Dos Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Couto, Felipe Santos; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the esthetic perception among children from public and private schools regarding the use of different types of face masks. Six different types of orthopedic face masks made from images of the same patient were evaluated. Initially, the images were standardized with the help of Adobe Photoshop software. The variable considered was type of mask: (A) Delaire with facebow; (B) Petit; (C) Delaire; (D)Turley; (E) Hickham; and (F) Sky Hook. The images were printed on photographic paper and incorporated into a specific personalized questionnaire that was distributed to 7- to 10-year-olds attending public and private schools (n=120). The data obtained were compared via chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, Mann-Whitney and Spearman's tests. The proportion of participants who chose image A as the best was significantly higher (P.05). The mean scores between groups were not significantly correlated between private vs public schoolchildren (r=0.32) and between boys and girls (r=0.41). Delaire face mask with facebow was chosen as the most attractive, and the Petit and Sky Hook face masks were voted the least attractive.

  3. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD US survey ascertained self-reported health intentions and behaviors for regular exercise, diet, and weight management among Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 2526, Non-Hispanic African-American (n = 706, and Hispanic (n = 179 respondents with type 2 diabetes. Results A similar proportion of respondents from each race-gender group (43%-56% reported receiving healthcare advice to increase their exercise (P = 0.32. Significantly more minorities reported an intention to follow the exercise recommendation compared with Non-Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.03. More Non-Hispanic African-American (29% and Hispanic (27% men reported exercising regularly compared with other race-gender groups (P = 0.02. Significantly more Non-Hispanic Caucasian women (74% and Hispanic women (79% reported trying to lose weight compared with other groups (P Conclusions Differences in health intentions and healthy behaviors were noted across race-gender groups. More Non-Hispanic African-American men reported an intention to follow advice on exercising and self-report of exercising regularly was also higher compared with other race-gender groups. More Hispanic men reported high physical activity levels than other groups. Despite an increased willingness to follow healthcare recommendations for diet, >50% of respondents were obese among all race-gender groups.

  4. 民族地区民意表达研究综述%Research Summary of Public Opinion Expression in Ethnic Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓丽; 段钰江

    2014-01-01

    目前,我国正处于经济社会转型期,由此带来的利益分化和群体性事件不可避免,如果不注重社会治理中的公众参与和民意表达,社会矛盾会更加突出,甚至会发展到难以控制的程度,尤其是民族地区民意表达成为日益迫切解决的现实问题。为此,必须建立畅通的制度化的民意表达渠道,疏导公众有序参与到社会治理中。%During the economic and social transformation,it is inevitable for the benefits polarization and mass disturbance.If governments don’t pay attention to the public participation and the expression of public opinion,the social conflicts will become more prominent,especially in the ethnic areas.In order to groom public participation orderly,the governments must establish the institutionalized ways of public expression.Based on the research,the author suggests more detailed study to provide a reference for improving the expression of public opinion research in Ethnic Areas.

  5. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Methods Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Conclusion The "infotainment" programme may have a positive effect on people from high-risk groups, but informed general practitioners and midwives were reluctant to facilitate their patients' getting tested. Additional initiatives are needed to motivate primary care providers to facilitate haemoglobinopathy carrier testing for their patients from high-risk backgrounds.

  6. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  7. Knowledge and attitude regarding euthanasia among medical students in the public and private medical schools of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wafa; Ahmad, Farah; Malik, Aisha; Ali, Saba

    2013-02-01

    To assess the awareness about and perception of euthanasia among medical students of Karachi. The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 among students of private-sector and one public-sector medical college in Karachi. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17, and associations were worked out using chi-square test. Out of the 493 students, 226 (46%) were from the matriculation system and 194 (39%) from the Cambridge system, while the remaining 15% were from the American High School. The male-female ratio was 1:3. There were 284 (58%) students from the private medical college. Majority of the private medical school students (n = 284; 99.6%) knew about euthanasia, compared to the public-sector facility where only 161 (77%) knew of it. Of the total, 405 (82%) students agreed that it is physician-assisted suicide; 255 (52%) agreed to the idea of palliative care, claiming it was sufficient to maintain life; 226 (54%) disagreed that a doctor should not be allowed to administer a lethal dose while only 162 (33%) agreed to the idea of it; 285 (58%) disagreed that a law regarding the practice of euthanasia should not be introduced, whereas 134 (27%) agreed to it; 70 (14%) agreed to the practice of euthanasia, while 311 (63%) disagreed, mostly for religious reasons. The awareness of euthanasia was high, but a very small proportion of students approved of it. There is need to include palliative care and euthanasia in the Behavioural Science module in the under-graduation programme of both public and private medical schools.

  8. A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Selected Ethnic and Racial Terminology Present in Assorted Public English Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pietraszewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The central focus of the article is to analyse large collections of linguistic data in order to unveil language patterns pointing to the pervasive racist sentiments. Lexical choices made by speakers are assumed to reflect their attitudes to certain minority groups. Since languages reflect ideas present in a society, it is possible to find examples of racial and ethnic prejudices expressed either overtly with ethnophaulisms or more inconspicuously in certain lexical choices. This study is concerned with discriminatory practices in the form of racist and ethnic slurs as well as the most frequent collocates pointing to negative stereotypes of selected ethnic minorities. The search for biased language was conducted in large British and American English corpora, including Internet treated as corpus. The author attempts to present how the visual and cultural differences as well as the portrayal of particular minorities in media may influence language pertaining to ethnic groups. The results indicate that ethnic stereotypes are still reproduced in both British and American English. Prejudiced language appears to be associated with both visibility and socio-economic status of a particular group in a certain country.

  9. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introduc......Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from...... minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Results: Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation...

  10. To determine the level of satisfaction among medical students of a public sector medical university regarding their academic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzar Bushra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ongoing evaluation system is essential to determine if the academic system in place has worked to produce a better product, hence the objective of our study was to evaluate the satisfaction level among medical students regarding their academic teaching and assessment method and what measures will they suggest for the future to rectify the current situation. This questionnaire based cross sectional study was conducted in a public sector medical university from February to July 2010. A well structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 375 final year medical students. However 292 of the students provided informed consent and filled in the questionnaire which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Data was entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.16 and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings The male to female ratio in our study was 1:2. Most of the students (57.2% were dissatisfied with the quality of teaching in the university. Fifty-seven percent of the participants believed that the current standard of their institute were not at par with those of international medical universities. BCQ's were the mode of examination questions preferred by the majority of the students. Most of the students (66.1% wanted the university to conduct career planning seminars to help them plan their career. Conclusions These results suggest that the students of public sector medical universities are unsatisfied from current academic facilities and teaching activities. Students recommend increased emphasis on better lectures and practical training as well as a need to incorporate career planning sessions for the students to help plan them their future career paths.

  11. [Degree of public awareness regarding intensive care units (ICUs) and intensive care physicians in Castilla y León].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Labattut, A; Tena, F; Díaz, J; Pajares, R; Sandoval, J; González, J; Taberna, M A; García, A; Abdel-Hadi, H; Pérez, F J; Fernández, L; Vázquez, M

    2006-03-01

    To determine degree of public awareness regarding the activities and health care professionals that comprise intensive care units (ICUs) in the autonomous community of Castilla y León. Questionaire in the form of a true-false test dealing with a) description of an ICU; b) description of ICU patients, and c) degrees and qualifications held by ICU physicians. Waiting rooms of outpatient clinics and ICUs of 9 hospitals in Castilla y León. During the period from 1 October 2003 to 29 February 2004, there were surveyed a group of those persons accompanying outpatients arriving for appointments (OP, n = 2,293), and a group comprised of relatives of ICU patients (ICU, n = 727) upon discharge from the ICU. The average age of those subjects surveyed was 45.6 years old. 62.1% were women and 52.8% had received education through secondary level or higher. Of the 1,354 analyzed OP questionnaires, 27.7%, 25.5% and 48.4% responded correctly to questions A, B and C, respectively. Of the 284 analyzed ICU questionnaires, 38.6%, 41.0%, and 63.5% responded correctly to questions A, B and C, respectively. Differences between results from the two surveyed groups were statistically significant, and the best results from the ICU group were found among those subjects whose family members had remained in ICU for 2 days or more. In the described scope, of the citizens of Castilla y León, 27.7% know as it is a ICU, 25.5% know what type of patients usually is entered there, and 48.4% recognize their doctors like ICU specialists specifically. These knowledge improve significantly after having some relative entered in ICU for more than 2 days.

  12. The relationship between (stigmatizing views and lay public preferences regarding tuberculosis treatment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieboer Anna P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB and human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS stigmas affect public attitudes toward TB treatment and policy. This study examined 'stigmatizing' ideas and the view that 'TB patients should line-up in the chronic illness queue' in relation to preferences and attitudes toward TB treatment. Methods Data were gathered through a survey administered to respondents from 1,020 households in Grahamstown. The survey measured stigmatization surrounding TB and HIV/AIDS, and determined perceptions of respondents whether TB patients should queue with other chronically ill patients. Respondents selected support and treatment options they felt would benefit TB patients. Statistical analysis identified the prevalence of TB and HIV/AIDS stigmas. Logistic regression analyses explored associations between stigmatizing ideas, views regarding TB patients in the chronic illness queue, and attitudes toward support and treatment. Results Respondents with TB stigmatizing ideas held positive attitudes toward volunteer support, special TB queues, and treatment at clinics; they held negative attitudes toward temporary disability grants, provision of information at work or school, and treatment at the TB hospital. Respondents who felt it beneficial for TB patients to queue with other chronically ill patients conversely held positive attitudes toward provision of porridge and disability grants, and treatment at the TB hospital; they held negative attitudes toward volunteer support, special TB queues, information provision at work or school, and treatment at clinics. Conclusion These results showed that two varying views related to visibility factors that expose patients to stigmatization (one characterized by TB stigma, the other by the view that TB patients should queue with other chronically ill patients are associated with opposing attitudes and preferences towards TB treatment. These opposing attitudes complicate

  13. A Comparison of Occupational Groups with Regard to Knowledge of Public School Finance in the Upper Cumberland Region of Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Thomas L.; Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This study attempted to determine the knowledge of Tennessee public school finance on the part of teachers, businessmen, school administrators, elected officials, and industrial workers. Students in a class on public school finance administered the questionnaire to over 1,000 subjects. Results revealed that respondents feel that public education…

  14. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain) at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. Methods We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Results Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P Kosovo Liberation Army, or had participated in a protest before or during the war, were likely to be targeted by Serbian paramilitary and law enforcement agencies. Conclusions Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being have not gone. The level of lifetime exposure to violence, the proportion of family members reporting pain and lifetime violence

  15. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Labinot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. Methods We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Results Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P Conclusions Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being have not gone. The level of lifetime exposure to violence, the proportion of family members reporting pain and lifetime violence-related injury, and family's financial burden were found to be inter-correlated. The sample confined to one ethnic group in one district

  16. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research: An interpretive synthesis of experiences from six interlinked Danish studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Vitus, Kathrine; Ditlevsen, Kia; TØrslev, Mette Kirstine; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational settings as sites for recruitment. Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion of experiences among the researchers involved. Success in recruitment seemed to depend partly on recruitment site. Using healthcare facilities as the recruitment site and healthcare professionals as gatekeepers was less efficient than using schools and employees from educational institutions. Successful study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite their interest in high-quality health research into all population groups, fail to facilitate research access to some of the most disadvantaged groups, who need to be included in order to understand the mechanisms behind health disparities. This happens despite the genuine wish of many healthcare professionals to help facilitate such research. In this way, the findings indirectly emphasize the specific challenge of accessing more vulnerable and sick groups in research studies.

  17. “We Are All Part of the Same Family”: China’s Ethnic Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Brady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Communist Party (CCP government works hard to promote an image of ethnic harmony in China and downplays ethnic conflict by carefully controlling public information and debate about ethnic affairs. Despite such efforts, the recent clashes in Tibetan areas in 2008 and violent riots in Urumqi in 2009 reveal the weaknesses of this approach. This paper surveys the broad themes of ethnic propaganda (民族宣传, minzu xuanchuan in present-day China, looking at the organisations involved, the systems of information management they utilise, and the current “go” and “no-go” zones for debate. The paper forms part of a larger study of the politics of ethnicity in China. It is based on primary- and secondary-source research in Chinese, secondary sources in English, and extensive interviews with Chinese bureaucrats and scholars regarding China’s ethnic affairs conducted during fieldwork in China in 2002, 2004, 2005–2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2012. Ethnic issues in China concern not only the minority peoples there, but also the majority Han – hence, my definition of ethnic propaganda incorporates materials relating to all of China’s ethnic groups. The paper uses the events in Tibetan areas in 2008 and in Urumqi as case studies to demonstrate how these policies play out in periods of crisis. It concludes with a discussion of the role that ethnic propaganda plays in maintaining China’s long-term political stability and its international affairs.

  18. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW, non-Hispanic blacks (NHB, and Mexican American (MA adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA, added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium by NHW, NHB, and MA adults. Design: This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811, NHB (2,062, and MA (n=1,950 adults 19+ years. The 2003–2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1 dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. Results: Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied. Conclusion: Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate.

  19. Diversifying the academic public health workforce: strategies to extend the discourse about limited racial and ethnic diversity in the public health academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L; Fletcher, Faith E; Weis, Megan A; Fernandes, Pearl R; Clary, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    While public health has gained increased attention and placement on the national health agenda, little progress has been made in achieving a critical mass of underrepresented minority (URM) academicians in the public health workforce. In 2008, a telephone-based qualitative assessment was conducted with URM faculty of schools of public health to discuss this issue. As a result, we present successful strategies that institutional leaders can employ to extend the discourse about addressing limited diversity in the public health academy.

  20. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of Independent Certified Public Accountant Regarding Notes To Be Issued Pursuant to 7 CFR 1744.30(c) B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1744... Accommodations and Subordination Policy Pt. 1744, Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part...

  1. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  2. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  3. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  4. "What We Should Strive for Is Britishness": An Attitudinal Investigation of Ethnic Diversity and the Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdi, Briony; Wilson, Kerry; Mansoor, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the public library in ameliorating relations between communities, and the appropriateness of a multicultural or assimilationist approach via which to deliver socially inclusive services. Qualitative findings from two inductive studies, each of which focused on different aspects of the capacity of public library…

  5. Contested Cowboys: Ethnic Mexican Charros and the Struggle for Suburban Public Space in 1970s Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    While most studies of Mexican American suburbanization since the 1970s focus on the transformation of residential (private) space, it is in suburban public space that some of the most important struggles over belonging and rights have occurred. This article builds a theoretical framework to analyze the relationships between public space,…

  6. "What We Should Strive for Is Britishness": An Attitudinal Investigation of Ethnic Diversity and the Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdi, Briony; Wilson, Kerry; Mansoor, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the public library in ameliorating relations between communities, and the appropriateness of a multicultural or assimilationist approach via which to deliver socially inclusive services. Qualitative findings from two inductive studies, each of which focused on different aspects of the capacity of public library…

  7. ISSUES REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL CONTROL/ MANAGERIAL AND COMBATING SOME NEGATIVE EFFECTS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS' ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stegaroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the importance and impact of the management of internal control/ managerial in Romanian public institutions, as well as the consequences arising as a result of not implementing it. It also analyzed the legal framework governing the internal control/managerial and the main conclusions issued by the Romanian Court of Accounts on the status of its implementation in Romanian public institutions. At the same time, it is stressed the role of management carried out by heads of public institutions in terms of combating the negative effects that have a direct impact on their activity.

  8. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of High Homocysteine Levels Among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Its Implications for Preventive Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homocysteine (Hcy is a relevant biomarker of vascular disease: serum Hcy concentrations will increase the risk of systolic hypertension, whereas hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy has a synergistic effect with hypertension and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, information has primarily been gathered from high-income and urban settings, and little is known regarding low-income rural settings. This study focused on a low-income rural and nomadic minority residing in far western China. Hcy levels were tested, and the prevalences of HHcy and H-type hypertension were investigated in this population. Methods: This study used a stratified cluster random sampling method, selecting 2,180 individuals as subjects from Kazakh and Uyghur inhabitants (≥25 years old of 18 villages in Xinjiang, China, which is approximately 4407 km from the capital, Beijing. Hcy levels were determined using a double reagent enzymatic cycling method. HHcy (Hcy > 10 μmol/L was defined by the criteria of the American Heart Association. Results: The Kazakh geometrical mean of Hcy was 13.34 μmol/L, and the Uyghur mean was 13.75 μmol/L; the mean values were higher in males than in females of both ethnicities (15.99 μmol/L vs. 11.63 μmol/L; 15.71 μmol/L vs. 11.91 μmol/L, respectively, p < 0.01. The serum levels of Hcy increased with increasing age in both ethnicities, and except for Kazakh individuals >65 years old, Hcy serum levels were higher in males than in females in all age groups of both ethnicities, with a p value less than 0.01. The Kazakh prevalence of HHcy was 80.0%, and the Uyghur prevalence was 78.2%; the male prevalence was higher than that in females for both ethnicities (93.5% vs. 69.6%; 90.8% vs. 64.6%, respectively, p < 0.05. Among the Kazakh, the prevalence of hypertension was 35.1%, and the prevalence was higher in males than in females (44.3% vs. 28.1%, p < 0.001; 87.6% of the Kazakh individuals had H-type hypertension, and the

  9. Current views and practice of faculty members and consultants regardingPublications in India′: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is an increasing enthusiasm and pressure to submit scientific articles to journals for publication due to official policies. This has led to increased stress on authors and editors and in issues like plagiarism. We planned a cross-sectional study with an aim to explore the current publication related views and practice of faculty members and consultants. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire based prospective survey with 22 questions divided into parts. Print and electronic versions were sent to around 18,270 members in total, a majority of whom were anaesthesiologists and 600 members responded to our questionnaire. A database was created and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results: About 80% felt that online journals were better read than print journals. Eighty eight percent agreed that publications improve academic skills. The Medical Council of India requirements to publish in reputed journals were cited as the main reasons for plagiarism. The publication rule had become a burden for 46% respondents. Review articles were most likely to be read though clinical investigations were considered to be of maximum academic significance. Review/publishing time followed by author requirements and journal indexing were the points our respondents liked to see most when choosing a journal for article submission. Conclusion: Our survey results depict the current author related views and trends in publication practice which may guide in evidence-based policy making.

  10. Ethnic Tibetans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LHUNDRUP; DORJI

    2007-01-01

    Ethnic Tibetans speak and write by using their own language and characters. This language belongs to the Tibet-Burman phylum in the Sino-Tibetan language family. In over 1400 years of recorded history,ethnic Tibetans have been enriched by the profuse contents of their archaic books that make us gasp in admiration.

  11. Searching for Methods on Evaluation Alternatives and Studying Decision Making System Regarding Enhancing Publicity of Nuclear Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkyung [Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seungho; Kim, Hyerim; Song, Jiyeon [DOMO Communication Consulting, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoonsup; Sohn, Seohyun [Fleishman-Hillard Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This study was done in order to anticipate the aspect of publicity enhancement on nuclear spent fuel so that it can find the evaluation methods of alternative ways of management which could applied actually and make the decision making system of Publicity Enhancement Committee in advance. In Korea, the nuclear spent fuel is temporarily stored inside of the nuclear facility field, and it is expected that Gori nuclear facility is going to be saturated since 2016 but the solutions are still incomplete. The problem of management of nuclear spent fuel is an important issue in terms of not only the nuclear power policy but also of safe management of the already made nuclear spent fuel. This study has its meaning to draw the evaluation criteria of the management alternatives on nuclear spent fuel which can be applied in Korean case, and to find the necessity of verifying the evaluation of management alternatives through Publicity Enhancement because of different stands according to the interests. As a result, rather than technological engineering safety evaluation, qualitative analysis in terms of social costs, quantitative evaluation in terms of economic costs, this study advises the methods of public hearings and citizen juries which are effective, which makes it meaningful.

  12. The relationship between (stigmatizing) views and lay public preferences regarding tuberculosis treatment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) stigmas affect public attitudes toward TB treatment and policy. This study examined 'stigmatizing' ideas and the view that 'TB patients should line-up in the chronic illness queue' in rela

  13. 76 FR 800 - Policy and Procedural Change Regarding the Publication of Notices of Funding Opportunities in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... the universal resource locator (URL) link included in the synopsis, or by visiting ETA's Web site at.... ETA's policies currently provide for publication of notices of SGAs in the Federal Register. In... Administration (ETA) will no longer publish the full text of Solicitation of Grant Applications (SGAs) in...

  14. The relationship between (stigmatizing) views and lay public preferences regarding tuberculosis treatment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) stigmas affect public attitudes toward TB treatment and policy. This study examined 'stigmatizing' ideas and the view that 'TB patients should line-up in the chronic illness queue' in

  15. 78 FR 19442 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau Seeks To Refresh the Record Regarding Options for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Commission's rules require commercial mobile radio service (CMRS) providers subject to the Commission's 911... provide free or reduced- cost mobile service to low-income or at-risk individuals.'' However, NENA does... generally, we seek comment on relevant changes in industry, technology, regulation, public practice,...

  16. An Analysis of the Use and Policies Regarding Social Media Use as a Work Tool in Public Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge; Zeglin, Robert J.; Matray, Shari; Froehlich, Robert; Marable, Ronica; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to gather descriptive data on the professional use of social media in public rehabilitation settings and to analyze existing social media policies in those agencies through content analysis. Methods: The authors sent a survey to all state administrators or directors of these agencies (N = 50) in the United…

  17. [Epidemiology and Public Health: tendencies of the Brazilian epidemiology production regarding volume, indexation and investigation areas - 2001 to 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Silvana Rubano Barretto; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho

    2010-07-01

    This article examines and interprets the trends of epidemiological production in Brazil in the Public Health context. CAPES indicators from 2001 to 2006 were used as database. We analyzed 26 programs and select the 10 major ones to analyze their bibliographic production in indexed journals. It was observed that the total production of epidemiological articles accounted for 40% of production in Public Health and 55% of the production was published in international journals, especially Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Revista de Saúde Pública and Ciência & Saúde Coletiva. The most prevalent themes were public health nutrition, maternal and infant health and, infectious diseases, particularly AIDS. Environmental e worker's heath, oral health, violence and health of the elderly have been ratified as objects of study for the discipline, while meta-analysis and geoprocessing appear as a useful tool for health services. We conclude that the epidemiological production tends to increase in indexed publications, covering various topics and a wide spectrum of relevant issues to Brazilian health policy.

  18. An Outlook of Public Accounting Undergraduate Programs in Colombia Regarding Forensic Auditing and Financial Crime Prevention Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Baracaldo-Lozano, Natalia Andrea; Universidad de la Salle. Universidad Santiago de Chile. ontificia Universidad Javeriana; Daza-Giraldo, Luis Eduardo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2016-01-01

    Recent cases of economic and financial crimes, financial fraud, corruption, and corporate malpractice in the local and international corporate environment have created the need to have professionals trained to face the challenges related to their investigation and analysis, activities carried out by forensic auditing.This article highlights several key aspects to understand why is important to specifically include forensic auditing as a subject in curricula during the studies of public accoun...

  19. Sources of traffic and visitors' preferences regarding online public reports of quality: web analytics and online survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Naomi S; Hibbard, Judith H; Greaves, Felix; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-05-01

    In the context of the Affordable Care Act, there is extensive emphasis on making provider quality transparent and publicly available. Online public reports of quality exist, but little is known about how visitors find reports or about their purpose in visiting. To address this gap, we gathered website analytics data from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality and surveyed real-time visitors to those websites. Websites were recruited from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality. Analytics data were gathered from each website: number of unique visitors, method of arrival for each unique visitor, and search terms resulting in visits. Depending on the website, a survey invitation was launched for unique visitors on landing pages or on pages with quality information. Survey topics included type of respondent (eg, consumer, health care professional), purpose of visit, areas of interest, website experience, and demographics. There were 116,657 unique visitors to the 18 participating websites (1440 unique visitors/month per website), with most unique visitors arriving through search (63.95%, 74,606/116,657). Websites with a higher percent of traffic from search engines garnered more unique visitors (P=.001). The most common search terms were for individual hospitals (23.25%, 27,122/74,606) and website names (19.43%, 22,672/74,606); medical condition terms were uncommon (0.81%, 605/74,606). Survey view rate was 42.48% (49,560/116,657 invited) resulting in 1755 respondents (participation rate=3.6%). There were substantial proportions of consumer (48.43%, 850/1755) and health care professional respondents (31.39%, 551/1755). Across websites, proportions of consumer (21%-71%) and health care professional respondents (16%-48%) varied. Consumers were frequently interested in using the information to choose providers or assess the quality of their provider (52.7%, 225/427); the majority of those choosing a

  20. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents' Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition.

  1. Study on public perceptions and protective behaviors regarding Lyme disease among the general public in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.M.A. Beaujean (Desirée); M. Bults (Marloes); J.E. van Steenbergen (Jim); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States and in Europe. The aim of this study was to examine knowledge, perceived risk, feelings of anxiety, and behavioral responses of the general public in relation to tick bites and LD in the Netherlands.

  2. Public preferences regarding use and condition of the Baltic Sea – an international comparison informing marine policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Jane; Czajkowski, Mikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Marine environments and the ecosystem services they provide are threatened throughout the world. Marine policy, including the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive, can be informed by public perceptions of the importance of the state of the marine environment. Using an extensive data...... to improving the state of the Baltic Sea. For future research, we propose a similar large-scale, coordinated study across all nine littoral countries using state-of-the art valuation methods to assess the monetary benefits of improving the state of the Baltic Sea....

  3. Public preferences regarding use and condition of the Baltic Sea – an international comparison informing marine policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Jane; Czajkowski, Mikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Marine environments and the ecosystem services they provide are threatened throughout the world. Marine policy, including the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive, can be informed by public perceptions of the importance of the state of the marine environment. Using an extensive data...... set obtained from a coordinated survey across all nine littoral countries, we examine the recreational use and perceptions towards the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the Baltic Sea is an important recreation area for residents of the littoral states, as the majority of people spend leisure time...

  4. Ethnic and Race Relations in Austin, Texas. Policy Research Project Report, Number 137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Univ., Austin. Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs.

    This report, conducted by faculty and students in the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas, describes a survey on and interviews regarding ethnic and race relations among Austin, Texas residents and community leaders. Its six chapters include (1) "Introduction" (the research approach); (2) "Ethnic…

  5. Knowledge and provision practices regarding medical abortion among public providers in Hanoi, Khanh Hoa, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Free, Caroline; Le, Hoan T; Edwards, Phil; Pham, Kiet H T; Nguyen, Yen B T; Nguyen, Thang H

    2014-03-01

    To assess public service providers' knowledge of medical abortion (MA) and practices, and perspectives on expanding the use of MA to primary and secondary health facilities in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire among abortion providers (n=905) from public health facilities between August 2011 and January 2012. Overall, 31.1% of providers performed both surgical and medical abortions; 68.9% offered only surgical abortion. Providers were knowledgeable about the regimen/dosage of mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen; however, knowledge scores were low for gestational age limits for MA, adverse effects of the combined drug regimen, and safety and effectiveness of MA compared with surgical abortion. Knowledge scores were significantly lower among providers in rural areas than among those in urban settings. A large proportion of providers (82.9%) thought that MA should be expanded to primary and secondary health facilities. Perceived barriers to MA expansion included lack of knowledge and training, qualified staff, adequate drug supplies, equipment, or facilities, guidelines and protocols on MA, and patient awareness. Provision of MA in Vietnam was found to be disproportionate to surgical abortion provision and to vary by region. Knowledge of MA was moderate, but poorer among providers in rural settings. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  6. The effectiveness of risk communication regarding drug safety information: a nationwide survey by the Japanese public health insurance claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Hiromi; Nakano, Shun; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Tohkin, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of warning letters published by the pharmaceutical regulatory agency in Japan on communication of drug safety and risk by quantitative analysis of the national health insurance claims database (NHICD). We then explored what factors may have affected risk communication. We measured the implementation rate of the hepatitis virus-monitoring test among methotrexate (MTX)-treated patients; a warning letter had been issued regarding the use of MTX, as it apparently activates the hepatitis virus. Data from the NHICD, which include 99·3% of Japanese residents, were used. A total of 4,933,481 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (January-June, 2010) were the focus of this study. The implementation rate of the hepatitis virus-monitoring test increased from 1·4% before to 1·8% after the warning letter announcement. Logistic regression analysis suggested that the installation of a drug information management room is one of the important factors affecting risk communication. Further analysis revealed that the hepatitis virus monitoring rates in hospitals without drug information management rooms increased from 2·3% to 4·1% due to the issue of the warning letter. The warning letter from the regulatory agency plays an important role in risk communication in hospitals without drug information management rooms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Changing perspectives in biobank research: from individual rights to concerns about public health regarding the return of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Joanna Stjernschantz; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    During the past decade, various guidelines that imply a duty for researchers to disclose information obtained through research to participants have emerged. The character and extent of this obligation have been debated extensively, with much attention devoted to the decisiveness of the validity and utility of the results in question. The aim of this paper is to argue that individual results from research on materials stored in large-scale biobanks, consisting of samples taken within the healthcare system or of altruistically donated materials, should not be returned. We will defend the thesis that medical research on these biobanks should be viewed as a collective project to improve public health, and that available resources should be utilized to pursue this goal. We argue that there is a need for a change of perspectives. Medical research should not primarily be viewed as a danger that individuals must be protected from, but rather be recognized as constituting a necessary defense against current and future diseases. Research that bears the prospect of advancing medicine and that can be carried out at no risk to individuals should be endorsed and facilitated. This calls for a shift of focus from autonomy and individual rights toward collective responsibility and solidarity.

  8. Identidade étnica e poder: os quilombos nas políticas públicas brasileiras Ethnic identity and power: quilombos in Brazilian public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Peres Calheiros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da atenção específica aos quilombolas, inserida na nova Política Nacional de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural (Pnater, o texto aborda a relação de poder entre as políticas públicas e a identidade étnica. Discute como o conceito reformulado de desenvolvimento influencia a atuação estatal nos contextos rurais e a adoção de ações compensatórias para categorias excluídas. Descortina uma breve trajetória social, jurídica e conceitual em torno dos quilombos, localizando as dinâmicas de poder na construção da identidade quilombola, um projeto em constante reelaboração pela sociedade brasileira.By specifically analyzing how residents of quilombos are affected by the new National Policy for Technical and Rural Extension Assistance (Pnater, this article examines the relation of power between public policies and ethnic identities. It discusses how the reformulated concept of development influences government activity in rural contexts and the adoption of compensatory actions for excluded portions of the population. It briefly presents the social, legal and conceptual trajectory of the quilombos, localizing the dynamics of power in the construction of quilombola identity, a project in constant re-elaboration by Brazilian society.

  9. Association between public knowledge regarding antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics in Teling Atas Community Health Center, East Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication with antibiotics increases the risk of resistance, which leads to higher morbidity and mortality. The community plays an important role in preventing and controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance. This study aims to determine factors associated with antibiotics self-medication practices in the community, which are the key to developing effective intervention programs.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2015 at Teling Atas Community Health Center in Wanea, a sub-district of East Indonesia region. Data was collected by a questionnaire-guided interview. There were 35 questions which cover respondent demographics, antibiotic use, and respondents’ knowledge about antibiotics. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between self-medication with antibiotics and respondents’ level of knowledge as well as other factors.Results: Among 400 respondents, there were 240 (60% who had used antibiotics within 6 months prior to the interview and 180 (45.0% who had self-medicated. Wounds or skin diseases (32.2% were main reasons for self-medication. The majority of respondents self-medicated on their own initiatives (70.6% and purchased antibiotics in pharmacies (52.2%. The mean score for respondent knowledge about antibiotic was categorized as “moderate” (score 7.14±2.49. Respondents with lower knowledge scores had higher probabilities to self-medicate with antibiotics than those with higher scores (OR= 16.86; 95% CI= 4.25–66.83.Conclusion: Self-medication practices with antibiotics in this study are associated with age, family income, and knowledge. Since poorer knowledge about antibiotics is associated with a higher probability of self-medication with antibiotics, education programs to improve public awareness are needed.

  10. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Santosh; Joshi, Durga Datt; Ale, Anita; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Shah, Yogendra; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Stephen, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people's personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs.

  11. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dhakal

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people's personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs.

  12. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazińska, Beata; Strużycka, Izabela; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance. To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns. The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents). The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%). Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents' gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%). In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80%) but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%), who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use. The survey generated information about the

  13. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazińska, Beata; Strużycka, Izabela; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2017-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance. Objective To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns. Methods The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents). The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). Results A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%). Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents’ gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%). In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80%) but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%), who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use. Conclusion

  14. Knowledge and Practice of Clinicians regarding Syndromic Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Public Health Facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisu Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs are the leading causes of morbidity among young adults. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study with mixed methods of data collection was conducted in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone. The study included 250 clinicians and 12 health facilities, 26 mystery clients were hired, and 120 STI patient cards were reviewed. Data was entered in EPI info version 7.0.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results. Of the participated clinicians, 32 (12.8% were trained on syndromic management of STIs. Highest knowledge of clinicians was for urethral discharge (27.2%. Professional category of clinicians and type of health facility (AOR = 0.194; 95% CI = 0.092, 0.412 were determinants of urethral discharge knowledge. Of the cards reviewed, only in 8.3% of cards and 19.23% of mystery clients did the clinicians correctly follow the guideline. Conclusion. Knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in study area were poor. Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of clinicians by providing training on syndromic management of STIs and supportive supervision should be regular.

  15. Ethnic Segregation in Arizona Charter Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey D. Cobb

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the criticisms of charter schools is their potential to further stratify schools along ethnic and class lines. This study addressed whether Arizona charter schools are more ethnically segregated than traditional public schools. In 1996-97, Arizona had nearly one in four of all charter schools in the United States. The analysis involved a series of comparisons between the ethnic compositions of adjacent charter and public schools in Arizona's most populated region and its rural towns. This methodology differed from the approach of many evaluations of charter schools and ethnic stratification in that it incorporated the use of geographic maps to compare schools' ethnic make-ups. The ethnic compositions of 55 urban and 57 rural charter schools were inspected relative to their traditional public school neighbors.

  16. 中国纳西族儿童青少年营养促进实施状况及其建议%Study on promotion of improvement regarding the nutritional status in Nakhi children and adolescents of Nakhi ethnicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季成叶

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析25年来纳西族儿童青少年营养状况改善情况,并提出持续改善措施的建议.方法 2010年调查云南省丽江市纳西族7~18岁儿童青少年2 635人,以当地汉族乡村同龄人群作为对照,采用WHO-2006标准筛查营养不良.结果 2 635名纳西族儿童青少年男女生长迟缓率分别为4.9%和4.7%,消瘦率分别为5.6%和4.6%,合计营养不良率分别为10.5%和9.3%,比对照组分别下降35.2%和44.1%.结论 纳西族儿童青少年营养状况显著改善导致旺盛的生长长期趋势.建议针对存在的问题促进膳食多元化,提高疾病防治水平,并改善和加强基层妇幼保健、优生优育等措施.%Objective To analyze the improvement of nutrition status in children and adolescents of Nakhi ethnicity,in the last 25 years so as to put forward further suggestions for improvement.Methods 2 635 Nakhi students aged 7-18 years were selected from the 2010 national survey,with a group of Han students from the rural areas were randomly selected as controls.WHO-2006 reference was used to screen the prevalence of malnutrition,and compared with the control group.Results The prevalence rates in the Nakhi male and female students were 4.9% and 4.7% for stunting,5.6% and 4.6% for wasting,and 10.5% and 9.3% for total malnutrition,respectively.Changes on secular growth in both Nakhi and Han students in the rural areas were compared and the results showed that the superiority of Nakhi children was the cause for these disparities.Conclusion Nutrition status of the Nakhi children was predicted and an optional future was displayed.Positive factors for causing these superiorities were summarized.Suggestions were also put forward regarding the formulation of balanced diet,improving the skills on preventive-cure,strengthening the local matemal-child healthcare services and the development of education on better bearing and rearing,etc.

  17. Teachers' awareness regarding public speaking

    OpenAIRE

    Košir, Mateja

    2013-01-01

    Teacher do many speaking appearances, therefore they have to consciously develop their ability of effective speaking appearances. It is expected that the teacher is a good speaker, that he knows how to provide content, draw attention and to quicken interest. Knowledge on speaking appearance contributes to the improvement and upgrade of this skill. In the theoretical part of the thesis I have defined rhetoric, speaking appearances and factors that impact the successfulness of the speaking appe...

  18. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  19. Attitudes regarding the national forensic DNA database: Survey data from the general public, prison inmates and prosecutors' offices in the Republic of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorović, Smilja; Mijović, Dragan; Radovanović Nenadić, Una; Savić, Marina

    2017-01-21

    Worldwide, the establishment of national forensic DNA databases has transformed personal identification in the criminal justice system over the past two decades. It has also stimulated much debate centering on ethical issues, human rights, individual privacy, lack of safeguards and other standards. Therefore, a balance between effectiveness and intrusiveness of a national DNA repository is an imperative and needs to be achieved through a suitable legal framework. On its path to the European Union (EU), the Republic of Serbia is required to harmonize its national policies and legislation with the EU. Specifically, Chapter 24 of the EU acquis communautaire (Justice, Freedom and Security) stipulates the compulsory creation of a forensic DNA registry and adoption of corresponding legislation. This process is expected to occur in 2016. Thus, in light of launching the national DNA database, the goal of this work is to instigate a consultation with the Serbian public regarding their views on various aspects of the forensic DNA databank. Importantly, this study specifically assessed the opinions of distinct categories of citizens, including the general public, the prosecutors' offices staff, prisoners, prison guards, and students majoring in criminalistics. Our findings set a baseline for Serbian attitudes towards DNA databank custody, DNA sample and profile inclusion and retention criteria, ethical issues and concerns. Furthermore, results clearly demonstrate a permissive outlook of the respondents who are professional "beneficiaries" of genetic profiling and a restrictive position taken by the respondents whose genetic material has been acquired by the government. We believe that this opinion poll will be essential in discussions regarding a national DNA database, as well as in motivating further research on the reasons behind the observed views and subsequent development of educational strategies. All of these are, in turn, expected to aid the creation of suitable

  20. The unequal burden of pain: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carmen R; Anderson, Karen O; Baker, Tamara A; Campbell, Lisa C; Decker, Sheila; Fillingim, Roger B; Kalauokalani, Donna A; Kaloukalani, Donna A; Lasch, Kathyrn E; Myers, Cynthia; Tait, Raymond C; Todd, Knox H; Vallerand, April H

    2003-09-01

    Pain has significant socioeconomic, health, and quality-of-life implications. Racial- and ethnic-based differences in the pain care experience have been described. Racial and ethnic minorities tend to be undertreated for pain when compared with non-Hispanic Whites. To provide health care providers, researchers, health care policy analysts, government officials, patients, and the general public with pertinent evidence regarding differences in pain perception, assessment, and treatment for racial and ethnic minorities. Evidence is provided for racial- and ethnic-based differences in pain care across different types of pain (i.e., experimental pain, acute postoperative pain, cancer pain, chronic non-malignant pain) and settings (i.e., emergency department). Pertinent literature on patient, health care provider, and health care system factors that contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in pain treatment are provided. A selective literature review was performed by experts in pain. The experts developed abstracts with relevant citations on racial and ethnic disparities within their specific areas of expertise. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The abstracts were compiled for this manuscript. The draft manuscript was made available to the experts for comment and review prior to submission for publication. Consistent with the Institute of Medicine's report on health care disparities, racial and ethnic disparities in pain perception, assessment, and treatment were found in all settings (i.e., postoperative, emergency room) and across all types of pain (i.e., acute, cancer, chronic nonmalignant, and experimental). The literature suggests that the sources of pain disparities among racial and ethnic minorities are complex, involving patient (e.g., patient/health care provider communication, attitudes), health care provider (e.g., decision making), and health care system (e.g., access to pain medication) factors. There is a need for

  1. Managerial factor of ethnic minority cultural space: changes (1990 – 2000 – years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pekarchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of archival, statistical materials, analytical inputs predecessors considered the place and role of management factor in the development of cultural space Ethnic minorities during 1990 - 2000 - ies. Nonfiction includes problems of participation of public authorities in the cultural renaissance of ethnic minorities in part addresses the issue of directions, principles, nature management decisions involving relevant administrative instruments regarding implementation in practice of the basics of cultural - artistic policy. Importance designated problem caused primarily by the need to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms of decision independent state problems of interethnic relations, promoting the principles of many cultural, ethnic and national tolerance and harmony. Fundamental approaches to the creation of prerequisites cooperation executive authorities and representative bodies of national - cultural society, the maintenance of ethnic and cultural needs of ethnic groups in Ukraine. We considered the prospect of continuity and management activities in the direction of improving the principles of such support. Considerable attention is paid to the current management mechanism (mosaic bodies involved in financing, material support, investment projects. At first, in the historiography on the basis of specific methodological tools to analyze conformity issued by the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry departments strategic objectives - development of social and cultural environment Ethnic minorities of Ukraine. Particular attention is given to explaining the problems of social - political participation of ethnic minorities, ethnic consolidation of the principles of conservation of space. Stressed that the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine actively promoted satisfaction ethno-cultural needs of ethnic groups, the revival of their customs and traditions. A significant part of the articl is devoted to clarify

  2. Meta-analytic results of ethnic group differences in peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta-analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6-18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority-minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority-minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = -.02) and Biracial (d = -.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non-White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. Aggr. Behav. 42:149-170, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Perceptions of In-Service Elementary School Teachers towards Mathematics and its Teaching Regarding the Official Programs of the Ministry of Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Chaves-Esquivel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out as part of the research project Utopia in Teaching Mathematics in Elementary School, executed by the School of Mathematics at National University of Costa Rica. This article shows the perception of a group of elementary school educators about mathematics and its teaching. The information was gathered through a 66 question questionnaire, designed to assess the perception of elementary school teachers about mathematics and its teaching in relation to the current programs provided by the Ministry of Public Education, and also their perception of the initial training they obtained when they were studying and in processes of training. Among the main findings are: beliefs of teachers tend to be positive about mathematics and its teaching, and educators teaching primary school levels tend to use more problem-solving exercises in which students can apply their mathematics knowledge, rather than having learners work on routine exercises and memorize rules. However, this aspect should be strengthened and deepened in the processes of training being offered by educational authorities. Although participants considered that students’ beliefs and perceptions are quite important when framing classroom activities, a significant number of them pointed out that mathematics can make students feel insecure. Teachers feel little satisfaction regarding the theoretical aspects, teaching strategies and assessment of mathematics in public schools; they stated that their initial training is not concomitant with the work they must carry out in elementary school classrooms.

  4. What hearing children think regarding the inclusion of deaf children in the regular classroom: a comparative study with Brazilian children in a public and a private school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vargas Dorneles

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how hearing children relate to the presence of a deaf child in a classroom group. An analysis is made of the influence of social class in relation to the acceptance of the deaf child by the hearing children. The 144 children from the 3rd to 5th series that participated in the study were distributed thus: 76 from a private school and 68 from a public school, both from Porto Alegre, RS. The public school largely attended lower level socioeconomic classes, while the private school attended pupils from predominantly middle to upper social classes. All received the same task: Complete a story that describes the reaction of hearing students to the insertion of a new deaf colleague in the classroom group. The study demonstrates that pupils wish to attempt to communicate with the deaf child and would socialize with the child outside the classroom. They demonstrate a somewhat protective discourse in relation to the subject who they consider disabled but not incapable of communicating. Understanding how hearing children relate to, and include a deaf child within the classroom, raises the possibility of new forms of thinking regarding the preparation of hearing children to possible inclusion processes. Recognizing their ideas, feelings and forms of communication aids educational institutions to invest in inclusion policies.

  5. Cultural Fields, Communication and Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyday...... life and identity formation of ethnic minorities take place. We deliberately explore how ethnicity works or does not work as a marker in the configuration of the two chosen cultural fields: public libraries and ethnic media. We analyse the role of these two cultural fields in the social formation...... of Indre Nørrebro as a neighbourhood and in the local citizens' process of producing locality and a sense of belonging. How are these cultural fields structurally configured and organized, and what role do they historically and contemporarily have in the neighbourhood? The implicit assumption is that both...

  6. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    OpenAIRE

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research project addresses this neglect and discusses the often taken-for-granted assumptions that are embedded in the use of racial/ethnic meanings and categorizations by soccer commentators on television an...

  7. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research pr

  9. Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Mexican-Heritage Youth in the Southwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masaki; Hecht, Michael L; Elek, Elvira; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou

    2010-05-01

    Utilizing part of the survey data collected for a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded project from 29 public elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona (N = 1,600), this study explored the underlying structure of Mexican-heritage youths' ethnic identity and cultural/linguistic orientation. Latent profile and transition analyses identified four distinct orientation profiles endorsed by the early adolescents and their developmental trends across four time points. Most Mexican and Mexican American adolescents endorsed bicultural profiles with developmental trends characterized by widespread stasis and transitions toward greater ethnic identity exploration. Multinominal logistic regression analyses revealed associations between profile endorsement and adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status, parents' birthplace, and visits outside the United States. These findings are discussed in regard to previous findings on acculturation and ethnic identity development. Individuals' adaptation to the immediate local environment is noted as a possible cause of prevalent biculturalism. Limitations and future directions for the research on ethnic identity development and acculturation are also discussed.

  10. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value antibiotic use than those with a lower education level (P-value knowledge and attitude gaps in antibiotic use. These findings will help health policymakers in Palestine to implement intervention programmes to rationalize antibiotic use. Continuing medical education, professional development and training workshops for healthcare professionals regarding rational use of antibiotics and health risks associated with the spread of antibiotic resistance are needed. In addition, minimizing non-prescription use of antibiotics and

  11. Ethnic Motives in Russian Mass Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    2000-12-01

    nation, which fuels nationalism. Yet Russian nationalism has not yet assumed a massive level, although the mass awareness of Russians is marked by a form of traditionalism, which manifests itself not so much in adherence to traditions, as in preventing the penetration of universal (foreign values. The author (N.P. further summarised some results on the level of anti-Semitism in Russia. In this regard she presents the conclusions of the American researcher, R. Brim, who found that after the 1998 devaluation of the ruble attitudes towards Jews were divided, but with a preponderance of the negative stance. Brim concluded that political factors and leaders had the most effect on the fate of Jews in Russia. At more stable times, as Gudkov claimed, the Russian attitude towards Jews was either positive or neutral, no different then the relationship to other ethnic groups and less negative than the attitudes of non-Russians, especially in the autonomous entities, to minorities (including Jews. All in all, one researcher (Zdravomyslov estimated that ethnic nationalism in Russian society effected no more than 10% of the population. The author (N.P. also summarises the results of some comparative analyses between Russia and other former Soviet republics. First, the image of the CIS as a threat to Russia has fallen in recent years and the great majority of Russians favour peaceful methods in regard to protecting the rights of Russian minorities in the former Soviet republics (Sedov. Comparative research in the Russia, the Baltic states and the Ukraine, shows that Russians and Estonians have similar attitudes to state paternalism and a similarly divided opinion on reforms and socialism (however state paternalism has more support in Russia and reforms are slightly more favoured in Estonian public opinion. As to social fears, comparative study of public opinion in Lithuania, Russia and the Ukraine showed that respondents in Lithuania felt relatively the least social fears, while those

  12. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Ma, Rulin; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Zhang, Jingyu; Wei, Bin; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Jiaolong; Pang, Hongrui; Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-02-08

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into local preventive

  13. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into

  14. Ethnic Indentification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光学

    2004-01-01

    The ethnic identification has significant theoretical, policy-related and scientific aspects, and it has a direct bearing on the basic work of carrying out the Communist Party of China's (CPC) policy of equality for all ethnic groups. For more than thirty years, Chinese government departments at all levels concerned with ethnic affairs, starting from the actual conditions of all of China's ethnic groups,

  15. Research on Ethnic Minority Representatives in State Council Agencies During the Period of Nanjing National Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xueyin

    2016-01-01

    not regarded as elec-ted units, yet still some outstanding personages from these ethnic minorities were recommended by their provinces or other political organs as partici-pants to discuss national political affairs. In the National Assembly held on November 15 , 1946 , each of the following provinces, including Yun-nan, Guizhou, Xikang, Sichuan, Guangxi and Hunan, were allowed to send ten people who re-presented their local ethnic minorities to discuss political affairs. In the National Assembly held in March of 1948 , not only the numbers of ethnic mi-norities increased, but also the way of electing them was improved. II. An analysis of the election conditions of the ethnic minority representatives in the national state agencies. 1 . Although the numbers of ethnic minority representatives increased, nevertheless, the pro-portion of them did not. During 18 years ( 1931-1948 ) , the number of the ethnic minority repre-sentatives increased from the initial 22 to 147 . However, the proportion of them only increased by 0. 7%, which was not so remarkable. 2 . The structure of the ethnic minority repre-sentatives was complicated, but most came from the “upper classes”. In the year of 1931 , there were only 6 representatives for the state conference from both Mongolia and Tibet. By the year 1948, there were 148 ethnic minority representatives coming from Mongolian, Tibetan, Hui, Manchu, Miao, Yi, and, so on, ethnic groups. As a result, the structure of ethnic representation was more complex as the numbers increased during the peri-od of Nanjing National Government. Many repre-sentatives were elected by the selection method, and most of them came from the upper classes. Therefore, structurally, representatives from the bottom rung of society who deeply understood the sufferings of ethnic people, were lacking. 3 . The regional characteristics of the ethnic minorities were weakened and the ethnic character-istics were strengthened. With regard to the elec-tion of

  16. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research Problemas persistentes relacionados con la raza y etnia en la investigación en salud pública y epidemiología Problemas persistentes relacionados à raça e etnia na pesquisa em saúde pública e epidemiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.Se realizó revisión reciente y amplia de la utilización de raza y etnia en investigaciones dedicadas a las disparidades de salud en epidemiología y salud pública. Se describió la base teórica sobre cual raza y etnia difieren en los métodos de trabajos en ciencia, antropología social y de salud pública. La revisión fue hecha con base en la selección de artículos publicados en revistas de alto factor de impacto en lo que

  17. Can "The New Social Studies" Survive in the Public Schools?: A Case Study of the Perceptions of Significant School Related Groups Regarding Nationalistic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, David T.

    A review and discussion of the new social studies introduces the problem of whether nationalism and patriotism are "closed areas" or if an open examination of these areas is possible in the public schools. Two sets of hypotheses, one dealing with public school educators and the other with school-related groups, were tested by administration of a…

  18. How do 'Public' Values Influence Individual Health Behaviour? An Empirical-Normative Analysis of Young Men's Discourse Regarding HIV Testing Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod; Small, Will; Shoveller, Jean

    2016-11-01

    Philosophical arguments stemming from the public health ethics arena suggest that public health interventions ought to be subject to normative inquiry that considers relational values, including concepts such as solidarity, reciprocity and health equity. As yet, however, the extent to which 'public' values influence the 'autonomous' decisions of the public remains largely unexplored. Drawing on interviews with 50 men in Vancouver, Canada, this study employs a critical discourse analysis to examine participants' decisions and motivations to voluntarily access HIV testing and/or to accept a routine HIV test offer. Within a sub-set of interviews, a transactional discourse emerged in which the decision to test features an arrangement of 'giving and receiving'. Discourses related to notions of solidarity emphasize considerations of justice and positions testing as a 'public' act. Lastly, 'individualistic' discourses focused on individual-level considerations, with less concern for the broader public 'good'. These findings underscore how normative dimensions pertaining to men's decisions to test are dialectically interrelated with the broader social and structural influences on individual and collective health-related behaviour, thereby suggesting a need to advance an explicit empirical-normative research agenda related to population and public health intervention research.

  19. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  20. Ethnic differences in prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity among low-income rural Kazakh and Uyghur adults in far western China and implications in preventive public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity.A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009-2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥ 18 years old in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC.The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female's prevalence of obesity was higher than male's for general obesity (45-54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041 and abdominal obesity (≥ 55 years in Kazakhs, P(55 ∼ = 0.010, P(65 ∼ = 0.001; and ≥ 18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001. Kazakh's prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur's (general obesity: ≥ 35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ≥ 25 years in males and ≥ 65 years in females, P<0.01. The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities.Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related

  1. Os cursos de extensão em saúde e etnia na Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP, ou a diferença que precisa fazer diferença Extension summer courses on ethnic groups and Health at School of Public Health of USP, or the difference that needs to make a difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens de Camargo Ferreira Adorno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Realiza-se uma breve discussão da introdução das noções de raça/etnia e etnicidade no campo da saúde pública no Brasil, destacando-se a emergência dessa questão no contexto da universalização das políticas públicas sociais e tendo como pano de fundo a experiência de realização de cursos de extensão na área de saúde pública.This report discusses the introduction of the conceps of race, ethnics and ethnicity in Brazilian public health policies highlighting the relationships between ethnicity and universal social policies, departing from universities extension courses in public health.

  2. The census categorization of ethnic identity: Between theoretical comprehensions and statistical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical debates about ethnic identity during the second half of the 20th century did not just attract attention of academic circles, but they influenced creation of political discourse which determined public life in almost every multinational society, regardless the level of socio-economic development. In recent decades, many theories about ethnic identity have emerged, especially those about ethnicity as a relatively new concept, which caused a great deal of controversy that has been ongoing since the 1960s. Modern demography deals with problems of great social importance, especially when it comes to anthropological, social and political demography, whose results often take lead in the modern political debate. In that sense, a lot of theoretical approaches tried to emphasize the decline of importance of traditional elements of ethnic identity, even their disappearance in favor of supranational concepts, over the past more than half a century. However, in practice, the opposite processes are constantly repeating and the awareness of belonging to certain ethnic group, not only remained the important part of social life, but its significance rapidly grew in certain periods and societies. Ethnic and social pluralism of modern societies, together with massive migration flows, have initiated the review of sustainability, not only the traditional definitions of ethnic identity, but also the various supranational concepts which have mostly emerged from ethnic identification and legal nationality. The fear that ethno-cultural pluralism will have negative effects on ethno-demographic differentiation increased the need for quantitative researches of demographic characteristics of population towards ethnic marks, also for reviewing of methodological solutions of ethno-statistic evidence, starting from definitions, categorizations and statistic classification, as far as the ways of collecting and publishing the data. In that sense the censuses are

  3. In the eyes of the beholder: National identification predicts differential reactions to ethnic identity expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Adelman, Levi; Parker, Michael T; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined how perceivers' national identification influences their implicit and explicit attitudes toward White and non-White ethnic groups whose members express their ethnic identity overtly in public or discreetly in private spaces. Results revealed that at a conscious level, White American perceivers' national identification elicited more negative attitudes toward both White and non-White ethnic groups when members embraced their ethnic heritage in public rather than in private. However, at an unconscious level, White perceivers' identification with the national group led to less favorable attitudes toward non-White ethnic groups, but not White ethnic groups, when their group members embraced ethnic identity in public. By integrating research on national identification, ethnic identity expression, and prejudice, the present research highlights some conditions under which majority group members' national identification affects how they perceive ethnic subgroups within the nation.

  4. Speech-Language Services in Public Schools: How Policy Ambiguity Regarding Eligibility Criteria Impacts Speech-Language Pathologists in a Litigious and Resource Constrained Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Public school districts must determine which students are eligible to receive special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This study, which involves 39 interviews with speech-language pathologists and school administrators, examines how eligibility recommendations are made for one widely…

  5. Assessing the Use of Aggregate Data in the Evaluation of School-Based Interventions: Implications for Evaluation Research and State Policy Regarding Public-Use Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin T.; Goddard, Roger D.; Kim, Eun Sook

    2014-01-01

    It is often difficult and costly to obtain individual-level student achievement data, yet, researchers are frequently reluctant to use school-level achievement data that are widely available from state websites. We argue that public-use aggregate school-level achievement data are, in fact, sufficient to address a wide range of evaluation questions…

  6. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  7. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS REGARDING THE DEGREE OF SATISFACTION OF THE SERVICES GIVEN BY THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CARE HOMES FOR THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ZODIERIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic and social realities of our country, more and more elderly choose to spend the last years of his life in homes for the elderly. Reasons for choosing this path are many, but the most important is the lack of support and the need for personal care companions. These two reasons were cited by the elderly from the study, adding that they do not want to be a burden for their children. One of the problems encountered when an elderly person decides to enter a home is the dilemma of choosing a public or private care home. In these circumstances, the present study aims to present the public-private comparative perspective, the realities of the homes of the elderly both in terms of material and human conditions and the satisfaction of the beneficiaries of these homes.

  8. Do attitudes, intentions and actions of school food coordinators regarding public organic food procurement policy improve the eating environment at school? Results from the iPOPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P organic food (P food and nutrition policy (P food and nutrition policy in pedagogical activities (P = 0·004), to serve nutritional school meals (P organic schools were less likely to adopt a food and nutrition policy (P organic schools. The study suggests that there is a gap in the effects of public organic food procurement policy on building a healthier school food environment.

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex...

  10. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document.

  11. Ethnic Identity at a Majority Hispanic-Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the ethnic identity of Cuban American and non-Hispanic White college students at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida. Current Latino/a and White college student ethnic identity theories are limited regarding a variety of contextual considerations such as immigration, majority-minority demographics, student…

  12. Race and Ethnicity in Empirical Research: An 18-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kimber L.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Wells, Eliza M.

    2009-01-01

    Extending previous research (E. A. Delgado-Romero, N. Galvan, P. Maschino, & M. Rowland, 2005) regarding race and ethnicity in counseling and counseling psychology, this article examined how race and ethnicity were reported and used in empirical studies published in diversity-focused journals from 1990 to 2007. The results are discussed and…

  13. A Critical Review of Chinese Ethnic Law Studies in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunwu; Wang Jie; Liao Yanping

    2015-01-01

    I. Basic Theory of Ethnic Law Studies As a mature discipline,research on the basic theory of ethnic law studies is no longer the focus of research. Nonetheless,this does not deny that it is a research of reflection and transcendence. In 2014,there were also important achievements with regard to this aspect. Concerning theory within the discipline of ethnic law studies,Wu Zongjin made a review on the development process of this disci ̄pline,and stated that the in-depth implementation of ethnic regional autonomy, the design of ethnic law institutions,the guarantee of ethnic rights legis ̄lation,and legal administration on ethnic work,etc. are still the responsibility of this discipline. Con ̄cerning the theory of the rule of law in ethnic are ̄as,it seems that a breakthrough was difficult. In 2014,Li Chao and Wang Huaju proposed a thor ̄ough evaluation of the rule of law in ethnic areas, but stated that this evaluation is facing problems due to the lack of local knowledge and lack of an efficient evaluation methodology and scientific su ̄pervision system. Hence,a concept for a scientific evaluation should be constructed, and local ethnic law resources should be found,and members of the various ethnic groups should participate.

  14. 政府信息公开的若干法律问题探究%A Study on the Legal Issues Regarding Publicity of Government Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡平

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of "Ordinance of publicity of government information" has far reaching significance in safeguarding citizens' right to know,improving government transparency,and promoting administration according to law.Nevertheless,in practice,the following issues are of vital importance: the proper definition of government information,the scope and disclosure methods of government information,the identification of excluded areas of government information,the understanding of how the ordinance fits into related regulations and the balance between government information publicity and privacy protection.%《政府信息公开条例》的施行,对保障公民知情权、提高政府工作透明度、促进依法行政意义重大。但在执法实践中,正确界定政府信息,明确政府信息的公开范围和方式,科学甄别政府信息公开的其他排除范围,厘清《政府信息公开条例》与相关法律的适用关系,以及掌握政府信息公开与"卷宗阅览权"、"隐私权"保护的关系至关重要。

  15. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. The paper shows that the spatial distribution of immigrants is strongly connected with the tenure composition...... of immigrants in social/public housing.......Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  16. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background....... An emerging field of research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation was identified, compared to the research in North America. However, the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation is growing. The European research has shown differences in outdoor recreation pattern (e.g. the motives for outdoor...... for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...

  17. Orthodontic treatment need in Dubai school adolescents: a study of 20,000 school-age adolescents in 66 public and private schools comparing orthodontic treatment need by gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jeshi, Ameena; Al-Mulla, Anas; Ferguson, Donald J

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare and contrast the orthodontic treatment needs of Dubai school-age school age children as a function of gender and ethnicity. A total of 20,880 subjects were screened in 66 public and private school located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The study sample was grouped according to seven geographic regions. The total sample included 9,765 females and 11,115 males. Ages ranged from 9.08 years to 24.4 years with an overall mean age of 14.5 years. Calibrated dentists examined school age children using Peer Assessment Rating Index (PAR). PAR scores were translated to Index for Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) scores based upon the description of each of the 31 IOTN line item descriptions that constitute IOTN grades from 1 to 5. Upon completion, statistical comparison of the study variables by gender and ethnicity was applied. Evaluation of IOTN grade by gender demonstrated significantly higher male (2.52) than female (2.47, p=0.002) grade; comparison of IOTN grade by region showed South Asia (2.58) significantly higher than Middle East (2.43). IOTN grade was highest for South Asia males (2.62) which was significantly higher than South Asia females (2.55, p=0.023) and higher than both Middle East males and females (2.45 and 2.41, p=.000). Moreover, average South Asia female IOTN grade was significantly higher (p=0.000) than for both Middle East males and females. Conclusions 1. In Dubai school-aged adolescents, 53.2% of the study sample would benefit from orthodontic treatment and 14.4% were profiled as "treatment require". 2. Within the Middle East region, UAE subjects had higher mean IOTN grade than subjects from Iran, Syria and Yemen. 3. India males had significantly higher mean IOTN grades than Middle East male and female subjects from UAE, Iran, Syria, and Yemen. 4. India females had significantly higher mean IOTN grades than Middle East female subjects from UAE, Iran, Syria, and Yemen. It may be concluded that males and females

  18. Hypertension and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Amanda; Parto, Parham; Krim, Selim R

    2016-07-01

    Despite its continued increase in prevalence in minorities, data regarding hypertension (HTN) control among such ethnic groups remains limited. This review highlights the most recent literature on the epidemiology, prevalence, and treatment strategies of HTN among four racial groups (non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians). Overall awareness and treatment of HTN were found to be higher in blacks when compared with NHWs. Access to health insurance is associated with successful HTN control, particularly among the Hispanic populations. Recent data from SBP Intervention Trial suggests the blood pressure control and adherence rates in blacks were highest among men, with a higher number of comorbidities, and on diuretic therapy. Additionally, the initiation of thiazide-type diuretics and calcium channel blocker was superior to β-adrenergic blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers in blood pressure lowering among blacks. However, no specific treatment recommendations exist for Hispanics or Asians. Finally, recent guidelines from the Joint National Commission recommend initial treatment with a thiazide-type diuretic regardless of race. Despite recent progress, racial disparities in awareness and treatment of HTN continue to exist. To reduce this important gap, future research should focus on epidemiologic, genetic, and sociologic factors as well as specific therapies to achieve maximum medical benefit in these subgroups.

  19. Recent Dutch and Belgian approaches to ethnicity in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, K.; Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article is an editorial introduction to the five contributions to a two-day Dutch-Belgian workshop on ethnicity in Africa (Leiden, The Netherlands, December 1991) selected for publication in the present issue of 'Afrika Focus'. It highlights various aspects of the study of ethnicity which emerg

  20. Perspectives of Patients, Doctors and Medical Students at a Public University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro Regarding Tuberculosis and Therapeutic Adherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth da Trindade de Andrade

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target.To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment.Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis.Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence.The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health

  1. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO BODY FLUIDS AND BEHAVIORS REGARDING THEIR PREVENTION AND POST-EXPOSURE AMONG MEDICAL AND NURSING STUDENTS AT A BRAZILIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes de Souza-Borges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1% medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5% nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9% suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%, with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%, in the emergency room (39.7%, and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%. Among nursing students, 27 (18.1% suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6% in the operating room or wards (72.2%, and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%. Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in “standard precautions” to prevent such exposures.

  2. Occupational exposures to body fluids and behaviors regarding their prevention and post-exposure among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Borges, Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes de; Ribeiro, Larissa Araújo; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1%) medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5%) nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9%) suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%), with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%), in the emergency room (39.7%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%). Among nursing students, 27 (18.1%) suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6%) in the operating room or wards (72.2%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%). Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in "standard precautions" to prevent such exposures.

  3. The impact of assumptions regarding vaccine-induced immunity on the public health and cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination: Is one dose sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Desmond; de Ridder, Marc; Van Effelterre, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis A vaccination stimulates memory cells to produce an anamnestic response. In this study, we used a mathematical model to examine how long-term immune memory might convey additional protection against clinical/icteric infections. Dynamic and decision models were used to estimate the expected number of cases, and the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), respectively. Several scenarios were explored by assuming: (1) varying duration of vaccine-induced immune memory, (2) and/or varying levels of vaccine-induced immune memory protection (IMP), (3) and/or varying levels of infectiousness in vaccinated individuals with IMP. The base case analysis assumed a time horizon of 25 y (2012 - 2036), with additional analyses over 50 and 75 y. The analyses were conducted in the Mexican public health system perspective. In the base case that assumed no vaccine-induced IMP, the 2-dose hepatitis A vaccination strategy was cost-effective compared with the 1-dose strategy over the 3 time horizons. However, it was not cost-effective if we assumed additional IMP durations of at least 10 y in the 25-y horizon. In the 50- and 75-y horizons, the 2-dose strategy was always cost-effective, except when 100% reduction in the probability of icteric Infections, 75% reduction in infectiousness, and mean durations of IMP of at least 50 y were assumed. This analysis indicates that routine vaccination of toddlers against hepatitis A virus would be cost-effective in Mexico using a single-dose vaccination strategy. However, the cost-effectiveness of a second dose depends on the assumptions of additional protection by IMP and the time horizon over which the analysis is performed.

  4. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...... to their ethnic Danish counterparts. The adolescents use different areas for outdoor recreation: the adolescents with ethnic Danish background use sports grounds for outdoor recreation, while adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds use urban green spaces for outdoor recreation. For activities reported...... comparison of to what extend and in what way policy documents and research approaches take into account ethnic minority groups. The findings indicate that there is a correlation in the current national research approaches of the four countries and the societal and political context of the four countries...

  5. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...... recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... to their ethnic Danish counterparts. The adolescents use different areas for outdoor recreation: the adolescents with ethnic Danish background use sports grounds for outdoor recreation, while adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds use urban green spaces for outdoor recreation. For activities reported...

  6. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population....... The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition...... not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic...

  7. Ethnic Conflict in Central Europe and the Balkans: A Framework and U.S. Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    relevance of nationality based on ethnic lines. For example, Germany has retained exclusivist policies regarding the acquisition of citizenship, stemming...that in the western part of Europe. Frustrated Nationalism The exclusivist tendencies inherent in ethnic nationalism in the cen- tral part of Europe...Ethnic Nationalism Under Communism Communist domination of the region did not result in the elimina- tion of the exclusivist ethnic nationalist

  8. The Challenges of the Local Management of Ethnic-Religious Diversity in Montreal: The Case of the Fitting Out of Places of Worship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Germain

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the case of Montreal, the author reviews the set of experiences of public intervention in the area of management of ethnic-religious diversity, which has led to the formulation of new debates with regard to the fit of this plurality in the urban space. The challenges posed by the incorporation of these new religious references in the configuring of the urban fabric also opens up questions on the meaning of cohabitation in increasingly plural neighbourhoods.

  9. Ethnic disparities in access to care in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Zeida R; Lackan, Nuha

    2008-12-01

    We investigated ethnic disparities in obtaining medical care among the 4 major ethnic groups (Blacks, Whites, Coloreds [i.e., those of mixed race], and Asians) in post-apartheid South Africa. Data for the study came from the 2002 Afrobarometer: Round II Survey of South Africa. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine differences across racial and ethnic groups in how often respondents went without medical care. A total of 40.8% of Blacks and 22.9% of Coloreds reported going without medical care at some point in the past year, compared with 10.9% of Whites and 6.9% of Asians. Disparities were found not only in health but in education, income, and basic public health infrastructures. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions regarding democracy, markets, and civil society were similar for Blacks and Coloreds and for Whites and Asians. Fourteen years after the end of apartheid, Blacks and Coloreds in South Africa are still underserved and disadvantaged compared with their White and Asian counterparts, especially regarding health care.

  10. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... pattern. The survey was conducted in two school districts: in North West Copenhagen and the municipality of Ringkøbing-Skjern (n=449, aged 14-16 years, 365 adolescents with ethnic Danish background, and 84 adolescents with ethnic minority background). The results of the questionnaire have shown both...... carried out during some part of the year, “going for a walk”, “barbequing”, “taking a trip with family” were frequently cited by both groups, but more common among adolescents with ethnic minority background. “Walking the dog” was much more common among adolescents with Danish background, who also more...

  11. Public attitude formation regarding animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A number of attitudinal studies have examined support for the use of animals in research. However, on the whole they have come to rather different conclusions. In our reasearch, which is based on focus group discussions held in Denmark, we attempted to explain this variation by examining the way ......, especially for the Reserved who experience ambivalence. Future quantitative analyses should take into consideration that attitutes in the field of animal experimentation can be viewed (and measured) both at an underlying value-based level and at a context-specific level.......A number of attitudinal studies have examined support for the use of animals in research. However, on the whole they have come to rather different conclusions. In our reasearch, which is based on focus group discussions held in Denmark, we attempted to explain this variation by examining the way...... the relevant attitudes are formed. Although our participants had only limited knowledge of, and interest in, animal use in research, they were perfecly capable of developing reasoned attitudes to it by drawing on evaluative considerations concerning animal use in general. Furthermore, the evaluation of animal...

  12. PROMOTING CIVIC ENGAGEMENT THROUGH ETHNIC MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ahadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic media, defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (for the ethnic program specifically as “one, in any language, that is specifically directed to any culturally or racially distinct group other than one that is Aboriginal Canadian or from France or the British Isles” (CRTC, 1999, are emerging to offer new communicative civic spaces to ethno-cultural citizens. Studies, however, suggest that while they may not be completely disconnected from broader society, they remain largely “distinct from the dominant public sphere” (Karim, 2002. The majority are focused on a single ethnic group and develop in isolation of each other to cater to their specific group’s interests. Such an isolationist tendency is a concern in multicultural societies in that it can potentially intensify political, socio-economic, and cultural divides among older and new populations and develop “parallel societies” (Hafez, 2007 and a fragmented citizenship. Whether or not ethnic media will lead to hindering immigrants’ civic integration by raising citizens of communities rather than citizens of the broader society needs to be empirically validated. This paper, therefore, explores the distinction between mainstream and ethnic media through a comparative content analysis on coverage of the October 14 2008 Canadian federal election in English and Korean press in British Colombia, Canada. The findings suggest that in-group orientation is in fact more distinct in English media with significantly low attention given to ethnic minorities either as candidates or voters. Ethnic media, on the other hand, undertake significant citizenship education by delivering step-by-step “how-to” information about the election to immigrants who are less familiar with the Canadian political system to assist them in exercising voting rights.

  13. Analysis of Decision C-355 of 2006 of the Constitutional Court of Colombia regarding the liberalization of abortion in Colombia: Jusphilosophical arguments underlying the debate within Habermas perspective on the role of religion in the public sphere with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aguirre Román

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This text is a product of a research project focused on the perspective that the Constitutional Court of Colombia has taken with regard to the religious arguments presented in constitutional legal actions. The theoretical framework used to develop the analysis is Habermas’ account of the role of religion in the public sphere as well as his ideas on the role of the constitutional tribunals. In this particular text the case selected was the case law C-355 of 2006. In this case, the Court decriminalize, in some cases, the voluntary interruption of pregnancy. In order to develop a full analysis of such a controversial issue, Habermas’ perspective is complemented with Dworkin’s own view on the topic.

  14. Review - Inter-Ethnic Dynamics in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ramirez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Culas, Christian and François Robinne (eds. 2009. Inter-ethnic Dynamics in Asia: Considering the Other Through Ethnonyms, Territories and Ritual. London: New York: Routledge. 215. Bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-415-55936-2 (hardcover, 130USD, 978-0-203-86138-7 (ebook, 99.61USD. One of this volume's many merits is that it sets out to seriously address ethnic categorization in Upland Southeast Asia. Many valuable publications have dealt specifically with ethnicity in this region, where the complex intricacies of collective identities are easily noticed by social scientists. A strongpoint of this volume is its highlighting certain dimensions that have traditionally received little attention. This is thanks to a relatively unusual approach aimed at understanding horizontal inter-ethnic relationships. While many scholars have focused on relations between the state and 'minorities', or on opposition between hills and valleys – and sometimes both, as in the case of Scott (2009 – this compilation examines the manifold identity relations that "structure the ethnic groups' social spaces on a local or micro-regional level" (1.

  15. Revitalization of ethnic identity among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krel Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's, many members of the German national minority have awaken from the several decades long sleep in 'ethnic hibernation'. Several associations have been founded at that time, with an aim to gather and encourage ethnic feelings of the Germans living in Vojvodina. These associations work toward revitalization and reconstruction of the German ethnic and cultural identity. There are quite a few of such institutions today, and one of them is German association promoting good neighbor relations Karlowitz, Sremski Karlovci. This paper will discuss transformation of an ethnic identity strategy among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci; in addition, I will analyze modus operandi by which this local association aims at keeping and encouraging certain elements of the ethnic and cultural particulars. The results of the research point out how a relatively small group, without social power, can define and redefine its own identity, in regards to historical, social and economic conditions.

  16. 服务购买型公私合作(PPP)项目财政补偿的有效区间研究%The Study on the Effective Range of Fiscal Compensation of Public Private Partnerships Project Regarding Services Sold to the Public Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振; 王秀婧; 刘华

    2013-01-01

    Through the comparison of investment and operating costs occurred under traditional development and Public Private Partnerships (PPP) regarding services sold to the public sector, this paper studies the fundamental model regarding the effective range of fiscal compensation, as well as its evolution in the context of the existence of advanced supply of public service. The model shows that due to the advantages in finance, technology and management, the private entities could produce the "win-win range" of PPP projects, and both public and private stakeholders can gain benefit by fiscal compensation on the range.%通过对比传统开发与公私合作(PPP)两种模式下的投资和经营成本,研究服务购买型PPP项目财政补偿有效区间的基础模型;考虑公共服务提前供应条件下基础模型的演变,表明由于民间实体利用其资金、技术以及管理优势,能够创造出PPP项目的“双赢区间”,在该区间内进行财政补偿,公私双方都能获益.

  17. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  18. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  19. Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily association between normative stressful demands and happiness, and between stressful demands and happiness experienced 1 day after stressors occurred. Moderating effects were significant even after controlling for self-esteem. Although no buffering effects of ethnic centrality were found, the results point to the positive influence of ethnic regard in the daily lives of adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds.

  20. Research on the Mode of Translation Regarding Chinese Martial Arts in Public Venues in Southeast Asia%侨乡武术东南亚会馆化传播方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海滨

    2012-01-01

    采用文献资料法、调查法和文化学的相关理论,考察侨乡武术在东南亚会馆化传播的历史与现状,总结了东南亚会馆化传播武术的作用及出现的问题,提出解决问题的对策和方法。结果表明:会馆化传播是侨乡武术在东南亚最主要的传播方式。会馆化传播,发挥了武术家的传承力量;会馆化传播,使武术的传播焕发出勃勃生机;使武术的交流和竞赛国际化。完善习武观念,提高理论技术水平;发挥名人作用,规范传统武术传承;规划武术品牌,弘扬传统武术精华,使传统武术在东南亚更好地传播。%The author has analyzed the method of communication regarding Chinese Martial Arts in public venues in Southeast Asia by looking at its history and current situation. The author summed up the advantages and disadvantages of martial arts in public venues of Southeast Asia and then proposed some solutions and methods to solve the problems. The results indicate that communicating in public venues is the most effective mode in the Southeast Asia. Using public venues for martial arts activities gave people a sense of tradition and heritage, adding vitality and good communication for competition and internationalization. To perfect the martial arts concepts, we need to raise the level of theory and technology, to play the role of celebrity and improve the tradition of martial arts. The planning of the types of martial arts and the promotion of traditional Wushu will assist better dissemination of traditional martial arts in Southeast Asia.

  1. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Ethnic Heritage Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Theresia

    Designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines, this teaching guide focuses on ethnic foods and their influence on and contributions to America's eating habits. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Project described in ED 150 043. The objective of this unit is to develop a knowledge and an appreciation of the food…

  2. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore M. Veldhuizen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations.

  3. Ethnic Speech and Ethnic Action as Ethnic Behavior I: Construction of the Brunel Ethnic Behavior Inventory (BEBI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, SO; Lefringhausen, K; Charura, D; Kangatharan, J; Singh, J; Tamimi, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the construction of a new survey – specifically, the Brunel Ethnic Behavior Inventory (BEBI) – designed to measure ethnic speech and ethnic action as separate, yet related, aspects of individuals’ ethnic behavior. Using Tajfel’s (1981; Tajfel & Turner, 1986) social identity theory as our conceptual frame of reference, we sought an answer to the research question of how many factors actually are measured by the BEBI; and we tested the hypothesis that a two-factor mode...

  4. Ethnicity, Marriage and Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Matz, Julia Anna

    2013-01-01

    This study adds a microeconomic perspective to the discussion on ethnic diversity and economic performance in developing countries by investigating the motivation for intra-ethnicity marriage in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, the paper proposes that ethnic similarity between spouses enhances economic outcomes through a shared agricultural production technology. Furthermore, the framework suggests that the probability of marriage within the same ethnic group is positively related to t...

  5. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.

  6. Ethnic/Race Diversity and Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha Muthu Muthuppalaniappan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity and race are often used interchangeably in the literature. However, the traditional definition of race and ethnicity is related to biological (bone structure and skin, hair, or eye color and sociological factors (nationality, regional culture, ancestry, and language respectively. Diabetes mellitus (DM is a huge global public health problem. As the number of individuals with Type 2 DM grows, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD, which is one of the most serious complications, is expected to rise sharply. Many ethnic and racial groups have a greater risk of developing DM and its associated macro and micro-vascular complications.

  7. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  8. Ethnic Identity: Crisis and Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Aureliano Sandoval

    1990-01-01

    Presents Chicano/Latino ethnic identity development model that fosters understanding of ethnic identity conflicts particular to Chicano and Latino clients. Presents five stages (causal, cognitive, consequence, working through, and successful resolution) in relationship to ethnic identity conflicts, interventions, and resolution. Combines several…

  9. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture.

  10. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  11. 中国2013年突发公共卫生事件媒体监测信息分析%Information obtained through Internet-based media surveillance regarding domestic public health emergencies in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟玲; 吕勇; 曹洋; 涂文校; 洪志恒; 李雷雷; 倪大新; 李群; 金连梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the information obtained through Internet-based media surveillance in 2013 on domestic public health emergencies and to compare with the related data reported through Chinese Public Health Emergency Management Information System (PHEMIS),and to study the role of Intemet-based Media Surveillance Program (IBMSP) in the detection of public health emergencies.Methods A descriptive analysis was conducted based on the database of the information on domestic public health emergencies.Information was obtained through the Internetbased media surveillance in 2013.Results A total of 752 pieces of information regarding domestic public health emergencies in 31 provinces were obtained,through the IBMSP,run by the China CDC in 2013.53.46% of all the information were categorized as initial ones on public health emergency while another 22.07% were considered as updated ones.41.62% of the information were related to infectious diseases with another 24.73% to food poisoning.27.53% of the information were from official websites of governments and professional organizations,with the rest 72.47% were from media.As for corresponding public health emergencies,41.79% were food poisoning and 18.66% were infectious diseases.22.39% of them occurred in schools,18.16% in other organizations and 16.92% in households.28.86% were reported through Chinese PHEMIS.For the 116 public health emergencies that both related to information obtained through Internet-based media surveillance in 2013 and reported through PHEMIS,the median days of interval between illness onset of the first case as well as reported by media,interval between onset of the first case as well as reported through PHEMIS,were 2.5 days and 2.0 days respectively.19.83% of the emergencies were first reported by media than through PHEMIS.Conclusion Internet-based media surveillance programs had become an important way to detect public health emergencies and could serve as the supplement to

  12. [The activity of the State Sanitary Inspectorate after implementation of the act of January, 23 2009 "Amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaś, Dariusz; Skórczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The restructuring of the State Sanitary Inspectorate was determined by the need to adjust the existing system to the new structure- and task-oriented standards introduced by the administrative reforms at the provincial level. This brought about a lot of changes in the way State County Sanitary Inspectors operate. For first few months after the enforcement of the Act of January 23.2009 amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level (Journal of Laws, No. 92, item. 753, 2009) brought about a lot of ambiguities and expectations. Such unresolved issues are typical for the initial or transition period after implementation of a new law. The approach to the operation of the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level depicted in the article lays the emphasis on the challenges in the legal and task-oriented domain that arose after coming into force of the aforementioned amendment. By way of conclusion, the authors of the article briefly summaries the practical outcomes of the transformations undergone by the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level.

  13. Ethnic voting in the Andes: how ethnicity and ethnic attitudes shape presidential vote choice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, S. G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of ethnic politics has been a prominent feature of Latin America’s recent history, particularly in the Andes where much of the population claim some indigenous descent. Prominent politicians use ethnicity to frame important aspects of their political projects and identities, survey data show an emerging ethnic voting gap in several countries, and political protests, debates, and media coverage periodically expose strong ethnic undercurrents. Yet existing scholarship has not examined ...

  14. Donor designation: racial and ethnic differences in US nondesignators’ preferred methods for disclosing intent to donate organs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Purnell, Tanjala S; Powe, Neil R; Troll, Misty U; Wang, Nae‐Yuh; LaVeist, Thomas A; Ebony Boulware, L

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in preferred methods of disclosing deceased organ donation intentions among persons not previously designating their organ donation preferences publicly...

  15. Commodification of Transitioning Ethnic Enclaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants’ identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood’s ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave’s ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it. PMID:25431441

  16. Commodification of transitioning ethnic enclaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-09-29

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants' identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood's ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave's ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it.

  17. Commodification of Transitioning Ethnic Enclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Terzano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants’ identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers. One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood’s ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave’s ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it.

  18. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities.

  19. Diversity disorders: Ethnicity and newsroom cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Hultén

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sweden, as many other European countries, has been engaged in the debate concerning the relationships between social cohesion and the media. The article examines the tension between officially expressed attitudes and diversity goals of Swedish newsrooms and how journalists who have foreign backgrounds perceive these. Despite the intense discussions in recent years concerning media's role in a multi-ethnic context Swedish media organizations have not yet developed an effective means of promoting and implementing diversity in the newsrooms. The interviewed journalists draw attention to the dilemma of not being accepted in majority dominated newsrooms and stress the need to change editorial organization patterns, newsroom cultures and to re-define journalistic missions regarding ethnic diversity. The article concerns the market focus of news production and argues that the present tendency to mainstream cultural diversity in media content may lead to the exclusion of minority voices and thus undermining diversity efforts.

  20. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  1. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design: The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389 population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study. Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results: The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion: We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway.

  2. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Depression in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Trepka, Mary Jo; Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Bahelah, Raed; Avent, Tenesha

    2016-09-01

    Objectives More than 10 % of pregnant women in the United States (U.S.) suffer from depression, which has far-reaching consequences on maternal and fetal well-being. There is conflicting evidence regarding the prevalence of antenatal depression among different race and ethnic groups. This systematic review aimed to summarize the existing literature concerning racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and correlates of antenatal depression in the U.S. Methods PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched online for research studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals until March 2015, using a pre-designed search strategy. Eligibility was determined using pre-specified criteria; and quality was assessed. Results Forty-one (41) articles met the criteria; 13 were cross-sectional, and 21 were longitudinal studies. Overall, the prevalence of antenatal depression was 10-30 %; it was higher among non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) and Hispanics, compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). Few studies looked at the correlates of depression by race/ethnicity. Among employed women, higher depression scores were observed among NHBs, compared to NHWs; while there was no racial difference among unemployed women. Racial difference and race-employment interaction disappeared once discrimination was accounted for. In another study, higher parity, higher stress, and lower self-esteem were significant correlates of depression among NHBs, while less satisfaction with social support, and higher stress predicted higher depression scores among NHWs and Hispanics respectively. Conclusions The findings of our review suggest that not only is antenatal depression a major public health issue that needs to be addressed, but different racial/ethnic groups seem to differ in their vulnerability and risk factors.

  3. Ethnic Pride and Cardiovascular Health among Mexican American Adults along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; Balcazar, Hector G; Lee Rosenthal, E.; Cardenas, Victor M; Schulz, Leslie O.

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed the association between items from the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and cardiovascular health. Specifically, we assessed whether ethnic pride was associated with health outcomes after controlling for items regarding language, place where the childhood was spent, and ethnic interaction. The study was a cross-sectional…

  4. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  5. Motor Development in Canadian Infants of Asian and European Ethnic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayson, Tanja A.; Backman, Catherine L.; Harris, Susan R.; Hayes, Virginia E.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic origin is one factor that may influence the rate or sequence of infant motor development, interpretation of screening test results, and decisions regarding early intervention. The primary purpose of this study is to compare motor development screening test scores from infants of Asian and European ethnic origins. Using a cross-sectional…

  6. The Impact and Role of the Yi Civil Corps on Ethnic Work in Liangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Linying

    2013-01-01

    The formation and growth of Yi Civil Corps of the CPLA ( Chinese People ’ s Lib-eration Army ) Chengdu military region began and developed with the establishment of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture .From the beginning to the end of its 34 year mission of military develop-ment the Yi Civil Corps made an irreplaceable con-tribution to the liberation of the people and the e-conomic development in Liangshan .However , due to various reasons , this unique historical episode which linked the military and civil people only re-mains in folk memory and was recorded only in some unpublished internal materials .So, the ma-jority of the public does not know about it .Based upon references taken from publications by Liang Wenying , Mao Junru , Li Shian and the Chinese Academy of Sciences , this article , for the first time, discusses the special military history of the CPLA by taking Yi Civil Corps as an example . After the CPLA liberated Liangshan in March , 1950 , in order to maintain local social or-der, speed up production and construction , and cultivate ethnic cadres , Liao Zhigao , the Party secretary of Sichuan province of the time , together with the Party Committee in Tibetan and Yi re-gions, established the Yi and Tibetan Civil Corps of the CPLA in November 1952.They did this by taking into account the reality and characteristics of ethnic works in the Tibetan and Yi regions , and af-ter reporting to the central military commission for approval .The establishment of Yi Civil Corps adds a new historical page for the glorious history of the Yi people .Just like the establishment of all levels of governments of the Yi people , it marks a new beginning in the lives of the Yi people .It declared a revival for the Yi people who had experienced great vicissitudes , the separation of their family clans, constant internal warfare , and who were generally in a poor and backward situation .The establishment of the Yi Civil Corps not only em-bodied the Chinese Communist

  7. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each......, while the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....

  8. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each...... individual’s residential surroundings. We focus on contextual diversity within a radius of 80 meters of a given individual, but compare the effect in the micro-context to the impact of diversity in more aggregate contexts. The results show that ethnic diversity in the micro-context affects trust negatively...

  9. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  10. Place of Ethnic Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    UMAR Abdurehim of the Uygur ethnic group, aged 65, livesin Kuqa County, Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Facing the gate in the courtyard of his home is a row of buildings: from right to left a sitting room, bedrooms and kitchen. In front of the house is a five-meter-wide carpeted corridor. Umar's two-year-old grandson swings playfully on a long rope hanging from the trellis. A household specializing in tourism, the family receives countless tourists. The child is obviously accustomed to visitors and poses for photographs like a professional.

  11. Ethnic Differences in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette; Kallehave, Tina; Hansen, Sune Jon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe, analyse and discuss the major findings of the qualitative phase of the EDUMIGROM project. The questions of analysis are: 1. How do social, gender and “ethnic” factors and their interplay inform performance, attendance and the general position of “minority......-ethnic environment play in the process? How do experiences of “othering” inform the shaping of “minority ethnic” identity? 4. Who are the agents (institutions, persons) responsible for promoting equal opportunities in the education of “minority ethnic” youth, and for diminishing the gap between majority and minority...

  12. Maori intellectual property rights and the formation of ethnic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This article questions and contextualizes the emergence of a discourse of intellectual property rights in Māori society. It is argued that Māori claims regarding intellectual property function primarily to demarcate ethnic boundaries between Māori and non-Māori. Māori consider the reinforcement of e

  13. Ethnic Identity and Cultural Achievement: Popular Mythology and Archeological Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ron

    The difficulties faced by ethnic groups today are related not only to widespread unfamiliarity with the cultural evolution of specific groups, but to an inadequate popular understanding of the processes of cultural evolution itself, i.e., man's prehistory. Archeology can make significant contributions in this regard by counteracting the…

  14. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities among People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan; Morales, Miguel A.; Li, Henan; Fujiura, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities are a pervasive public health problem. Emerging research finds similar health disparities among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) compared to nondisabled adults. However, few studies have examined racial and ethnic health disparities among adults with IDD. Using national data, we…

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Community Illness: Primary Prevention of Racism in Ethnically Heterogenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Suzanne

    This paper summarizes research in which the public health models of epidemiological assessment and primary prevention were used to (1) determine the prevalence of ethnic social segregation among school children in Toronto, Canada; and (2) alter ethnically segregated friendship patterns in Toronto schools. A preliminary study of children aged 12 to…

  16. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  17. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  18. Ethnicity identification from face images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  19. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities ...

  20. The contribution of cultural competence to evidence-based care for ethnically diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Stanley J; Tilley, Jacqueline Lee; Jones, Eduardo O; Smith, Caitlin A

    2014-01-01

    Despite compelling arguments for the dissemination of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), questions regarding their relevance to ethnically diverse populations remain. This review summarizes what is known about psychotherapy effects with ethnic minorities, with a particular focus on the role of cultural competence when implementing EBTs. Specifically, we address three questions: (a) does psychotherapy work with ethnic minorities, (b) do psychotherapy effects differ by ethnicity, and (c) does cultural tailoring enhance treatment effects? The evidence suggests that psychotherapy is generally effective with ethnic minorities, and treatment effects are fairly robust across cultural groups and problem areas. However, evidence for cultural competence is mixed. Ethnic minority-focused treatments frequently incorporate culturally tailored strategies, and these tailored treatments are mostly efficacious; yet support for cultural competence as a useful supplement to standard treatment remains equivocal at best. We also discuss research limitations, areas for future research, and clinical implications.

  1. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  2. Ethnicity and the experience of work: job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G V F; Travers, C J

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'.

  3. Debating the viability of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilna Bashi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Immigration and the Political Economy of Home: West Indian Brooklyn and American Indian Minneapolis, 1945-1992. RACHEL BUFF. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 2001. xv + 240 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 Black Cuban, Black American: A Memoir. EVELIO GRILLO. Houston TX: Arte Püblico Press, 2000. xvi + 134 pp. (Paper US$ 13.95 West Indian in the West: Self Representations in an Immigrant Community. PERCY C. HINTZEN. New York: New York University Press, 2001. x + 200pp. (Paper US$ 18.50 Caribbean Families in Britain and the Transatlantic World. HARRY GOULBOURNE & MARY CHAMBERLAIN (eds.. Oxford UK: Macmillan, 2001. xvi + 270 pp. (Paper £15.50 Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. ALEJANDRO PORTES & RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press/ New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001. xxiv + 406 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 "Ethnicity" and its meaning, both as an identity and as a resilient cultural influence, has dominated late twentieth-century social scientific analyses of the process of immigrant incorporation. Perhaps we may mark the crowning of the term with the publication of Glazer and Moynihan's The Melting Pot, one famous tome that "explained" varying "assimilation" outcomes among the "new" (post-1965 newcomers by examining their ethnic culture for flaws or strengths that justified socioeconomic failure or success. Muddying the ensuing policy debate was the use of buzzwords, like mainstream, deviant, assimilated, minority, black matriarch, absent father, and underclass, that were themselves categorizing and hierarchical. The tautology of hierarchically labeling groups and then asking why groups with different labels have different outcomes seems to be perpetually invisible to the parties in the assimilation debate, but the debate itself rages on. Newer scholarship has added a different voice to that debate, arguing that variance in "assimilation" is instead explained by incorporation into

  4. Attitudes of the ethnic elites members in Vojvodina to minority rights and to interethnic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was done with 100 distinguished members of cultural and media elite members. The results showed that ethnic elites in Vojvodina had better economic position than ordinary citizens, but that one ninth of them was poor. On inter-personal level they are very open towards the members of other ethnic groups. As for the attitudes, ethnic elites members differed from ordinary citizens mostly by strongly supporting market economy and liberal concept of development. They couldn't differentiate clearly between individual and collective rights. This was understandable since in multi-ethnic surrounding where Serbian ethnic nationalism still prevailed individual rights were to the great extent determined by ethnic origin. Minority ethnic communities elites had clearer understanding of this fact because their ethnic groups paid higher price in such circumstances. Members of least numerous ethnic groups mostly favored individual over collective rights, major cause for this being probably their fear from Serbian-Hungarian deal at the expense of third party. Yet, this survey's findings regarding this topic were substantially better than any before, since the awareness of need for collective rights to be recognized grew in all ethnic groups, including Serbs.

  5. Ethnic Differences in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette; Kallehave, Tina; Hansen, Sune Jon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe, analyse and discuss the major findings of the qualitative phase of the EDUMIGROM project. The questions of analysis are: 1. How do social, gender and “ethnic” factors and their interplay inform performance, attendance and the general position of “minority...... ethnic” adolescents in school? How do these factors intervene in forming educational strategies, and how are they reflected in longer-term career options? 2. How do “minority ethnic” students and their families relate to actual school experiences and to schooling in general? How do they interpret success......-ethnic environment play in the process? How do experiences of “othering” inform the shaping of “minority ethnic” identity? 4. Who are the agents (institutions, persons) responsible for promoting equal opportunities in the education of “minority ethnic” youth, and for diminishing the gap between majority and minority...

  6. Ethnic Transformation in Rural California: Looking beyond the Immigrant Farmworker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine M.; Rochin, Refugio I.

    1998-01-01

    Census data were used to test various hypotheses about growing Latino concentration and economic deterioration in rural California communities and found factors related to both Latino inmigration and White outmigration. Public policy implications are discussed relative to improving ethnic relations and building human capital to support economic…

  7. Genomic medicine and ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of health disparities are a poorly understood public health problem. The effects of culture, environmental hazards, and social marginalization differ between ethnicities and have strong effects on health differences. The role of the genome in health is well established and we present a s...

  8. Ethnic inequalities in early overweight: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, M.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight is a major public health issue that is often occurring during childhood. Approximately 14% of the 2-21 year old children are overweight or obese. Although the current obesity epidemic in children seems to be levelling off, children from ethnic minority groups do not seem to benefit from t

  9. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  10. Information, documentation and certification in western and ethnic art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Candela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of a cognitive and experimental nature regards the sector of ethnic artifacts, especially interesting from a socio-historical point of view as well as a technical-conservative one, but at the same time the object of limited research. In the present paper the specific area of knowledge of the art market is present, in relation to the various economic-financial and diagnostic-analytical-material aspects. The consequent result, that derives from the meeting point of the different scientific competences and experiences can supply an initial and nonetheless significant contribution for a complete and correct evaluation in the sector of ethnic products.

  11. Effects of ethnicity and gender on youth health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalsingh Rambaree

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ethnicity and gender on the health of young people (14–25 years old living in Mauritius. Combinations of female and male by four ethnic groups—“Creole”, “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “Mixed”—were used for multivariate analysis of variances. “Mixed” ethnic group consumed most tobacco, alcohol and drugs compared to other ethnic groups. They were also the ones that mostly skipped breakfast and lunch and were found to eat most fast food. Moreover, “Mixed” ethnic group had heard most about HIV/AIDS programmes, but were least satisfied with such programmes and with public hospitals and health services. Females were shown to perceive more physical and mental health issues than did males; although males smoked more cigarettes and drunk more alcohol. However, females consumed more fast food and deep fries and rated public hospitals and sexual and reproductive health services as less good than did males. The findings call for further research on the health of young people living in Mauritius with respect to socio-economic variables in order to promote social justice in the Mauritian society. In addition, this article also emphasises on the need of having a new National Youth Policy for Mauritius, which is long overdue.

  12. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  13. Quantifying multi-ethnic representation in genetic studies of high mortality diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Dudley, Joel T; Ruau, David; Butte, Atul J

    2012-01-01

    Most GWASs were performed using study populations with Caucasian ethnicity or ancestry, and findings from one ethnic subpopulation might not always translate to another. We curated 4,573 genetic studies on 763 human diseases and identified 3,461 disease-susceptible SNPs with genome-wide significance; only 10% of these had been validated in at least two different ethnic populations. SNPs for autoimmune diseases demonstrated the lowest percentage of cross-ethnicity validation. We used the mortality data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and identified 19 diseases killing over 10,000 Americans per year that were still lacking publications of even a single cross-ethnic SNP. Fifteen of these diseases had never been studied in large GWAS in non-Caucasian populations, including chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Our results demonstrate that diseases killing most Americans are still lacking genetic studies across ethnicities.

  14. 75 FR 9217 - Submission for OMB Review; Information Regarding Responsibility Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...; Information Regarding Responsibility Matters AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... regarding Information Regarding Responsibility Matters. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether..., Information Regarding Responsibility Matters, in all correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms...

  15. The disease burden across different ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2011-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Kunst, Anton E; Lamkaddem, Majda; Stronks, Karien

    2014-08-01

    Current disease burden estimates do not provide evidence across different ethnic groups. This study aims to assess the disease burden as measured by the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for six ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, for 2011 and 2030. The DALYs were calculated by combining three components: disease-/sex-/age-specific DALYs per person; disease-specific relative risks (RRs) by ethnicity; and sex-/age-specific population sizes by ethnicity in Amsterdam in 2011 and 2030. Disease-specific DALYs were derived from the National Institute of Public Health. The RRs were obtained through a systematic review of studies published in 1997-2008. The population figures were gathered from the Statistics Netherlands and municipality of Amsterdam. The findings suggest that cardiovascular diseases and anxiety and depressive disorders dominate disease burden in all ethnic groups in 2011 and 2030. In most of the non-Western ethnic minorities, diabetes mellitus is the strongest contributor to the disease burden. The total disease burden will increase more strongly in non-Western ethnic minorities than ethnic Dutch. The 2030 disease burden is estimated to be highest among Surinamese and Antilleans. In ethnic minorities, diabetes plays an important role in the disease burden, and the total disease burden will grow stronger than ethnic Dutch, resulting in a higher total disease burden for some ethnic groups in 2030. We encourage researchers to estimate the disease burden by ethnicity so that health priorities can be set in the fields of policy, health care and research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Tribal Hands and Ethnic Votes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic politics is a serious domestic challenge in Iran. Non-Persian communities are mobilizing to claim their rights and to demand representation in a system that activists claim is biased against minorities and the peripheral regions. Yet the inner workings of contemporary Iranian ethnic politics...... are largely understudied. This article explores recent evolutions in the role that ethnicity, regionalism and tribalism plays in Iranian domestic politics. It focuses on how these interconnected factors figured in the 2013 presidential and local council elections in Iran in a particular province that has...

  17. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  18. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years) are a...

  19. Media Flows, Ethnicity, Racism and Xenophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John D. H.; Husband, Charles

    1995-01-01

    States the importance of media definitions of ethnic majorities. Discusses media discourses concerning settled ethnic minorities, race relations and the news, ethnic minority media, contract labor, migrants and refugees, indigenous land-based groups, and ethnic minority presence in mainstream media. Draws examples from the United States, Eastern…

  20. Media Flows, Ethnicity, Racism and Xenophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John D. H.; Husband, Charles

    1995-01-01

    States the importance of media definitions of ethnic majorities. Discusses media discourses concerning settled ethnic minorities, race relations and the news, ethnic minority media, contract labor, migrants and refugees, indigenous land-based groups, and ethnic minority presence in mainstream media. Draws examples from the United States, Eastern…

  1. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  2. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed.

  3. Meaning making in middle childhood: an exploration of the meaning of ethnic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Zosuls, Kristina M; Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Hughes, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Social identity, including identification with one's ethnic group, is an important aspect of social development. However, little is known about the subjective meaning associated with social group memberships, particularly during middle childhood. Using second- and fourth-graders responses to an open-ended question, we explored the meaning of ethnic identity with a sample of Chinese, Dominican, Russian, White, and Black American children. Analyses revealed that middle childhood is an active period for meaning making as children described the ethnic identity to include ideas such as language, physical appearance, pride, relative social position, and culture. While there were few differences in the ethnic identity meaning responses of second- and fourth-grade children, the meaning of ethnic identity varied considerably across the ethnic groups underscoring how the unique features and experiences of different ethnic groups shapes the subjective meaning of ethnic identity. These findings align with prior research on the meaning of ethnic identity among adults and adolescents and offer insight for future research regarding the conceptualization and measurement of the meaning of social group membership.

  4. Ethnic differences in help-seeking behaviour following child sexual abuse: a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help.

  5. Urban, ethnic, provincial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how professional and public stakeholders in the development of film projects negotiate economic and symbolic risk related to representation of minorities and geographical peripheries in Denmark, and situates these negotiations within the Danish public sphere...... and the contemporary subsidy and production system. The main argument is on the one hand, that the national cinema potentially works as an arena for social inclusion; on the other, anxiety related to economic and symbolic risk, which promotes industry myths and postulates about target groups put constraints...

  6. Narrative and Ethnic Identity Exploration: A Longitudinal Account of Emerging Adults' Ethnicity-Related Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this longitudinal study was to investigate further the link between ethnic identity processes and content through an examination of emerging adults' narratives of ethnicity-related experiences. Seventy ethnically diverse college students completed an ethnic identity exploration index and told an ethnicity-related narrative on 2…

  7. Another Challenge for Africa: Ethnic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    interests. Ethnicity For the purpose of this paper, ethnicity is the common trait shared by all ethnic groups—a vague, but strongly held sense of shared...origin that creates ―enduring values, cultures or beliefs.‖5 Essentially, ethnicity is based on ―frustratingly ill-defined ascriptive traits that...respective legal codes of Cote d‘Ivoire, Nigeria and Kenya, ethnicity is the new 21st Century apartheid.37 Corruption New post-colonial leaders turned

  8. Beyond Ethnic Politics in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wolff

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In his article 'Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East', Will Kymlicka argues, among others that a key condition for the success of legal and political reforms in the area of minority rights is a fundamental change in public attitudes towards and acceptance of the legitimacy and normality of nationalist mobilization by substate national groups. Following a brief overview of the complexity of ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe and the intricacy of minority-state relations, the author of this article contends that, contrary to Kymlicka, the region might even be better off if political spaces were constructed around other than ethnic identities. In line with Kymlicka, it is nevertheless conceded that there may be a need in several cases for lengthy transition periods in which ethnic identities are given institutional space ans security to play an important role in everyday politics.

  9. Integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in a globalized world: challenges and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Paronikian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the challenges and trends in integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in the world of globalization. Established that ethnic disintegration is inevitable consequence of ethnic integration, and its intensity depends on what method is carried Integration: voluntary or forced. What is important is the fact that in the era of globalization integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities that are inherent in the very essence of ethnicity, greatly amplified. It was found that entering to the cultural field of ethnic communities of other ethnic entities, penalized sustainable ethnic balance, contributes to the phenomenon of «rejection of other» causes of ethnic conflict and the consequent threat of disintegration of ethnic communities. Disintegration often leads to weakening of the linkages and interactions between components of the integrated system in a multi-ethnic society. However, the author concludes that the process of disintegration cannot be regarded as unambiguously negative because, on the one hand, it contributes to the weakening and decline; and sometimes division of multi-ethnic countries, but on the other hand - it contributes to the birth of the new and revival of the old nation-states, which is particularly important in conditions of transformation of the global community towards the post-industrial and information epoch in the future. In general, the integration and disintegration change each other depending on global processes and their transformations. Therefore, in the era of globalization’s challenges it is important is the effective management of these processes to prevent adverse effects.

  10. Ethnic family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, P

    1989-04-01

    Using information from large-scale statistical collections and elaborations from ethnographic studies, this paper examines the underlying social processes and structures of migrant families in Australia. Migrants in Australia are often confronted by family values and behavior which run counter to their own. For some migrants, particularly those from the United Kingdom and Western European countries, there is little conflict as Australian family values and behavior approximate their own; the feminine conception of the family is not foreign to them. On the other hand, migrants from Mediterranean countries and from Asia are likely to face a clash between the masculine conception of the family and the dominant feminine conception they find in Australia. Economic structure also often forces an accommodation to the feminine conception of the family. For example, migrant women in Australia are heavily involved in the work force outside the family circle, and, in the main, have relatively low fertility. Age at marriage is increasing and many single women of migrant origin are being educated at the tertiary level and are working before marriage. These changes necessarily expose women and youths to the dominant social values and increase their economic independence, thus disrupting the conventional male family authority. There is evidence of a degree of accommodation to Australian patterns of behavior in migrant groups more inclined to a masculine conception of the family. In other areas, however, which are less directly related to economic pressure, migrant values have been far less accommodating. There is still a high level of endogamy, the 1st birth occurs soon after marriage, divorce rates are low, and the aged are very likely to live with their children. Large migrant groups have been able to maintain these patterns of behavior through the formation of ethnic substructures that form their principal social environment. In the longer term, however, their children are

  11. Alteration of the ethnic diversity and ethnic segregation index in Latvia during the first and second independence periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Németh

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the Baltic area is traditionally one of the most diverse regions of Europe in terms of ethnic concerns; we can observe in many settlements that four or even five religions have their own churches, cemeteries and at least as many ethnic groups are having their schools etc. Regarding geography literature, no generally accepted method has been applied yet to measure the population’s diversity and spatial segregation; in most cases only the number and ratio of ethnic groups were described. This research paper proposes a different approach: the adaptation of the so-called Simpson’s Diversity Index, based on probability theory and originally used by ecologists to measure biodiversity, to human geography. The study seeks the answers to: where, when, why and how has the Ethnic Diversity and Ethnic Segregation Index changed in Latvia during the first and second independence periods? What kind of spatial patterns are possible to observe on the basis of the transformation? The enormous data is processed by modern GIS software products and projected on thematic maps.

  12. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ethnicity as a variable in mental health research: a systematic review of articles published 1990-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møllersen, S; Holte, A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how the ethnic variable has been used in mental health research, in theory, in measurement and classification criteria. Journal articles published 1990-2004 that address original research on psychopathology, treatment and mental health services and with "ethnic" or "ethnicity" in their title or abstract were selected. The papers were examined for their theoretical definition of ethnicity, how the ethnic data were collected and the criteria used to identify ethnic groups. The use of comparison groups and country of the studies were recorded. A total of 421 papers were identified. An explicit theoretical definition was found in 33 (7.8%) papers. Data collection procedure was mentioned in 248 (58.9%) and 104 (24.7%) papers described how data was converted into ethnic groups. The operationalizations of ethnicity have remained almost unchanged during the 15-year review period. Generally, the ethnic variable was incompletely reported. Confusion regarding which individual or social characteristics ethnicity refers to makes the research findings of limited value in clinical settings, and may continue to create misunderstanding about the effect of ethnicity in clinical contexts.

  14. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-06-01

    This study explored ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults and assessed the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in explaining those inequalities. We analysed data on 2013 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults and children living in East London in 2009-10. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries at home. Dental caries was measured using the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or DMFT index. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (sex and age groups) and SEP measures (education and socioeconomic classification). White Eastern European and White Other had higher DMFT, whereas all Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Other) and all Black (African, Caribbean and Other) ethnic groups had lower DMFT than White British. Similar inequalities were found for the number of filled and missing teeth, but there were no differences in the number of decayed teeth between ethnic groups. This study showed considerable disparities in dental caries between and within the major ethnic categories, which were independent of demographics and SEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Living together apart? Ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts and language practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, M.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Together with the rise in ethnic residential concentration, attention for the potential negative consequences of ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood for ethnic minorities’ integration has also increased in recent years. And although many neighbourhood interventions have been implemented, there

  16. Ethnicity and interdisciplinary pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Christine M; Matsuura, Justin T; Smith, Clark C; Stanos, Steven P

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify ethnic differences in interdisciplinary pain treatment outcome and whether these differences occur while controlling for the effects of demographics, psychosocial, and secondary gain. We assessed a sample of 116 (Caucasian, African American, and Latino/a) chronic pain patients who participated a 4-week interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Outcome measure included pretreatment, post-treatment, and change scores on the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale 20, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire-revised, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-short form. Analysis of covariances revealed that after accounting for educational and sex differences, ethnic minorities differed from Caucasians on a number of treatment outcome measures at pre- and post-treatment [F's ≥ 5.38; P's activity than Caucasians. Results support the notion that ethnic differences in pain treatment outcome exist. Further, ethnic minority groups appear to have greater levels of distress compared to Caucasians. However, African Americans, Latino/a's and Caucasians demonstrated similar improvements on all outcome measures, with exception of the use of prayer. Future studies should begin to explore the mechanisms to explain why ethnic group differences in pain treatment outcome occur. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  17. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE NEW OFFENSE COVERED BY ART. 246 OF THE CRIMINAL CODE MISSAPPROPRIATION OF PUBLIC AUCTIONS AND OFFENCES COVERED BY ART. 65 OF LAW NO. 21/1996 REPUBLISHED. COMPETITION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Aida POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to bring to the attention of the legal law specialists the theoretical aspects related to a new incrimination as the one covered by art. 246 of the Penal Code, the misappropriation of public auctions, as well as aspects of yet another incrimination, that is the one covered by art. 65 of Law no. 21/1996 republished-competition law, trying thus to prevent certain different interpretations about the typicality of the two incriminations and encourage the possibility of highlighting other arguments that will lead to an application as accurate as possible of the two incriminations. Presently there is no case law for the two incriminations therefore the theoretical analysis has to present interpretation arguments which will help the judicial bodies to easily classify the factual basis of the content of the two constitutive laws offering the possibility of a more detailed and contextual interpretation in relation to the reality. The way the public auctions take place is a constant preoccupation not only for the participants who are involved in the procedure and directly interested in abiding the under law and ensuring a fair competitive climate but also for the public opinion which is as equally interested in ensuring fair social-economical relationships based on the market principles. Simultaneously, the way the legal conditions of the second incriminations-that is the one from art.65 Law no.21/1996 republished - are interpreted in relation with the competition practices will lead to the clarification of the norm and its correct enforcement.

  18. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.

  19. "Foreign brides" meet ethnic politics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2011-01-01

    A great number of women from China, Vietnam, and Indonesia recently arrived in Taiwan to marry men of lower social strata. Such an unusual pattern of migration has stimulated debates about the status and the citizenship of the new arrivals. This study analyzes Taiwanese responses toward these marriage migrants by using a national survey conducted in 2004. Three aspects of restrictive attitudes were tapped concerning these newcomers: (1) rights to work; (2) access to public health insurance; and (3) full citizenship. Immigrants from China were most opposed, compared to women with other origins (Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe, and the US). The seemingly unrelated regression estimation regression results do not support the split labor market hypotheses, as marriage migrants do not appear to be economic threats toward members of the lower classes. In contrast, ethnic nationalism plays a key role in determining the natives’ restrictive attitudes. The case of Taiwan represents a special genre, where ethnic politics selectively arouses the social rejection of women immigrants of certain origins.

  20. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may review any new... experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding whether the...

  1. Deux regards, un monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Moorhead

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available L’Américaine Andrea Moorhead explique comment elle en est venue à écrire en français alors qu’elle est native de Buffalo, près des chutes du Niagara. Elle interroge les différentes dispositions et dispositifs poétiques en français et en anglais, et souligne en particulier le rôle de l’inconscient et de l’enfance. Écrire en français, selon l’auteur, n’est pas la traduction d’un état anglais : c’est un mouvement intérieur qui répond aux exigences de l’esprit, car le regard, le lien avec soi et avec les autres, l’énoncé lui-même sont différents. Écrire en anglais porte la franchise des Saxons et la mélancolie des Celtes, alors qu’écrire en français laisse entrer le murmure du subconscient et la douleur du monde. L’auteur montre que l’anglais est une langue à la fois poétique et pragmatique et qu’en français, la tension vient plutôt de l’abstraction et de la finesse du regard. Le bilinguisme poétique représente à ses yeux la foi dans une humanité planétaire.

  2. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....

  3. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.

  4. Minority stress, ethnic identity, and depression among Latino/a college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Jimenez, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine among Latino/a college students the extent to which dimensions of minority stress related to ethnic group membership (college climate, academic achievement, ethnic discrimination, and intra-ethnic pressure stress) were uniquely associated with depression symptoms when general college stress was taken into account. The study also examined if ethnic identity moderated the relation of minority stress to depression symptoms. Participants were 309 Latino/a undergraduate students (53% women; 69% of Mexican descent) enrolled in a diverse, major research, urban, public university in the southwestern United States. Findings revealed that minority stress in the areas of academic concerns and negative perceptions of the campus climate contributed unique variance to depression symptoms when controlling for gender and students' general college stress. Ethnic identity did not moderate the relation of any of the minority stress dimensions to depression. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Consumer behaviour regarding energy products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evelina Gradinaru; Lorant Bucs; Gabriel Bratucu

    2016-01-01

    ... challenge if one considers achieving them sustainably. That being said, the present paper gives emphasis to some theoretical and practical information regarding the consumer behaviour regarding energy products...

  6. Victimized Majority: Latent Politics of Ethnic Discrimination in post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill N. Babichenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the brief analysis of one of the most important problems of the Russian Federation – the ethnic conflicts. Such a phenomenon has various dimensions and manifestations: from discrimination on the labor market to the extreme of ethnic cleansing during wars in Chechnya. The author focuses on the previously unexplored side of the problem: structural oppression conducted by minorities against the cultural majority of the country with a special regard to the republics of North Caucasus where the scope and intensity of ethnic strife found the most dangerous and explosive forms threatening with disintegration of the state.

  7. 关于非公企业工会工作的若干思考%Regarding Thoughts on the Work of Labor Unions in Non-Public Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁富

    2015-01-01

    Labor unions in non-public enterprises play an important role maintaining employee rights and interests, advancing the healthy devel-opment of enterprises, and promoting harmonious labor relations etc. At present, there has been some success for non-public enterprise labor unions, but a lack of vitality is still a widespread problem. The problem is mainly due to organization construction, system construction and work mechanisms etc. In view of this, it is essential to strengthen the organization, activity, legal rights, mechanisms and material safeguarding of non-public enterprise labor unions. More specifically, it is necessary to make an effort to strengthen organization construction, increase vitality, actively develop activities, increase attractiveness, increase responsibility of safeguarding rights, increase cohesion, improve work mechanisms, increase creativity, enlarge mate-rial safeguards, and strengthen capacity.%非公企业工会在维护职工合法权益、促进企业健康发展、推动和谐劳动关系建设等方面具有重要作用。当前,非公企业工会工作取得了一定成效,但活力不足仍是普遍存在的问题,主要缘于组织建设、制度建设以及工作机制等方面的原因。有鉴于此,有必要从组织、活动、维权、机制以及物质保障等方面强化非公企业工会建设。具体来说,就是要从以下方面努力:深化组织建设,增强生命力;积极开展活动,增强吸引力;强化维权职责,增强凝聚力;完善工作机制,增强创造力;加大物质保障,增强战斗力。

  8. Images of the "Other" with "Alien" Ethnicity in the Conscience of Russian Population Living in Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Daria A.; Maximova, Svetlana G.; Noyanzina, Oksana E.; Maximov, Maxim B.; Avdeeva, Galina S.

    2016-01-01

    In the age of dense international relations, heightened by intensive migration flows and local ethnic identity strengthening, the study of social representations of ethnic "others" in public consciousness permit to fulfill the evaluation of the current interethnic situation in the country, explore the latent unconscious groundings for…

  9. Poorer self-perceived health among migrants and ethnic minorities versus the majority population in Europe: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    .   Results Publications were identified in 5 out of the 27 EU-countries. In all aspects of self-perceived health, most migrants and ethnic minority groups appeared to be disadvantaged as compared to the majority population even after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. Only limited cross...... to reduce ethnic inequalities in health.  ...

  10. Race/ethnicity and workplace discrimination: results of a national survey of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Jones, Beth A; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-11-01

    Promoting racial/ethnic diversity within the physician workforce is a national priority. However, the extent of racial/ethnic discrimination reported by physicians from diverse backgrounds in today's health-care workplace is unknown. To determine the prevalence of physician experiences of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination at work and to explore physician views about race and discussions regarding race/ethnicity in the workplace. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007. Practicing physicians (total n = 529) from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds in the United States. We examined physicians' experience of racial/ethnic discrimination over their career course, their experience of discrimination in their current work setting, and their views about race/ethnicity and discrimination at work. The proportion of physicians who reported that they had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination "sometimes, often, or very often" during their medical career was substantial among non-majority physicians (71% of black physicians, 45% of Asian physicians, 63% of "other" race physicians, and 27% of Hispanic/Latino(a) physicians, compared with 7% of white physicians, all p workplace. Opportunities exist for health-care organizations and diverse physicians to work together to improve the climate of perceived discrimination where they work.

  11. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  12. Perceived discrimination and ethnic affirmation: Anglo culture orientation as a moderator among mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Flores, Lluliana I

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether Anglo culture orientation modified the association between adolescents' perceived ethnic discrimination and ethnic identity affirmation over time in a sample of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 205, Mage  = 16.24 years). Results indicated that perceived ethnic discrimination was significantly associated with decreases in ethnic identity affirmation over time for adolescents reporting high Anglo culture orientation, but no relation existed for adolescents reporting low Anglo culture orientation. Findings suggest that a person-environment mismatch (i.e., between adolescents' perceptions of their connection to Anglo culture and the messages they receive from others regarding that connection in terms of perceived ethnic discrimination) may be detrimental to adolescents' development of positive feelings about their ethnicity.

  13. State and collective properties between the late middle ages and early modern times: with regards to two recent publications Stato e proprietà collettive fra tardo medioevo ed età moderna: a proposito di due recenti pubblicazioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution examines the politics of ancient Italian states with regards to collective property by taking as a starting point two recent monographs on this argument (Alessandro Dani’s work on the state of Siena in Medicean times and Stefano Barbacetto’s work on the Venetian Republic between the 15th and 18th centuries. Whilst the Medicis’initiatives in this sphere were of a limited nature, as from the mid-fifteenth century the Venetian signoria conducted ambitious interventions aimed at acquiring significant shares and reclaiming sovereignty over the common property of the subjected territories. Despite the differences in the approaches adopted, in early modern times central governments increasingly gain interest in collective resources.A partire dalle lettura di due recenti monografie sull’argomento (i lavori di Alessandro Dani sullo Stato di Siena in epoca medicea e di Stefano Barbacetto sulla Repubblica di Venezia fra XV e XVIII secolo, il contributo prende in esame le politiche degli antichi stati italiani sulle proprietà collettive. Mentre i Medici attuarono interventi limitati in tale settore, sin dalla seconda metà del Quattrocento la Signoria veneta dispiegò ambiziose iniziative intese a rivendicare la sovranità sulle comunanze dei territori soggetti e a incamerarne significative quote. Pur con approcci differenti, in età moderna emerge un crescente interesse dei governi centrali per gli usi civici.

  14. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  15. Socialization and Ethnic Identity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Peter

    A study of identity development was carried out in Bristol, England, with Asian, West Indian, and indigenous British adolescents. Ethnic and gender differences in patterns of identification conflict with others were found between minority group boys and girls. Both sexes from both minority groups, however, had substantial identification conflicts…

  16. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in Sub-Sah

  17. [Ethnic Arts Program at UCLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Allegra Fuller

    The ethnic arts major at the University of California, Los Angeles--an interdisciplinary undergraduate program of courses in anthropology, art, dance, folklore and mythology, music, and theater arts--is described. The program objectives are to facilitate cultural and cross-cultural investigation of human artistic expression, and to provide an…

  18. A Lisu Ethnic Traditional Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXIAOPING

    2005-01-01

    JANUARY 11, 2004, 20th day of the 12th lunar month,was Lisu ethnic minority girl Zhang Zhengxiu's wedding day. Her traditional wedding ceremony was held in her home village in Dechang County, Sichuan Province. The date had been chosen by a village elder and ritual master.

  19. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  20. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  1. Ethnic Forces in Collective Action: Diversity, Dominance, and Irrigation in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Waring

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that ethnic interactions damage cooperation in the provision of public goods, yet very few studies of collective action in common pool resource management have found strong evidence for the effects of ethnic diversity. Research on both public goods and common pool resource management that does find negative ethnic effects on cooperation tend to ignore the importance of interethnic relationships, particularly ethnic inequality, stratification, or dominance. This study presents data from agricultural villages in Tamil Nadu's Palani Hills to test the importance of a range of ethnic effects using caste interactions in a traditional irrigation system. I provide corroborating evidence of a negative cooperative effect of ethnic diversity, but also demonstrate that factors of ethnic dominance such as hierarchical stratification and demographic dominance strongly determine outcomes in collective irrigation management. I argue that the most important measure of equity, irrigation access, is socially, technologically, and institutionally embedded, and demonstrate that the distribution of irrigation channels is explained by measures of inequality, such as wealth inequality, Dalit status, and demographic dominance.

  2. Education and ethnic minorities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Bjørg

    The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant......, among ethnic minorities and native danes can be explainedby differences i parental, family and ethnic background and, second, how education resources are allocated among children within ethnic minorities families....

  3. Ethnic segregation in context : Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Baerveldt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Social discrimination, defined as the relative preference for intra-ethnic over inter-ethnic relationships, was studied in pupils' networks in Dutch secondary school classes. While native Dutch pupils (ethnic majority members) mainly named fellow majority members, ethnic minority members reported ti

  4. On Psychology of Ethnic Identity and Behavioral Tendency of Ethnic Minority College Students in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui

    2008-01-01

    In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…

  5. Review on Chinese Ethnic Law Studies in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunwu; WANG Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Studies of Chinese Ethnic Law made great achievements in 2012.Among them, more than 320 articles were published .This is an increase of more than 100 articles than were pub-lished in 2011.The content of these articles have the following characteristics: first, the content is more comprehensive .For example , the articles on ethnic customary law and ethnic judiciary law in-creased , and ethnic political rights became an im-portant topic ; second , cross -disciplinary re-search in the content increased; third, there were some achievements with regard to review and re-flective articles ; fourth, some hot events and top-ics received attention; and, fifth, articles on the achievements of applied research increased .These articles can be characterized by the following meth-odologies: ( i ) there is a diversity of perspectives and“deliberative democracy” became the new dis-course of the year; ( ii ) there is an emphasis on empirical research;and ( iii) there is an emphasis on comparative research .

  6. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  7. Hospital based patient coordination for ethnic minority patients - a health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    especially on public medicine expenses and social services. Ethnic minority patients can achieve increased empowerment & Equity in type and quality of hospital care through cross dicplinary cross specialty cultural case management & support between hospital departments and primary sectors......A cross diciplinary, cross specialty, cross sectoral hospital based approach to cultural management of ethnic minority patients is effective in creating more approprite patient flows, better quality of care and increases functional level of patients. Surprisingly the aggregated effect saves...

  8. 地质调查成果发布与传播机制研究%Research onPublication and Propagation Mechanism Regarding the Results of Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于湛; 姚舜禹; 刘雅彦

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the publication andpropagation mechanism relating the results of geological survey. This mechanism means that the geological survey results can be classiifed according to the forming process; the data should be gathered with the process of result forming; and the result publication should be chosen relatively appropriate media and channels through classiifcation and compilation. In the process of information gathering, on the principle of traceability and veriifcation, the source and the whole process of result formation should be covered in an attempt way. By using data mining and clustering analysis of huge data, the collection data should be associated with the accomplishment information which is obtained by the operators in the system, thus forming the research result tree. In the course of the achievement issued, by using internet technology and carrier, as well as multiple results release patterns and channels, variousapplication and service products will be formed.In this mechanism, the role of commentators is added in the deifnition of user roles; supervision and evaluation mechanism of the independent third party have been established, which is aimed at helping the workers be able to get research guidance and feedback in time.%在调研的基础上,构建一种新的地调成果发布机制,并概要描述了其信息化解决方案。该机制将地调成果按形成过程分类,将采集过程融于成果形成过程中,通过分类与编辑,选择相对恰当的媒介和渠道将其发布。在信息采集过程中,本着可追溯、可印证的原则,尝试涵盖成果形成的源头和全过程,应用数据挖掘和大数据分析聚类的技术方法,将采集的信息与系统中作业人员的成果信息关联起来,形成科研成果树。在成果发布过程中,应用互联网技术和载体,采用多种成果发布模式和渠道,形成各种应用服务产品。该机制尝试在用户角色定

  9. Family ethnic socialization and ethnic identity: a family-driven, youth-driven, or reciprocal process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-02-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths' ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a 2-year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family driven: Youths' perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths' ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths' future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths' ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths' ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females.

  10. A Study on the Change in Occupational Structure of China’ s Ethnic Minorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Changde

    2014-01-01

    The occupational structure of the employed population and its changes reflect the level of economic development and the change of social status of a population group .Based on cen-sus data , this paper analyzes the occupational structure of the employed population of China ’ s ethnic minorities.It shows that: 1 ) Among the employed population of the eth-nic minorities ( excepting those people who are en-gaged in forestry , animal husbandry and fishery , etc., a proportion which is higher than the overall population or the Han ) , the proportion is lower than in either the overall population or the Han population . 2 ) The gender differences and directional change of the occupational structure of the em-ployed population indicates that the status of women was gradually promoted during the period 1990 to 2010. 3) Seen from the proportion of those engaged in mental labor versus physical labor;the proportion ethnic minorities engaged in mental labor is low . 4) The degree of diversity in the occupational structure of the ethnic minorities has made some improvement. 5 ) The ethnic differences in occupational structure are obvious . 6) The urbanization level and the educational level of the population are the key factors which determine the occupational structure of the em-ployed population . From this study , we feel that the degree of so-cial exclusion of the ethnic minorities has gone up during the past ten years .This “going up” has lead or is leading to social problems .Hence, it is necessary to pay high attention to this issue .Re-garding this, the author thinks that , firstly, sup-port to ethnic minority education should be en-hanced;secondly , the proportion of ethnic minori-ty people in civil servant recruitment should be im-proved;thirdly, the proportion of the employment of ethnic minority workers in projects in ethnic mi-nority regions should be stipulated .

  11. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups?

  12. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gro Hellesdatter

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...... be seen as an indication of a broader tendency for formerly established rights to be blurred and for duties to replace rights in education and in welfare more generally....

  13. Understanding of Adultery in Families Belonging to Different Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmadeeva E. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a pilot study aimed at identifying and analyzing understanding of adultery in ethnically homogeneous families who are representatives of the Bashkir, Russian and Tatar of ethnic groups are presented. Within the framework of the psychological approach, family is regarded as the space of joint life activity, within which the specific needs of the people connected by ties of blood are satisfied. To achieve this goal, E. V. Akhmadeeva designed the inventory “My attitude to adultery”, in which respondents were asked to give the definition of adultery and to mention the reasons, based on which adultery may occur. Also, a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS was used, allowing determining the spouses’ dominant values of a series of terminal and instrumental values. Marital satisfaction was detected with use of the marriage satisfaction questionnaire by V. V. Stolin, G. P. Butenko, T. L. Romanova. On the base of respondents’ answers in the questionnaire in order to define the level of satisfaction by marriage there have been distinguished three categories of people who consider their marriage to be successful, less successful and unsuccessful. Gender and age differences in understanding the adultery have been revealed. Having analyzed the works of outstanding psychologists there have been found out the psychological sense and meaning of “ethnic group”, “ethnic culture”, “sexual culture”, “adultery”. Identified dominant values of the spouses. The reasons of adultery commitment and non-commitment as respondents understand it have been found. As can be seen from this study, none ethnic group encourages adultery. However, the possibility of committing adultery is allowed, and there are differences in explaining the reasons for committing this action.

  14. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  15. Encounters with medicines among ethnic minorities with chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna

    Background: The Danish healthcare sector, including community pharmacies, faces a modern challenge: a new and growing population group consisting of ethnic minorities with chronic conditions, associated with the prevalence of multiple conditions, poly-pharmacy and adherence issues. Aim: The aim......-study I. Most documents agreed that skin colour and skin covering were part of the definition of ethnic minorities at risk. Major discrepancies were found regarding the importance attributed to the Islamic religion, other traditions, immigration, gender and age, and an evolutionary explanation...... suggestions on how to improve encounters with immigrant customers, most respondents listed interventions aiming at immigrants, general practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies. In sub-study III, all six interviewees pointed out that Islam allows ill people to refrain from fasting during Ramadan. However...

  16. Socioeconomic and Ethnic Disparities in Periocular Cutaneous Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Talmage; Bingham, Brian; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous malignancies make up the majority of periocular tumors diagnosed and treated by ophthalmologists. In this review, we examine literature regarding ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in incidence and clinical outcomes of the three most common cutaneous periocular tumors: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. In all three tumor types, the literature shows an increased incidence among two groups: those with lightly pigmented skin and those of higher socioeconomic status. While incidence is high in these groups, clinical outcomes for these patients tend to be good. Those with lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minorities, on the other hand, have a low incidence but are more likely to have poor clinical outcomes. These disparities are likely the result of both biologic and behavioral differences between patients and could provide opportunities for intervention to change risk perception and improve outcomes.

  17. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... come to be positioned in ways which can cumulatively disadvantage them trough intersections of ‘race', gender and social class. The factors that produce such cumulative disadvantage can surely be thought of as institutional racism, however unwitting and unintended" (Phoenix, 2001, p. 137...

  18. Ethnic and gender differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.

  19. Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years.

  20. [Ethnicity and race as variables in epidemiological research about inequity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas L, Jairo; Villalón C, Marcelo; Valenzuela Y, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    Epidemiology analyzes differences in states of health and disease of populations. Public Policies are established considering inequities associated with ethnicity and race. In this context, the identification of vulnerable groups for concentration of resources is relevant. Nevertheless, the lack of a clear definition of these variables might lead to biased results and interpretations. Two problems about the use of these variables are discussed. First, lack of a measurable and objective characteristic, even considering self reference (gold standard), considering that the opinion of a person can change in time. The second problem is a consequence of the former, basing research on a poorly defined variable. Uses of ethnicity and race variables between 1920-1999 in the American Journal of Epidemiology, Health Services Research and American Journal of Public Health were reviewed. In 919 articles, 27 different names identified to describe these variables and more than half did not describe the reason to use these variables. Almost half did not describe analytical methods. Although some articles found statistically significant relationships, less than half discussed those results. It has been suggested that there is enough evidence to exclude these variables in biomedical investigations. However, others propose that they cannot be excluded, given their multidimensional condition that includes social, cultural and genetic features. Therefore, provided the lack of clear definition, the assessment of ethnicity and race effects must be done as rigorously as possible.

  1. ASCLS members perceptions regarding research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Lillian; Shanahan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    One of the benchmarks of a profession is performing, publishing, and presenting research. However, in the Clinical Laboratory Science (CLS) profession, few manuscripts are submitted to the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) journal, Clinical Laboratory Science, on a regular basis. The problem is that perceptions regarding research, and the role of laboratory professional as researchers, held by ASCLS members may be contributing to the low number of manuscript submissions. To assess these perceptions, an anonymous Likert-scale survey was developed and delivered online using Survey Monkey. Members of ASCLS, with email addresses, were chosen to participate in this survey because they may be most likely to contribute manuscripts for a journal by their own society. About 10% of the 7,000 members who were invited by email chose to participate in this study. Most participants agreed that 1) there is important information to be gathered from research on clinical laboratory specimen results (99.6%), 2) research contributes valuable information to the body of CLS knowledge (99.2%), and 3) conducting research is one of the benchmarks of a profession (92.4%). The majority of participants felt that there are inadequate resources (68.8%) and not enough time (83%) available to conduct research in the clinical laboratory setting. Most participants recognize that many laboratory activities constitute research (86.2%), but only a few are willing to publish research findings on their own (29.2%). Those who are the most likely to publish research findings include men, university faculty, and members who are over 60 years old. University faculty are the most likely to assist others in the writing process. These results show an opportunity exists for ASCLS to foster collaborations between bench technologists and educators willing to assist with the publication process.

  2. CURRENT ISSUES REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently public concern has increased regarding industrial and environmental substances that may have adverse hormonal effects in human and wildlife populations. This concern has also been expanded to include antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the presence of various antibiotics a...

  3. Perceptions of healthcare professionals regarding their own body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may be because night shift work induces stress, which ... perceptions of HCWs regarding their own body weight in selected public hospitals in Mpumalanga Province, SA. ..... The association between employee obesity and employer.

  4. Ethnic diversity and employment growth in English cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing.

  5. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  6. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  7. Digitized Ethnic Hate Speech: Understanding Effects of Digital Media Hate Speech on Citizen Journalism in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gichuhi Kimotho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity in Kenya permeates all spheres of life. However, it is in politics that ethnicity is most visible. Election time in Kenya often leads to ethnic competition and hatred, often expressed through various media. Ethnic hate speech characterized the 2007 general elections in party rallies and through text messages, emails, posters and leaflets. This resulted in widespread skirmishes that left over 1200 people dead, and many displaced (KNHRC, 2008. In 2013, however, the new battle zone was the war of words on social media platform. More than any other time in Kenyan history, Kenyans poured vitriolic ethnic hate speech through digital media like Facebook, tweeter and blogs. Although scholars have studied the role and effects of the mainstream media like television and radio in proliferating the ethnic hate speech in Kenya (Michael Chege, 2008; Goldstein & Rotich, 2008a; Ismail & Deane, 2008; Jacqueline Klopp & Prisca Kamungi, 2007, little has been done in regard to social media.  This paper investigated the nature of digitized hate speech by: describing the forms of ethnic hate speech on social media in Kenya; the effects of ethnic hate speech on Kenyan’s perception of ethnic entities; ethnic conflict and ethics of citizen journalism. This study adopted a descriptive interpretive design, and utilized Austin’s Speech Act Theory, which explains use of language to achieve desired purposes and direct behaviour (Tarhom & Miracle, 2013. Content published between January and April 2013 from six purposefully identified blogs was analysed. Questionnaires were used to collect data from university students as they form a good sample of Kenyan population, are most active on social media and are drawn from all parts of the country. Qualitative data were analysed using NVIVO 10 software, while responses from the questionnaire were analysed using IBM SPSS version 21. The findings indicated that Facebook and Twitter were the main platforms used to

  8. The Influence of Social Networking on Ethnic Relation and Its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lihui; ZHAO Yechun

    2014-01-01

    What is social networking?Our o-pinion is that it refers to a communication network platform on which people can transmit information limitlessly, publicly and freely by using computer technology .Social networking can instantly send and share information , create a dialogue , make a video chat, post comments , and so forth. In brief, it can help people make friends , get instant news, and satisfy one ’ s emotional needs without even leaving home .Social networking now has be-come a public opinion platform .With the drive of social networking , the distance between people has become much closer; communication has be-come more frequent; communication speed has be-come faster , and it also has become more conven-ient for people to have emotional exchanges and share information . Social networking has many characteristics, such as public openness , interac-tivity, instantaneity, randomness and openness . Today, social networking is already closely related to people’ s daily life.It is worth of noting here that the role of ethnic contact and ethnic communi-cation that are closely related to the concept of eth-nic relations is very large in daily life . To some degree, ethnic awareness, ethnic emotion, eth-nic psychology and even ethnic conflicts are all produced due to the ethnic communication and eth-nic contact .Seen from traditional ethnic relations , because of the restrictions of traffic , geography , etc.ethnic contact, or ethnic communication is relatively limited.However, under the conditions of networking , the situation is different , and eth-nic contact and communication can happen at any time.The new type of ethnic relations formed un-der the condition of networking will doubtlessly in-fluence ethnic awareness , emotion, psychology , and even the conflicts . All people who engage in social networkingsurely have a relationship with ethnicity.Peoplewho do not have an ethnicity do not exist at present.Actually, social networking really has impactedon

  9. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  10. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 93 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. A Appendix A to Part 93—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for... Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  12. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 604 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 604, App. A Appendix A to Part 604—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  13. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1230 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1230, App. A Appendix A to Part 1230—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  14. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1158 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1158, App. A Appendix A to Part 1158—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans,...

  15. 43 CFR Appendix A to Part 18 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. A Appendix A to Part 18—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  16. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1168 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1168, App. A Appendix A to Part 1168—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  17. 45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a... Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how the program— (1) Will, directly or...

  18. Ethnic diversification in clinical psychology graduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, A; Herron, W G; Primavera, L H; Javier, R A

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-eight directors and 334 advanced graduate students from clinical psychology programs completed a survey on ethnic minority training offered in clinical doctoral programs. Comparisons were made between directors' and students' ratings on the following variables: students' level of interest in ethnic minority training, the importance of this training, and the effectiveness of the clinical programs' minority-related education. Minority and nonminority students' responses were also compared on these variables. Supplementary data were collected on ethnic minority education in coursework, research, and clinical practica. Findings indicate that students, relative to clinical directors, assign more importance to ethnic minority training and lower efficacy ratings to their programs' ethnic minority education. The results also suggest that minority students feel more strongly about the value of ethnic minority training than do their nonminority peers and the directors. The implications of these results are discussed, and recommendations are made to address identified problems.

  19. Agreements and Divergences in German Idealism: Regarding the Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ochoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of German Idealism is marked by points of agreement and divergence among those who attempted to complete a task that might have remained unfinished in terms of its first formulations and that would lead to the definitive constitution of philosophy. In this sense, the correspondence among Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel makes it possible to unravel, to some extent, the non-explicitassumptions underlying the systems of these thinkers, since it reveals the questions,objectives, initial formulations, discussions, and differences that would later acquire a systematic structure. This article attempts to show how despite the intention of these philosophers to remain faithful to an original impulse, that allegedfidelity was based on essential misunderstandings.

  20. Relative importance of urbanicity, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors regarding area mortality differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de

    1999-01-01

    A higher mortality rate in areas with increased socioeconomic deprivation has been found in many studies. Results are difficult to compare, however, because different indicators of area deprivation have been used. USA-based studies mostly use income to measure area deprivation, whereas UK-based stud

  1. Relative importance of urbanicity, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors regarding area mortality differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de

    1999-01-01

    A higher mortality rate in areas with increased socioeconomic deprivation has been found in many studies. Results are difficult to compare, however, because different indicators of area deprivation have been used. USA-based studies mostly use income to measure area deprivation, whereas UK-based

  2. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses. Developing in the second half of the 20th century, the television, as one of the most effective mass communication media of the modern age, has combined sound and images to create a technical medium where culture is produced, transmitted, circulated and consumed and subsequently recycled to reach the target audiences, while in terms of the transmission of messages, the television has become the flagship of the media economy in comparison with other mass communication media and channels. As the influences of globalisation have been felt upon the creative processes of film and serial instruments and in the adoption and dissemination of strategic objectives, global cultural transmission is more varied, wider in scope and with more intense content than ever before. Furthermore, as a result of the constant development, regeneration and transformation of communication technology, we can postulate that television serial and film scenarios are a new form of marketing communication, as they are deeply intertwined with daily life and culture in the modern world. However, mass communication media gather groups of people with a common language and interest, causing groups to become communities. The role of mass communication media in forming communities with common characteristics and interests has developed in parallel with the development of mass communication media. These communication media have negated geographical boundaries, forming common ground for social relationships, while the importance of communication media has increased as the media reaches more isolated communities, constantly increasing the size of the masses. The experience of the world as cultural cosmopolitanism and the globalisation of the media through the simulation of metaphorical images in relation to the globalisation of communication has led to the internalisation of feelings of globalisation by individuals under the influence of the media, forming the basis for a social and industrial discourse.

  3. Ethnic Conflicts and Governmental Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    manipulation by ethnic leaders. Thus, there are bidirectional relationships between hegemonic aspirations and ethnic leaders. Most of the time ethnic...perhaps the strongest and clearest statement of national identity. In essence, they serve as modern totems that bear a special relationship to the...Assessment of Interracial /Interethnic Conflict in Los Angeles,” 2002, Center for Research in Society and Politics, University of California. Serwer, Daniel

  4. The Mountain People——Ethnic Teng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelsang; Gonpo

    2008-01-01

    The Teng people are an ethnic group who live in the boundary area of Tibet.For various reasons,the survey of ethnic minorities in China.conducted in the 1950s,excluded the Teng people. Nevertheless,the products,the lifestyle and even the culture of the Teng people are unique amongst ethnic Tibetan.Moinpa, and Lhopa.They are,therefore,named as the"Teng people".

  5. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Reintegration of Local Communities Divided by Ethnic Conflict: Ethnically Mixed Municipalities in the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Čermák, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents findings from the research on the intensity and quality of local inter-ethnic relations in the sample of five ethnically mixed Bosniak-Croat-Serb municipalities in the Western Balkans region which were hit by the ethnic conflict in the 1990s. In each municipality, potential territorial, ideological and socio-economic cleavages are investigated. Directions of the identified cleavages are compared with the ethnic cleavage. Depending on the cross-cutting or reinforcing charact...

  7. ‘A morass of considerations’: exploring attitudes towards ethnicity-based haemoglobinopathy-carrier screening in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, L; de Jonge, A; van El, C G; van Tuyl, L H; Cornel, M C; Lagro-Janssen, A L M

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Netherlands does not have a national haemoglobinopathy (HbP)-carrier screening programme aimed at facilitating informed reproductive choice. HbP-carrier testing for those at risk is at best offered on the basis of anaemia. Registration of ethnicity has proved controversial and may complicate the introduction of a screening programme if based on ethnicity. However, other factors may also play a role. Objective. To explore perceived barriers and attitudes among GPs and midwives regarding the registration of ethnicity and ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening. Methods. Six focus groups in Dutch primary care, with a total of 37 GPs (n = 9) and midwives (n = 28) were conducted, transcribed and content analysed using Atlas-ti. Results. Both GPs and midwives struggled with correctly identifying ethnicities at risk for HbP. Ethical concerns regarding privacy seemed to originate from World War II experiences, when ethnic and religious registration facilitated deportation of Jewish citizens, coupled with the political climate at the time focus groups were held. Some respondents thought the ethnicity question might undermine the relationship with their clients. Software programmes prevented GPs from registering ethnicity of patients at risk. Financial implications for patients were also a concern. Despite this, respondents seemed positive about screening and were familiar with identifying ethnicity and used this for individual patient care. Conclusions. Although health professionals are generally positive about screening, ethical, financial and practical issues surrounding ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening need to be clarified before introducing such a programme. Primary care professionals can be targeted through professional organizations but they need national policy support. PMID:23629736

  8. 41 CFR 101-1.107 - Agency consultation regarding FPMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agency consultation regarding FPMR. 101-1.107 Section 101-1.107 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation...

  9. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  10. The Context of Voting: Does Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity Affect Turnout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Danckert, Bolette; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    (mobilization theory), diminishes social cohesion that in turn makes voters likely to withdraw from voting (marginalization theory), or does not impact turnout at all. This study is one of the first to investigate the question using individual-level longitudinal data, which adds substantially to the causal...... leverage of the analysis. In particular, we use a panel dataset with validated turnout data for 1.9 million Danish voters combined with detailed data regarding the ethnic composition of individuals’ proximate residential neighborhood. The results suggest that increasing shares of immigrants does not affect...

  11. Ruling of 15 April 1999 regarding the technical conditions of junction of the autonomous electric energy production installations to the HTA and BT public networks not connected to a large interconnected network; Arrete du 15 avril 1999 relatif aux conditions techniques de raccordement des installations de production autonome d'energie electrique aux reseaux publics HTA et BT non relies a un grand reseau interconnecte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-15

    The document issued by the State Secretariat for Industry, concerning the technical conditions of junction of the autonomous electric energy production installations to the HTA and BT public networks not connected to a large interconnected network, takes into account the directive no.98/34/CE of European Parliament and Council of 22 June 1998, the notification no.98/0477/F, as well as a number of laws, decrees and rulings concerning the energy distribution and supply. The present ruling contains five articles stipulating the conditions of junction to the public networks. An appendix is given, regarding the junction to HTA and BT networks. It contains the following seven sections: 1. Field of application; 2. Administration in case of normal and perturbed regime; 3. Functioning of the signal transmission (175 Hz or another close frequency); 4. Decoupling protections; 5. Network management and control; 6. Participation in primary frequency tuning; 7. Participation in the local voltage setting. Also two informative appendices are given. The first one presents the characteristics of insular networks in Guadeloupe and the neighbouring islands, Martinique, Reunion, Guiana and Corsica. The second informative appendix gives the information necessary to be provided in the frame of network management and control. A table presents the information to be supplied to the power station and the control center, respectively, according to the section five of the first appendix.

  12. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  13. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  14. Teaching in diversity : teachers and pupils about tense situations in ethnically heterogeneous classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Radstake

    2009-01-01

    Tensions and arguments about controversial issues are an inherent part of going to school. Pupils can learn from these situations. Teaching in diversity offers a knowledge base regarding tense situations as opportunities for citizenship education on living in an ethnically diverse society. The book

  15. Gender and ethnic differences in colorectal cancer screening embarrassment and physician gender preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Reddig, Maike K; Ladwig, Inga; Broadbent, Elizabeth A

    2011-11-01

    To examine colorectal cancer (CRC) screening embarrassment among men and women from three ethnic groups and the associated physician gender preference by patient gender and ethnicity. Cross-sectional, purposive sampling. Urban community in Brooklyn, NY. A purpose-derived, convenience sample of 245 European American, African American, and immigrant Jamaican men and women (aged 45-70 years) living in Brooklyn, NY. Participants provided demographics and completed a comprehensive measure of CRC screening embarrassment. Participant gender and ethnicity, physician gender, and CRC screening embarrassment regarding feces or the rectum and unwanted physical intimacy. As predicted, men and women both reported reduced fecal and rectal embarrassment and intimacy concern regarding same-gender physicians. As expected, Jamaicans reported greater embarrassment regarding feces or the rectum compared to European Americans and African Americans; however, in contrast to expectations, women reported less embarrassment than men. Interactions indicated that rectal and fecal embarrassment was particularly high among Jamaican men. Men and women have a preference for same-gender physicians, and embarrassment regarding feces and the rectum shows the most consistent ethnic and gender variation. Discussing embarrassment and its causes, as well as providing an opportunity to choose a same-gender physician, may be promising strategies to reduce or manage embarrassment and increase CRC screening attendance.

  16. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  17. Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

  18. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adults in Randomized Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Thompson, Douglas R.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Davis, Angela; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Roehrig, James P.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin M.; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that binge eating disorder (BED) is as prevalent among African American and Hispanic Americans as among Caucasian Americans; however, data regarding the characteristics of treatment-seeking individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic…

  19. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  20. Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

  1. A comparison of ethnic minority and majority students: social and academic integration, and quality of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severiens, S.; Wolff, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines students from ethnic minorities and majorities with regard to the relationships between their social and academic integration and their quality of learning. A total of 523 students at four universities completed a questionnaire: analyses of variance were used to examine mean di

  2. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  3. Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Riepe, Matthias W;

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries the ethnic minority migrant populations are currently reaching an age where dementia becomes an increasingly important issue. There is no European consensus on good clinical practice with these patient groups, who often have special needs and expectations with regard...... to dementia services....

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adults in Randomized Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Thompson, Douglas R.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Davis, Angela; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Roehrig, James P.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin M.; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that binge eating disorder (BED) is as prevalent among African American and Hispanic Americans as among Caucasian Americans; however, data regarding the characteristics of treatment-seeking individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic…

  5. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether neg

  6. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836478

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is

  7. Gender, Ethnicity, Ethnic Identity, and Language Choices of Malaysian Youths: The Case of the Family Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granhemat, Mehdi; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between gender, ethnicity, ethnic identity, and language choices of Malaysian multilingual youths in the family domain of language use. Five hundred undergraduate students who belonged to different Malaysian ethnic groups were selected as participants of the study. The participant aged between 17 to 25 years…

  8. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is e

  9. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  10. Ethnic incongruence and the student-teacher relationship: the perspective of ethnic majority teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.; Westhof, S.; Koomen, H.M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 throug

  11. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  12. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether neg

  13. The work–study interface: similarities and differences between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke); L.A.L. de Meijer (Lonneke); M.Ph. Born (Marise); S.E. Severiens (Sabine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGiven the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work–study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work–study interface model, in which the work-related factors work–study

  14. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  15. Attitude toward depression, its complications, prevention and barriers to seeking help among ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A; Tahir, Humera

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to explore attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and the barriers that result in delays in seeking help among the various ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia. In June 2007 a questionnaire-based survey was undertaken in Penang. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and 1855 respondents were approached to participate in the study by adopting a cluster random sampling method. A 25-item questionnaire was used to explore public attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and delays in seeking help. A total of 1149 (61.94%) showed willingness to participate in the survey. Ethnically, 490 (42.6%) of the respondents who participated in the survey were Malay, while 413 (35.9%) were Chinese, 149 (13%) Indian and 97 (8.4%) from other ethnic minorities. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years (SD ± 11.5). In evaluating public attitudes, the majority (n = 910, 79.2%) agreed with the statement that family and friends can enhance the depression recovery process by providing more care and attention to the patient and this was found to be statistically significant (P ≤0.001). More than one-third of the respondents (n = 437, 38.0%) perceived depression as a normal medical condition and believed that it subsides automatically. The majority (n = 830, 72.2%) stated that depression results in social problems, while some felt that it can lead to raised blood pressure (n = 518, 45.1%). In terms of prevention, most of the respondents indicated that one can prevent depression by maintaining a good social life. In evaluating the barriers to seeking professional help, the majority (n = 582, 50.7%) stated that they did not believe they were at risk, with the next largest group identifying a lack of awareness regarding the signs and symptoms. However, a positive attitude was observed towards the complications and prevention of depression. Initiatives to increase mental health literacy will prove fruitful

  16. Genetic and lifestyle causal beliefs about obesity and associated diseases among ethnically diverse patients: a structured interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Michael A.; Streicher, Samantha A.; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Smirnoff, Margaret; Horowitz, Carol R.; Zinberg, Randi; Clesca, Cindy; Richardson, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    Background New genetic associations with obesity are rapidly being discovered. People’s causal beliefs about obesity may influence their obesity-related behaviors. Little is known about genetic compared to lifestyle causal beliefs regarding obesity, and obesity-related diseases, among minority populations. This study examined genetic and lifestyle causal beliefs about obesity and three obesity-related diseases among a low-income, ethnically diverse patient sample. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with patients attending an inner-city hospital outpatient clinic. Participants (n=205) were asked how much they agreed that genetics influence risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Similar questions were asked regarding lifestyle causal beliefs (overeating, eating certain types of food, chemicals in food, not exercising, smoking). Forty-eight percent of participants were Non-Hispanic Black, 29% Hispanic, and 10% Non-Hispanic White. Results Over two thirds (69%) of participants believed genetics cause obesity ‘some’ or ‘a lot’, compared to 82% for type 2 diabetes, 79% for heart disease, and 75% for cancer. Participants who held genetic causal beliefs about obesity held more lifestyle causal beliefs in total than those who did not hold genetic causal beliefs about obesity (4.4 vs. 3.7 lifestyle causal beliefs respectively, possible range 0 to 5, p=0.025). There were few associations between causal beliefs and socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusions Higher beliefs in genetic causation of obesity and related diseases are not automatically associated with decreased lifestyle beliefs. Future research efforts are needed to determine whether public health messages aimed at reducing obesity and its consequences in racially and ethnically diverse urban communities may benefit from incorporating an acknowledgement of the role of genetics in these conditions. PMID:23235350

  17. Regards on the Ethics and Transparency in Public Administration. Book Review. Etică profesională şi transparenţă în administraţia publică, author Antonio Sandu, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana TEREC-VLAD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume “Etică profesională şi transparenţă în administraţia publică” (Professional Ethics and Transparency in Public Administration, published by the philosopher Antonio Sandu under the aegis of Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, in Bucharest, invites the students to find out the secrets of applied ethics through the considerable amount of reading material and the practical applications. Antonio Sandu synthesized the most important aspects of applied ethics in an original manner, in order to let the students and other interested persons discover the secrets of deontology and acquire specific skills in explaining and interpreting the phenomena faced by the administrative system.

  18. The ambiguity of ethnicity as risk factor of vitamin D deficiency - A case study of Danish vitamin D policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore how ethnic minorities at risk of vitamin D deficiency are constructed in Danish policy documents (current as of April 2009), regarding vitamin D supplementation. Methods: Ten policy documents were analysed through content analysis, focusing on definitions and explanations...... are constructed very differently in Danish policies current as of April 2009. A more precise definition of ethnic minorities in policies and research may be helpful in seeking to identify which ethnic minorities are and are not at risk of vitamin D deficiency....

  19. Knowledge and attitudes in regard to pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in a multiethnic community of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Sam, I-Ching

    2011-06-01

    Assessment of general public's knowledge and attitudes toward the development and prevention of new disease outbreaks is imperative because they have profound effects on health behaviors and may contribute to the control of the epidemic. To investigate the level of knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza A(H1N1) outbreak across various ethnic groups and socio-demographic backgrounds in Malaysia. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview exploring knowledge and attitudes regarding influenza A(H1N1) was conducted in Malaysia. Between July 11 and September 12, 2009, a total of 1,050 respondents were interviewed (response rate 69.3%). The mean total knowledge score for the overall sample was 7.30 (SD ± 1.961) out of a possible score of 13 (Chinese had the highest scores, followed by Indians, then Malays). Some erroneous beliefs about the modes of transmission were identified. The majority of the participants (73.8%) perceived the A(H1N1) infection as often deadly. Despite the overestimation of the severity of A(H1N1) infection, high confidence in preventing infection and low perceived susceptibility of infection were reported. Influenza A(H1N1)-related stigma was prevalent and exhibited differences across ethnic groups. Findings suggest that provision of education and clear information are essential to correct the misconceptions, and increase perceived susceptibility to infection so that the general public will take precautions against A(H1N1) infection.

  20. Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.A. de Hoog; M. van Eijsden; K. Stronks; R.J.B.J. Gemke; T.G.M. Vrijkotte

    2011-01-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed

  1. Religious and Ethnic Discrimination: Differential Implications for Social Support Engagement, Civic Involvement, and Political Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Ysseldyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.

  2. The impact of housing policies and housing markets on ethnic spatial segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how ethnic segregation is connected to an ethnic division of the housing market and a spatial separation of different housing tenures in four Nordic cities. Explanations for the differences across the cities are found by comparing housing markets and housing policies....... The housing markets are in all four cities ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. We further discuss the reasons for the observed pattern. The paper shows that the spatial distribution...... housing, while co-operative housing is crucial in the fourth. It is also shown that a policy of neighbourhood tenure mix in one of the cities has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations of immigrants in social/public housing....

  3. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  4. The Emotional Challenge of Ethnic Studies Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Many ethnic-majority college students have strong emotional reactions to ethnic-American literature and the conflict of social myth with social reality. Teachers can guide students through the seven stages leading from disillusionment to understanding (shock, denial, anger, rejection, examination, understanding, and acceptance) in part by…

  5. Ethnicity, National Integrity and Monument in Argal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Bahadur Khattri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, social inclusion, ethnic identity, positive discrimination and proportional representation being burning issues now. Ethnic identity is a vital element of discussion for social inclusion, positive discrimination and proportional representation. Assertion on ethnic identity, seeks recognition from concerned institutions, practices traditions and advocates their ethnic right on socio-economic and political power. These issues are intrinsically linked to national integration. To be sure, very little attention is paid toward ancestral monuments of the past. Monuments vary by their size, pattern, investment, management, and range of dissemination. Local level monuments have little possibility to attract the attention of people of various places and interest, unless they have becomes extraordinary significance. In order to understand monumentality in wider social context, it is very important to look at the village level society. Monument building in Nepal has been linked to culture, history, religion, ethnic identity as well as social system. Argal VDC of Baglung district of Nepal represent with multi-ethnic/caste setting that has high influence over the nature of monument and the rituals performed. In multiethnic setting economic, social, and political activities co-exist, each nourishing the other.Key Words: Ethnicity, Argali Magars, Intra-ethnic relation, Magars, Monuments, National Integrity, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1359Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.101-120

  6. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VS PROTECTION OF ETHNIC CULTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑茜; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    In November 2004,on international symposium was held in Kunming capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province,on economic development vs.protection of China's ethnic cultures.Participants agreed that the gathering came in good time in view of the fact that economic development is posing a growing threat to the very existence of ethnic cultures.

  7. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Japanese occupied territories and warlord fiefdoms, including Xinjiang, which was ruled by an autonomous military governor who nervously sought aid...many even greater injustices against ethnic minorities. Religion was especially suppressed, but so was ethnic language, cultural cuisines and garb

  8. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  9. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  10. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brief historical overview of ethnic minority problems and politics in Nigeria; the third and fourth sections ... and the ethno-nationalistic Kurds are examples of indigenous peoples. ... Koreans in Japan, the Chinese in Malaysia and the residual European and ... three major institutional paradigms of ethnic conflict management.

  11. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  12. Student and Faculty Ethnic Diversity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Keith; Girardi, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    The annual Ethnic Diversity Report provides information about minority student enrollment and minority faculty at Iowa colleges and universities. The "Student and Faculty Ethnic Diversity Report" has been prepared annually since 1992 and is provided to the Governor and General Assembly leadership. This summary is based on a Fall 2006…

  13. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new ref...

  14. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  15. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n = 1,770)

  16. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  17. Ethnic Art Falling Out of Favor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    During the multiculturalist wave that started in the 1950s, traditional ethnic art flowed in from across the globe. Today, that wave has receded as contemporary art has gained momentum. The trend toward contemporary art became more palpable in the 1990s. Baby Boomers had been exposed to ethnic art through programs like the Peace Corps. However, as…

  18. Why Does China Adopt the System of Regional Ethnic Autonomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic autonomous areas have been set up throughout China where ethnic minorities live china practices regional autonomy for ethnic minorities, not other policies. It is the right choice based on China’s basic conditions.

  19. A Study of English Acquisition of Pre-college Ethnic Minority Students under the Multi-Cultural Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Chun

    2015-01-01

    The multi-cultural background of pre-college ethnic minority students provides with a living model for developing second language teach-ing and related research.An investigation of the re-lationship between having a multi-cultural back-ground and English acquisition,and an analysis of its negative and positive influences will be helpful for improving the quality of teaching.In recent years,the research on college English teaching has been of concern both at home and abroad, and many books and articles related to this field have been published.These publications have provided an analysis on the status and main problems of col-lege English teaching with regard to course ar-rangement,teaching models,teaching methods,sys-tems of evaluation,and the specific needs of Eng-lish in society, etc.Some suggestions for English teaching reform have been proposed in order to solve some outstanding problems,such as the short-age of providing speaking-listening opportunities in English teaching,or the relatively poor communica-tion abilities of the students.In recent years, the cultural background of the students has been ex-plored ,which could have an important influence on English teaching.However, most of the research has focused on theoretical issues,and less on prac-tical useage.Moreover, there has been much less research on the influence and role of the pre-col-lege ethnic students'multi-cultural background. Hence,this article intends to start with the English level of the pre-college ethnic minority students, and,based upon an analysis of the different cultur-al backgrounds of the various students,explores the effect of English teaching within this background of cultural diversity.The purpose is to propose practi-cal and valuable solutions of these questions—how do teachers teach? And, how do students learn?The influence of the diversified cultural background of the pre-college ethnic minority students on their second language ( English) acquisition is obvious.

  20. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Kozma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consumers with German ethnic attitude really want German products and brands. At the same time, enterprises have to emphasise the products’ “Germanness” and character in a better/stronger way because this can help for better consumer decision making.

  2. Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.

  3. Narrative and ethnic identity exploration: a longitudinal account of emerging adults' ethnicity-related experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this longitudinal study was to investigate further the link between ethnic identity processes and content through an examination of emerging adults' narratives of ethnicity-related experiences. Seventy ethnically diverse college students completed an ethnic identity exploration index and told an ethnicity-related narrative on 2 occasions 18 months apart. Results indicated that (a) participants who increased in exploration over time were more likely to change their narrative theme than participants who decreased or remained stable in exploration and (b) these changes were more likely to be to stories of experience of prejudice or connection to culture. This study highlights the costs and benefits of ethnic identity and provides evidence for a linkage between ethnic identity process and content in emerging adulthood.

  4. Ethnic Conflicts and Identity Construction in a European Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2008-01-01

    "ethnicity". "othnie identity"and"ethnic conflicts"have been remaining a focus for research. In this article it will explain the understanding of ethnicity as well as the definition of ethnic groups and ethnic identity;illustrate the relationship between ethnlcity and ethnic conflict based on 4 kinds of examples;discuss 4 sorts of methods on minorities and display the aim and measures of EU identity construction.

  5. Ethnicity and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The barrier function of the skin is dependent on an optimal composition of the stratum corneum lipids, exemplified by the altered lipid profile in patients with atopic eczema (AE). Differences in the global prevalence of AE point to the environment as an important factor in AE. Studies...... on filaggrin point to a genetic aspect in AE. The influence of environment and genes needs to be explored. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible differences in stratum corneum lipids between different healthy ethnicities living in the same environment. METHODS: Healthy participants without any major skin...... diseases were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five participants of Asian origin (Asians), 18 of African origin (Africans) and 28 of Danish origin (white-skinned), all students at universities in the Copenhagen area of Denmark, had the ceramide profile of their stratum corneum examined using the cyanoacrylate...

  6. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: a Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2016-02-01

    In the UK, the `leaky pipeline' metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school context. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 interviews and 22 h of classroom observations with British students (aged 11-14) from Black Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Indian and Chinese ethnic backgrounds, this paper identified five `types' of science participation among minority ethnic students. The five types of science participation emerged from an analysis of students' science achievement, science aspiration, science interest and science capital. The characteristics of the five types are as follows: Science adverse students have no aspirations towards science and lacked interest, achievement and capital in science. Science intrinsic students have high science aspirations, interest and capital but low science attainment. Students who are science intermediate have some aspirations, interest and capital in science, with average science grades. Science extrinsic students achieve highly in science, have some science capital but lacked science aspirations and/or interest. Science prominent students are high science achievers with science aspirations, high levels of interest and capital in science. The findings highlight that minority ethnic students participate in science in diverse ways. Policy implications are suggested for each type as this paper provides empirical evidence to counter against public (and even some academic) discourses of minority ethnic students as a homogeneous group.

  7. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents : Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.

  8. 77 FR 14341 - Establishment of the National Advisory Committee on Racial, Ethnic, and Other Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Populations AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Committee Establishment... Populations is necessary and in the public interest. The Committee will function solely as an advisory body... National Advisory Committee on Racial, Ethnic, and Other Populations will advise the Director of the...

  9. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  10. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  11. The Value of Telephone Support Groups among Ethnically Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…

  12. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  13. Social Boundaries and Marital Assimilation: Interpreting Trends in Racial and Ethnic Intermarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    Interracial/interethnic marriage in America is a barometer of racial/ethnic relations and intergroup social distance. Using data from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we interpret trends in intermarriage in light of new assimilation theory, recent changes in racial classification, and rapid demographic…

  14. Culture-Blind? Parental Discourse on Religion, Ethnicity and Secularism in the French Educational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveaud, Maroussia

    2008-01-01

    This article examines policy mediation and adaptation in a context where religious, ethnic and other cultural identities are not officially recognised in the public sphere but considered part of the private sphere. French educational policy is firmly rooted within a secular Republican framework which relies on a colour-blind approach to promote…

  15. Peer and Teacher Preference, Student-Teacher Relationships, Student Ethnicity, and Peer Victimization in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical…

  16. Making Sense of Uyghur Aspirations : Mobility, Ethnicity, and Everyday Narratives in Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tursun, Sajide

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of Uyghur migrants in Shanghai. Uyghurs are a Turkic Muslim ethnic minority in China, who live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region at China’s north-western borderland. In the past decade, public discourse surrounding Uyghurs and Xinjiang has

  17. Rurality, Region, Ethnic Community Make-Up and Alcohol Use among Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C.; Stanley, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As the most widely used substance among adolescents in the United States, alcohol remains a critical public health issue. The majority of research in this area has focused on individual-level variables. This study examined the contextual effects of rurality, geographic region, and community ethnicity in the prediction of alcohol use among…

  18. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  19. Public knowledge of prevention of dental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, H C; Corbin, S B; Nowjack-Raymer, R E

    1994-01-01

    The authors present data describing the level and extent of the general public's knowledge of oral diseases and their prevention. They discuss data from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey's Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement in the context of national oral health objectives. They focus on demographic and socioeconomic differences seen in the public's knowledge of the preventive purposes of fluorides and dental sealants for dental caries and of symptoms of gum disease. Reported low levels of knowledge regarding oral disease symptoms and their prevention show the continuing trend reported during the past decade. Racial and ethnic minorities and groups with low levels of formal education demonstrate the least knowledge of prevention of oral diseases. For example, 76 percent of those with more than 12 years of schooling know the preventive purpose of water fluoridation, compared with 61 percent of those with 12 years, and 36 percent of those with less than 12 years of school. Efforts to increase levels of knowledge about oral disease prevention are required to achieve national objectives for oral health.

  20. Examining the public’s exposure to reports about ethnic groups in mainstream Russian media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkova A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exposure of Russian public to reports about ethnic groups in current mainstream Russian media by analyzing the amount of such reports today, as well as results of an online survey (n = 1040 aimed at revealing to what extent the public is indeed exposed to them by the respondents’ own estimations. The survey showed that generally users tend to lack information about ethnicities in mainstream media and demonstrate a certain interest in learning more about other ethnic groups in Russia through media channels. We argue thus that the public’s exposure to information about ethnic issues, although relatively high on a quantitative level (i.e., in terms of the actual number of reports, is lower on a qualitative one (i.e., the share of the respondents who actually come across such reports. The paper also reveals a number of tendencies from analyzing users’ age groups and their regions of living. In general, we believe that singling out both specifics of the public’s exposure to information about ethnicities and the connection between this exposure and the public’s attitudes toward ethnicities (which is planned as the second stage of the current research project may contribute to better understanding of the effects media can have on their audience in terms of agenda-setting and psychological influence. The current research can also be of interest when discussing the role mass media play in building harmonious relationships between representatives of different ethnic groups in a multiethnic society such as the Russian one.

  1. A pilot qualitative study to explore stakeholder opinions regarding prescribing quality indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martirosyan, Liana; Markhorst, Joekie; Denig, Petra; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Braspenning, Joze

    2012-01-01

    Background: Information on prescribing quality of diabetes care is required by health care providers, insurance companies, policy makers, and the public. Knowledge regarding the opinions and preferences of all involved parties regarding prescribing quality information is important for effective use

  2. A pilot qualitative study to explore stakeholder opinions regarding prescribing quality indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martirosyan, L.; Markhorst, J.; Denig, P.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Braspenning, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on prescribing quality of diabetes care is required by health care providers, insurance companies, policy makers, and the public. Knowledge regarding the opinions and preferences of all involved parties regarding prescribing quality information is important for effective use

  3. Racial/ethnic differences in responses to the everyday discrimination scale: a differential item functioning analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T; Yang, Frances M; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Fitchett, George

    2012-03-01

    The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996-1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the Everyday Discrimination Scale by race/ethnicity. After adjustment for age, education, and language of interview, meaningful DIF was observed for 3 (out of 10) items: "receiving poorer service in restaurants or stores," "being treated as if you are dishonest," and "being treated with less courtesy than other people" (all P's discrimination differed slightly for women of different racial/ethnic groups, with certain "public" experiences appearing to have more salience for African-American and Chinese women and "dishonesty" having more salience for racial/ethnic minority women overall. "Courtesy" appeared to have more salience for Hispanic women only in comparison with African-American women. Findings suggest that the Everyday Discrimination Scale could potentially be used across racial/ethnic groups as originally intended. However, researchers should use caution with items that demonstrated DIF.

  4. Russian Population Ethnic Structure: Trends and Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safronov S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the census data from 1989, 2002 and 2010, the article analyzes the evolution of the ethnic structure of the population of the post-Soviet Russia from the territorial perspective. The stability of the ethnic structure of the “Russian mega nucleus” and indigenization of the national regions are considered in view of the differences in migration trends during the two inter-census periods and the socioeconomic situation in the regions. The urbanization rate of major ethnic groups is an indirect indicator of the prospects of traditional “primordial” ethnic identities in different ethnic groups. Special attention is paid to new trends — an increase in the number of people refraining from answering the question about their ethnic identity or giving an unclear answer. Alongside serious census errors, this phenomenon can be a result of growing complexity of the ethnic identity structures and the processes of modernization, which occur at different rates in Russian and national regions. Based on the 2010 census data, the article analyses the differences in polyethnicity between the rural and urban population, which are accounted for by the historical background, particularities of regional development, settlement features, and migration processes of the past two decades.

  5. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie J van der Helm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention

  6. Buryat Ethnic Mentality and National Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbaev E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on ways the national (in a regional aspect broadcasting impacts ethnic mind formation and its further development, the latter issues being under a main focus of Buryat State University scholars as well. They set an objective to investigate the issue from different angles, for this reason gathering within scientific projects into scholars’groups took place. In this case the group of educators, philologists and sociologists have focused on media which construct ethnic mind via interiorizing and cultivating ethnic-related ideas and images for five years. Providing a general outlook of the world, National Broadcasting (NB is a proper institutional mechanism that helps a person identify himself / herself among different ethnic groups. Ethnic identity and self-consciousness are manifested in various social and intercultural communications. This allows a person to become aware of the peculiarities of his / her and others’ ethnic communities. The outcomes of a sociological research held by the authors verify the significance of both the posed problems and the TV role. One may find theoretical and empirical data in Zandeeva, S.K. (2012, Dagbaeva, N.Zh.(2012, Dagbaev (2014, Dashinimaeva, P.P., et al (2015. Generally, national programs do contribute to integrating people of the same ethnicity into a common community, to shaping such moral qualities as humanity, love to motherland, respect for the elders and other ethnic nationalities. All these characteristics form proper rules of living in a tolerant community. At the same time, they contribute to strengthening of the feeling of ethnic unity. Beyond any doubt, NB needs a relevant assessment and interest to promote and advance its function in a modern society. On the one hand, telecommunications markets liberalize. On the other hand, broadcasting technologies have developed to a highest extent, leading to the increase of international competition [14]. Anyway, both directions force

  7. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  8. Some Aspects Regarding Internet Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiţu I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine internet advertising, to understand its strengths and weaknesses, to compare the content and potential of traditional media with Web sites and to describe the specific types of internet advertising. The paper also tries to present some facts and figures regarding internet advertising.

  9. Ethnic incongruence and the student-teacher relationship: the perspective of ethnic majority teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma

    2012-04-01

    Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M(age)=10.81 years, SD=1.05). On average, relationships were less favorable for the Moroccan-Dutch students only. However, the effects of ethnic incongruence were most pronounced among students with strong perceived inattention/hyperactivity and among teachers endorsing lower levels of multiculturalism (the view that different cultures deserve equal treatment). Results support the notion that ethnically incongruent relationships may be perceived as less favorable than ethnically congruent ones due to cultural misunderstandings and intergroup bias. Practical implications are discussed.

  10. Does Ethnicity Matter? Social Workers’ Personal Attitudes and Professional Behaviors in Reporting Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Ashton

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the attitudes of professional social workers regarding corporal punishment and the perception and reporting of child maltreatment, according to the worker’s ethnic group membership (Asian, Black American, Black Caribbean, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White. Data were obtained by mailed questionnaires from 808 members of the New York City chapter of NASW. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Results indicate that approval of corporal punishment and perception of maltreatment differed according to ethnic group membership. However, ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of reporting maltreatment. Findings suggest that social work values override personal-culture values in the execution of job-related responsibilities. Implications for education and practice are discussed.

  11. Dating and commitment choices as a function of ethnicity among American college students in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebert, Martin S; Nugent, Dusty; Hershberger, Scott L; Kasdan, Margo

    2004-06-01

    The incidence of interracial and interethnic dating and marriage in the United States has increased. This investigation examined dating and commitment choices as a function of ethnicity and sex among groups of Euro-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and African-American college students. A convenience sample of college students comprising 329 heterosexual subjects (134 men, 195 women) was surveyed regarding their partner preferences for dating, visiting parents, marriage, and bearing children. It was hypothesized that subjects would consider dating partners from different ethnic groups, but when making a commitment to marriage and children would prefer members of their own group. This hypothesis was supported in half of the groups: Euro-American men, African-American men, Asian-American women, and African-American women. A discussion of dating and commitment choices among ethnic and sex groups is presented and discussed.

  12. Ethnic stereotypes among Bosniak and Serbian youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turjačanin Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research, which used a sample of 407 members of both Bosniak and Serb nationality in Sarajevo and Banja Luka, analyzes the structure and content of ethnic stereotypes of Bosnia and Herzegovina's youth. The results reveal significant negative stereotypes of Bosniak and Serb youth toward one another, but also show conspicuous similarities regarding their stereotypes toward other ethnic groups. The concluding remarks set forth theoretical and pragmatic consequences of the results obtained. It can be concluded that people are clearly divided into groups based on the ethnicity criterion. This, substantiated by the earlier history of conflict, creates perceptions and assessments saturated by negative attributes, and can lead to potential conflicts in future. The research suggests that possible solution lies in a conflict resolution education, greater interethnic communication.

  13. Study on the Natural Resources Rights of the Ethnic Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Yunwu

    2014-01-01

    Regarding China ’ s ethnic minor-ities’ economic development , a basic path to de-velop characteristic industries , depends , at the least, on their rich natural resources .However, the natural resources rights of the ethnic autono-mous regions prescribed in the Constitution and the law are not actually guaranteed .The ethnic auton-omous regions have not actually enjoyed the specif-ic right to independent development and utilization of their natural resources .The state also does not provide a reasonable compensation during the process of exploitation of the resources;and the e-conomic growth and the upgrading of the industrial structure essentially have not changed . Once the traditional natural resources are used up , the con-sequences are unthinkable .

  14. First Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off Offers Tastes from Around the World | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Employee Diversity Team (EDT), with the support of the R&W Club Frederick, hosted its first Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off on March 27, in the lobby of Building 549, at NCI at Frederick. The event drew chefs of all nationalities from around the NCI at Frederick community. The goal of the cook-off was to encourage members of the community to embrace various ethnic cultures and backgrounds, according to Andrea Frydl, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, and EDT chairperson.

  15. Self-Regarding / Other-Regarding Acts: Some Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVAN BABIC

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In his essay On Liberty, John Stuart Mill presents the famous harmprinciple in the following manner: “[…] the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. […] The only part of the conduct of anyone, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns others. […] Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign.” Hence, there is a distinction between self-regarding and other-regarding acts, and only the latter are subject to moral criticism. However, while all acts are in some way selfregarding, it is not clear if there are any which are exclusively so. There are two additional difficulties. First, the “individual” may not be an individual person; self-determining communities, at least when they have the ability to decide for themselves, are also “individuals” in this sense. Second, it is claimed that groups of acts (activities and practices have a different kind of justification from single acts. So what are the limits which “others” have in order to protect themselves from what “individuals” (personal or not do, and what are their rights to do and to protect? If, in the final analysis, protection or defense is a source of justification, what should or must be protected, and why? Where does the demarcation line between self-regarding and other-regarding acts lie? In our age, as in Mill’s, we encounter many situations where such a line is needed, yet is hard to determine or establish. One such example, the case of same-sex marriages, is further explored in this paper.

  16. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  17. Consumer responses to ethnic targeted marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-S.I.A. Lenoir (Anne-Sophie); S. Puntoni (Stefano)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Marketing is impacted more than ever by demographic change, to the extent that practitioners targeting ethnic groups should re-think their approach depending upon the strength with which different generations identify with their cultural heritage.

  18. Ethnic Disparities in the Graduate Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Zorlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of workers who enrolled for the first time as students at Dutch universities (WO and colleges (HBO in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study breaks down wage differentials into two components: a component which can be explained by the observed characteristics and an unexplained component. The analysis provides new evidence for the magnitude and the origin of ethnic wage differentials by gender. In general, ethnic wage gap is larger for migrant women than migrant men and larger for Western and Caribbean migrants than for Mediterranean migrants. Ethnic minority workers appear to have larger wage surpluses which is almost entirely explained by their observed favourable characteristics. Most notably, Mediterranean female graduates have significantly positive wage discrimination, while Western female graduates seem to face a small wage penalty.

  19. Essentialism Promotes Children's Inter-ethnic Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eDiesendruck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental foundation of the relation between social essentialism and attitudes. Forty-eight Jewish Israeli secular 6-year-olds were exposed to either a story emphasizing essentialism about ethnicity, or stories controlling for the salience of ethnicity or essentialism per se. After listening to a story, children’s attitudes were assessed in a drawing and in an IAT task. Compared to the control conditions, children in the ethnic essentialism condition drew a Jewish and an Arab character as farther apart from each other, and the Jewish character with a more positive affect than the Arab character. Moreover, boys in the ethnic essentialism condition manifested a stronger bias in the IAT. These findings reveal an early link between essentialism and inter-group attitudes.

  20. Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wästerfors

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.

  1. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  2. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  3. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  4. I am more than an ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    argues that the students construct identifications from belonging to communities of practice rather than from religion, ethnicity and nationality. Their resilience is made manifest in hybrid identities, as an individuated way of understanding their cultural negotiation as Indian Malaysians....

  5. Communication in medical practice across ethnic boundaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp, A. H.; Edwards, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The communication skills basic to good medical practice are, for many of us, unnatural. The authors attempt to address aspects of the matter with particular reference to communication across ethnic boundaries.

  6. Surveying Ethnical Policies in Iran and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Wendt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the bases of culture and ethnic nowadays the world is a plural world, in way that it’s reasonable to say nowhere could be exempted fro this classification. Researches conducted in this field have classified all countries whether developed or developing into lingual, religion, racial and cultural classes.As result of religious, cultural and ethnical overlapping between the countries and cases of unsatisfied needs and request by such group, local, national and even disputes between theses group and their governments is a common case through the ages.this study was conducted while having a historical look on the issue of ethnics in two countries including Iran and Malaysia and also surveying current situation and place of this challenge in the two countries, and also determining courses of ethnical and tradition reconstruction.

  7. Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wästerfors

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.

  8. Intercultural Effectiveness, Authoritarianism, and Ethnic Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.

  9. Awareness of schizophrenia and intellectual disability and stigma across ethnic groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina; Potts, Henry W; Furnham, Adrian F

    2013-07-30

    Research has examined the public's understanding of mental illness and stigma, but there is scant evidence on intellectual disabilities. This study investigated whether the public from different ethnic groups can recognise symptoms of schizophrenia and intellectual disability depicted in a vignette, and what factors predict recognition and social distance. A survey of lay people of working age was completed in the UK (N=1002). The sample was ethnically mixed, with the largest groups consisting of white UK residents, and people from Asian and black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of recognition and social distance. Across the whole sample, 25.7% recognised schizophrenia and 28.0% intellectual disability. Ethnicity, gender, education and prior contact predicted recognition of both vignettes. Social distance was higher for schizophrenia than intellectual disability, but overall participants were ambivalent to mildly negative about social contact with individuals with either symptomatology. Familiarity was associated with lower social distance for both conditions. Symptom recognition predicted reduced social distance for intellectual disability, but not for schizophrenia. The low levels of awareness of symptoms and high levels of stigma among some ethnic groups indicate a need for targeted public education efforts and further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Instructional Guide for Ethnic Studies at Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Guidelines and conceptual parameters are presented for ethnic studies courses at Evergreen Valley College (EVC). Introductory material discusses the requirement that all associate degree students complete three units of ethnic studies; presents general guidelines for ethnic studies; defines "ethnic-racial minority"; and suggests criteria for…

  11. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Graaf, N.D. de; Quillian, L.

    2009-01-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermar

  12. The role of communication in an ethnically diverse organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinsbach, A.A.; Feij, J.A.; Vries, de R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A research on the content of communication at work, job attitudes and unequal treatment was conducted in an ethnically diverse organization in the Netherlands comprising 504 ethnic majority and 113 ethnic minority employees. Ethnic minority employees experienced less person-related communic

  13. [Value of public opinion polls for evaluating the acceptability of epidemiologic surveys in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, J P; Lahanier, D; Roux, J

    1989-01-01

    A prevalence study on non communicable diseases related to nutrition, alcoholism and tabagism is planned in French Polynesia. The methodology used, although complicated, has been successful in insular states of the South Pacific with either traditional or transitional ways of life. Acceptability level of the study in the urban area of Papeete (Tahiti) has been tested by a public opinion poll using the quota method in order to obtain valuable information on feasibility of the project. The public opinion poll showed that 75% of people would participate, 19.5% would be reluctant and 5.5% would hesitate. The good results must be carefully interpreted with regards to the multi-ethnic structure of French Polynesian population, and to the limits of the quota method.

  14. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  15. Ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino ethnic groups: an examination of hypothesized pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia

    2014-11-01

    Studies among US Latinos provide the most consistent evidence of ethnic density effects. However, most studies conducted to date have focused on Mexican Americans, and it is not clear whether ethnic density effects differ across Latino sub-groups, generational status, or measures of ethnic density. In addition, the mechanisms behind ethnic density are not well understood. This study uses a multi-group structural equation modeling approach to analyze the Latino sample from the National Latino and Asian-American Study (n=1940) and examine ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino sub-groups, and explore two hypothesized mechanisms: increased neighborhood cohesion and reduced exposure to interpersonal racism. Results of the main effects between ethnic density and health, and of the hypothesized mechanisms, show clear differences across Latino ethnic groups, generational categories and measures of ethnic density. Findings highlight that ethnic density effects and their mechanisms depend on the current and historical context of Latino sub-groups, including reasons for migration and rights upon arrival.

  16. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  17. Ethnicity, Soybean Consumption, and Mammographic Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    and glycitein (26-29). Daidzein present in soy respectively]. Urinary excretion of isoflavones was also foods is partially converted by the gut flora...intestinal bacteria (34, 52) ous ethnic groups for isoflavone excretion was found, but the such as Lactobacilli, Bacteroides , Bifidobacterium, and...other ethnic groups. Similar to our results, in the gut flora (54). The intestinal bacteria vary widely be- Japanese women excreted very low levels

  18. Ethnicity and Earnings in Urban Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ñopo, Hugo; Saavedra, Jaime; Torero, Máximo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between ethnic exclusion and earnings in Urban Peru. Our approach to the concept of ethnicity involves the usage of instruments in many of its several dimensions: mother tongue, parental background, religion, migration events and race. In order to approximate what can be called racial differences in a context like the Peruvian in which "racial mixture" is the main characteristic of the population, we use a score-based procedure to capture both the diffe...

  19. Towards a Postmodern Approach of Ethnic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-George FEDOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is a concise review of the various approaches to the concept of ethnic community, starting from the classical ones and ending with the postmodern ones. Emphasis is laid on the constructivist and constructionist approaches, and our conclusions point out that an individual’s belonging to an ethnic group is an ever-changing social construct. Classification-JEL: A23

  20. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...