WorldWideScience

Sample records for public dose limit

  1. Compliance with public dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation, in various forms, is ubiquitous in the environment. Natural background radiation leads to an average radiation exposure for the general population of about 2 mSv per year. The mining and milling of radioactive ores - uranium and mineral sands - may cause a small increase in radiation exposure for some members of the public. Because any such increment in exposure is small compared with a natural exposure that is variable and difficult to quantify accurately, it is not easy to determine what proportion of the total dose received by a member of the public can be attributed to mining and milling activities. Consequently, because public dose limits apply and to those doses caused by human activity, such as mining and milling, the task of demonstrating compliance can be hampered by uncertainty. Some strategies for handling this situation are discussed. While the discussion concentrates on public dose limits, much of it may also be applicable, or adaptable, to occupational exposure. 4 refs., 2 figs

  2. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  3. Philosophy evolution of the dose limitation system and the issue of replacements in the 'superseded' publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Felipe Ramos

    2016-01-01

    In 1958 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) first proposed the philosophy of the dose limitation system by introducing the Permissible Maximum Annual Limits (PMAL). The breakthrough of the nuclear age in recent decades has imposed new paradigms and the need to update the philosophy in question. This work aims to present an analysis about the philosophy evolution of the dose limitation system, from the 50’s to the present day. The first paradigm shift occurred with the creation of Allowable Maximum Annual Limits (AMAL), still in force. Through a careful study of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publications and the ICRP recommendations, it was possible to highlight and detail the process of evolution of AMAL over the past decades. The research addresses key moments that have driven change in the philosophy of the dose limitation system, for example, the international oil crisis and its implications in the development of nuclear area. The comparison of the various publications of the two entities (IAEA and ICRP) allowed a thorough study since the emergence of these philosophies to their latest publications. The results of this study indicate important information contained in ICRP publications, now considered s uperseded , which are not found in current publications. The IAEA, which prepares its recommendations based on the philosophy of the ICRP, also does not address such information. Through this research, it was possible clear and detail valuable information that was lost during the process of updating publications and editing recommendations of both entities. This study aims to present this information, which were studied in depth, discussing their real value, proposing to the new international community reflections on the importance and the possibility of reintroducing the lost information in future publications. (author)

  4. Dose limits for ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, D.

    1989-01-01

    Dose limits for exposure to ionising radiation are assessed to see if they give sufficient protection both for the occupationally exposed and for the general public. It is concluded that current limits give a level of safety that satisfies the necessary criteria in the light of present knowledge and further reductions would be unlikely to improve standards of safety. (author)

  5. Revised dose limits and new respiratory tract model and their implications for annual limits of intake of radioactive materials - A review of recent ICRP publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause immediate and/or delayed biological damages to the body of the exposed person and/or his/her progeny. The exposure may be caused by an external source or may arise due to internal contamination by a radioactive material. In order to prevent such exposure, or to reduce the probability that it will occur, national authorities and international organizations that are engaged in radiation safety and protection have set limits for the exposure to ionizing radiation from either source. The sensitivity of the body to ionizing radiation usually decreases with age. For this reason and due to the limited possibilities to control the exposure of the general public, different limits have been set for for occupational exposure and for the exposure of members of the public of different age groups. The general principles of these limits and guidelines for their calculations are set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and published in the Annals of the ICRP. The basic philosophy of the Commission, which includes the principles of justification, optimization and dose limits, the basic radiobiological models, and the distinction between stochastic and non-stochastic effects has been presented in its publication no. 26 . Based on this philosophy, the Commission issued between 1979 and 1988 a series of publications followed by annexes and addenda known as publication no. 30 . This series presented models describing the metabolism of radioactive materials which enter the body by inhalation and ingestion, the transfer of such materials from the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract to the blood, and from there to the body organs and the excretion of the material from the body. This series presented also values for biokinetic parameters of these systems and transfer paths, and methods for calculating limits on intake which ensure that the exposure from internal contamination will not exceed the dose limits set by the

  6. Revised dose limits and new respiratory tract model and their implications for annual limits of intake of radioactive materials - A review of recent ICRP publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T; Silverman, I; Shapira, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause immediate and/or delayed biological damages to the body of the exposed person and/or his/her progeny. The exposure may be caused by an external source or may arise due to internal contamination by a radioactive material. To prevent such exposure, or to reduce the probability that it will occur, national authorities and international organizations engaged in radiation safety and protection have set limits for the exposure to ionizing radiation from either source. The sensitivity of the body to ionizing radiation usually decreases with age. For this reason and due to the limited possibilities to control the exposure of the general public, different limits have been set for for occupational exposure and for the exposure of members of the public of different age groups. The general principles of these limits and guidelines for their calculations are set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and published in the Annals of the ICRP. The basic philosophy of the Commission, which includes the principles of justification, optimization and dose limits, the basic radiobiological models, and the distinction between stochastic and non-stochastic effects has been presented in its publication no. 26. Based on this philosophy, the Commission issued between 1979 and 1988 a series of publications followed by annexes and addenda known as publication no. 30. This series presented models describing the metabolism of radioactive materials which enter the body by inhalation and ingestion, the transfer of such materials from the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract to the blood, and from there to the body organs and the excretion of the material from the body. This series presented also values for biokinetic parameters of these systems and transfer paths, and methods for calculating limits on intake which ensure that the exposure from internal contamination will not exceed the dose limits set.

  7. 76 FR 40755 - Impact of Reduced Dose Limits on NRC Licensed Activities; Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... scientifically justified, to achieve greater alignment with the 2007 recommendations of the International... and image files of the NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are... informed of all the benefits and burdens associated with further alignment of NRC's current radiation...

  8. Dose. Detriment. Limit assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    2015-01-01

    One goal of radiation protection is the limitation of stochastic effects due to radiation exposure. The probability of occurrence of a radiation induced stochastic effect, however, is only one of several other parameters which determine the radiation detriment. Though the ICRP-concept of detriment is a quantitative definition, the kind of detriment weighting includes somewhat subjective elements. In this sense, the detriment-concept of ICRP represents already at the stage of effective dose a kind of assessment. Thus, by comparing radiation protection standards and concepts interconvertible or with those of environment or occupational protection one should be aware of the possibly different principles of detriment assessment.

  9. Work to save dose: contrasting effective dose rates from radon exposure in workplaces and residences against the backdrop of public and occupational limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcnaughton, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    contrast to the 0.1 mSv yr-! air pathway effective public dose limit regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency for radioactive air emissions.

  10. Work to save dose: contrasting effective dose rates from radon exposure in workplaces and residences against the backdrop of public and occupational limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Mcnaughton, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    effective public dose limit regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency for radioactive air emissions.

  11. Dose limits cause unacceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Sylvia.

    1985-01-01

    This paper on radiation dose limits for workers and the public discusses the following: Medical Research Council report; safety standards; risk assessment; deaths from cancers; biological radiation effects; UK legislation; low-level radiation; public concern; UKAEA staff survey; Ionising Radiations Regulations; United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation; US studies on work force in nuclear establishments; problems of extrapolation; Japanese data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations; studies on uranium miners; UK Health and Safety Executive; UK National Radiological Protection Board. (U.K.)

  12. Occupational dose equivalent limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers methods of limiting individual radiation risks by recognizing the variation of risk with age at exposure, taking into account both somatic and genetic risks and proposes a simple formula for controlling individual cumulative exposure and hence risk. (Author)

  13. Dose limits to the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, N.

    2016-01-01

    Protecting the human body from the effects of ionizing radiation is essential to forestall stochastic effects and require placing limits on the effective dose. Dose limits on specific organs are also necessary to reduce the deterministic effects and tissue reactions. The standard for radiation protection was ISO 15382 (2002) which mainly dealt with beta radiation for nuclear power plant workers. Clearly an update is required to allow for new technology and the proliferative use of radiation in medical practices. There is a need for more explicit radiation monitoring to operators and staff. ICRP118 (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Ref. 1, evolved their recommendations to include eye lens doses as a follow on to their publication 103 and to focus on radiation exposures. It provides updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury at the level of 1% incidence. This paper discusses the current status and the recommendation for a drastic reduction of the dose limit to the eye lens. (author)

  14. The philosophy of dose limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, P.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of concepts and terms appearing in the European Rules of 15 July 1980 is briefly described. After a period where ''tolerance doses'' represent definite limits which should be respected, appears the concept of a ''as low as possible'' and ''as low as practicable'' level. The hypothesis that any exposure represents a risk which should be avoided is taken into account in the later evolution. As a consequence one has to examine the advantages and disadvantages in other words to make a cost-benefit analysis. This evolution leads to the concepts of justification and optimization used at the present time. (author)

  15. Dose limits to the eye lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sion, N.

    2016-09-15

    Protecting the human body from the effects of ionizing radiation is essential to forestall stochastic effects and require placing limits on the effective dose. Dose limits on specific organs are also necessary to reduce the deterministic effects and tissue reactions. The standard for radiation protection was ISO 15382 (2002) which mainly dealt with beta radiation for nuclear power plant workers. Clearly an update is required to allow for new technology and the proliferative use of radiation in medical practices. There is a need for more explicit radiation monitoring to operators and staff. ICRP118 (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Ref. 1, evolved their recommendations to include eye lens doses as a follow on to their publication 103 and to focus on radiation exposures. It provides updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury at the level of 1% incidence. This paper discusses the current status and the recommendation for a drastic reduction of the dose limit to the eye lens. (author)

  16. Radiation risk factors and dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The contents of the ICRP publications 9 (1965) and 26 (1977) are outlined and the research conducted during these years considered. Expressions are derived for the frequency for induction of cancer from the most common irradiations - X rays, gamma rays and electrons. The dose limits advised by the ICRP are discussed and the first two fundamental principles are presented - that no one should be subjected to radiation without useful cause and that in those cases where irradiation is thought necessary, the medical, scientific, social and economic advantages need to be carefully considered with respect to the possible disadvantages. (C.F.)

  17. New safety standards of nuclear power station with no requirements of site evaluation. No public dose limit published with possible inappropriateness of reactor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takitani, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Regulation Authority was preparing new safety standards in order to aim at starting safety reviews of existing nuclear power station in July 2013. This article commented on issues of major accident, which was defined as severely damaged core event. Accumulated dose at the site boundary of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station totaled to about 234 mSv on March just after the accident with rare gas of 500 PBq, iodine 131 of 500 PBq, cesium 134 of 10 PBq and cesium 137 of 10 PBq released to the atmosphere, which was beyond 100 mSv. As measures for preventing containment vessel failure after core severely damaged, filtered venting system was required to be installed for low radiological risk to the public. However filter was not effective to rare gas. Accumulated doses at the site boundary of several nuclear power stations after filtered venting with 100% release of rare gas could be estimated to be 2-37 Sv mostly depending on the site condition, which might be surely greater than 100 mSv. Omitting site evaluation for major accident, which was beyond design basis accident, was great concern. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Use of dose constraints in public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tageldein, Amged

    2015-02-01

    An overview of the dose constraints in public exposures has been carried out in this project. The establishment, development and the application of the concept of dose constraints are reviewed with regards to public exposure. The role of dose constraints in the process of optimization of radiation protection was described and has been showed that the concept of the dose constraints along with many other concept of radiation protection is widely applied in the optimization of exposure to radiation. From the beginning of the establishment of dose constraints as a concept in radiation protection, the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published a number of documents that provides detailed application related to radiation protection and safety of public exposure from ionizing radiation. This work provides an overview of such publications and related documents with special emphasis on optimization of public exposure using dose constraints. (au)

  19. Current estimates of radiation risks and implications for dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The publication of the 1988 report of UNSCEAR represents a major step forward in that there is an international consensus on the estimation of risk from exposure to ionising radiation. The estimates of fatal cancers in the UNSCEAR report are up to 4 times the values in the 1977 review. This paper will describe the reasons for the increase, the remaining uncertainties and the implications for dose limits in occupational and public exposure. (author)

  20. Dose. Detriment. Limit assessment; Dosis. Schadensmass. Grenzwertsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckow, J. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS)

    2015-07-01

    One goal of radiation protection is the limitation of stochastic effects due to radiation exposure. The probability of occurrence of a radiation induced stochastic effect, however, is only one of several other parameters which determine the radiation detriment. Though the ICRP-concept of detriment is a quantitative definition, the kind of detriment weighting includes somewhat subjective elements. In this sense, the detriment-concept of ICRP represents already at the stage of effective dose a kind of assessment. Thus, by comparing radiation protection standards and concepts interconvertible or with those of environment or occupational protection one should be aware of the possibly different principles of detriment assessment.

  1. Dose coefficients for public exposition; Coeficientes de dose para exposicao ao publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01 'Basic Guidelines for Radiation Protection', to be applied to the dose calculus with the objective of verification according to the limits and restrictions of dose and reference levels of the public individuals, expressed in its section 5

  2. Philosophy evolution of the dose limitation system and the issue of replacements in the 'superseded' publications; Evolução da filosofia do sistema de limitação de dose e a questão das substituições 'superseded'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Felipe Ramos

    2016-07-01

    In 1958 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) first proposed the philosophy of the dose limitation system by introducing the Permissible Maximum Annual Limits (PMAL). The breakthrough of the nuclear age in recent decades has imposed new paradigms and the need to update the philosophy in question. This work aims to present an analysis about the philosophy evolution of the dose limitation system, from the 50’s to the present day. The first paradigm shift occurred with the creation of Allowable Maximum Annual Limits (AMAL), still in force. Through a careful study of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publications and the ICRP recommendations, it was possible to highlight and detail the process of evolution of AMAL over the past decades. The research addresses key moments that have driven change in the philosophy of the dose limitation system, for example, the international oil crisis and its implications in the development of nuclear area. The comparison of the various publications of the two entities (IAEA and ICRP) allowed a thorough study since the emergence of these philosophies to their latest publications. The results of this study indicate important information contained in ICRP publications, now considered {sup s}uperseded{sup ,} which are not found in current publications. The IAEA, which prepares its recommendations based on the philosophy of the ICRP, also does not address such information. Through this research, it was possible clear and detail valuable information that was lost during the process of updating publications and editing recommendations of both entities. This study aims to present this information, which were studied in depth, discussing their real value, proposing to the new international community reflections on the importance and the possibility of reintroducing the lost information in future publications. (author)

  3. Experience with dose limitation during preparations for sea dumping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieuw, G.; Voorde, N. van de; Baekelandt, L.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1967 low-level radioactive wastes from operational nuclear facilities in Belgium have been dumped into the sea. The dumping is carried out in accordance with the recommendations issued by the IAEA under the London Convention. All these dumping operations have taken place under the surveillance of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. To limit the doses received by workers and the public during the various phases leading up to sea dumping, appropriate measures are required in connection with waste treatment and packaging, limitation of radiation levels, storage and handling, organization and selection of the means of transport and organization and means of monitoring. Although treatment and handling at the nuclear sites are entrusted to occupationally exposed workers, temporary labour is used for the transport and handling operations. Effective treatment and packaging reduce the risk of internal exposure to a negligible value. Meticulous planning and permanent personnel monitoring reduce the doses received by the workers to acceptable values not exceeding the statutory dose limits. The doses received by personnel involved in the preparations for sea dumping operations from 1967 to 1980 are given and a relationship is established between these doses and the activities handled. Experience shows that sea dumping operations do not entail unacceptable risks either for the workers concerned or for the population and allows us to optimize the methods used for loading, handling and transport. (author)

  4. On the constitutionality of dose limiting values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, V.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental right according to Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the German Constitution is relevant for the set-up and application of radiation protection law. Resulting from Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution it is a general obligation of the state to protect life (Federal Constitutional Court, judgment of 25th Feb., 1975, BVerfGE 39.1) and physical soundness. The subjective basic right of everybody to defend against official encroachments his personal integrity corresponds to the right of the individual within the framework of the official obligation for protection from the state (to ward off danger). The term of danger, as to the degree of its determination, corresponds to that of the encroachment. To speak of danger in a legal sense, the causal connection between a certain source of danger and certain damage must be ascertained and proved. Topical controversies as to the admissibility of activity discharges of low doses range in the field of risk reduction and thus in the field of the duty of the state to take precautionary steps against risks (Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution). The constitution, however, does not contain any basic right that every risk has to be avoided. On the other hand, the necessity of cautions valuation of radiation risks can be derived from the Constitution. The fixation of dose limits and their application in connection with general radiation protection principles (paragraph 28 E of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) do not contain any 'interference' with the basic right in the sense of Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 3 of the Constitution. Neither from aspects of the principle of the legal state nor from Art. 80 par. 1 of the Constitution can the use of the legal form of the Ordinance be doubted. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Should repository release criteria be based on collective dose, release limits, or individual doses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Neill, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using each of 3 alternative methods (collective dose, release limits, and individual dose) as release criteria for determining long-term high level or transuranic waste repository performance of naturally occurring releases or man-made intrusions are evaluated. Each of the alternative approaches have positive aspects and each has uncertainties that require some arbitrary assumptions. A comparison of the numerical results from evaluating the three alternatives at WIPP leads to the conclusion that a collective dose is preferable because it is more site specific and allows consideration of the full effects of human intrusion. The main objection to release limits is they do not use site specific criteria to determine the radiological effect on local and regional populations. Individual dose criteria used and recommended in the United States have ignored doses to drillers and the public from wastes brought to the surface by human intrusion because these doses can be greater than acceptable limits. Also, there is disagreement about defining the location and lifestyle of the individual

  6. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Preliminary analysis of public dose from CFETR gaseous tritium release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Baojie [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ni, Muyi, E-mail: muyi.ni@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lian, Chao; Jiang, Jieqiong [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Present the amounts and limit dose of tritium release to the environment for CFETR. • Perform a preliminary simulation of radiation dose for gaseous tritium release. • Key parameters about soil types, wind speed, stability class, effective release height and age were sensitivity analyzed. • Tritium release amount is recalculated consistently with dose limit in Chinese regulation for CFETR. - Abstract: To demonstrate tritium self-sufficiency and other engineering issues, the scientific conception of Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) has been proposed in China parallel with ITER and before DEMO reactor. Tritium environmental safety for CFETR is an important issue and must be evaluated because of the huge amounts of tritium cycling in reactor. In this work, different tritium release scenarios of CFETR and dose limit regulations in China are introduced. And the public dose is preliminarily analyzed under normal and accidental events. Furthermore, after finishing the sensitivity analysis of key input parameters, the public dose is reevaluated based on extreme parameters. Finally, tritium release amount is recalculated consistently with the dose limit in Chinese regulation for CFETR, which would provide a reference for tritium system design of CFETR.

  8. The dose limits in radiation protection: foundations and evolution perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The first part of this article is devoted to the evolution of dose limits in radiation protection since 1928. The second part tackles the difficulties to whom the ICRP system of limitation collides with. The notions of dose limits, ALARA principle are explained and the concept of dose constraints is introduced. (N.C.)

  9. Dose evaluation for the public around the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeishi, Minoru; Furuta, Sadaaki; Miyabe, Kenjiro; Shinohara, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    The dose evaluations for the public around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) have been carried out by using the mathematical models, because the effects on the environmental radiation due to the operation of the TRP are too small to separate from the background level. The models were developed by the site-specific investigations of the environment and reviewed in several times based on the latest scientific knowledge. The maximum annual effective dose through the whole period of the operation of the TRP was evaluated as 1.4 μSv with the data of the discharge monitoring and the meteorological observation in 1992. The evaluated doses revealed to be kept as far below the annual dose limit for the public as 1 mSv. (author)

  10. State of the art in Europe on dose limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M. J.; Amor, I.

    2002-01-01

    The process of setting up new radiological protection limits and requirements constitutes a long and laborious task, since the definition of the scientific bases that support them until their obliged fulfillment by adoption in national regulations. This paper analyzes the most important news contained in the Directive 96/29/Euratom, that are being transposed into Member States national legislations. Additionally the implications derived from the process are taken into consideration. Certain items as the new dose limits for exposed workers and public, the application of dose constraints, and the requirements for the protection of pregnant women and fetus, were object of special controversy during the development of the directive and they are not being transposed in a common way. So the different approach in the setting up of occupational doses can generate difficulties in the context of the european market. Through the directive constitutes the framework for the radiological protection in the European Union, there are certain difficulties for common implementation that will require subsequent explanations from the Commission and the Competent National Authorities. (Author)

  11. The monetary value of the averted dose for public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Eged, K.; Kanyar, B.; Kis, Z.; Nenvei, A.

    2002-01-01

    In general, the concept of optimisation in radiation protection and safety appears as cost-minimisation in new procedures, methods in practices, and/or protective actions following unacceptable contamination. In the practical implementation of the concept, the cost of protective actions should be balanced with the benefits of exposure reduction. The monetary value of the averted dose can be assessed by the product of the cost of unit avoided collective dose (alpha-value) and the averted collective dose (ICRP 1991, 1993). According to the ICRP and others, the monetary value of the averted dose - in addition to the avoided health detriment - needs to take into account economical and social circumstances, ethical factors etc. (ICRP 1993, 2000; IBSS 1995; Oughton 2000). Most of the alpha-value assessments have been performed for workers (Hardeman et al. 1998; Lefaure 1998). Due to the different dose limitations and action levels for public exposures the monetary value of the averted dose may vary whether the averted dose refers to workers or to the public. Until now, only a few investigations have been performed to the public exposures. Eeckhoudt et al. (1999) proposed a method based on compensation dependency and on comparisons between the workers and the general public. The present paper includes the results obtained by the WTP method for the public. The questionnaire and analysis were developed by the CEPN (Centre d'Etude sur L'Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, France) for specialists in the nuclear field (Leblanc et al. 1994). In 2000, questionnaire modifications were first introduced to adjust the Hungarian factors (Eged et al. 2001, 2002). The questionnaire was further modified in 2001 to take into account the Hungarian public factors

  12. Limitations of high dose carrier based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Stewart; Traini, Daniela; Tweedie, Alan; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Young, Paul M

    2018-06-10

    This study was performed to investigate how increasing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content within a formulation affects the dispersion of particles and the aerosol performance efficiency of a carrier based dry powder inhalable (DPI) formulation, using a custom dry powder inhaler (DPI) development rig. Five formulations with varying concentrations of API beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) between 1% and 30% (w/w) were formulated as a multi-component carrier system containing coarse lactose and fine lactose with magnesium stearate. The morphology of the formulation and each component were investigated using scanning electron micrographs while the particle size was measured by laser diffraction. The aerosol performance, in terms of aerodynamic diameter, was assessed using the British pharmacopeia Apparatus E cascade impactor (Next generation impactor). Chemical analysis of the API was observed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increasing the concentration of BDP in the blend resulted in increasing numbers and size of individual agglomerates and densely packed BDP multi-layers on the surface of the lactose carrier. BDP present within the multi-layer did not disperse as individual primary particles but as dense agglomerates, which led to a decrease in aerosol performance and increased percentage of BDP deposition within the Apparatus E induction port and pre-separator. As the BDP concentration in the blends increases, aerosol performance of the formulation decreases, in an inversely proportional manner. Concurrently, the percentage of API deposition in the induction port and pre-separator could also be linked to the amount of micronized particles (BDP and Micronized composite carrier) present in the formulation. The effect of such dose increase on the behaviour of aerosol dispersion was investigated to gain greater insight in the development and optimisation of higher dosed carrier-based formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. The revision of dose limits for exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the current dose limits for exposure to ionizing radiations and the risk factors on which they are based, and summarizes the revised risk factors and the draft proposals for new dose limits published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  14. Revision of risk estimates and implications for dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    It has been apparent for some time that our estimates of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation must be increased above those values reported by UNSCEAR in 1977 an dused by ICRP to form their present recommendations. NRPB foresaw some of these changes and introduced interim advice within the UK to restrict exposures of wordkers and members of the public to levels below the existing limits. Since that advice was given, UNSCEAR has produced a 1988 report reviewing human data to provide new estimates of risks associated with exposure at high doses and high doserates. These risk figures are up to 4 times higher than when UNSCEAR reported in 1977. In this paper, the reasons for the changes in the estimates of risk will be described and the current NRPB guidelines for risk factors for protection purposes will be presented. The implications of these new risk factors for the setting of dose limits will then be discussed. (Author). 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. The limiting dose rate and its importance in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkiam, D.; Sonwani, Swetha; Arul Ananthakumar, A.; Mohankumar, Mary N.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of defining a low dose of ionizing radiation still remains unclear. Before attempting to define a low dose, it is more important to define a low-dose rate since effects at low dose-rates are different from those observed at higher dose-rates. Hence, it follows that low dose-rates rather than a low dose is an important criteria to determine radio-biological effects and risk factors i.e. stochastic health effects. Chromosomal aberrations induced by ionizing radiations are well fitted by quadratic model Y= áD + âD 2 + C with the linear coefficient of dose predominating for high LET radiations and low doses of low LET. At higher doses and dose rates of sparsely ionizing radiation, break pairs produced by inter-track action leads to the formation of exchange type aberrations and is dependent on dose rate. Whereas at lower doses and dose rates, intra-track action produces break pairs and resulting aberrations are in direct proportion to absorbed dose and independent of dose rate. The dose rate at which inter-track ceases to be observable and where intra-track action effectively becomes the sole contributor of lesion-pair formation is referred to as limiting dose rate (LDR). Once the LDR is reached further reduction in dose rates will not affect the slope of DR since breaks produced by independent charged particle tracks are widely separated in time to interact with each other for aberration yield. This linear dependency is also noticed for acute exposures at very low doses. Existing reports emphasizes the existence of LDR likely to be e6.3cGyh -1 . However no systematic studies have been conducted so far to determine LDR. In the present investigation DR curves were constructed for the dose rates 0.002 and 0.003 Gy/min and to define LDR at which a coefficient approaches zero. Extrapolation of limiting low dose rate data can be used to predict low dose effects regardless of dose rate and its definition ought to serve as a useful index for studies pertaining

  16. The system of radiological protection revisited. Are dose limits for the population really necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-01-01

    The distinction between practices and interventions in the System of Radiation Protection has created a lot of confusion in the population and amongst decision-makers, especially with regards to the concepts of dose limits and intervention levels. The experience gained after the Chernobyl accident indicated that many actions taken led to an unnecessarily large expenditure of national resources, and many instances occurred of contradictory national responses. A major reason was the mixture of dose limits for the population, which apply only to exposures from practices, and intervention levels, which apply only to protective measures in de-facto exposure situations. The existing System of Radiation Protection is revisited and it is suggested that the System can be revised with no dose limits for the public without causing a lower degree of protection of the population. With the widespread use of source-related dose constraints and practical restrictions on the sources of public exposure from practices, generally applicable dose limits are rarely limiting in any practical situation, even if dose constraints might, at least in principle, fail to take adequate account of the exposures from other practices. Constraints can be expressed as operational protection quantities, e.g. nuclide-specific release rates, dose rate at the fence of a facility or nuclide-specific surface contamination density in the environment. A revised System of Radiation Protection without public dose limits would not cause any reduced protection of the public compared to the existing System, and it has a potential for removing much of the confusion with regards to application of intervention/action levels. It would also have the potential for improving public perception of radiation protection and radiation risks as well as for saving vast resources in intervention situations for better application in general health care of the public. (au)

  17. Effectance, committed effective dose equivalent and annual limits on intake: what are the changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Stather, J.W.; Phipps, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the concept of effectance, compares committed effectance with the old committed effective dose equivalent and goes on to discuss changes in the annual limits on intakes and the maximum organ doses which would result from an intake of an ALI (Annual Limit of Intake). It is shown that committed effectance is usually, but not always, higher than committed effective dose equivalent. ALIS are usually well below those resulting from the ICRP Publication 30 scheme. However, if the ALI were based only on a limit on effectance it would imply a high dose to specific organs for certain nuclides. In order to control maximum organ doses an explicit limit could be introduced. However, this would destroy some of the attractive features of the new scheme. An alternative would be a slight modification to some of the weighting factors. (author)

  18. ICRP-recommendations on dose limits for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Dose limits proposed by the ICRP have been incorporated in most national and international standards and their respect has caused a distribution of doses with a average not exceeding 1/10 of the maximum permissible dose. This distribution corresponds to a risk which is well within the risks in 'safe industries'. There are at present some inconsistancies in the current system of recommended limits, for example having the same limit of 5 rem for the whole-body and also for some organs. Hopefully, this incosistancy will be removed in the next recommendation of the ICRP. But the whole-body limit of 5 rem in a year has been safe and there is little ground to reduce this limit on the basis of comparisons with 'safe industries'. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Comments on ICRP-60 rationale for dose limits for the pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1992-06-01

    ICRP Publication 60 has recently recommended new dose limits for the radiation exposure of pregnant workers. These new dose limits for pregnant workers are more restrictive than the current limits in force in Canada. Recent presentations by Dr. R.H. Mole have faulted the arguments provided by ICRP as justification for reducing the previously recommended limits for pregnant radiation workers. The present paper provides a brief review of the development of the human conceptus, of the biological effects of low doses of radiation on the foetus, and discusses R.H. Mole's comments on ICRP-60. On the critical issues concerning the presence or absence of threshold doses for induction of specific biological endpoints, Dr. Mole and ICRP-60 appear to be in agreement. The basic disagreement between Dr. Mole and ICRP-60 seems to revolve around the philosophical question of whether dose limits should be based on quantitative risks to the foetus or whether dose limits to the pregnant worker should provide a standard of protection to the foetus which is broadly comparable with that provided for members of the general public. Further research is recommended on one of the topics raised by Dr. Mole, namely, foetal doses from radionuclides inhaled or ingested by the mother

  20. New dose limits and distribution of annual doses for controlled groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukcevic, M.; Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.

    1993-01-01

    The new calculations of neutron doses received by the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as the epidemiological data on the incidence of fatal cancers in the survivors, had led to the conclusion that the risk estimates should be raised by the factor 2 or 3. In this work, the distribution of monthly doses for occupationals was analysed in order to determine the percent of workers who might be considered as overexposed, on the basis of the new dose limits. (author)

  1. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  2. Negotiating NORM cleanup and land use limits: Practical use of dose assessment and cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Oil companies are presently faced with complex and costly environmental decisions, especially concerning NORM cleanup and disposal. Strict cleanup limits and disposal restrictions are established, in theory, to protect public health and environment. While public health is directly measured in terms of dose (mrem/yr), most NORM regulations adopt soil concentration limits to ensure future public health is maintained. These derived soil limits create the potential for unnecessary burden to operators without additional health benefit to society. Operators may use a dose assessment to show direct compliance with dose limits, negotiating less restrictive cleanup levels and land use limits. This paper discusses why a dose assessment is useful to Oilfield operators, NORM exposure scenarios and pathways, assessment advantages, variables and recommendations and one recent dose assessment application. Finally, a cost benefit analysis tool for regulatory negotiations will be presented allowing comparison of Oilfield NORM health benefit costs to that of other industries. One use for this tool--resulting in the savings of approximately $100,000--will be discussed

  3. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Delis

    2012-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes

  4. The biological basis for dose limitation to the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause deterministic effects and cancer. It has been the policy to base dose limits for radiation protection of the skin on the prevention of deterministic effects (1). In the case of cancer in general, dose limitation for radiation protection is based on limiting excess cancer mortality to low levels of radiation. Since skin cancers are seldom lethal, the general radiation protection standards will protect against an increase in excess mortality from skin cancer. However, with the dose limits selected to prevent deterministic effects, there is a significant probability of an excess incidence of skin cancer occurring as a result of exposure during a working lifetime. The induction of skin cancer by radiation is influenced significantly by subsequent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight. This finding raises not only interesting questions about the mechanisms involved, but also about the differences in risk of skin cancer in different populations. The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin determines the degree of the effect of UVR. This paper discusses the mechanisms of the induction of both deterministic and stochastic effects in skin exposed to radiation in relation to radiation protection. (author)

  5. Rethinking basic concepts in ICRP's system of dose limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Mossman, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The present criterion for radiation protection appears to be exposure reduction rather than adequate protection of health. The 1990 ICRP draft recommendations for a system of dose limitation would further implement this more restrictive criterion by implementing certain academic concepts and assumptions. These concepts and assumptions are discussed and the suggestion is made that the radiation protection community needs to carefully examine the need for the complex system proposed

  6. Occupational exposures and the case for reducing dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, David

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the General, Municipal, Boilermakers and Allied Trades Union approach to all harmful agents encountered in either the workplace or the general environment; summarizes current radiation exposures in the UK and their arguments for a five-fold reduction in dose limits; and concludes with a summary of the only agreed compensation scheme in the world for radiation-induced cancer amongst workers. (author)

  7. The Limit of Public Policy : Endogenous Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-Gill, O.; Fershtman, C.

    2000-01-01

    In designing public policy it is not enough to consider the possible reaction of individuals to the chosen policy.Public policy may also affect the formation of preferences and norms in a society.The endogenous evolution of preferences, in addition to introducing a conceptual difficulty in

  8. Public Interest, Procedural and Discursive Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Xenia Negrea

    2015-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the ambiguity of the journalistic key-concept, "public interest". We present a few scientifically approaches and we analyse the very comfortable misunderstanding cultivated not only by the press, but also by politicians and other social actors. This theoretical concept is in relation with another key-concept, "the state secret" and this is the most frequent and abusive, answer that the politician use for reject the press questions. As case study, we analyse the relati...

  9. Public Dose Assessment Modeling from Skyshine by Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwambinga, S. A. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, S. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the skyshine dose by proton accelerator (230 MeV) has been evaluated. The amount of dose by skyshine is related to some influence factors which are emission angle (Height wall), the thickness of ceiling and distance from source to receptor (Human body). Empirical formula is made by using MCNPX code results. It can easily calculate and assess dose from skyshine by proton accelerator. The skyshine doses are calculated with MCNPX code and DCFs in ICRP 116. Thereafter, we made empirical formula which can calculate dose easily and be compared with the results of MCNPX. The maximum exposure point by skyshine is about 5 ∼ 10 m from source. Therefore, the licensee who wants to operate the proton accelerator must keep the appropriate distance from accelerator and set the fence to restrict the approach by the public. And, exposure doses by accelerator depend on operating time and proton beam intensities. Eq. (6) suggested in this study is just considered for mono energy proton accelerator. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the dose calculation to diverse proton energies. Radiations like neutron and photon generated by high energy proton accelerators over 10 MeV, are important exposure sources to be monitored to radiation workers and the public members near the facility. At that case, one of the exposure pathways to the public who are located in near the facility is skyshine. Neutrons and photons can be scattered by the atmosphere near the facility and exposed to public as scattered dose. All of the facilities using high energy radiation and NDI (Non-Destructive Inspection) which is tested at open field, skyshine dose must be taken into consideration. Skyshine dose is not related to the wall thickness of radiation shielding directly.

  10. The principles of dose limitation in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to protect individuals, their offspring and the population as a whole against harmful effects from ionizing radiation and radioactive substances. Harmful effects may be either somatic, i.e. occurring in the exposed person himself/herself, or hereditary, i.e. occurring in the exposed person's offspring. Successful radiation protection involves (a) protective measures based on the results of research into the biological and biophysical effects of radiation and (b) ensuring that activities necessitating exposure are justified and that the degree of exposure is minimal. This benefit/risk principle ceases to apply if a radiation source is out of control, since the main aim is then to introduce risk limitation measures, provided that these are of positive net benefit to the individual and the population as a whole. This paper discusses the principles of dose limitation as a function of exposure conditions, i.e. controlled or uncontrolled exposure to a source of radiation

  11. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. We assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Report No. 13, we show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk that applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age. (author)

  12. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age

  13. Public Interest, Procedural and Discursive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Negrea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss in this paper the ambiguity of the journalistic key-concept, "public interest". We present a few scientifically approaches and we analyse the very comfortable misunderstanding cultivated not only by the press, but also by politicians and other social actors. This theoretical concept is in relation with another key-concept, "the state secret" and this is the most frequent and abusive, answer that the politician use for reject the press questions. As case study, we analyse the relation between Romanian president and prime-minister with the media.

  14. TLD personnel monitoring dose estimation- extending the upper limit of the dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, K.L.; Sathian, Deepa; Divakaran, T.; Massand, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    TLD personnel monitoring was introduced in the year 1975 in India and at present nearly 41,000 radiation workers are being monitored by 13 monitoring laboratories all over India. The BARC- TLD being used for personnel monitoring is based on CaSO 4 :Dy embedded in PTFE and semi-automatic TL reader using hot N 2 Gas for heating the dosimeters. This reader has the range to measure γ dose from ten μSv to 3 μSv and x-ray dose form 1 μ Sv to 0.3 Sv due to the higher sensitivity of CaSO 4 : Dy to lower energy photons (20keV-50 keV) generated by diagnostic x-ray units. The x-ray radiation workers are at present nearly 35% of the total radiation workers monitored and this number is expected to grow as more and more number of x-ray workers are covered under this service. The upper limit of the x-ray dose range of the instrument is 0.3 Sv, whereas in the past one year it has been observed that at least 25% of the total overexposures reported in case of x-ray workers have recorded the dose more than 0.3 Sv. This paper presents the technique developed to extend the upper limit of the range from 0.3 Sv to 1 Sv for x-rays and 10 Sv for γ rays

  15. Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities

  16. The Limitations of Quantitative Social Science for Informing Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.

  17. Analysis Approach and Data Package for Mayak Public Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2013-09-18

    Historical activities at facilities producing nuclear materials for weapons released radioactivity into the air and water. Past studies in the United States have evaluated the release, atmospheric transport and environmental accumulation of 131I from the nuclear facilities at Hanford in Washington State and the resulting dose to members of the public (Farris et al. 1994). A multi-year dose reconstruction effort (Mokrov et al. 2004) is also being conducted to produce representative dose estimates for members of the public living near Mayak, Russia, from atmospheric releases of 131I at the facilities of the Mayak Production Association. The approach to calculating individual doses to members of the public from historical releases of airborne 131I has the following general steps: • Construct estimates of releases 131I to the air from production facilities. • Model the transport of 131I in the air and subsequent deposition on the ground and vegetation. • Model the accumulation of 131I in soil, water and food products (environmental media). • Calculate the dose for an individual by matching the appropriate lifestyle and consumption data for the individual to the concentrations of 131I in environmental media at their residence location. A number of computer codes were developed to facilitate the study of airborne 131I emissions at Hanford. Of particular interest is DESCARTES code that modeled accumulation of 131I in environmental media (Miley et al. 1994). In addition, the CIDER computer code estimated annual doses to individuals (Eslinger et al. 1994) using the equations and parameters specific to Hanford (Snyder et al. 1994). Several of the computer codes developed to model 131I releases from Hanford are general enough to be used for other facilities. Additional codes have been developed, including the new individual dose code CiderF (Eslinger and Napier 2013), and applied to historical releases of 131I from Mayak. This document provides a data package that

  18. Practical application of the dose limitation system in a uranium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auricchio, S.; Cantoro, N.

    1982-01-01

    ICRP Publication 26 was published when the nuclear operators and the different national regulatory bodies were already in a position to understand the proposed dose limitation system and to apply it to nuclear activities. In Italy the basic principle of limiting individual risks and the search for increased protection were already applied in the radiation analysis of nuclear plants. These principles were applied during design (1972-74) and operation (1974-80) of the industrial fuel-element fabrication plant of the company Fabbricazioni Nucleari (F.N.) in Bosco Marengo. The paper reports on the criteria followed in the design stage, the organization and methods adopted for reducing the doses during operation, and the results achieved after a few years of plant activity. In view of the purely technical nature of this paper, the first principle of the dose limitation system (justification), which is more a political issue, is not taken into consideration; however, an assessment of the Italian context as at the end of the 1960s shows that the principle of justification of a practice was adequately taken into account when the construction of the F.N. plant was decided on. (author)

  19. Principles of the International Commission on Radiological Protection system of dose limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation of a quantitative system of dose limitation based on ICRP principles of 'stochastic' and 'non-stochastic' effects requires that judgements be made on several factors including: relationships between radiation dose and the induction of deleterious effects for a variety of endpoints and radiation types; acceptable levels of risk for radiation workers and members of the public; and methods of assessing whether the cost of introducing protective measures is justified by the reduction in radiation detriment which they will provide. In the case of patients deliberately exposed to ionising radiations, the objectives of radiation protection differ somewhat from those applying to radiation workers and members of the public. For patients, risks and benefits relate to the same person and upper limits on acceptable risks may differ grossly from those appropriate to normal individuals. For these reasons, and because of its historical relationship with the International Congress of Radiology, the ICRP has given special consideration to radiation protection in medicine and has published reports on protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology and in radiation therapy. (author)

  20. Dose assessment for public at the hypothetical submergence of a fresh MOX fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Saegusa, Toshiari; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Koki

    2000-01-01

    For the structure and equipment of transport ships for fresh MOX fuels, there is a special safety standard called the INF Code of IMO (International Maritime Organization). For transport of radioactive materials, there is a safety standard stipulated in Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material issued by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Under those code and standard, fresh MOX fuel is transported safety on the sea. To gain the public acceptance for this transport, a dose assessment has been made by assuming that a fresh MOX fuel package might be sunk into the sea by unknown reasons. In the both cases for a package sunk at the coastal region and for that sunk at the ocean, the evaluated result of the dose equivalent by radiation exposure to the public are far below the dose equivalent limit of the ICRP recommendation (1 mSv/year). (author)

  1. The governance of publicly traded limited liability companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomtsyan, S.

    The limited liability company is not only a widespread business form for non-listed firms but also is used by listed companies. There were 20 publicly traded Delaware LLCs in September 2013. Given the policy of the Delaware legislators and courts to give a maximum effect to the principle of freedom

  2. Practical low dose limits for passive personal dosemeters and the implications for uncertainties close to the limit of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilvin, P. J.; Perks, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen the increasing use of passive dosemeters that have high sensitivities and, in laboratory conditions, detection limits of <10 μSv. However, in real operational use the detection limits will be markedly higher, because a large fraction of the accrued dose will be due to natural background, and this must be subtracted in order to obtain the desired occupational dose. No matter how well known the natural background is, the measurement uncertainty on doses of a few tens of microsieverts will be large. Individual monitoring services need to recognise this and manage the expectations of their clients by providing sufficient information. (authors)

  3. High-Dose Atomoxetine Treatment of ADHD in Youths with Limited Response to Standard Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Michelson, David; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Weiss, Margaret D.; Busner, Joan; Moore, Rodney J.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Ramsey, Janet; Dickson, Ruth; Turgay, Atilla; Saylor, Keith E.; Luber, Stephen; Vaughan, Brigette; Allen, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the utility and tolerability of higher than standard atomoxetine doses to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Two randomized, double-blind trials of atomoxetine nonresponders ages 6 to 16 years were conducted comparing continued treatment with same-dose atomoxetine to treatment using greater than…

  4. Present dose limits and their relation to radiosensitivity of different organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Dose equivalent limits in relation to dose thresholds are considered for injury of various tissues and organs to evaluate the protection agains non-stochastic irradiation effects by the existing system of dose limitation for radiotherapeutic personnel. Data on tissue radiosensitivity in relation to non-stochastic effects, obtained from radiotherapeutic experience, are presented. Dose threshold values, derived for patients, with a correction in the direction of increase, may be applied to conditions of occupational exposure except for bone marrow, gonads and eye lens, where threshold doses are lower

  5. Public involvement in the dose reconstruction study: the colorado story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Norma C.; Lockhart, Ann J.

    2000-01-01

    Public involvement was a critical component for building awareness, trust, and credibility for the dose reconstruction study for the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility in Colorado. The research team developed a process to inform, involve, and encourage public participation over the nine-year study period. Key affected and interested groups with a legitimate stake in the study were identified and invited to identify concerns and offer suggestions for the study. In many cases, the public actually provided direction for the research. Many issues were studied more in-depth as result of public concern. Proactive community outreach was undertaken; quarterly public meetings and workshops were held to inform the public about the study's progress and to hear their comments. Quarterly newsletters were mailed to stake holders. A speaker's bureau was established and more than 50 presentations were made to 1,500 community members in various civic, business, neighborhood, and technical groups. Fact sheets, citizen summaries of technical reports, technical topic papers, and a video were developed to provide a complete overview of the studies and the findings at the conclusion of the project. The video was provided to local cable television stations, and publications were taken to local libraries. A web site was developed to allow the public to readily access information and to order technical reports. Public comments on draft technical reports were solicited; questions and concerns were addressed and investigated. The staff answered citizen calls, and the research team responded in writing to more than 200 issues raised by very concerned citizens. In addition, a citizen's group was formed in 1992 to conduct an independent study of plutonium levels found in soil samples collected around Rocky Flats. Made up of homeowners, public interest groups, local health departments, interested citizens, and Health Advisory Panel members, the committee arranged for sampling and analysis of

  6. The system of dose limitation and its optimization requirement: Present status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Optimization of radiation protection is a relevant and controversial requirement of the system of dose limitation currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Since the first European Scientific Seminar on Experience and Methods on Optimization - held by the Commission of the European Communities in 1979 - and several related seminars and symposia organized by the IAEA, many international efforts have been made to promote the practical implementation of the requirement. Recently, the ICRP published a report of ICRP Committee 4 on cost-benefit analysis in the optimization of radiation protection (ICRP Publication 37); it provides guidance on the principles and methods of application of the requirement. Ultimately, this seminar demonstrates the continuous interest of the international community in the proper use of optimization. This paper is intended to contribute to the seminar's objective, discussing the current issues concerning the implementation of the requirement and exploring perspectives for future applications of the principles involved in optimization

  7. Age-dependent dose factors and dose limits of annual radioactivity uptake with unsealed radioactive substances by occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.; Nosske, D; Elsasser, U; Roedler, H.D.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    The dose factors have been calculated on the basis of the ICRP models for dosimetric and metabolistic assessment, and are laid open in accordance with Annex XI ( to sec. 45 sub-section (2)) of the amended version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The contribution in hand explains the scientific fundamentals and results of the calculations of dose factors relating to inhalation and ingestion of unsealed radioactive substances by adult reference man, and age-dependent factors calculated for children and adolescents. Further, annual limits of uptake by occupationally exposed persons, as calculated on the basis of primary dose limits pursunant to the draft amendment presented by the Federal Interior Minister, are compared with relevant data given by the ICRP and EC institutions. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Patient dose rate: An ultimate limit for spatial and density resolution of scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, G.; Wagner, W.

    1979-01-01

    In X-ray scanning systems, picture quality of the reconstructed slices is limited to a maximum spatial as well as density resolution by the applied radiation dose. Density resolution can be improved in proportion to the root of the patient dose, whereas a doubled spatial resolving power requires an eight times higher patient dose, assuming a fixed slice thickness. Only a careful trade-off between the applied patient dose, density resolution and spatial resolution yields a maximal diagnostic value for the physician. Specifications of a scanning system have to take into account these ultimate restrictions, so that picture quality really is limited by the patient's dose rather than by technical constraints. In addition a method is given by which the applied dose can be reduced by focusing the main intensity onto the region of interest, in case that region is known a priori. (orig.) [de

  9. User Guide for GoldSim Model to Calculate PA/CA Doses and Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.

    2016-01-01

    A model to calculate doses for solid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and corresponding disposal limits has been developed using the GoldSim commercial software. The model implements the dose calculations documented in SRNL-STI-2015-00056, Rev. 0 ''Dose Calculation Methodology and Data for Solid Waste Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) at the Savannah River Site''.

  10. User Guide for GoldSim Model to Calculate PA/CA Doses and Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-31

    A model to calculate doses for solid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and corresponding disposal limits has been developed using the GoldSim commercial software. The model implements the dose calculations documented in SRNL-STI-2015-00056, Rev. 0 “Dose Calculation Methodology and Data for Solid Waste Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) at the Savannah River Site”.

  11. Cosmogenic radioberyllium and background radiation dose to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Ohera, M.

    2008-01-01

    To discover the causes of the presence of abnormal Be concentrations (anthropogenic or natural or cosmogenic source) in the area of the Kralicky Sneznik mountain massive (in the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude of about 800 m), concentrations of 7 Be and 10 Be were also assayed in selected environmental components in the years of 2005 - 2007. The 10 Be concentrations in soils (80.39x10 6 - 210.45x10 6 atom g -1 ) and activity concentrations of 7 Be in soils and wet deposition were very low (1.3 - 5.3 Bq kg -1 and 0.6 - 4.5 Bq l -1 , resp.). However, activities of 7 Be in birch leaves and grass (dry matter) reached relatively high values (up to 1000 Bq kg -1 ) and, in addition, showed out their significant seasonal growth. In the work the probable contribution of the cosmogenic 7 Be activities to background radiation dose to the general public is discussed. (authors)

  12. Contribution of maternal radionuclide burdens to prenatal radiation doses: Relationships between annual limits on intake and prenatal doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Hui, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    This addendum describes approaches for calculating and expressing radiation doses to the embryo/fetus from maternal intakes of radionuclides at levels corresponding to fractions or multiples of the Annual Limits on Intake (ALI). Information, concerning metabolic or dosimetric characteristics and the placental transfer of selected, occupationally significant radionuclides was presented in NUREG/CR-5631, Revision 1. That information was used to estimate levels of radioactivity in the embryo/fetus as a function of stage of pregnancy and time after entry. Extension of MIRD methodology to accommodate gestational-stage-dependent characteristics allowed dose calculations for the simplified situation based on introduction of 1 μCi into the woman's transfer compartment (blood). The expanded scenarios in this addendum include repeated or chronic ingestion or inhalation intakes by a woman during pregnancy and body burdens at the beginning of pregnancy. Tables present dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus relative to intakes of these radionuclides in various chemical or physical forms and from preexisting maternal burdens corresponding to ALI; complementary intake values (fraction of an ALI and μCi) that yield a dose equivalent of 0.05 rem are included. Similar tables give these measures of dose equivalency to the uterus from intakes of radionuclides for use as surrogates for embryo/fetus dose when biokinetic information is not available

  13. Decreasing Irradiated Rat Lung Volume Changes Dose-Limiting Toxicity From Early to Late Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veen, Sonja J. van der; Faber, Hette; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technological developments in radiation therapy result in smaller irradiated volumes of normal tissue. Because the risk of radiation therapy-induced toxicity generally depends on irradiated volume, changing volume could change the dose-limiting toxicity of a treatment. Recently, in our rat model, we found that early radiation-induced lung dysfunction (RILD) was closely related to irradiated volume dependent vascular remodeling besides inflammation. The exact relationship between early and late RILD is still unknown. Therefore, in this preclinical study we investigated the dose-volume relationship of late RILD, assessed its dependence on early and late pathologies and studied if decreasing irradiated volume changed the dose-limiting toxicity. Methods and Materials: A volume of 25%, 32%, 50%, 63%, 88%, or 100% of the rat lung was irradiated using protons. Until 26 weeks after irradiation, respiratory rates were measured. Macrovascular remodeling, pulmonary inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed at 26 weeks after irradiation. For all endpoints dose-volume response curves were made. These results were compared to our previously published early lung effects. Results: Early vascular remodeling and inflammation correlated significantly with early RILD. Late RILD correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, but not with vascular remodeling. In contrast to the early effects, late vascular remodeling, inflammation and fibrosis showed a primarily dose but not volume dependence. Comparison of respiratory rate increases early and late after irradiation for the different dose-distributions indicated that with decreasing irradiated volumes, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late RILD. Conclusions: In our rat model, different pathologies underlie early and late RILD with different dose-volume dependencies. Consequently, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late dysfunction when the irradiated volume was reduced. In patients, early and late

  14. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derycke, S; Van Duyse, B; Schelfhout, J; De Neve, W

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse`s GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam`s Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac`s isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder`s comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed.

  15. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, A. J. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Maldonado, D. G. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  16. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  17. Assessing dose of the representative person for the purpose of radiation protection of the public. ICRP publication 101. Approved by the Commission in September 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Commission intended that its revised recommendations should be based on a simple, but widely applicable, system of protection that would clarify its objectives and provide a basis for the more formal systems needed by operating managers and regulators. The recommendations would establish quantified constraints, or limits, on individual dose from specified sources. These dose constraints apply to actual or representative people who encounter occupational, medical, and public exposures. This report updates the previous guidance for estimating dose to the public. Dose to the public cannot be measured directly and, in some cases, it cannot be measured at all. Therefore, for the purpose of protection of the public, it is necessary to characterise an individual, either hypothetical or specific, whose dose can be used for determining compliance with the relevant dose constraint. This individual is defined as the 'representative person'. The Commission's goal of protection of the public is achieved if the relevant dose constraint for this individual for a single source is met and radiological protection is optimised. This report explains the process of estimating annual dose and recognises that a number of different methods are available for this purpose. These methods range from deterministic calculations to more complex probabilistic techniques. In addition, a mixture of these techniques may be applied. In selecting characteristics of the representative person, three important concepts should be borne in mind: reasonableness, sustainability, and homogeneity. Each concept is explained and examples are provided to illustrate their roles. Doses to the public are prospective (may occur in the future) or retrospective (occurred in the past). Prospective doses are for hypothetical individuals who may or may not exist in the future, while retrospective doses are generally calculated for specific individuals. The Commission recognises that the level of detail afforded by its

  18. Classification of radiation effects for dose limitation purposes: history, current situation and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes cancer and non-cancer health effects, each of which differs greatly in the shape of the dose–response curve, latency, persistency, recurrence, curability, fatality and impact on quality of life. In recent decades, for dose limitation purposes, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has divided such diverse effects into tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic and deterministic effects) and stochastic effects. On the one hand, effective dose limits aim to reduce the risks of stochastic effects (cancer/heritable effects) and are based on the detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficients, assuming a linear-non-threshold dose response and a dose and dose rate effectiveness factor of 2. On the other hand, equivalent dose limits aim to avoid tissue reactions (vision-impairing cataracts and cosmetically unacceptable non-cancer skin changes) and are based on a threshold dose. However, the boundary between these two categories is becoming vague. Thus, we review the changes in radiation effect classification, dose limitation concepts, and the definition of detriment and threshold. Then, the current situation is overviewed focusing on (i) stochastic effects with a threshold, (ii) tissue reactions without a threshold, (iii) target organs/tissues for circulatory disease, (iv) dose levels for limitation of cancer risks vs prevention of non-life-threatening tissue reactions vs prevention of life-threatening tissue reactions, (v) mortality or incidence of thyroid cancer, and (vi) the detriment for tissue reactions. For future discussion, one approach is suggested that classifies radiation effects according to whether effects are life threatening, and radiobiological research needs are also briefly discussed. PMID:24794798

  19. Means of control of the public authorities as participants in public limited energy supply companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermel, C.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fundamental studies by Emmerich and Puettner, the control of publicly owned companies by the state as a majority shareholder has not evolved to a generally accepted form. With a mind to the discussion on a nuclear phase-out at Hamburgische Electrizitaetswerke AG the author examines the scope offered by the law on public limited companies for realising the interests of the state as a shareholder. She arrives at interesting conclusions regarding the means to this end and the legal consequences of a phase-out decision. Lower supply companies are an ideal object of study for the purposes of this work. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Dose assessment for public by packages shipping radioactive materials hypothetically sunk on the continental shelf. Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Saegusa, Toshiari; Watabe, Naohito; Asano, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Koki; Kinehara, Yoshiki

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive materials such as spent fuel (SF), PuO 2 powder, high level wastes (HLW) and fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel have been transported by sea between Europe and Japan. Dose assessments for public have been performed in the past when the packages shipping radioactive materials were hypothetically sunk on the continental shelf. These studies employed various conditions and methods in their assessments and the results were not always the same. In this study, the dose assessment for these packages was performed under the same conditions and by the same methods. The effective dose equivalents of radiation exposure to the public for all materials become smaller than the previous evaluations due to more realistic assumption in this study. These evaluated results are far less than the effective dose equivalent limit (1 mSv year -1 ) by the ICRP recommendation. (author)

  1. Impact of reduced dose limits on NRC licensed activities. Major issues in the implementation of ICRP/NCRP dose limit recommendations: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, C.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report summarizes information required to estimate, at least qualitatively, the potential impacts of reducing occupational dose limits below those given in 10 CFR 20 (Revised). For this study, a questionnaire was developed and widely distributed to the radiation protection community. The resulting data together with data from existing surveys and sources were used to estimate the impact of three dose-limit options; 10 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (1 rem yr{sup {minus}1}), 20 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (2 rem yr{sup {minus}1}), and a combination of an annual limit of 50 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (5 rem yr{sup {minus}1}) coupled with a cumulative limit, in rem, equal to age in years. Due to the somewhat small number of responses and the lack of data in some specific areas, a working committee of radiation protection experts from a variety of licensees was employed to ensure the exposure data were representative. The following overall conclusions were reached: (1) although 10 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} is a reasonable limit for many licensees, such a limit could be extraordinarily difficult to achieve and potentially destructive to the continued operation of some licensees, such as nuclear power, fuel fabrication, and medicine; (2) twenty mSv yr{sup {minus}1} as a limit is possible for some of these groups, but for others it would prove difficult. (3) fifty mSv yr{sup {minus}1} and age in 10s of mSv appear reasonable for all licensees, both in terms of the lifetime risk of cancer and severe genetic effects to the most highly exposed workers, and the practicality of operation.

  2. Impact of reduced dose limits on NRC licensed activities. Major issues in the implementation of ICRP/NCRP dose limit recommendations: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, C.B.

    1995-05-01

    This report summarizes information required to estimate, at least qualitatively, the potential impacts of reducing occupational dose limits below those given in 10 CFR 20 (Revised). For this study, a questionnaire was developed and widely distributed to the radiation protection community. The resulting data together with data from existing surveys and sources were used to estimate the impact of three dose-limit options; 10 mSv yr -1 (1 rem yr -1 ), 20 mSv yr -1 (2 rem yr -1 ), and a combination of an annual limit of 50 mSv yr -1 (5 rem yr -1 ) coupled with a cumulative limit, in rem, equal to age in years. Due to the somewhat small number of responses and the lack of data in some specific areas, a working committee of radiation protection experts from a variety of licensees was employed to ensure the exposure data were representative. The following overall conclusions were reached: (1) although 10 mSv yr -1 is a reasonable limit for many licensees, such a limit could be extraordinarily difficult to achieve and potentially destructive to the continued operation of some licensees, such as nuclear power, fuel fabrication, and medicine; (2) twenty mSv yr -1 as a limit is possible for some of these groups, but for others it would prove difficult. (3) fifty mSv yr -1 and age in 10s of mSv appear reasonable for all licensees, both in terms of the lifetime risk of cancer and severe genetic effects to the most highly exposed workers, and the practicality of operation

  3. Application of the Dose Limitation System to the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication is one of the Safety Guides to the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection of Workers in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores, 1983 Edition, which was published as a joint IAEA/ILO/WHO publication (IAEA Safety Series No.26). This Safety Guide is intended to demonstrate as well as facilitate the application of the principles of optimization in the control of risk among the workers engaged in the mining and milling of radioactive ores and to give some guidance on suitable technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency, jointly with the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organisation and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, published the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, 1982 Edition (IAEA Safety Series No. 9). The Basic Safety Standards outline the principles of radiation protection and also the basic requirements to be followed in the implementation of radiation protection control. These principles are further developed in the case of mining and milling of radioactive ores in the joint IAEA/ILO/WHO Code of Practice on Radiation Protection of Workers in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (IAEA Safety Series No. 26). This Safety Guide on the Application of the Dose Limitation System to the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores was prepared by an Advisory Group which met for the first time in Portoroz, Yugoslavia, from 22 to 26 August 1983, and then again from 6 to 10 August 1984, in Vienna. Following the second Advisory Group meeting the draft was further reviewed by A. Dory from Canada who also was a participant of the two Advisory Group meetings held earlier. After the consultant's review the draft was circulated among the members of the Advisory Group for a further check. The final version of the draft was prepared by the Secretariat with the help of a consultant

  4. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: the role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Warren K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations

  5. Some human activities to decrease public radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Guo Minqiang

    1994-01-01

    The necessity of studying the variations in radiation levels from the balance viewpoint is discussed. Some human activities may increase, while others may decrease, radiation dose to population. In 1988, China's investigation showed that travel by air caused a raise of population collective dose by 3.6 x 10 1 man·Sv, while travel by ship, train and vehicle lead to a drop of 5.36 x 10 2 man·Sv, and that dwellings of coal cinder brick decreased collective dose by 3.5 x 10 3 man·Sv, while buildings of reinforced concrete structure increased collective dose by 3.7 x 10 3 man·Sv. It is inadequate to only study those activities which may increase radiation levels

  6. The possibility of the dose limitation system application non-ionizing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranisavljevic, M., Markovic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Modern conception of the ionizing radiation protection is based on Dose Limitation System. In the base of every human decision lies compromise. Balance between positive and negative factors, benefit and detriment, profit and expense includes the decision about possibilities for realization any defined radiation practice. The optimal option for the given value of the varying parameter gives the maximum benefit and the minimum detriment. In radiation protection field, detriment is related with human health or expenses, and varying parameter is level of radiation protection (for example dimensions of the installed shielding). The problem lies in fact that for the given value of the varying shielding parameter the maximum benefit and the minimum detriment are not achievable simultaneously because the greater benefit includes the greater expense. The problems which have to be solved because of introducing Dose Limitation System, in regard to create Modified Dose Limitation System, are presented. (author)

  7. Outlines of ICRP publication 74 and new dose conversion coefficients for external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Combined task group of ICRP and ICRU reported the ICRP Publication 74 (1996) which is a summary report of their collection, analysis and evaluation of many data and dose conversion coefficients. Concerning the new coefficients, the author described this review as follows: History until Publication 74. Doses recommended at present: for protection quantity, the mean absorption dose of organ and tissue, equivalent dose and effective dose and for operational quantity, the ambient dose equivalent, directional dose equivalent and individual dose equivalent. Changes which can have an influence on the dose evaluation; introduction of radiation weighting factor (WR), changing of tissue weighting factor (WR), changing of the equation for Q-L relation and updating of physical data. New dose conversion coefficients; for photon, neutron and electron. Comparison of new and present coefficients; concerning the quality factor Q, particularly for neutron Q. New relations of protection and operational quantities; for field and individual monitoring. General conclusion of Publication 74. The Publication gives a certain direction for problems in evaluation of external exposure dose which have been discussed since the ICRP Fundamental Recommendation 1990 was issued. However, there still remain many problems especially in validity of the WR and of equation for Q-L relation. (K.H.)

  8. Building credibility in public studies: Lessons learned from the Hanford environmental Dose Reconstruction project may apply to all public studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the process by which the author came to recognize the importance of openness to the public in environmental studies, during the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Using the Dose reconstruction public involvement, the article goes on to describe a general guide to the construction of a new, positive framework for conducting future public studies. The steps include the following: putting the public in the study; building credibility into a public study (1 -search for proof in historical records; 2-define the domain and the exposed population; 3-characterize the material released; 4-identify key materials, pathways and receptors; 5-encouraging public participation; 6 -explaining the meaning of the results) and reconciling scientific and public issues

  9. Building credibility in public studies: Lessons learned from the Hanford environmental Dose Reconstruction project may apply to all public studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J.E. [Radiological Assessment Corp., Neeses, SC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the process by which the author came to recognize the importance of openness to the public in environmental studies, during the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Using the Dose reconstruction public involvement, the article goes on to describe a general guide to the construction of a new, positive framework for conducting future public studies. The steps include the following: putting the public in the study; building credibility into a public study (1 -search for proof in historical records; 2-define the domain and the exposed population; 3-characterize the material released; 4-identify key materials, pathways and receptors; 5-encouraging public participation; 6 -explaining the meaning of the results) and reconciling scientific and public issues.

  10. 78 FR 26112 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects; Correction AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION... Register on April 22, 2013, concerning a limitation on claims for certain specified public transportation...

  11. Measures associated with the dose limitation system at the TVO Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, A.T.; Sundell, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses radiation protection practices at the TVO Power Company, which owns and operates two BWR units of Asea-Atom design at Olkiluoto, Finland. The installed electric power of each unit is 660MW. The full power operation of TVO I and TVO II began in 1979 and 1980, respectively. The dose limitation system calls for an organization which is responsible for radiation protection. This organization at the plant site is described. To limit doses a good knowledge of the work activities which cause doses is needed. There is a very up-to-date microprocessor-based work dosimetry system at the TVO power plant. The system provides a practicable means of measuring personal doses from various work activities. It also makes the allocation of radiation protection measures possible. The system and experience in applying it are discussed. The dose limitation system presupposes the realization of the optimization principle. The practice applied at TVO in order to limit internal contamination is presented. Owing to this practice, workers' internal doses have remained at a considerably low level. The paper discusses the ALARA values of different kinds of respiratory equipment. These values, which vary from 2x10 4 to 1x10 6 FIM/man.Sv (1 FIM=approx. US$ 0.22), can be used in the evaluation of different measures in avoiding internal doses. The operating policy of movable lead shields is presented. The ALARA value of this activity is evaluated to be about 5x10 4 FIM/man.Sv and on that basis it can be concluded that the use of movable lead shields is very efficient. The dose statistics for TVO's plant are presented. The doses have been less than 0.001 man.Sv/MW.a. Although the dose statistics for TVO are very good it is not realistic to consider solely the optimization aspect of radiation protection. The costs must also be kept in mind; these are presented in the paper. Problems in assessing the level of radiation protection practices on an annual basis are briefly discussed

  12. Review of NCRP radiation dose limit for embryo and fetus in occupationally-exposed women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of the current review, the NCRP has decided to make no change in the current recommendation of its radiation dose limit to the unborn. The NCRP recommendation is restated here as follows: During the entire gestation period, the maximum permissible dose equivalent to the embryo-fetus from occupational exposure of the expectant mother should be 0.5 rem. Since the preparation of the 1971 report there has been no new evidence concerning teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of irradiation of the embryo-fetus that would justify a change in the limit in either direction. It is implicit in this position and recommendation that women who can reasonably be expected to be pregnant should not, in certain instances, be exposed to the same radiation environment as women who are not considered fertile or as men. This applies particularly to conditions where radiation workers can receive dose equivalents of 0.5 rem or more in short periods

  13. Implications of the new dose limit crystalline in operational radiation protection in interventional medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roch Gonzalez, M.; Garcia Castanon, P.; Giner Sala, M.; Rodriguez Martin, G.; Espana Lopez, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the implications of this new limit of equivalent dose in the lens can be assumed in the radiation protection of cardiologists, radiologists, nursing professionals, etc. that perform their work in units of intervention, both in terms of additional protective measures and the classification of them as workers exposed. (Author)

  14. Implications of dose limit modification for radioactive installations dedicated to research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbreras, J.M.; Fernandez, G.M.; Marana, D.

    1992-01-01

    The reduced dose limits proposed in the ICRP recommendations affect the Spanish Regulations on Sanitary Protection against Ionizing Radiation. Some implications of this for radioactive installations dedicated to research are pointed out. A very simple statistical study shows that dosimetric data might be used to adopt new criteria for classification of personnel, and even of working areas. (author)

  15. Dose limits, constraints, reference levels. What does it mean for radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    2016-01-01

    The established concept of radiation protection with its basic principles justification, optimization, and limitation has proved its value and is going to be continued. In its deeper meaning, however, the concept is rather subtle and complex. Furthermore, in some aspects there remain some breaches or inconsistencies. This is just true for the terms dose limit, reference lever, and constraint that are tightly associated with the radiation protection principles. In order to guarantee the ability of radiation protection in whole extent, the subtle differences of meaning have to be communicated. There is a permanent need to defend the conceptual function of these terms against deliberate or undeliberate misinterpretations. Reference levels are definitely not the same as dose limits and they may not be misused as such. Any attempt to misinterpret fundamental radiation protection principles for selfish purposes should discouraged vigorously.

  16. Implementation of a safety action plan: reduction of the dose limits in a research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Belgian Regulations require an annual Action Plan to improve the Safety and health conditions of works. Taking into consideration the preliminary versions of the new ICRP-recommendations, the 1990 Action Plan of the Belgian research Centre aimed to reduce the personal dose limit to 20 mSv/year and the annual collective dose by 10%. Major means used in the campaign were sensibility through information, consultation between hierarchy and executors and the application of a policy of discouragement at certain limits. As a result, the maximum level reaches was 16.5 mSv, while only 7 people received a dose above 10 mSv (of 219 who received a measurable dose, mean value 3,4 mSv). This success is due to the commitment at all levels of responsibilities. In 1991, the 20 mSv-limit is imposed as an obligation by the management, and a feasibility study to impose 10 mSv in near future is being undertaken. (author)

  17. The Public Use Limitation in Eminent Domain: "Handley v. Cook."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Donna P.

    1979-01-01

    It is time for the courts to rigorously scrutinize allegations of public use in order to protect the property rights of private individuals. Available from West Virginia Law Review, W.V.U. Law Center, Morgantown, WV 26506. (Author)

  18. Determination of carcinogenic threshold limit values using the tumorigenic dose rate 50% (TD50)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvalot, Y.; Oudiz, A.; Hubert, P.; Abenhaim, L.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to propose a simple procedure for the determination of Occupational Limit Values (OLVs) based on the TD 50 concept (Tumorigenic Dose Rate 50%). The TD 50 concept was introduced by Peto R. and al. to help classify chemical substances according to their carcinogenic potency. The TD 50 is that dose rate (in mg/KXg body weight/day) which, if administered chronically for the standard lifespan of the species will halve the probability of remaining tumorless throughout that period. Using TD 50 values available for 776 substances, the procedure presented here allows one to determine OLVs corresponding to a fixed excess risk. It is based on a mathematical high-to-low doses extrapolation of the TD 50 . OLVs obtained with this procedure are compared with currently available TLVs and other occupational guidelines. (author)

  19. Relationship between kidney burden and radiation dose from chronic ingestion of U: Implications for radiation standards for the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic models for U in adults recommended by Wrenn et al. (1985) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1979a) were used to study the relationship between kidney burden and radiation dose from chronic ingestion of soluble 238U or natural U and whether current radiation standards for the public provide adequate protection against chemical toxicity from U in the kidney. We assumed that the threshold concentration for chemical toxicity is 1 microgram of U g-1 of kidney and that a safety factor of 10 should be applied in limiting kidney burdens for maximally exposed individuals in the general public. We found that a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) for chronic exposures of the public from all sources, as recommended by the ICRP (1985) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 1987), corresponds to concentrations of U in the kidney from chronic ingestion that exceed the assumed threshold for chemical toxicity of 1 microgram g-1 only for 238U using the metabolic model of the ICRP (1979a). However, using either metabolic model (ICRP 1979a; Wrenn et al. 1985), the predicted concentrations of U in the kidney exceeded the limit of 0.1 microgram g-1, based on the assumed safety factor for protection of the public, for both 238U and natural U. From these results, we concluded that chemical toxicity should be considered in developing health protection standards for the public for ingestion of soluble 238U or natural U. Environmental radiation standards for certain practices established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (EPA 1987a, 1987b, 1987c, 1987d; NRC 1988a) are consistent with a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice. If the metabolic model of Wrenn et al. 27 references

  20. Reassessment of tritium dose coefficients for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns of increased risk from tritium intake by humans have been claimed in the past. The arguments concerning the radiobiological effectiveness of tritium, its longer retention in the human body and the presence of tritium in the DNA hydration shell are analysed in this paper. A biokinetic model for tritiated water and organically bound tritium retention in the human body is used, based on a common approach for mammals using energy and hydrogen metabolism and tested separately with animal experiments. Extension to this model to humans considers the increased role of the brain, food quality and unique growth patterns of humans. Various ages and genders for Caucasians are considered. For an intake of tritium in organic forms in the diet, the retention for the female is of about a factor 2 compared with ICRP recommendations. Effective dose coefficients are estimated to be about a factor of 2 to 3 higher than those of the ICRP. (authors)

  1. Realistic retrospective dose assessments to members of the public around Spanish nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, M.A.; Martin-Valdepenas, J.M.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Martin-Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, M.R.; Serrano, J.I.; Ramos, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of an epidemiological study carried out in the influence areas around the Spanish nuclear facilities (ISCIII-CSN, 2009. Epidemiological Study of The Possible Effect of Ionizing Radiations Deriving from The Operation of Spanish Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities on The Health of The Population Living in Their Vicinity. Final report December 2009. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Madrid. Available from: (http://www.csn.es/images/stories/actualidad_datos/especiales/epidemiologico/epidemiological_study.pdf)), annual effective doses to public have been assessed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) for over 45 years using a retrospective realistic-dose methodology. These values are compared with data from natural radiation exposure. For the affected population, natural radiation effective doses are in average 2300 times higher than effective doses due to the operation of nuclear installations (nuclear power stations and fuel cycle facilities). When considering the impact on the whole Spanish population, effective doses attributable to nuclear facilities represent in average 3.5 x 10 -5 mSv/y, in contrast to 1.6 mSv/y from natural radiation or 1.3 mSv/y from medical exposures. - Highlights: → Most comprehensive dose assessment to public by nuclear facilities ever done in Spain. → Dose to public is dominated by liquid effluent pathways for the power stations. → Dose to public is dominated by Rn inhalation for milling and mining facilities. → Average annual doses to public in influence areas are negligible (10 μSv/y or less). → Doses from facilities average 3.5 x 10 -2 μSv/y per person onto whole Spanish population.

  2. Realistic retrospective dose assessments to members of the public around Spanish nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M.A., E-mail: majg@csn.es [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Pedro Justo Dorado Dellmans 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Valdepenas, J.M.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Martin-Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, M.R.; Serrano, J.I.; Ramos, L.M. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Pedro Justo Dorado Dellmans 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    In the frame of an epidemiological study carried out in the influence areas around the Spanish nuclear facilities (ISCIII-CSN, 2009. Epidemiological Study of The Possible Effect of Ionizing Radiations Deriving from The Operation of Spanish Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities on The Health of The Population Living in Their Vicinity. Final report December 2009. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Madrid. Available from: (http://www.csn.es/images/stories/actualidad{sub d}atos/especiales/epidemiologico/epidemiological{sub s}tudy.pdf)), annual effective doses to public have been assessed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) for over 45 years using a retrospective realistic-dose methodology. These values are compared with data from natural radiation exposure. For the affected population, natural radiation effective doses are in average 2300 times higher than effective doses due to the operation of nuclear installations (nuclear power stations and fuel cycle facilities). When considering the impact on the whole Spanish population, effective doses attributable to nuclear facilities represent in average 3.5 x 10{sup -5} mSv/y, in contrast to 1.6 mSv/y from natural radiation or 1.3 mSv/y from medical exposures. - Highlights: > Most comprehensive dose assessment to public by nuclear facilities ever done in Spain. > Dose to public is dominated by liquid effluent pathways for the power stations. > Dose to public is dominated by Rn inhalation for milling and mining facilities. > Average annual doses to public in influence areas are negligible (10 {mu}Sv/y or less). > Doses from facilities average 3.5 x 10{sup -2} {mu}Sv/y per person onto whole Spanish population.

  3. Aquatic toxicity testing of liquid hydrophobic chemicals – Passive dosing exactly at the saturation limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibany, Felix; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing...... format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth...... at chemical activity of unity was higher than expected relative to a reported hydrophobicity cut-off in toxicity, but lower than expected relative to a reported chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. The present study introduces a new effective approach for toxicity testing of an important group...

  4. The Limits of Political Liberalism and Public Reason

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2010), s. 52-61 ISSN 1671-4318 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : public reason * liberalism * John Rawls Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Public Health England survey of eye lens doses in the UK medical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, E A; Bouffler, S; Gilvin, P; Peters, S; Slack, K; Cocker, M; Holt, E; Williamson, A

    2014-01-01

    The ICRP has recently recommended that the occupational exposure limit for the lens of the eye be reduced to 20 mSv in a year, averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. There has been concern amongst some groups of individuals, particularly interventional cardiologists and radiologists as well as relevant professional bodies, that implementation of these recommendations into UK law will adversely affect working patterns. However, despite a number of informative European studies, there is currently little UK dosimetry data available upon which judgements can effectively be based. In order to address this knowledge gap, Public Health England has carried out a small, targeted survey of UK lens doses to medical staff undertaking procedures likely to involve the highest levels of radiation exposure. Two out of a total of 61 individuals surveyed had projected annual doses which could be close to 20 mSv, measured outside lead glasses. Use of protective equipment was generally good; however, lead glasses were only used by 9 participants. The results of this survey suggest that compliance with the ICRP recommendations is likely to be possible for most individuals in the UK medical sector. (paper)

  6. Doses to nurses by the technetium-99m, in private and public sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bied, J.Ch.; Philippon, B.

    1999-01-01

    The global body dose due to the technetium is 1.2 and 1.9 mSv for the two nurses of the private sector. In the public sector, the level reached by the personnel is 0.75 mSv for the global body dose, and the only technetium (global body dose 1.4 and 2.1 mSv for the private sector, 0.95 for the public sector and for the whole of radiations measured by the O.P.R.I. film dosemeter. The doses received at the fingers level present higher levels in the private sector. But these values, 15.2 and 10.7 mSv by month, that is to say 180 mSv by year are the 2/5 of the maximum permissible value. The two persons of the private sector received whole body doses, higher that the doses of the public sector. These doses are about 1.2 to 1.9 these ones received in the public sector. (N.C.)

  7. Evaluation of the effective equivalent dose in the general public due to the discharge of uranium in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Jacomino, V.M.F.

    1989-12-01

    Some facilities available at IPEN-CNEN/SP may discharge uranium in their liquid effluents. The uranium contents of these effluents are analyzed by photometry or fluorimetry, and according to the results obtained a decision is made, by the Environmental Monitoring Division, upon their discharge to the environment. In 1988 a total activity of 3.66x10 9 Bq of uranium was discharge in a volume of approximately 30 m 3 . The effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated by making a conservative assumption that all the liquid effluents containing uranium are discharged directly to the soil reaching the groundwater. The dose calculation was carried out by using a generic model which described the transport of radionuclides in the groundwater. In order to be conservative it was also assumed that the critical pathway is the direct in gestion of water through hypothetical wells around the Institute. Conservative assumptions were also made in the characterization of the local aquifer parameters such as vertical and longitudinal dispersivity, effective porosity of the soil, hydraulic conductivity etc., in roder to overestimate the effective equivalent dose. The result obtained, of 5.3x10 -10 mSv/a is far below the dose limit for the public adopted by the Radiological Protection Board. The derived limit for the discharge was also evaluated, using the same model, giving a result of 3.6x10 13 Bq/a. (author) [pt

  8. 76 FR 46357 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... that FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation...

  9. 77 FR 26818 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the laws under...

  10. 76 FR 78332 - Amended Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Amended Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION... actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is...

  11. When is a dose not a dose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There is confusion over radiation dose limits between the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the National Radiological Protection Board and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), reports a Friends of the Earth's radiation campaigner. MAFF is suggesting the inadequate ICRP public dose limit does not apply to public exposures which arise from environmental contamination from past radioactive discharges. (author)

  12. Public doses estimation based on effluents data and direct measurements of Tritium in environmental samples at Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, E.; Popescu, I.; Simionov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The release of any potential radioactive pollutant to the environment during routine operation of a Nuclear Power Plant should be the subject of appropriate controls and assessments. The layout of the Candu reactor and the design of its systems ensure that the radioactive waste quantities are minimized, but small amounts of radioisotopes are continuously discharged at very low concentrations through gaseous and liquid effluents. Radioprotection of the public is based on the principles recommended by ICRP, the protection being mainly achieved by control of the sources of exposure. Source monitoring provide a means of assessing the radiation exposure of population groups, critical groups and individual members of the public. The assessed doses are used to demonstrate the compliance with authorized dose limits - 1 mSv / year in our case - but can also be used for optimization purposes

  13. Method for calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms with application of plutonium-239 in plankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Baptista, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms is presented. The mean alpha energies per disintegration of radionuclides of interest are listed to be used in standard methodologies to calculate dose to aquatic biota. As an application, the upper limits for the alpha dose rates from 239 Pu to the total body of plankton are estimated based on data available in open literature [pt

  14. Development of mathematical pediatric phantoms for internal dose calculations: designs, limitations, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.

    1980-01-01

    Mathematical phantoms of the human body at various ages are employed with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes for calculation of photon specific absorbed fractions. The author has developed a pediatric phantom series based on the design of the adult phantom, but with explicit equations for each organ so that organ sizes and marrow distributions could be assigned properly. Since the phantoms comprise simple geometric shapes, predictive dose capability is limited when geometry is critical to the calculation. Hence, there is a demand for better phantom design in situations where geometry is critical, such as for external irradiation or for internal emitters with low energy photons. Recent advances in computerized axial tomography (CAT) present the potential for derivation of anatomical information, which is so critical to development of phantoms, and ongoing developmental work on compuer architecture to handle large arrays for Monte Carlo calculations should make complex-geometry dose calculations economically feasible within this decade

  15. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    The Hybrid Inflatable DSH combined with electric propulsion and high power solar-electric power systems offer a near TRL-now solution to the space radiation crew dose problem that is an inevitable aspect of long term manned interplanetary flight. Spreading program development and launch costs over several years can lead to a spending plan that fits with NASA's current and future budgetary limitations, enabling early manned interplanetary operations with space radiation dose control, in the near future while biomedical research, nuclear electric propulsion and active shielding research and development proceed in parallel. Furthermore, future work should encompass laboratory validation of HZETRN calculations, as previous laboratory investigations have not considered large shielding thicknesses and the calculations presented at these thicknesses are currently performed via extrapolation.

  16. Radiation doses to members of the public near to Sellafield, Cumbria, from liquid discharges 1952-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D; Lambers, B; Gray, J

    2000-06-01

    Liquid wastes containing low levels of radioactivity have been discharged to the Irish Sea from the nuclear fuel reprocessing site at Sellafield since operations began in the early 1950s, and monitoring of radioactivity in foodstuffs has been undertaken over many years. Based on the best available monitoring data, supplemented by modelled values where necessary, doses to local critical groups have been reassessed using the most recent dosimetry. Contemporary habits data have been used where available, again supplemented by assumed habits where necessary. During the 1950s and 1960s the highest doses were received by individuals consuming Cumbrian Porphyra as laverbread, and peak doses around 0.8 to 1.0 mSv year(-1) have been estimated. During the 1970s and 1980s the critical exposure group switched to consumers of local fish and shellfish, with peak doses possibly reaching 2.5 to 3.0 mSv year(-1). Latterly, doses to all marine-related groups have declined to less than 150 to 200 microSv year(-1). At all times, doses have been within the appropriate limits set for members of the public.

  17. Low doses of prophylactic cranial irradiation effective in limited stage small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenstein, James H.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Blitzer, Peter H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; Floody, Patrick A.; Harwin, William N.; Teufel, Thomas E.; Raymond, Michael G.; Reeves, James A.; Hart, Lowell L.; McCleod, Michael J.; Pizarro, Alejandro; Gabarda, Antonio L.; Rana, Van G.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for the prevention of brain metastasis in small cell lung cancer remains controversial, both in terms of efficacy and the optimal dose-fractionation scheme. We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy of PCI at low doses. Methods and Materials: One hundred and ninety-seven patients were referred to our institution for treatment of limited stage small cell carcinoma of the lung between June 1986 and December 1992. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 89.8 months, with a mean of 19 months. Eighty-five patients received PCI. Results: Patients receiving PCI exhibited brain failure in 15%, while 38% of untreated patients developed metastases. This degree of prophylaxis was achieved with a median total dose of 25.20 Gy and a median fraction size of 1.80 Gy. At these doses, acute and late complications were minimal. Patients receiving PCI had significantly better 1-year and 2-year overall survivals (68% and 46% vs. 33% and 13%). However, patients with a complete response (CR) to chemotherapy and better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) were overrepresented in the PCI group. In an attempt to compare similar patients in both groups (PCI vs. no PCI), only patients with KPS ≥ 80, CR or near-CR to chemotherapy, and treatment with attempt to cure, were compared. In this good prognostic group, survival was still better in the PCI group (p = 0.0018). Conclusion: In this patient population, relatively low doses of PCI have accomplished a significant reduction in the incidence of brain metastasis with little toxicity. Whether such treatment truly improves survival awaits the results of additional prospective randomized trials

  18. Policy Implications of Limiting Immigrant Concentration in Danish Public Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Thomsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant students in Denmark on average perform worse in lower secondary school than native Danish students. Part of the effect may not stem from the immigrant students themselves, but from the student composition at the school. From a policy perspective, the latter aspect is quite interesting...... since it is more feasible to change student composition in schools than the socioeconomic status of the individual students.This article describes theoretically the circumstances under which total student achievement can be increased by reallocating certain groups of students. Empirical analyses......’ educational outcome, by limiting the share of immigrant students at grade level at any one school to less than 50 percent. The policy implications of this finding are discussed....

  19. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: Monitoring and limiting effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J. A. M.; Nunes, R.

    2011-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. (authors)

  20. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: monitoring and limiting effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A M; Nunes, R

    2011-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors.

  1. Implications for Occupational Radiation Protection of the New Dose Limit for the Lens of the Eye. Interim Guidance for Use and Comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The IAEA Safety Requirements Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011 and published in November 2011. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv per year to 20 mSv per year, averaged over defined periods of five years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye follows the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its statement on tissue reactions on 21 April 2011. At the time when the draft General Safety Requirements (GSR) Part 3 was approved by the Commission on Safety Standards, the Secretariat was asked to develop guidance as early as possible to assist Member States in the observance of the new dose limit. In the longer term, the guidance provided in this TECDOC will form the basis for the consensus guidance in relation to the new dose limit for the lens of the eye that is to be provided in two safety guides currently being developed, Occupational Radiation Protection and Radiation Safety in the Medical Uses of Ionizing Radiation. It is expected that these will be published in 2015-2016. It is recognized that guidance material is required before the two safety guides are finalized in order to give Member States the opportunity to put appropriate actions in place and to plan for the introduction of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. The purpose of the current publication is to provide advice on the implications for occupational radiation protection of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye and to allow comment on detailed recommendations that may be incorporated into the safety guides

  2. Implementation of ICRP-60 recommendations on dose limits to radiation workers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    The handling of radioactive material and radiation generating plants in India is regulated by the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and rules issued under the Act. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board enforces the rules. Currently, there are about 40,000 radiation workers in the country. Nearly half of them are employed in nuclear installations. During 1989, the Board considered the impact of restricting the maximum individual exposure to different values of dose limits. Through this analysis, the Board alerted all radiation users including persons responsible for radiation safety in nuclear facilities. When ICRP published ICRP-60, the Board issued directives to all radiation installations reducing the dose limit to occupational workers in a phased manner (40 mSv for 1991, 35 mSv for 1992 and 30 mSv for 1993). To meet the recommendations of ICRP-60, AERB issued a directive for the five year block 1994-1998, restricting the cumulative effective dose constraint to one hundred milliSievert (100 mSv) for individual radiation workers. Also, the annual effective dose to individual workers in any calendar year during the five-year block was restricted to thirty milliSievert (30 mSv). The stipulations of AERB are thus more conservative than those of ICRP. There was near total compliance with the dose limits by radiation installations in the country. For instance, in 1989, the number of radiation workers in nuclear power plants, who exceeded the dose level of 20 mSv/year was 9% of the total. This declined gradually to 2.2% in 1993 and 0.3% in 1997. During 1998, only 9 out of 10,145 exceeded 20 mSv/year. This has been achieved by the concerted efforts of the management, health physics staff and radiation workers. The health physicists regulated the radiation doses to workers by issuing work permits when the workers are assigned any job in high radiation areas. Appropriate training programmes are also in place. The broad guidelines to regulate radiation exposures in nuclear facilities

  3. Dose limits and licensing requirements for the limitation of the emission of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations in the FRG and the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwibach, J; Huber, O

    1975-08-01

    In licensing the operation of nuclear power plants in the FRG and USA, particular limitations of the release of radioactive materials in the air and water are layed down to correspond to the protective laws of radiation and environmental protection. The first limiting recommendations for the removal of radioactive waste waters were worked out in 1965 in the FRG and in 1968/69 for the removal of radioactive exhaust air of nuclear power plants. Based on this, in 1975 these relevant regulations were included in the draft of the new radiation protection specification. In 1971, these type of guidelines were put to discussion in the USA and were dismissed in 1975 in a licensing regulation of the NRC. These regulations or guidelines differ in their various dose limits. For example, the German dose limits of 30 mrem/a whole body dose for radioactive materials in the exhaust air of nuclear power plants and of 90 mrem/a for the thyroid dose through radioiodine via the exposure exhaust air-pasture-cow-milk-infant are often compared to the American dose limits of 5 mrem/a whole body dose and 15 mrem/a skin dose as well as 15 mrem/a thyroid dose. Such a numerical comparison is, howewer, wrong. The dose limits used in the FRG are, e.g., not to be exceeded. Furthermore, in the FRG, all contributions to be calculated on one site are to be considered. In the USA, the corresponding values are only valid for actual exposure paths due to the emission of a power reactor. They can be multiply exceeded. Thus the German licensing practise is clearly more restrictive.

  4. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  5. The issue concerning the use of an annual as opposed to a committed dose limit for internal radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Alexander, E.L.; French, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific, technical, practical, and ethical considerations that relate to the use of an annual as opposed to a committed dose limitation system for internal radiation protection are evaluated and presented. The concerns about problems associated with the more recent ICRP committed dose recommendations that have been expressed by persons who are currently operating under an annual dose limitation system are reviewed and discussed in terms of the radiation protection programme elements that are required for an effective ALARA programme. We include in this and a follow-up article a comparison of how these alternative dose limitation systems affect the economic and professional livelihood of radiation workers and the requirements that they impose upon employers. Finally, we recommend the use of an ICRP based committed dose limitation system that provides protection of workers over an entire occupational lifetime without undue impact on their livelihood and without undue requirements for employers. (author)

  6. Comments about the application of the dose limitation system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de la Cruz, F.; Gil Lopez, E.

    1982-01-01

    The problems arising from the application of the Dose Limitation System (DLS) established by ICRP and recommended by I.A.E.A. are presented. The Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body has tried to set numerical guides to develop the criteria included in the DLS concept during the licensing process of nuclear instalations and isotopes uses in order to guarantee to the population not only the respect of the authorised limits but also that the instalations and practices are justified and optimised. All efforts have been useless. The cost quantification of the protection systems present marketing and maintenance problems that lead to meaningless estimations. Besides the evaluation of the radiological detriment as function of the collective dose by means of the price of the sievert-person adds two more difficulties: the first one is intrinsic to the hypothesis made and the second one is the discrimination over different population groups resulting from monetary fluctuations in inflation ist economies. The authors have developped a method spanding the detriment concept to the whole environment (not only the man) arriving to an easy way to make an effective optimization. The method is based in the quantification of the degradation energy released to the surroundings by means of a price assigned to the kw-hr. This price can dissuade the licensee and oblige him for economical reasons to select a more effective retention systems and/or a better operation.(author)

  7. Evaluation of doses received by personnel occupationally exposed based on the dose limits established in European Directive 96/26. Reclassification of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, C.; Espana, M.L.; Perez, L.; Tomasi, L.; Lopez Franco, P.

    1997-01-01

    The recommendations of ICRP-60 of 1990 provide the basis of the European Directive 96/26/Euratom in which new dose limits of radiation for workers have been established. These new dose limits assume important reductions compared to the previous limits, which are still in force in Spain, and might entail the reclassification of some of these workers. In the present work it is shown that the majority of the workers exposed to areas under our responsibility could be classified under Category B

  8. Experience with respect to dose limitation in nuclear fuel service operations in the United Kingdom supporting civil nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom, the nuclear power generation programme is supported by nuclear fuel services including uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing, operated by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). These have entailed the processing of large quantities of uranium and of plutonium and fission products arising in the course of irradiation of fuel in nuclear power stations and have necessitated substantial programmes for the radiological protection of the public and of the workers employed in the industry. This paper presents and reviews the statistics of doses recorded in the various sectors of nuclear fuel services operations against the background of the standards to which the industry is required to operate. A description is given of the development of BNFL policy in keeping with the objective of being recognized as among those industries regarded as safe and the resource implications of measures to reduce doses received by workers are reviewed in the light of experience. Finally, the paper reviews the epidemiological data which have been, and continue to be, collected for workers who have been employed in these nuclear fuel services. (author)

  9. Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident for the dose commitment of the general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, H

    1986-01-01

    The cumulative effective equipment dose from external radiation and by inhalation was about 5.10/sup -5/ Sv (5 mrem) for the adults monitored and about 7.10/sup -5/ Sv (7 mrem) for small children by the beginning of June. The inhalation dose has already reached its limit, but the external dose could rise by another 1 to 2.10/sup -5/ Sv (1-2 mrem) during the year. Another 2.5.10/sup -5/ Sv (2.5 mrem) effective equivalent dose was measured in children and 1.10/sup -5/ Sv (1 mrem) in adults, due to ingestion. The dose from Cs 137 received by the population in food will remain small during the next few years.

  10. Environmental aspects and public exposure doses of airborne radioactive effluents from a PWR-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Miaofa; Zhang Jin; Fu Rongchu; Hu Yinxiu

    1989-04-01

    It is estimated that the environmental aspects and public exposure doses of airborne radioactive effluents from a imaginary 0.3 GW PWR-power plant which sited on the site of a large coalfired power plant estimated before. The major contributor to public exposure is found to be the release of 14 C and the critical pathway is food ingestion. A maximum annual individual body effective dose equivalent of 7.112 x 10 -6 Sv · (GW · a) -1 is found at the point of 0.5 km southeast of the source. The collective dose equivalent in the area around the plant within a radius of 100 km is to be 0.5974 man-Sv · a) -1 . Both maximum individual and collective effective dose equivalents of the PWR-power plant are much lower than those of the coal-fired one. If the ash emission ratio of the latter decreases from 24.6% to 1%, public exposure doses of the two plants would be nearly equal

  11. Radiation dose reduction: comparative assessment of publication volume between interventional and diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Henzler, Thomas; Gaba, Ron C; Morelli, John N

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to quantify and compare awareness regarding radiation dose reduction within the interventional radiology and diagnostic radiology communities. Abstracts accepted to the annual meetings of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed using the search terms "interventional/computed tomography" and "radiation dose/radiation dose reduction." A PubMed query using the above-mentioned search terms for the years of 2005-2015 was performed. Between 2005 and 2015, a total of 14 520 abstracts (mean, 660±297 abstracts) and 80 614 abstracts (mean, 3664±1025 abstracts) were presented at interventional and diagnostic radiology meetings, respectively. Significantly fewer abstracts related to radiation dose were presented at the interventional radiology meetings compared with the diagnostic radiology meetings (162 abstracts [1% of total] vs. 2706 [3% of total]; P radiology abstracts (range, 6-27) and 246±105 diagnostic radiology abstracts (range, 112-389) pertaining to radiation dose were presented at each meeting. The PubMed query revealed an average of 124±39 publications (range, 79-187) and 1205±307 publications (range, 829-1672) related to interventional and diagnostic radiology dose reduction per year, respectively (P radiology community over the past 10 years has not mirrored the increased volume seen within diagnostic radiology, suggesting that increased education and discussion about this topic may be warranted.

  12. Dose assessment and approach to the safety for the public in the emergency. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    1994-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the 21st NIRS seminar on Dose Assessment and Approach to the Safety for the Public in the Emergency. The 16 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Evaluation of the effective dose equivalent to tbe public of Pavia after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Berzero, A.; Meloni, S.; Rosti, G.; Genova, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl radionuclide monitoring campaign in air particulate and foodstuffs was carried out and continued up to June 1987. On the basis of collected data estimates of the collective effective dose equivalent commitment to the public of province of Pavia, by external irradiation or by inhalation, were carried out and are reported in the present paper

  14. Assessment of the benefits and impacts in the U.S. Nuclear Power Industry of hypothesized lower occupational dose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, R.L.; Schmitt, J.F. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements have issued recommendations that would limit occupational exposure of individuals to doses lower than regulatory limits contained in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s 10 CFR Part 20, {open_quotes}Standards for Protection Against Radiation{close_quotes}. Because of this situation, there is interest in the potential benefits and impacts that would be associated with movement of the NRC regulatory limits toward the advisory bodies recommendations. The records of occupational worker doses in the U.S. commercial nuclear power industry show that the vast majority of these workers have doses that are significantly below the regulatory limit of 50 mSv (5 rem) per year. Some workers doses do approach the limits, however. This is most common in the case of specially skilled workers, especially those with skills utilized in support of plant outage work. Any consideration of the potential benefits and impacts of hypothesized lower dose limits must address these workers as an important input to the overall assessment. There are also, of course, many other areas in which the benefits and impacts must be evaluated. To prepare to provide valid, constructive input on this matter, the U.S. nuclear power industry is undertaking an assessment, facilitated by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), of the potential benefits and impacts at its facilities associated with hypothesized lower occupational dose limits. Some preliminary results available to date from this assessment are provided.

  15. Assessment of the benefits and impacts in the U.S. Nuclear Power Industry of hypothesized lower occupational dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, R.L.; Schmitt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements have issued recommendations that would limit occupational exposure of individuals to doses lower than regulatory limits contained in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10 CFR Part 20, open-quotes Standards for Protection Against Radiationclose quotes. Because of this situation, there is interest in the potential benefits and impacts that would be associated with movement of the NRC regulatory limits toward the advisory bodies recommendations. The records of occupational worker doses in the U.S. commercial nuclear power industry show that the vast majority of these workers have doses that are significantly below the regulatory limit of 50 mSv (5 rem) per year. Some workers doses do approach the limits, however. This is most common in the case of specially skilled workers, especially those with skills utilized in support of plant outage work. Any consideration of the potential benefits and impacts of hypothesized lower dose limits must address these workers as an important input to the overall assessment. There are also, of course, many other areas in which the benefits and impacts must be evaluated. To prepare to provide valid, constructive input on this matter, the U.S. nuclear power industry is undertaking an assessment, facilitated by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), of the potential benefits and impacts at its facilities associated with hypothesized lower occupational dose limits. Some preliminary results available to date from this assessment are provided

  16. Estimation of effective dose from limited cone beam X-ray CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazuo; Arai, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Koji [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Nishizawa, Kanae

    2000-12-01

    The limited cone beam X-ray CT (Ortho-CT) was developed on the basis of multi-functional panoramic apparatus, SCANORA (Soredex Co. Helsinki Finland). The imaging intensifier (I.I.) was built in this apparatus as a X-ray detection device instead of X-ray film. The signal provided from I.I. was converted from analog into digital by an analog-digital converter and image reconstitution was done as a three-directional image of the dimensions 3.8 cm of width, 3.0 cm height and 3.8 cm depth with the personal computer. The 3DX Multi image micro CT'' (3DX) was developed along similar lines by MORITA Co., Ltd. (Kyoto, JAPAN). In this study, the stochastic effect on organ and tissue caused by examinations using Ortho-CT and 3DX was measured. The effective dose was estimated according to the recommendation of ICRP60 and was compared with those of panoramic radiography and computed tomography. The irradiation conditions were as follows: 85 kV, 10 mA with the filtration of 3 mmAl and added 1 mmCu for Ortho-CT, and 80 kV, 2 mA and the filtration of 3.1 mmAL for 3DX. The measurement of organ and tissue dose was performed using an anthropomorphic Rando woman phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Co., Stanfora, CN), as well as by using two different type of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD); Panasonic UD-170A (BeO) and UD-110S (CaSO{sub 4}: Tm). The UD-170A was for dose measurement of the inner useful X-ray beams, while the UD-110S was for outer beams. The measured organ and tissue were those recommended with ICRP60 (gonad, breast, bone marrow, lung, thyroid gland, esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, bladder, skin, brain, thymus, adrenal, kidney, spleen, pancrease, upper large intestine, uterus, eyes and major salivary gland). The imaging by Orhto-CT was made in the left maxillary 1st molar, left mandibular 1st molar and temporomandibular joint. 3DX measurement was made in the maxillary incisor region and middle ear regions other than the regions mentioned above. The skin

  17. Risk ratios for use in establishing dose limits for occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.E.; Winkler, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Dose limits for occupational exposure to radiation may be established by comparing the associated mortality risk with apparently accepted levels of industrial mortality risk due to conventional hazards. Average levels of industrial mortality risk rates are frequently quoted and used in such comparisons. However, within particular occupations or industries certain groups of workers will be exposed to higher levels of risk than the average, again an apparently accepted situation. A study has been made of the ratios of maximum to average industrial mortality risk currently experienced in some South African industries. Such a ratio may be used to assess the acceptability of maximum individual-to-average exposures in particular groups of exposed individuals. (author)

  18. Methods for estimation of internal dose of the public from dietary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda

    1987-01-01

    Following the issue of its Publication 26, ICRP has successively published its Publication 30 to meet the great changes and improvements made in the Basic Recommendations since July of 1979. In Part 1 of Publcation 30, ICRP recommended a new method for internal dose estimation and pressented some important data. In this report, comparison is made among methods for estimation of internal dose for the public from dietary. They include: (1) the new method suggested by ICRP; (2) the simple and convenient method using transfer factors under equilibrium conditions; (3) the methods based on the similarities of several radionuclides to their chemical analogs. It is concluded that the first method is better than the others and should be used from now on

  19. The significance of water hammer events to public dose from reactor accidents: A probabilistic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amico, P.J.; Ferrell, W.L.; Rubin, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment was made of the effects on public dose of water hammer events in LWRs. The analysis utilized actual historical water hammer data to determine if the water hammer events contributed either to system failure rates or initiating event frequencies. Representative PRAs were used to see if changes in initiating events and/or system failures caused by water hammer resulted in new values for the dominant sequences in the PRAs. New core melt frequencies were determined and carried out to the subsequent increase in public dose. It is concluded that water hammer is not a significant problem with respect to risk to the public for either BWRs or PWRs. (orig./HP)

  20. Public effective doses from environmental natural gamma exposures indoors and outdoors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Roositalab, Jalil; Mohammadi, Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    The effective doses of public in Iran due to external gamma exposures from terrestrial radionuclides and from cosmic radiation indoors and outdoors of normal natural background radiation areas were determined by measurements and by calculations. For direct measurements, three measurement methods were used including a NaI(TI) scintillation survey meter for preliminary screening, a pressurised ionising chamber for more precise measurements and early warning measurement equipment systems. Measurements were carried out in a large number of locations indoors and outdoors ∼1000 houses selected randomly in 36 large cities of Iran. The external gamma doses of public from living indoors and outdoors were also calculated based on the radioactivity measurements of samples taken from soil and building materials by gamma spectrometry using a high-resolution HPGe system. The national mean background gamma dose rates in air indoors and outdoors based on measurements are 126.9±24.3 and 111.7±17.72 nGy h -1 , respectively. When the contribution from cosmic rays was excluded, the values indoors and outdoors are 109.2±20.2 and 70.2±20.59.4 nGy h -1 , respectively. The dose rates determined for indoors and outdoors by calculations are 101.5±9.2 and 72.2±9.4 nGy h -1 , respectively, which are in good agreement with directly measured dose rates within statistical variations. By considering a population-weighted mean for terrestrial radiation, the ratio of indoor to outdoor dose rates is 1.55. The mean annual effective dose of each individual member of the public from terrestrial radionuclides and cosmic radiation, indoors and outdoors, is 0.86±0.16 mSv y -1 by measurements and 0.8±0.2 mSv y -1 by calculations. The results of this national survey of public annual effective doses from national natural background external gamma radiation determined by measurements and calculations indoors and outdoors of 1000 houses in 36 cities of Iran are presented and discussed. (authors)

  1. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction of Limited-Range CT in the Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael; Sanchez, Thomas R; Lamba, Ramit; Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Corwin, Michael T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of limited-range CT prescribed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. We performed a retrospective study of 210 consecutive pediatric patients from December 11, 2012, through December 11, 2014, who underwent abdominopelvic CT for suspected acute appendicitis. Two radiologists independently reviewed the theoretic limited scans from the superior L2 vertebral body to the top of the pubic symphysis, to assess for visualization of the appendix, acute appendicitis, alternative diagnoses, and incidental findings. Separately, the same parameters were assessed on the full scan by the same two reviewers. Whole-body effective doses were determined for the full- and limited-range scans and were compared using the paired t test. The appendix or entire cecum was visualized on the limited scan in all cases, and no cases of acute appendicitis were missed on the simulated limited scan compared with the full scan. Two alternative diagnoses were missed with the limited scan: one case of hydronephrosis and one of acute acalculous cholecystitis. The mean effective dose for the original scan was 5.6 mSv and that for the simulated limited scan was 3.0 mSv, resulting in a dose reduction of 46.4% (p appendicitis and reduces the dose by approximately 46%.

  2. [Global public health: international health is tested to its limits by the human influenza A epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This article comes from the intense international pressure that follows a near-catastrophy, such as the human influenza A H1N1 epidemic, and the limited resources for confronting such events. The analysis covers prevailing 20th century trends in the international public health arena and the change-induced challenges brought on by globalization, the transition set in motion by what has been deemed the "new" international public health and an ever-increasing focus on global health, in the context of an international scenario of shifting risks and opportunities and a growing number of multinational players. Global public health is defined as a public right, based on a new appreciation of the public, a new paradigm centered on human rights, and altruistic philosophy, politics, and ethics that undergird the changes in international public health on at least three fronts: redefining its theoretical foundation, improving world health, and renewing the international public health system, all of which is the byproduct of a new form of governance. A new world health system, directed by new global public institutions, would aim to make public health a global public right and face a variety of staggering challenges, such as working on public policy management on a global scale, renewing and democratizing the current global governing structure, and conquering the limits and weaknesses witnessed by international health.

  3. 76 FR 4150 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before July 25, 2011. FOR...

  4. 78 FR 16764 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... advising the public of final agency actions subject to Section 139(l) of Title 23, United States Code (U.S...

  5. 78 FR 4191 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... advising the public of final agency actions subject to Section 139(l) of Title 23, United States Code (U.S...

  6. 76 FR 55470 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or...

  7. 78 FR 33890 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... advising the public of final agency actions subject to Section 139(l) of Title 23, United States Code (U.S...

  8. Application of the dose limitation system to the control of carbon-14 releases from heavy-water-moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.; Gonzalez, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy-water-moderated reactors produce substantially more carbon-14 than light-water reactors. Applying the principles of the systems of dose limitation, the paper presents the rationale used for establishing the release limit for effluents containing this nuclide and for the decisions made regarding the effluent treatment in the third nuclear power station in Argentina. Production of carbon-14 in PHWR and the release routes are analysed in the light of the different effluent treatment possibilities. An optimization assessment is presented, taking into account effluent treatment and waste management costs, and the collective effective dose commitment due to the releases. The contribution of present carbon-14 releases to future individual doses is also analysed in the light of an upper bound for the contribution, representing a fraction of the individual dose limits. The paper presents the resulting requirements for the effluent treatment regarding carbon-14 and the corresponding regulatory aspects used in Argentina. (author)

  9. Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides: Pt. 5. Compilation of ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present report is a compilation of age-dependent committed effective dose coefficients for ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides of the 31 elements covered in previous CRP Publications. The biokinetic models for adults given in ICRP Publication 30 are applied to calculate these dose coefficients, except that age-specific excretion rates are used and increased gastrointestinal absorption in infants is assurred. Changes in body mass, and tissue geometry in children are also taken into account. (UK)

  10. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Barbaglia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation.

  11. Quantification of individual of individual annual doses to the public due to Embalse NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the individual annual doses to the public produced during Embalse NPP operation and the natural radiation doses absorbed in everyday life by the same individuals. The basic idea is to show several examples that allow the comparison. Therefore, everybody will get a clear picture of the radiological contamination that surrounds us and the actual influence that Embalse NPP's operation has in the environment. The first concept to be considered is that the human body cells cannot distinguish whether radiation comes from a natural or an artificial source (a source created by man). This is of great importance in the case of the popular myth that says that radiation coming from artificial sources is the only damaging radiation, and that other types of radiation are innocuous, and represent no hazard to human health. We can preliminarily state that when considering the same dose, the effects of both kinds of radiation in human body are equal. (author)

  12. Value of public health and safety actions and radiation dose avoided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    The values judged best to reflect the willingness of society to pay for the avoidance or reduction of risk were deduced from studies of costs of health care, transportation safety, consumer product safety, government agency actions, wage-risk compensation, consumer behavior (market) studies, and willingness-to-pay surveys. The results ranged from $1,400,000 to $2,700,000 per life saved. Applying the mean of these values ($2,100,000) and the latest risk per unit dose coefficients used by the ICRP (1991), which take into account risks to the general public, including genetic effects and nonfatal cancers, yields a value of dose avoided of $750 to $1,500 per person-cSv for public exposures. The lower value applies if adjustments are made for years of life lost per fatality. A nominal value of $1,000 per person-cSv seems appropriate in light of the many uncertainties involved in deducing these values. These values are consistent with values recommended by several European countries for individual doses in the region of 1 mSv/y (100 mrem/y). Below this dose rate, most countries have values a factor of 7 to 10 lower, based on the assumption that society is less concerned with fatality risks below about 10 -4 /y

  13. Age and sex dependent inhalation doses to members of the public from indoor thoron progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, L; Tschiersch, J [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764, Neuherberg (Germany); Li, W B [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, D-85764, Neuherberg (Germany); Li, J L, E-mail: bilei1983@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-12-01

    The increased indoor thoron level in Europe, North America and Asia has shown that the exposure to thoron and its decay products cannot be ignored in some environments. The contribution of thoron and its progeny can be a significant component of the total exposure from radon and thoron. In the present paper, radiation dose assessment of members of the public of different age and sex exposed to {sup 220}Rn progeny under different daily life activities is performed through a dosimetric approach. Dose conversion coefficients under typical indoor conditions were estimated to be in the range of 107 nSv (Bq h m{sup -3}){sup -1} for infant to 81.7 nSv (Bq h m{sup -3}){sup -1} for adult. The results of this work emphasized that small children receive a radiation dose of 25% more than adults under the same conditions, and people performing exercise receive a radiation dose 100% more than when sleeping. The results of this work are appropriate to the risk assessment of thoron exposure to members of the public who live in areas with high radon and thoron concentrations.

  14. Value of public health and safety actions and radiation dose avoided

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The values judged best to reflect the willingness of society to pay for the avoidance or reduction of risk were deduced from studies of costs of health care, transportation safety, consumer product safety, government agency actions, wage-risk compensation, consumer behavior (market) studies, and willingness-to-pay surveys. The results ranged from $1,400,000 to $2,700,000 per life saved. Applying the mean of these values ($2,100,000) and the latest risk per unit dose coefficients used by the ICRP (1991), which take into account risks to the general public, including genetic effects and nonfatal cancers, yields a value of dose avoided of $750 to $1,500 per person-cSv for public exposures. The lower value applies if adjustments are made for years of life lost per fatality. A nominal value of $1,000 per person-cSv seems appropriate in light of the many uncertainties involved in deducing these values. These values are consistent with values recommended by several European countries for individual doses in the region of 1 mSv/y (100 mrem/y). Below this dose rate, most countries have values a factor of 7 to 10 lower, based on the assumption that society is less concerned with fatality risks below about 10{sup {minus}4}/y.

  15. Time-dependent, low-dose reporting limit for dosimeters that are taken home at the end of the workday

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonder, E.

    1994-01-01

    In routine personnel dosimetry, it is usual to report doses only where th occupational dose (measured dose with background subtracted) is greater than previously determined reporting limit. The reporting limit, although se administratively, should be justified by an assessment of the errors inherent in th personnel and background dose measurements, and estimates of the probability that a zero exposure will yield a dosimeter response equal to the reporting limit. For background subtraction and reporting limits, it was realized that the source of low-dose uncertainty is very much dependent on whether dosimeters are held in racks at the work site or remain with the employee. The External dosimetry Program for the DOE facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is operated such that dosimeters are taken home by the employee at the end of each workday. This report is a summary measurements of background radiation in a variety of home locations, and calculations of the effect of the variation of this background on the uncertainty low-level occupational dose and on the reporting level. When dosimeters are stored at a given location (e.g., the facility gate), it theoretically possible to determine the background there to any desired accuracy; the errors in occupational dose are then those due to measurement noise and dosimeter calibration. However, when different dosimeters are stored in different homes, th difference in background between a particular location and the average for a locations appears as an added uncertainty in the occupational dose. Since this difference is not random, but fixed for a given location, the error due to this difference increases linearly with assignment time. From the background measurements, time-dependent values of the standard deviation of occupational do and critical levels are derived and used to define an expression for the reporting limit

  16. Autoblocking dose-limiting normal structures within a radiation treatment field: 3-D computer optimization of 'unconventional' field arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Brian A.; Cullip, Timothy J.; Rosenman, Julian G.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To demonstrate that one can obtain a homogeneous dose distribution within a specified gross tumor volume (GTV) while severely limiting the dose to a structure surrounded by that tumor volume. We present three clinical examples below. Materials and Methods: Using planning CT scans from previously treated patients, we designed variety of radiation treatment plans in which the dose-critical normal structure was blocked, even if it meant blocking some of the tumor. To deal with the resulting dose inhomogeneities within the tumor, we introduced 3D compensation. Examples presented here include (1) blocking the spinal cord segment while treating an entire vertebral body, (2) blocking both kidneys while treating the entire peritoneal cavity, and (3) blocking one parotid gland while treating the oropharynx in its entirety along with regional nodes. A series of multiple planar and non-coplanar beam templates with automatic anatomic blocking and field shaping were designed for each scenario. Three-dimensional compensators were designed that gave the most homogeneous dose-distribution for the GTV. For each beam, rays were cast from the beam source through a 2D compensator grid and out through the tumor. The average tumor dose along each ray was then used to adjust the compensator thickness over successive iterations to achieve a uniform average dose. DVH calculations for the GTV, normal structures, and the 'auto-blocked' structure were made and used for inter-plan comparisons. Results: These optimized treatment plans successfully decreased dose to the dose-limiting structure while at the same time preserving or even improving the dose distribution to the tumor volume as compared to traditional treatment plans. Conclusion: The use of 3D compensation allows one to obtain dose distributions that are, theoretically, at least, far superior to those in common clinical use. Sensible beam templates, auto-blocking, auto-field shaping, and 3D compensators form a

  17. A limited, low-dose computed tomography protocol to examine the sacroiliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, L.; Silberberg, P.J.; Rainbow, A.; Butler, R.

    1993-01-01

    Limited, low-dose, three-scan computed tomography (CT) was shown to be as accurate as a complete CT series in examining the sacroiliac joints and is suggested as an effective alternative to plain radiography as the primary means to detect sacroiliitis. The advantages include the brevity of the examination, a 2-fold to 4-fold reduction in radiation exposure relative to conventional radiography and a 20-fold to 30-fold reduction relative to a full CT series. The technique was developed from studies of anatomic specimens in which the articular surfaces were covered with a film of barium to show clearly the synovial surfaces and allow the choice of the most appropriate levels of section. From the anteroposterior scout view the following levels were defined: at the first sacral foramen, between the first and second sacral foramina and at the third sacral foramen. In the superior section a quarter of the sacroiliac joint is synovial, whereas in the inferior section the entire joint is synovial. The three representative cuts and the anteroposterior scout view are displayed on a single 14 x 17 in. (36 x 43 cm) film. Comparative images at various current strengths showed that at lower currents than conventionally used no diagnostic information was lost, despite a slight increase in noise. The referring physicians at the authors' institution prefer this protocol to the imaging routine previously used. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  18. Statement from the 1983 meeting of the International Commission on Radiological Protection: annual limits for intakes (ALI) and derived air concentrations (DAC) for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The limitation of the committed effective dose equivalent for members of the public is sufficient to provide compliance over a lifetime with the limit for single organs, thus avoiding non-stochastic effects. Relative values for infants and adults of the committed dose equivalent in a number of tissues per unit intake for each of a few radionuclides have been given: the values for infants are just more than 1 up to 100 times greater than those for adult workers. In each of these cases the appropriate annual dose-equivalent limits recommended by the Commission for members of the public are 10 times less than the corresponding values for workers; the resulting ALI for infants aged six months will be smaller than the values given in ICRP Publication 30 for limiting stochastic effects in workers by factors that range from just more than 10 (for caesium-137) to 1,000 (for ingested plutonium-239). Intermediate factors would apply for older members of the public. The magnitude of the range emphasises the need to consider each situation carefully, with particular reference to children and women. (author)

  19. Feasibility study of astronaut standardized career dose limits in LEO and the outlook for BLEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Bhardwaj, A.; Ferrari, Franco; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Lal, A. K.; Li, Yinghui; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Nymmik, Rikho; Panasyuk, Michael; Petrov, Vladislav; Reitz, Guenther; Pinsky, Lawrence; Muszaphar Shukor, Sheikh; Singhvi, A. K.; Straube, Ulrich; Tomi, Leena; Townsend, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    Cosmic Study Group SG 3.19/1.10 was established in February 2013 under the aegis of the International Academy of Astronautics to consider and compare the dose limits adopted by various space agencies for astronauts in Low Earth Orbit. A preliminary definition of the limits that might later be adopted by crews exploring Beyond Low Earth Orbit was, in addition, to be made. The present paper presents preliminary results of the study reported at a Symposium held in Turin by the Academy in July 2013. First, an account is provided of exposure limits assigned by various partner space agencies to those of their astronauts that work aboard the International Space Station. Then, gaps in the scientific and technical information required to safely implement human missions beyond the shielding provided by the geomagnetic field (to the Moon, Mars and beyond) are identified. Among many recommendations for actions to mitigate the health risks potentially posed to personnel Beyond Low Earth Orbit is the development of a preliminary concept for a Human Space Awareness System to: provide for crewed missions the means of prompt onboard detection of the ambient arrival of hazardous particles; develop a strategy for the implementation of onboard responses to hazardous radiation levels; support modeling/model validation that would enable reliable predictions to be made of the arrival of hazardous radiation at a distant spacecraft; provide for the timely transmission of particle alerts to a distant crewed vehicle at an emergency frequency using suitably located support spacecraft. Implementation of the various recommendations of the study can be realized based on a two pronged strategy whereby Space Agencies/Space Companies/Private Entrepreneurial Organizations etc. address the mastering of required key technologies (e.g. fast transportation; customized spacecraft design) while the International Academy of Astronautics, in a role of handling global international co-operation, organizes

  20. Limiting CT radiation dose in children with craniosynostosis: phantom study using model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, Touko; Lampinen, Anniina [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Palmu, Kirsi [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); School of Science, Aalto University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki (Finland); Reijonen, Vappu; Kortesniemi, Mika [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); Leikola, Junnu [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, Riku [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-15

    Medical professionals need to exercise particular caution when developing CT scanning protocols for children who require multiple CT studies, such as those with craniosynostosis. To evaluate the utility of ultra-low-dose CT protocols with model-based iterative reconstruction techniques for craniosynostosis imaging. We scanned two pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms with a 64-slice CT scanner using different low-dose protocols for craniosynostosis. We measured organ doses in the head region with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters. Numerical simulations served to estimate organ and effective doses. We objectively and subjectively evaluated the quality of images produced by adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) 30%, ASiR 50% and Veo (all by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Image noise and contrast were determined for different tissues. Mean organ dose with the newborn phantom was decreased up to 83% compared to the routine protocol when using ultra-low-dose scanning settings. Similarly, for the 5-year phantom the greatest radiation dose reduction was 88%. The numerical simulations supported the findings with MOSFET measurements. The image quality remained adequate with Veo reconstruction, even at the lowest dose level. Craniosynostosis CT with model-based iterative reconstruction could be performed with a 20-μSv effective dose, corresponding to the radiation exposure of plain skull radiography, without compromising required image quality. (orig.)

  1. Limiting values for the RBE of fission neutrons at low doses for life shortening in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, J.B.; Mitchell, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have analyzed recently published data on the effects of low doses of fission neutrons on the mean survival times of mice. The analysis for single-dose exposures was confined to doses of 20 rad or less, while for fractionated exposures only total doses of 80 rad or less were considered. They fitted the data to the frequently used power function model: life shortening = βD/sup γ/, where D is the radiation dose. They show that, at low doses per fraction, either the effects are not additive or the dose-effect curve for single exposures cannot show a greater negative curvature than about the 0.9 power of dose. Analysis of the data for γ rays showed that an exponent of 1.0 gave an acceptable fit. They conclude that at neutron doses of 20 rad or less the RBE for life shortening is constant and ranges from 13 to 22 depending on mouse strain and sex

  2. The ICRP Proposed Maximum Public Dose Constraints of o.3 mSv/y: a Major Issue for the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Coates, R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently developing a new set of Recommendations on Radiological Protection. A value of 0.3mSv/y for the maximum public dose constraint has been discussed by ICRP. This value represents a major concern for the nuclear industry at large. The primary issue arises from the lack of any new scientific evidence on public health effects from ionising radiation to support, in practice, the proposed reduction by about a factor of 3 (from 1 to 0.3 mSv/y) of the upper bound value for public dose impact from a nuclear activity or site. Such a change would create a de facto limit on public exposure from specific sources at a dose level of about one tenth of average natural background and an even smaller fraction of the typical range of background exposures and exposures from medical sources. This cannot be justified on public health grounds. The WNA supports ICRP's renewed intention, as expressed at the NEA-ICRP Stakeholder Forum in Lanzarote (April 2003), to retain the concept of a public dose limit at 1 mSv/y. We strongly believe that the current system comprising of the dose limit and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools for regulators to address all situations in all countries. The WNA consider that the question of setting an upper bound dose constraint (below 1 mSv/y) at the country/site specific level is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. When considering the potential practical implications of a maximum dose constraint, it is important to look beyond the very low off-site dose impacts (on the public) resulting from annual routine radioactive discharges of nuclear industrial sites. There are many off-site and on-site practical situations, related to public exposures (both workers and the public) and worker classification as well as activities such transportation, decommissioning and site remediation, for

  3. The ICRP Proposed Maximum Public Dose Constraints of o.3 mSv/y: a Major Issue for the Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Coates, R.

    2004-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently developing a new set of Recommendations on Radiological Protection. A value of 0.3mSv/y for the maximum public dose constraint has been discussed by ICRP. This value represents a major concern for the nuclear industry at large. The primary issue arises from the lack of any new scientific evidence on public health effects from ionising radiation to support, in practice, the proposed reduction by about a factor of 3 (from 1 to 0.3 mSv/y) of the upper bound value for public dose impact from a nuclear activity or site. Such a change would create a de facto limit on public exposure from specific sources at a dose level of about one tenth of average natural background and an even smaller fraction of the typical range of background exposures and exposures from medical sources. This cannot be justified on public health grounds. The WNA supports ICRP's renewed intention, as expressed at the NEA-ICRP Stakeholder Forum in Lanzarote (April 2003), to retain the concept of a public dose limit at 1 mSv/y. We strongly believe that the current system comprising of the dose limit and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools for regulators to address all situations in all countries. The WNA consider that the question of setting an upper bound dose constraint (below 1 mSv/y) at the country/site specific level is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. When considering the potential practical implications of a maximum dose constraint, it is important to look beyond the very low off-site dose impacts (on the public) resulting from annual routine radioactive discharges of nuclear industrial sites. There are many off-site and on-site practical situations, related to public exposures (both workers and the public) and worker classification as well as activities such transportation, decommissioning and site remediation

  4. The Opportunities and Limitations of Using Mechanical Turk (MTurk) in Public Administration and Management Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritch, Justin Michael; Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Taggert, Gabel

    2017-01-01

    Other social science fields are increasingly conducting research using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk)—an online crowdsourcing platform—but how might MTurk be useful to public administration and management research? This article provides an introduction of the platform and considers both...... the opportunities and limitations for using MTurk in public administration and management scholarship. We find that MTurk might be relevant for examining particular types of research questions. We identify five areas where MTurk data may complement and enhance public administration and management research: (1...

  5. Forming perceptions and the limits to public participation on ocean commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; Delaney, Alyne

    2017-01-01

    Public views of, and public participation in, the management of commons are increasingly being recommended and sought after in environmental management processes. Yet, given the limits of today’s liberal democracy, what are the weaknesses? This article presents data from a citizens jury......-inspired deliberative workshop held to tease out stakeholder views of management priorities for a section of the North Sea: the Dogger Bank. As this article reveals, the lessons learned from the Dogger Bank workshop advocate not simply what is required for managing one particular ocean commons, but also highlight some...... of the public participation research design failings, taking public participation in resource management further by adding to the literature and theoretical discussions on the public sphere (Habermas 1989). Analysis of the citizens jury-inspired deliberative workshop also highlights the critical issue of power...

  6. Report of task group on the biological basis for dose limitation in the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    Researchers have drawn attention to what they consider inconsistencies in the manner in which ICRP have considered skin in relation to the effective dose equivalent. They urge that the dose to the skin should be considered routinely for inclusion in the effective dose equivalent in the context of protection of individuals and population groups. They note that even with a weighting factor of only 0.01 that the dose to the skin can be a significant contributor to the effective dose equivalent including skin for practical exposure conditions. In the case of many exposures the risk to the skin can be ignored but exposure in an uniformly contaminated cloud that might occur with 85 Kr the dose to the skin could contribute 60% of the stochastic risk if included in the effective dose equivalent with a W T of 0.01. Through the years and even today the same questions about radiation effects in the skin and dosimetry keep being asked. This report collates the available data and current understanding of radiation effects on the skin, and may make it possible to estimate risks more accurately and to improve the approach to characterizing skin irradiations. 294 refs., 29 figs

  7. Luminescence dose reconstruction using personal objects and material available in the environment and public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H. Y.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern in the public about accidental radiation exposures due to the ageing of the nuclear power industry, illegal dumping of nuclear waste, or terrorist activities which may increase the health risks to individuals or large numbers of public. In cases where no direct radiation monitoring data are available, luminescence dose reconstruction obtained using material from the immediate environment of population or persons can be used to validate values obtained from the numerical simulations. In recent years, especially after the Chernobyl accident, techniques and methodology of luminescence dose reconstruction using fired building material have advanced to such an extent that radiation from anthropogenic sources as low as 10 mGy can be resolved within two years after the event. It was demonstrated that luminescence measurements using bricks combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of photon transport for a given source geometry and distribution can provide quantities to derive doses for populations or groups of people living in contaminated areas that can be used for epidemiological studies. In this presentation, recent approaches in luminescence dose reconstruction using un-fired building materials such as concrete and silica brick will be reviewed and the possible use of personal artefacts such as telephone chip cards or prosthetic and restorative teeth will be discussed. The review will include the results of the joint efforts of the international team supported by the EU at the Chernobyl affected territories, areas affected due to activities of Plutonium production facilities in Southern Urals (Russia), and settlements around the Semipalatinsk nuclear bomb test sites

  8. Review of NCRP radiation dose limit for embryo and fetus in occupationally-exposed women - approved 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of the current review, the NCRP has decided to make no change in the current recommendation of its radiation dose limit to the unborn. The NCRP recommendation is restated here as follows: During the entire gestation period, the maximum permissible dose equivalent to the embryo-fetus from occupational exposure of the expectant mother should be 0.5 rem. Since the preparation of the 1971 report there has been no new evidence concerning teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of irradiation of the embryo-fetus that would justify a change in the limit in either direction. It is implicit in this position and recommendation that women who can reasonably be expected to be pregnant should not, in certain instances, be exposed to the same radiation environment as women who are not considered fertile or as men. This applies particularly to conditions where radiation workers can receive dose equivalents of 0.5 rem or more in short periods

  9. Effective dose of individuals from the surrounding public to the facilities of the Abadia de Goiás radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, E.; Borges, A.F. de Almeida; Camargos, K.M.; Santos, E.E. dos; Correa, R. da S.; Ferreira, N.C.; Ribeiro, N.V.

    2017-01-01

    The study presents the level of effective annual dose that individuals from the public - surrounding the repository of wastes with Cs-137, located in Abadia de Goiás, GO, Brazil - have received, according to analyzes carried out from June 2015 to July 2016. It was considered reference to the annual effective radiation dose limit of 0.3 mSv / year established by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for the impact of repositories on individuals in the public. Cs-137 activity determinations were performed on samples of surface water (ASU), groundwater (ASB), river bottom sediments (SED), soil (SOL) and vegetation (VEG). With these results, the effective doses were estimated for ASU and BSA consumption of 6.64 x 10 -4 mSv / year and for SED exposure, 3.92 x 10 - 6 mSv / year and for ASB use, 6.22 x 10 -3 mSv / year. For SOL and VEG, activity values of Cs-137 were used as indicators of contamination. It was observed that the effective annual doses were below the limit established by the norms, which can be inferred that the installation has been operating safely, without causing a radiological impact to the environment and individuals of the public

  10. Interdisciplinary perspectives on dose limits in radioactive waste management : A research paper developed within the ENTRIA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmbach, K.; Röhlig, K.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Within the ENTRIA project, an interdisciplinary group of scientists developed a research paper aiming at a synthesis of the technical, sociology of knowledge, legal, societal, and political aspects of dose limits within the field of radioactive waste management. In this paper, the ENTRIA project is

  11. 75 FR 33818 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Nationwide Limited Public Interest... Funds Provided Under ARRA AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Indian Health... generally familiar with the conditions of availability, the potential alternatives for each detailed...

  12. 75 FR 65010 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... intellectual content and dollar-value items associated with solar PV energy generation. The Buy American...)(ii)]. However, determining where final manufacturing occurs in the context of the solar production... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Limited Public...

  13. The public committed effective dose caused by consumption of foods and foodstuffs in Ninh Thuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Nhu Sieu; Truong Y; Nguyen Van Phuc; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Dinh Tung

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data set about radionuclides concentration in foods and foodstuffs obtained from the implementation of the National Projects on “Investigation on radionuclides and toxic elements concentration in the main kinds of foods and foodstuffs of Vietnam” and “Assessment of Marine Environmental Radioactivity Status for two selected sites of Nuclear Power Plant in the near future at Ninh Thuan Province”, a calculation software of the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP), the public committed effective doses (for adult only) caused by consumption of main foods & foodstuffs in the studied experimental region were estimated. In general, the committed effective doses for adult public caused by the daily intake of radionuclides of U, 232 Th, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu are: 7.9x10 -5 , 4.1x10 -6 , 1.1x10 -2 , 1.7x10 -1 , 1.4x10 -3 , 1.2x10 -1 , 2.32x10 -4 , 1.9x10 -4 , 2.7x10 -9 (mSv/year), respectively, and the contribution of U, Th series, 40 K and artificial radionuclides are 61.3%, 38.6% and 0.1%, respectively. (author)

  14. Expansive or limitative strategy? A case study of organisational responses to new public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annegrete Juul; Knudsen, Morten; Finke, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    Since the emergence of new public health in the 1970s, health has not merely been considered the absence of disease, but physical, mental and social wellbeing. This article seeks to analyzes the implications of this broad concept of health at an organizational level. The paper presents a qualitative case study of boundary drawing in a Danish municipal agency in charge of planning and conducting health promoting and disease preventing activities from 1989 to 2005. The theoretical framework draws on Niklas Luhmann's organization theory. Two different organizational answers were found to the challenges inherent in the broad concept of new public health. First, the organization tried to increase its size and incorporate as many aspects of the environment as possible. This expansive strategy jeopardised the identity of the organization. Second, the organization tried to keep clear and tight boundaries and from this position irritate entities in the environment. This limitative strategy made the organization spend relatively more energy on organizing and controlling itself than on public health work. The case study shows how a broad concept of health makes boundary management topical in organizations dealing with health promotion and disease prevention. Organizations in charge of public health activities need to reflect on how they can create intelligent compensations for the disadvantages involved in an expansive or a limitative strategy. The broad concept of health inherent in new public health has been widely accepted and yet its challenges to organizational boundary drawing have attracted little attention. This paper provides an analysis of these challenges.

  15. Dose coefficients for radionuclides produced in high energy proton accelerator facilities. Coefficients for radionuclides not listed in ICRP publications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, K; Noguchi, H

    2002-01-01

    Effective dose coefficients, the committed effective dose per unit intake, by inhalation and ingestion have been calculated for 304 nuclides, including (1) 230 nuclides with half-lives >= 10 min and their daughters that are not listed in ICRP Publications and (2) 74 nuclides with half-lives < 10 min that are produced in a spallation target. Effective dose coefficients for inhalation of soluble or reactive gases have been calculated for 21 nuclides, and effective dose rates for inert gases have been calculated for 9 nuclides. Dose calculation was carried out using a general-purpose nuclear decay database DECDC developed at JAERI and a decay data library newly compiled from the ENSDF for the nuclides abundantly produced in a spallation target. The dose coefficients were calculated with the computer code DOCAP based on the respiratory tract model and biokinetic model of ICRP. The effective dose rates were calculated by considering both external irradiation from the surrounding cloud and irradiation of the lun...

  16. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Gabriela; Adroher, Núria D; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brentan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Alonso, Jordi

    To describe the distribution of role limitation in the European population aged 18-64 years and to examine the contribution of health conditions to role limitation using a public-health approach. Representative samples of the adult general population (n=13,666) aged 18-64 years from 10 European countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative, grouped into three regions: Central-Western, Southern and Central-Eastern. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess six mental disorders and standard checklists for seven physical conditions. Days with full and with partial role limitation in the month previous to the interview were reported (WMH-WHODAS). Population Attributable Fraction (PAFs) of full and partial role limitation were estimated. Health conditions explained a large proportion of full role limitation (PAF=62.6%) and somewhat less of partial role limitation (46.6%). Chronic pain was the single condition that consistently contributed to explain both disability measures in all European Regions. Mental disorders were the most important contributors to full and partial role limitation in Central-Western and Southern Europe. In Central-Eastern Europe, where mental disorders were less prevalent, physical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases, were the highest contributors to disability. The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethical issues, justification, referral criteria for budget limited and high-dose procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)

  18. Estimation of the individual and collective doses received by workers and the public during the transport of radioactive materials in france between 1981 and 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.; Ringot, C.; Bernard, H.; Connat, R.; Lecoq, P.; Morin, P.

    1993-01-01

    The monitoring of the exposure of workers and the public during the transport of radioactive materials is complicated by the mobile nature of the sources and by the fact that, up to now, a large proportion of workers have not been considered to be at risk and their exposure has therefore not been the subject of surveillance. Likewise, in the case of the public, the mobile nature of the sources makes it difficult to define a critical group which could be the subject of dose evaluation. For this reason, the IAEA transport regulations recommend periodic evaluations of exposure to verify that it remains below an acceptable level, in accordance with the principle of optimization and to ensure that dose limits are complied with. In France, an inquiry covering the workers of the main companies engaged in the transport of radioactive materials has been conducted on a two-yearly basis since 1980, and the results have been published at each PATRAM meeting. This inquiry now spans a period of ten years (1980 to 1990) and it is possible to see how exposure has evolved as a function of the development of the French nuclear power programme and the consequent increase in a number of transport operations. As concerns the public, a comparison is made between the exposure levels estimated in the study and the exposure levels calculated by application of the RADTRAN model developed for the purpose by the IAEA. The results show the evolution of the maximum annual doses, the average doses and the collective doses received by workers during the transport of different radio-pharmaceutical and fuel cycle products, as well as the collective dose for the public during the period covered. (author)

  19. Dose limit for emergency workers. Application of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP accident and problems for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Described are details of management for workers' personal exposure dose, of problems raised and of their solutions taken under various complicated conditions of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Accident (Mar. 2011). As the entrance/exit (en/ex) for the NPP site with regular control were impossible due to the hydrogen explosion which expanded the control area to 20 km distance from the site, Japan Football Village (J-Village) localizing at the border and Important Anti-seismic Building in the site were defined to be the bases of en/ex and of their control, respectively. Flooded 5,000 alarm pocket dosimeters (APD) by tsunami were not usable and only 320 APD remained available. At the quite early stage of working at the site, one representative worker in a group had only one APD. Management of internal exposure was also difficult essentially because the power source of the whole body counter was unavailable. At an early emergent stage alone, workers with higher dose than the limit (100 mSv for emergency) were observed, but >90% of workers were exposed to <50 mSv (the limit for the radiation worker). Six male Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) personnel were exposed to 250 mSv (specially defined dose limit) or more with the maximum 678.80 mSv, in whom the internal exposure due to radioiodine largely attributed. They were examined for their health by the expert doctors in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, were found free of abnormality and were to be followed up thereafter. Out of 19 female TEPCO personnel, two had exceeded the dose limit 5 mSv/3 mo and other 2, the annual limit 1 mSv. They received the examination by the industrial doctor, were found free of abnormality, but were decided not to work at the site. Recently, about 5,000 APD have been purchased for personal usage and dose management is conducted by bar-coding of individual workers, and internal exposure is managed with 11 whole body counters by once a month measurement in J

  20. 17 CFR 250.41 - Exemption of public utility subsidiaries with respect to limited acquisition of utility assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Exemption of public utility subsidiaries with respect to limited acquisition of utility assets. Any public... derived from its operations as a public-utility company during the preceding calendar year. (d... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of public utility...

  1. Estimation of Collective Effective Dose Due to Cosmic Ray Exposures to Members of The Public and to Airline Passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, N.S.; Salah Eldin, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; El Dosoky, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using UNSCEAR 2000 report to United Nation General Assembly and its appendices, Annual collective dose to Egyptian members of the public (75097301). Was estimated to be 252.5 man Sv , hence the average collective effective dose to air line passenger for 10 million is estimated as 25.25 micro Sievert. Furthermore using hypothetical approach for Egyptian passengers who fly locally, regionally and internationally, the collective dose was estimated to be 252.5 man Sv , hence the average average collective effective dose for Egyptian passenger is due to Aviation is 3.36 micro Sievert

  2. Dose estimates to the public from 210Po ingestion via dietary sources at Kalpakkam (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, V.; Iyengar, M.A.R.; Ramesh, R.

    2001-01-01

    Distribution of one of the natural radionuclides 210 Po activity in food of plant origin such as cereals, pulses, vegetables and food of animal origin such fish, crab, prawn, chicken, egg etc. were determined in and around Kalpakkam up to a distance of 32 km radius. The general range of 210 Po activity levels in all the dietary components (excluding milk and drinking water which are reported in mBq l -1 ) ranged widely from ≤10 to 122,641 mBq kg -1 fresh, the minimum being in vegetables and maximum being in the edible portions (muscle) of crab samples. 210 Po levels in drinking water and milk samples ranged between 0.6-2.6 and 8-12 mBq l -1 respectively. 210 Po content in cereals ranged from ≤32 to 745 mBq kg -1 and in pulses it was found to vary between ≤32 and 294 mBq kg -1 . The range of 210 Po activity in different types of vegetables was found to be ≤10-653 mBq kg -1 . Among the different varieties of vegetables, 210 Po was significantly higher in leafy vegetables (28-653 mBq kg -1 ) as compared to rooty and other types of vegetables which ranged from ≤10-180 mBq kg -1 . In food of animal origin, the observed minimum activity of 210 Po was 8 mBq l -1 in milk and the maximum observed was 122,641 mBq kg -1 in the muscles of crab. It was also observed that 210 Po activity was found to be in higher levels in the food of aquatic animal origin (1414-122,641 mBq kg -1 ) than in the food of terrestrial animal origin (other than milk) which varied from 41 to 963 mBq kg -1 . It is evident from the present study that the foods of animal origin especially crab, fish and prawn deliver significantly greater dose (93-3364 μSv yr -1 ) to the public compared to foods of plant origin whose mean dose ranged 0.08-128 μSv yr -1 . The study showed evidence to suggest that the total ingestion dose due to 210 Po received by the Kalpakkam public through dietary sources is significantly higher than the ingestion dose received due to fallout sources such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr

  3. Publication ethics from the perspective of PhD students of health sciences: a limited experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Berna

    2012-06-01

    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This article is devoted to the presentation of opinions of PhD candidate students in health sciences in Ankara concerning publication ethics. The data obtained from 143 PhD students from the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary reveal limited but unique experiences. It also shows that plagiarism is one of the worst issues in the publication ethics from the perspective of these young academics.

  4. Principles for limiting exposure of the public to natural sources of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    In a preliminary note a discussion is presented of the factors by which the values of Annual Limits on Intakes (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) recommended in ICRP Publication 30 for workers would differ from those that would be appropriate for members of the public. In Publication 39, the principles adopted distinguish between procedures for existing exposure situations, which can only be influenced by remedial action, and examples of future exposure situations which can be subject to administrative control (e.g. new house construction, reduction of ventilation in existing houses, production of building materials from new production facilities, water supplies from new facilities, burning natural gas from new wells, using fertiliser from new mills and factories). (U.K.)

  5. Evaluation of exposure in mammography: limitations of average glandular dose and proposal of a new quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeraert, N.; Bosmans, H.; Klausz, R.; Muller, S.; Bloch, I.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation risk in mammography is traditionally evaluated using the average glandular dose. This quantity for the average breast has proven to be useful for population statistics and to compare exposure techniques and systems. However it is not indicating the individual radiation risk based on the individual glandular amount and distribution. Simulations of exposures were performed for six appropriate virtual phantoms with varying glandular amount and distribution. The individualised average glandular dose (iAGD), i.e. the individual glandular absorbed energy divided by the mass of the gland, and the glandular imparted energy (GIE), i.e. the glandular absorbed energy, were computed. Both quantities were evaluated for their capability to take into account the glandular amount and distribution. As expected, the results have demonstrated that iAGD reflects only the distribution, while GIE reflects both the glandular amount and distribution. Therefore GIE is a good candidate for individual radiation risk assessment. (authors)

  6. Over 600 mobile base station measurements in Buenos Aires City, how far are general public limits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Anibal; Dalmas Di Giovanni, Norberto; Garcia Diaz, Javier; Douthat, Analia; Munoz, Claudio; Saint Nom, Roxana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The general public worries about non ionizing radiation (NIR), produced by mobile base station aren't new, mainly in big cities like Buenos Aires where the amount of antennas of wide communication services (mobile, data links, FM Broadcasting, TV and others), are so considerable. Buenos Aires City has 3 million inhabitants in a surface of 203 km 2 and has about 700 mobile base stations between macro and micro cells. When public demand arrived to local government authorities, the first logical step was to promote a big measurement campaign to do a radiation map of the city. This measurement campaign has been done for two measurement teams, one with CITEFA NIR specialists and the other with ITBA NIR specialists, during 6 months. Local NRI measurement guidelines established that has to be taken between 12 and 16 points around NRI source in a 50 m or 100 m radius, depending on the neighbourhood buildings features (buildings located in the centre of the city aren't the same as a quiet house district). The obtained measured values had to be compared with Argentinean exposure limits, which are the same that ICNIRP limits. With over 7500 measured points in the entire city with wide band instruments (200 kHz-40 GHz), we have started our analysis. This information has been used by local authorities to upgrade a radiation map that can be consulted on the local government internet site. We have compared the obtained values with some international general public exposure limits. From this comparison we found that over 90% of measured points were under general public ICNIRP cell phone frequency limits, but the surprise was that, about 80% of them were below Russian limits (6 V/m) that are the strictest of the world. According to the obtained results and to provide a conclusion we could say that, if in a big city with a very high NIR sources density, we find a majority of lower limits values, this situation will be better in a little town with few NIR sources. However

  7. Resolving the limitations of using glycine as EPR dosimeter in the intermediate level of gamma dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelezz, E.; Hassan, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The dosimetric properties of the simplest amino acid "glycine"- using EPR technique- were investigated in comparison to reference standard alanine dosimeter. The EPR spectrum of glycine at room temperature is complex, but immediately after irradiation, it appears as a triplet hyperfine structure probably due to the dominant contribution of the (•CH2COO-) radical. The dosimetric peak of glycine is at g-factor 2.0026 ± 0.0015 and its line width is 9 G at large modulation amplitude (7 G). The optimum microwave was studied and was found to be as alanine 8 mW; the post-irradiation as well as the dose rate effects were discussed. Dosimetric peak intensity of glycine fades rapidly to be about one quarter of its original value during 20 days for dried samples and it stabilizes after that. The dose response study in an intermediate range (2-1000 Gy) reveals that the glycine SNR is about 2 times more than that of alanine pellets when measured immediately after irradiation and 4 times more than that of glycine itself after 22 days of irradiation. The effect of energy dependence was studied and interpreted theoretically by calculation of mass energy absorption coefficient. The calculated combined uncertainties for glycine and alanine are nearly the same and were found to be 2.42% and 2.33%, respectively. Glycine shows interesting dosimetric properties in the range of ionizing radiation doses investigated.

  8. High-dose-rate brachytherapy using molds for oral cavity cancer. The technique and its limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Yokoe, Yoshihiko; Nagata, Yasushi; Okajima, Kaoru; Nishida, Mitsuo; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    With the availability of a high-dose-rate (HDR) remote afterloading device, a Phase I/II protocol was initiated at our institution to assess the toxicity and efficacy of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy, using molds, in the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. Eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity were treated by the technique. The primary sites of the tumors were the buccal mucosa, oral floor, and gingiva. Two of the buccal mucosal cancers were located in the retromolar trigon. For each patient, a customized mold was fabricated, in which two to four afterloading catheters were placed for an 192 Ir HDR source. Four to seven fractions of 3-4 Gy, 5 mm below the mold surface, were given following external radiation therapy of 40-60 Gy/ 2 Gy. The total dose of HDR brachytherapy ranged from 16 to 28Gy. Although a good initial complete response rate of 7/8 (88%) was achieved, there was local recurrence in four of these seven patients. Both of the retromolar trigon tumors showed marginal recurrence. No serious (e.g., ulcer or bone exposure) late radiation damage has been observed thus far in the follow up period of 15-57 months. High-dose-rate brachytherapy using the mold technique seems a safe and useful method for selected early and superficial oral cavity cancer. However, it is not indicated for thick tumors and/or tumors located in the retromolar trigon. (author)

  9. New-doses limits introduction analysis for the design and operation of teletherapy facilities established by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda M, A.; Jimenez C, I.; Ramirez M, J.C.; Sanchez V, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    A design of a typical teletherapy facility was made considering a Co-60 rotating unit and using critical parameters, taking into account as a design base the dose limits established in the Safety Series No. 9 (1), and Safety Series No.115-I (2), shielding thickness when the dose limits were changed. An increment in the required thickness of 1,35 CHR for controlled areas and 2,37 CHR for non-controlled areas were found. This work considered the selection of four different types of teletherapy facilities using Co-60 sources, with different design and type of used unit. An analysis of thickness was made taking into account both the original values for the design and the real operation values in each facility. In order to determine the necessary changes for the wall thicknesses when the new recommendations are applied. (authors). 4 refs., 3 tabs

  10. On determination of limit of effective dose for living bodies concerning control areas of nuclear law material mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Notification is based on the prescriptions of the Safety Regulation of Metal Mines. The permissible levels of effective dose for living bodies and others concerning control areas are defined as follows: the effective dose of external radiation for living bodies should be less than 30 millirems in a consecutive week; the concentrations of radioactive substances in the air or in the water possibly drunk by men are specified respectively for Rn 220, Rn 222, Th and U; the densities of such substances on the surfaces of things contaminated by such elements in refineries should be less than 10 micro-micro-curies per centi-meter 2 , etc. Such permissible levels in residential quarters are defined as follows: the effective dose of external radiation for living bodies should be less than 10 millirems in a consecutive week; the concentrations of radioactive substances in the air or in the water possibly drunk by men are specified respectively for Rn 220, Rn 222, Th and U, etc. The permissible exposure dose for miners working regularly in control areas should be less than 3 rems in three consecutive months. The permissible limit of accumulated dose should be less than the figure, in the unit of rem, which is obtained by multiplying the figure of age of the miner concerned minus 18 by 5. (Okada, K.)

  11. Transuranium element toxicity: dose-response relationships at low exposure levels. Summary and speculative interpretation relative to exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is given of information on transuranium element toxicity and the correlation of this information with current established exposure limits. It is difficult to calculate a biologically relevant radiation dose from deposited plutonium; it is exposure that must be controlled in order to prevent biological effect, and if the relationship between exposure and effect is known, then radiation dose is of no concern. There are extensive data on the effects of plutonium in bone. Results of studies at the University of Utah indicate that plutonium in beagles may be as much as ten times more toxic than radium. It has been suggested that this toxicity ratio may be even higher in man than in the beagle dog because of differences in surface-to-volume ratios and differences in the rate of burial of surface-deposited plutonium. The present capabilities for extrapolating dose-effect relationships seem to be limited to the setting of upper limits, based on assumptions of linearity and considerations related to natural background

  12. A review of data on the effects of low and low dose-rate radiation with special reference to the dose limit problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsudaira, Hiromichi

    1977-01-01

    This is a review of data pertaining to detection and quantification of the effects after exposure to low LET radiations delivered at low and low dose-rate, i.e., at a level of maximum permissible dose for the radiation workers, on experimental materials ranging from plant to rodents and on some human populations. Irradiation at a dose of a few rad is reported to induce mutation or malignant transformation in some selected model systems, with a linear dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the incidence of the chromosome aberrations in spermatocytes is reported to be elevated in the scorpiones (Tityus bahiensis) collected in a region of high natural background radiations (several rem/year). An increase in the incidence of childhood malignancies is reported among children exposed in utero to diagnostic X-rays. Appreciable increase in the incidence of genetic diseases due possibly to chromosome aberrations is also reported among population living in a region of high natural background radiations. Points are raised and discussed as to the interpretation and particularly application of these data to the estimation of somatic and genetic risks of human population from man-made radiations. Recent attempts of risk-benefit analysis with populations subjected to mass X-ray examination of the chest and stomac are referred to. Since we are unaware of the actual injuries due to the exposure even at the level of radiation workers (5 rem/year), it is out of the capacity of a biologist to afford the basis for the decision of limiting the exposure of general population due to the light water reactor operation to 5 mrem/year. (auth.)

  13. Reflections on public acceptance of nuclear energy and the low dose issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    2001-01-01

    The present rules of radiation protection are based on the concepts adopted fifteen years ago and now outdated, and on the ICRP 60 publication. They have become a matter of dispute among experts groups, research, and the regulatory authorities. A major role in this debate is played by new basic scientific and epidemiological findings, economic and political interests, the influence of the media, and the psychology of risk perception. For instance, also the different evaluations of natural and manmade radiation exposures contribute to the general sense of uncertainty. The article summarizes the discussion, and the development, in the past two or three years. Special attention is given to the trends which are to result in sound, feasible practices from the currently dominating assumption of the LNT/collective dose hypotheses with an interpolation to low or even very low doses. The renewed discussion sparked off by current research findings should result in a reasonable way of handling radiation so as to be able to classify a potential radiation risk in an appropriate balance between natural and manmade risks. (orig.) [de

  14. Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project Building 2 public dose evaluation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.

    1996-05-01

    Building 2 on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) site, which is operated by Rust Geotech, is part of the GJPO Remedial Action Program. This report describes measurements and modeling efforts to evaluate the radiation dose to members of the public who might someday occupy or tear down Building 2. The assessment of future doses to those occupying or demolishing Building 2 is based on assumptions about future uses of the building, measured data when available, and predictive modeling when necessary. Future use of the building is likely to be as an office facility. The DOE sponsored program, RESRAD-BUILD, Version. 1.5 was chosen for the modeling tool. Releasing the building for unrestricted use instead of demolishing it now could save a substantial amount of money compared with the baseline cost estimate because the site telecommunications system, housed in Building 2, would not be disabled and replaced. The information developed in this analysis may be used as part of an as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) cost/benefit determination regarding disposition of Building 2

  15. The stochastic risks of radioactive radiation - risk assessment, risk proportions, dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindackers, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    The latest data on the delayed injury to the a-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki reveal that the effects of radiation are more severe than was estimated in the past. However, the application of these data to small dose rate radiation exposure over longer periods of time leads to an overestimation of the actual risk. The future supersonic aviation schemes for altitudes within 20,000 m should include early personnel check-ups for assessment of the required protective measures. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Deriving staff and public doses in a PET/CT facility from measured radiation levels using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj, A. N.; Lobriguito, A. M.; Arafah, A.; Parker, R.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of PET/CT at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre for whole body and brain imaging has become favourable for diagnosis of cancer. There is no data available on the PET/CT dose to staff and members of the public for different activities of 18 F [fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] and for longer patient holding time. The study aims to determine and evaluate staff and public doses by using thermoluminescent dosemeters monthly readings for a 7-month deployment period and by using direct measurements of dose rates at 30 cm and 1 m distances from the patients after injection. The whole body doses per procedure and per administered activity of 18 F (FDG) were estimated. A dose map inside the PET/CT was generated to provide information of the dose levels in different locations. The Pearson correlation showed a strong correlation (r 2 = 0.71) between the dose per activity and the number of patients. Optimisation of radiation protection of staff and members of the public was investigated and recommendations were given. (authors)

  17. High-dose ion implantation of ceramics: benefits and limitations for tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, S.J.; Page, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the effects of ion implantation on sapphire and soda-lime-silica glass. It establishes the complex interplay between radiation damage, hardness, surface stress and, for the first time, friction. For sapphire, both the shallow indentation hardness response and the integrated near-surface stress increase with damage and exhibit maxima as the surface eventually amorphizes. For the glass, initial damage is shown to result in structural softening before rehardening at higher doses; the radiation-induced stress is a complex function of dose and seems partly linked to electronic rather than displacement processes. Some structural change also eventually occurs akin to amorphization in crystals and is accompanied by changes in hardness and surface stress. Superimposed on these patterns of behaviour are changes in the friction behaviour, part of which is ascribed to increased adhesion presumed due to implantation changing the surface affinity for water adsorption. These effects are demonstrated and discussed in the context of ion-implanted ceramics finding application as controlled friction and/or wear components in engineering applications. Other effects such as gas bubble formation, crazing and sputtering are shown to lead to surface microstructures which can also play a deleterious role in tribological behaviour. (author)

  18. A perspective on dose limits and biological effects of radiation on the foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Gordon, K.

    1992-01-01

    The potential biological effects of radiation doses to pregnant workers consistent with Canadian regulations and ICRP recommendations are reviewed. These hazards are in general very small compared to the normal hazards associated with human development. Potential carcinogenic effects may well be the major biological problem associated with foetal exposures. Radiation hazards to the embryo are essentially zero for exposures occurring during the first four weeks after conception. The new ICRP recommendations on exposures of pregnant women suggest a number of problems to be solved. These include (a) improvements in current methods of measuring both external radiation doses and intakes of certain radionuclides in Canada, (b) further research on the metabolism of radionuclides in pregnant women, including concentrations of certain radionuclides in foetal/embryonic tissues and also in adjacent tissues of the mother; and (c) socio-economic problems that may be involved in the implementation of the recommendations on exposures of pregnant workers, particularly in small facilities such as nuclear medicine departments in hospitals. (Author) 3 tabs., 21 refs

  19. Study of dose levels absorbed by members of the public in the nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Geovanna Oliveira de Mello

    2001-03-01

    In nuclear Medicine, radioisotopes are bound to various compounds (called radiopharmaceuticals) for use in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. These unsealed sources are administered in various forms to patients, who remain radioactive for hours or days, and represent a source of potential radiation exposure for others. Thus, in nuclear medicine departments, radiation protection of workers and members of the public, especially persons accompanying patients, must consider, this exposure. In Brazil, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) establishes that, in nuclear medicine departments, the patients and persons accompanying should be separated each other. However, this rule is not always followed due to many factors such as physical and emotional conditions of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was the investigation of dose levels, which the persons accompanying patients are exposed to. For monitoring, thermoluminescent dosimeters were employed. The dosimeters were given to 380 persons who were accompanying patients in nuclear medicine departments. Exposure results were lower than 1 mSv. On the basis of CNEN rules, issues regarding stay conditions for members of the public in these departments are discussed. (author)

  20. Comodore V2007: assessment doses for the public from atmospheric and liquid discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devin, Patrick; Kerouanton, David; Delgove, Laure; Giordanetto, Anne; Petit, Jany; Perrier, Gilles; Brun, Frederic; Garnier, Francois; Bernard, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Protecting the environment and the public from radioactive hazard is a top priority for all companies operating in the nuclear domain. In order to quantify dose impact on members of the public due to annual discharges of its nuclear installations, AREVA developed the COMODORE code in collaboration with Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). COMODORE is a synthesis of 3 software validated by IRSN (ACADIE, COTRAM and AQUAREJ). ACADIE is a code elaborated by IRSN and the Treatment Business Unit of AREVA synthesizing the works of the GRNC (Nord-Cotentin Radioecology Group) created by the French government to deal with the estimation of exposure levels to ionizing radiation and associated risks of leukemia for populations in the Nord-Cotentin. COMODORE is a version of ACADIE designed to be adaptable to any other AREVA site. Thus, the operators of the south east of France (Pierrelatte, Marcoule and Romans sites) carried out the adaptation of COMODORE for theirs specificities (for instance, uranium in the terrestrial model). At the moment, COMODORE is used in routine by the AREVA operators to assess the annual dosimetric impact and is also being adapted with SGN to model the radiological impact of uranium ore treatment residues repositories. This tool contributes to the transparency by giving stake holders environmental data they need. (author)

  1. Diversifying the academic public health workforce: strategies to extend the discourse about limited racial and ethnic diversity in the public health academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L; Fletcher, Faith E; Weis, Megan A; Fernandes, Pearl R; Clary, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    While public health has gained increased attention and placement on the national health agenda, little progress has been made in achieving a critical mass of underrepresented minority (URM) academicians in the public health workforce. In 2008, a telephone-based qualitative assessment was conducted with URM faculty of schools of public health to discuss this issue. As a result, we present successful strategies that institutional leaders can employ to extend the discourse about addressing limited diversity in the public health academy.

  2. Some limitations of public sequence data for phylogenetic inference (in plants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Cody E; Smith, Stephen Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The GenBank database contains essentially all of the nucleotide sequence data generated for published molecular systematic studies, but for the majority of taxa these data remain sparse. GenBank has value for phylogenetic methods that leverage data-mining and rapidly improving computational methods, but the limits imposed by the sparse structure of the data are not well understood. Here we present a tree representing 13,093 land plant genera--an estimated 80% of extant plant diversity--to illustrate the potential of public sequence data for broad phylogenetic inference in plants, and we explore the limits to inference imposed by the structure of these data using theoretical foundations from phylogenetic data decisiveness. We find that despite very high levels of missing data (over 96%), the present data retain the potential to inform over 86.3% of all possible phylogenetic relationships. Most of these relationships, however, are informed by small amounts of data--approximately half are informed by fewer than four loci, and more than 99% are informed by fewer than fifteen. We also apply an information theoretic measure of branch support to assess the strength of phylogenetic signal in the data, revealing many poorly supported branches concentrated near the tips of the tree, where data are sparse and the limiting effects of this sparseness are stronger. We argue that limits to phylogenetic inference and signal imposed by low data coverage may pose significant challenges for comprehensive phylogenetic inference at the species level. Computational requirements provide additional limits for large reconstructions, but these may be overcome by methodological advances, whereas insufficient data coverage can only be remedied by additional sampling effort. We conclude that public databases have exceptional value for modern systematics and evolutionary biology, and that a continued emphasis on expanding taxonomic and genomic coverage will play a critical role in developing

  3. A study on evaluation of public dose for hypothetical exposure from industrial sources in major Indian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    With expanding industrial establishments in India, the requirements for quality Assurance (QA) have become stringent at every stages of process including selection of raw material, manufacturing process and packing and transport. Radiography, a non-destructive method is widely employed for QA testing. Inadvertent handling or loss of these sources may result in exposure of public/workers to higher levels of ionizing radiation. A well planned emergency preparedness is essential to manage any such untoward incidents. Dose estimation to members of public involved is the major challenge as the time available is very short and eases of availability/labs surrounding the location. This paper determines the dose up to 30m distance as prescribed in AERB safety guidelines and using the population data of four major metropolitan cities in India, public dose is also estimated

  4. Systematic study on the radiation exposure of flora and fauna in case of compliance with the dose limits of the StrlSchV (radiation protection regulation) for men. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika; Ulanovsky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Dose limits for members of the public exposed to the discharge of radioactive substances into the air or water bodies are defined in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. This study tested whether non-human species are protected within the human dose limits for all 750 radionuclides as compared to a set of reference biota. External and, where possible, internal doses were calculated for the reference biota. In addition new exposure pathways such as submersion and inhalation (for rat and deer) were incorporated. The upper limit as ordered for adequate biota protection is 10 μGy/h. This study found that radionuclide discharges into the air never exceeded the reference dose rate limit. However, violations were detected for discharges of some very short-lived radionuclides into freshwater or seawater, if the maximum water contamination is assumed. Protection of non-human species is guaranteed for more realistic emission and immission situations. This means that damage to populations living in small water volumes cannot be excluded solely on the basis of regulations for the human dose limit. Therefore, it is necessary to judge the individual case in very unfavourable immission situations. (orig.)

  5. A summary of estimated doses to members of the public from atmospheric nuclear tests at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Bouville, A.; Luckyanov, N.; Miller, C.W.; Beck, H.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses estimates of radiation dose to representative members of the public of the United States (U.S.) from atmospheric nuclear tests conducted from 1951 through 1962 at the Nevada Test Site. The estimates provided here summarize five studies conducted over the past two decades. From those studies, an estimate of the average deposition of 137 Cs within each of the more than 3,000 counties across the country has been derived as well as doses to representative persons in each county and to specific subpopulations. The years of the largest contributions to the collective external dose were 1952, 1953, and 1957. Those years accounted for about 70% of the 84,000 person-Gy received by the U.S. public. Irradiation of the thyroid gland of members of the U.S. public was also a consequence of dispersion of radioiodine in the fallout. Thyroid doses varied by location and by birth year. The population weighted thyroid dose for a child born in 1951 and for an adult in 1951 were 30 and 5 mGy, respectively. Maps are provided to show the geographic distribution of 137 Cs as well as the average thyroid dose received in each county from the Nevada tests. (author)

  6. Development of evaluation method of collective dose of general public considering the daily life activity and time use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1994-11-01

    A code for evaluation of collective dose of general public to natural radiation has been developed, in which the variation of dose rate due to place of stay is taken into consideration. Only external exposure to natural radiation is subject to discussion in this report. Strict manner of dose evaluation requires the dose rate and the time period of stay for each place and for each person. It is possible to know (measure) them all, but not practicable. In this code, dose rate information was obtained from actually measured data by the authors and estimation based on the environmental conditions. Information on the time period of stay was obtained from a Survey Data on Time Use and Leisure Activities by Management and Coordination Agency, and from Statistical Yearbook of Tokyo with some realistic assumptions. By using them, collective dose was evaluated taking both the daily life style and dose rate varying place by place into consideration. In this report, the dose evaluation code and the results about doses for Tokyo citizens are mentioned. (author)

  7. Detection limits of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation in molluscan shells as determined by e.p.r. spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Michalik, J.; Burlinska, G.; Sadlo, J.; Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.; Ostrowski, K.

    1995-01-01

    The exposure of waters to ionizing radiation from radionuclides imprisoned in dumped nuclear waste containers, freed in nuclear submarine accidents or released in underwater magma eruptions are difficult to be evaluated by conventional radiometric methods. Ionizing radiation evokes stable paramagnetic centers in crystalline lattice of mineral components in bone skeletons of mammals and fishes as well as in exoskeletons of mollusca. They give rise in e.p.r. to specific, extremely stable signals which are proposed to be applied as indicators of radiation exposure levels. In the present study the e.p.r. detection limits of the dose of ionizing radiation absorbed in shells of fresh water and marine mollusca (selected species) have been estimated. It has been found that with fresh water mollusca the dose of 1-2 Gy can be detected, while the sea water mollusca by one order of magnitude lower, i.e. about 0.1 Gy. (author)

  8. Currency risk management of non-financial public limited companies listed on WIG30 index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajewicz-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are selected aspects of currency risk management of nonfinancial public limited companies listed on WIG30 index. The estimation of net profit sensitivity to currencies exchange rates was used to determine importance of currency risk management for functioning of analyzed entities. The indication of the methods and tools used in currency risk management process became the basis for evaluation of taken actions. The determination of the relationship between hedging accounting and risk management results enabled the verification to what extent Polish companies exploit existing opportunities.

  9. Dealing with initial chemotherapy doses: a new basis for treatment optimization in limited small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Chevalier, T.; Le Cesne, A.; Arriagada, R.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains disappointing despite high initial complete response rates. The dramatic initial chemosensitivity of tumor cells is frustrated by the early emergence of chemoresistant clonogenic cells, regardless of front line treatments. Although the dose relationship is fairly well established regarding the response rate, its effect on survival is inconclusive. From 1980 to 1988, 202 patients with limited SCLC were included in four consecutive protocols using an alternating schedule of thoracic radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite an increase of chemotherapy and/or total radiation doses, no significant difference was observed between the four protocols in terms of response rate, disease free and overall survival. However, a retrospective analysis performed on a total of 131 consecutive patients led us to propose the hypothesis that a moderate increase in the initial dose, ie first course, of cisplatin and cyclophosphamide could improve overall survival. From 1988 to 1991, 105 patients were subsequently included in a large randomized trial raising this question. The treatment difference only concerned the initial doses of cisplatin (80 vs 100 mg/m 2 ) and cyclophosphamide (900 vs 1200 mg/m 2 ). The trial was closed after inclusion of 105 patients, 32 months after the start of the study because at that time overall survival was significantly better in the higher-dose group (p = 0.001). The emergence of this debatable concept opens new directions in the therapeutic strategy of SCLC and the contribution of hematopoietic growth factors may be a great interest in the management of this disease. (authors). 27 refs., 1 tab

  10. Internal Dosimetry Monitoring- Detection Limits for a Selected Set of Radionuclides and Their Translation Into Committed Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.

    2004-01-01

    To harmonize the practice of internal dosimetry monitoring across the country, the Austrian Standards Institute is currently drafting a new set of standards which are concerned with occupational incorporation monitoring of individuals handling non-sealed radioactive material. This set of standards is expected to consist of three parts discussing the general necessity and frequency, the requirements for monitoring institutions, and the determination and rigorous calculation of committed effective dose after incorporation of radioactive material, respectively. Considerations of the requirements for routine monitoring laboratories have led to an evaluation of the detection limits for routine monitoring equipment. For a selected set of radionuclides, these detection limits are investigated in detail. The main emphasis is placed on the decay chains of naturally occurring radionuclides showing some significant potential for being out of equilibrium due to chemical processes in certain mining industries. The radionuclides considered in this paper are 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, and 238U. Given the routine monitoring intervals of the Austrian Standard, these detection limits are translated into information on committed effective dose. This paper investigates whether routine monitoring equipment is sufficient to ensure compliance with EC directive 96/29/Euratom for this selected set of radionuclides. (Author) 9 refs

  11. SU-F-I-05: Dose Symmetry for CTDI Equivalent Measurements with Limited Angle CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); McKenney, S [Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Sunde, P [Radcal, Inc, Monrovia, CA (United States); Feng, W [New York Presbyterian Hospital, Tenafly, NJ (United States); Bakalyar, D [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: CTDI measurements, useful for characterizing the x-ray output for multi-detector CT (MDCT), require a 360° rotation of the gantry; this presents a problem for cone beam CT (CBCT) due to its limited angular rotation. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a methodology for overcoming this limited angular rotation so that CTDI measurements can also be made on CBCT systems making it possible to compare the radiation output from both types of system with a common metric. Methods: The symmetry of the CTDI phantom allows a 360° CTDI measurement to be replaced with two 180° measurements. A pencil chamber with a real-time digitizer was placed at the center of the head phantom (16 cm, PMMA) and the resulting exposure measurement from a 180° acquisition was doubled. A pair of edge measurements, each obtained with the gantry passing through the same 180 arc, was obtained with the pencil chamber at opposite edges of the diameter of the phantom and then summed. The method was demonstrated on a clinical CT scanner (Philips, Brilliance6) and then implemented on an interventional system (Siemens, Axiom Artis). Results: The equivalent CTDI measurement agreed with the conventional CTDI measurement within 8%. The discrepancy in the two measurements is largely attributed to uncertainties in cropping the waveform to a 180°acquisition. (Note: Because of the reduced fan angle in the CBCT, CTDI is not directly comparable to MDCT values when a 32 cm phantom is used.) Conclusion: The symmetry-based CTDI measurement is an equivalent measurement to the conventional CTDI measurement when the fan angle is large enough to encompass the phantom diameter. This allows a familiar metric of radiation output to be employed on systems with a limited angular rotation.

  12. Limitations on the compensation of gamete donors: a public opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Malinda S; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    To determine public opinion on gamete donor compensation. Cross-sectional web-based survey. Not applicable. A nationally representative sample of 1,427 people in the United States. Not applicable. Support for the compensation of gamete donors. Of 1,427 respondents, 51 (4%) disagreed with use of IVF for any indication, and 232 (16%) believed that oocyte and/or sperm donation to be always unacceptable. Of the remaining 1,185 respondents, 953 (80%) supported and 41 (4%) opposed paying sperm donors; 1,063 (90%) supported and 24 (2%) opposed paying oocyte donors. Of respondents, 90% believed that appropriate compensation for one cycle of oocyte donation should be less than $10,000. A total of 559 (47%) supported a limit on sperm donor compensation and 544 (46%) supported a limit on oocyte donor compensation. Individuals who had personal knowledge of someone with infertility or who used assisted reproductive technology (ART), and Republicans compared with Democrats, were more likely to support limits on both oocyte and sperm donor compensation. Divorced compared with married respondents were less likely to support limits on gamete donor compensation. Men were less likely to support limits on sperm donor compensation. Most respondents in a nationally representative cohort support compensating gamete donors. Although most do not support limits on gamete donor compensation, most agree the appropriate payment for one cycle of oocyte donation is in line with former American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure to Non-Ionizing Radiation and Public Health: Basic Concepts and Safety Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda-Maeso, A.; Vargas-Marcos, F.; Trillo-Ruiz, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential health effects of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in public and residential environments are a source of increasing concern for both the public and authorities on environmental health. This work briefly summarizes the theoretical and experimental bases supporting the safety levels proposed by international committees. It also reviews the recent scientific literature on bioeffects on non-ionizing radiation that may prove potentially relevant to the validation or modification of present exposure limits. Because of their social interest, special consideration will be given to power frequency fields (50-60 Hz) and to the radio communication signals of mobile phones. We will also describe how interpretations of scientific evidence from sources other than international committees have generated some controversy and provided basis for more restrictive limits, such as those adopted in Europe by Switzerland and Italy. In addition, this work identifies some gaps in the present scientific knowledge of bioelectromagnetics. Such gaps are largely responsible for the existing controversy and differences in risk perception. This is why more research aimed at broadening and deepening our understanding of biological responses to non-ionizing radiation is urgently needed. (author)

  14. [Public health crises in a developed society. Successes and limitations in Spain. SESPAS report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérvas, Juan; Meneu, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    The perception, acceptability and management of risks are social construction. Consequently, in managing public health crises, the gap between facts, beliefs and feelings tests the responsiveness of official institutions to health alarms that can be objective, potential, or imaginary. On balance, a strong point of the Spanish experience of health crises is the presence of clinicians and public health officers working in an organization capable of responding adequately, although the quasi-federal Spanish political structure has both advantages and disadvantages. Weaknesses include the low profile given to public health and a management structure that relies too heavily on partitocracy. The management of these crises could be improved by transferring greater scope to health professionals in decisions about crisis identification and management (with transparency) and limiting bureaucratic inertia. For some, health crises involve visibility or business opportunities (not always legitimate). Therefore, the perception of crisis will increasingly rest less in the hands of experts and more in those of groups interested in spreading these crises or in providing solutions. While progress is needed to develop participation in strategies to respond to emerging crises, even more essential is the involvement of all healthcare levels in their preparation and dissemination. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Revised age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides using the new tissue weighting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.C.; Gupta, M.M.; Nagaratnam, A.; Reddy, A.R.; Mehta, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    ICRP 56 gave age-dependent dose coefficients to members of the public from intake of most radiologically significant radionuclides that might be released to the environment due to various human activities. It has computed effective dose equivalent (now called effective dose) from these dose coefficients utilising the tissue weighting factors as given by ICRP 26. The recent ICRP 1990 recommendations have revised the tissue weighting factors based on new information on risk estimates of fatal cancer and hereditary disorders. This change in the tissue weighting factors will subsequently affect the computation of effective dose due to intake of various radio-nuclides considered by ICRP 56. The revised effective doses for ingested as well as inhaled radionuclides have been worked out and compared from corresponding earlier values. No change was found in the case of tritiated water, organically bound tritium and 14 C. For the majority of the radionuclides, the revised effective dose was within ± 20% of the earlier values. Larger variations in effective dose were noted for radionuclides which deposit preferentially in one or two organs. (author)

  16. Establishment of source related dose constraints for members of the public. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection is proposing a new concept that it terms a ''dose constraint''. A dose constraint is an individual-related criterion applied to a single radiation source, and fixes an upper value for exposure of the critical group from that source. A dose restraint sets a ceiling on the levels of individual dose that can be considered in the optimization of radiological protection for a single source. 6 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Implications in dosimetry of the implementation of the revised dose limit to the lens of the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, J.; Shah, B.; Cantone, M.C.; Ginjaume, M.; Czarwinski, R.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) established a Task Group to provide an assessment of the impact of the implementation of the ICRP-revised dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure. Associated Societies (ASs) of IRPA were asked to provide views and comments on the basis of a questionnaire addressing three principal topics: (i) implications for dosimetry, (ii) implications for methods of protection and (iii) wider implications of implementing the revised limits. A summary of the collated responses regarding dosimetry is presented and discussed. There is large agreement on the most critical aspects and difficulties in setting up an appropriate monitoring programme for the lens of the eyes. The recent international standards and technical documents provide guidance for some of the concerns but other challenges remain in terms of awareness, acceptance and practicalities. (authors)

  18. Some aspects of the fetal doses given in ICRP Publication 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, A.W.; Harrison, J.D.; Fell, T.P.; Eckerman, K.F.; Nosske, D.

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently published dose coefficients (dose per unit intake, Sv Bq -1 ) for the offspring of women exposed to radionuclides during or before pregnancy. These dose estimates include in utero doses to the embryo and fetus and doses delivered postnatally to the newborn child from radionuclides retained at birth. This paper considers the effect on doses of the time of radionuclide intake and examines the proportion of dose delivered in utero and postnatally for different radionuclides. Methods used to calculate doses to the fetal skeleton are compared. For many radionuclides, doses are greatest for intakes early in pregnancy but important exceptions for which doses are greatest for intakes later in pregnancy, are iodine isotopes and isotopes of the alkaline earth elements, including strontium. While radionuclides such as 131 I deliver dose largely in utero even for intakes late in pregnancy, others such as 239 Pu deliver dose largely postnatally, even for intakes early during pregnancy. For alpha emitters deposited in the skeleton, the assumption made is of uniform distribution of the radionuclide and of target cells for leukaemia and bone cancer in utero; that is, the developing bone structure is not considered. However, for beta emitters, the bone structure was considered. Both approaches can be regarded as reasonably conservative, given uncertainties in particular in the location of the target cells and the rapid growth and remodelling of the skeleton at this stage of development. (author)

  19. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, S., E-mail: dewjisa@ornl.gov; Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hertel, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 and Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0745 (United States); Sherbini, S.; Saba, M. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Estimated dose rates that may result from exposure to patients who had been administered iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) as part of medical therapy were calculated. These effective dose rate estimates were compared with simplified assumptions under United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.39, which does not consider body tissue attenuation nor time-dependent redistribution and excretion of the administered {sup 131}I. Methods: Dose rates were estimated for members of the public potentially exposed to external irradiation from patients recently treated with {sup 131}I. Tissue attenuation and iodine biokinetics were considered in the patient in a larger comprehensive effort to improve external dose rate estimates. The external dose rate estimates are based on Monte Carlo simulations using the Phantom with Movable Arms and Legs (PIMAL), previously developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. PIMAL was employed to model the relative positions of the {sup 131}I patient and members of the public in three exposure scenarios: (1) traveling on a bus in a total of six seated or standing permutations, (2) two nursing home cases where a caregiver is seated at 30 cm from the patient’s bedside and a nursing home resident seated 250 cm away from the patient in an adjacent bed, and (3) two hotel cases where the patient and a guest are in adjacent rooms with beds on opposite sides of the common wall, with the patient and guest both in bed and either seated back-to-back or lying head to head. The biokinetic model predictions of the retention and distribution of {sup 131}I in the patient assumed a single voiding of urinary bladder contents that occurred during the trip at 2, 4, or 8 h after {sup 131}I administration for the public transportation cases, continuous first-order voiding for the nursing home cases, and regular periodic voiding at 4, 8, or 12 h after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ

  20. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Estimated dose rates that may result from exposure to patients who had been administered iodine-131 ( 131 I) as part of medical therapy were calculated. These effective dose rate estimates were compared with simplified assumptions under United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.39, which does not consider body tissue attenuation nor time-dependent redistribution and excretion of the administered 131 I. Methods: Dose rates were estimated for members of the public potentially exposed to external irradiation from patients recently treated with 131 I. Tissue attenuation and iodine biokinetics were considered in the patient in a larger comprehensive effort to improve external dose rate estimates. The external dose rate estimates are based on Monte Carlo simulations using the Phantom with Movable Arms and Legs (PIMAL), previously developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. PIMAL was employed to model the relative positions of the 131 I patient and members of the public in three exposure scenarios: (1) traveling on a bus in a total of six seated or standing permutations, (2) two nursing home cases where a caregiver is seated at 30 cm from the patient’s bedside and a nursing home resident seated 250 cm away from the patient in an adjacent bed, and (3) two hotel cases where the patient and a guest are in adjacent rooms with beds on opposite sides of the common wall, with the patient and guest both in bed and either seated back-to-back or lying head to head. The biokinetic model predictions of the retention and distribution of 131 I in the patient assumed a single voiding of urinary bladder contents that occurred during the trip at 2, 4, or 8 h after 131 I administration for the public transportation cases, continuous first-order voiding for the nursing home cases, and regular periodic voiding at 4, 8, or 12 h after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ specific activities of 131 I

  1. Rectal balloon use limits vaginal displacement, rectal dose, and rectal toxicity in patients receiving IMRT for postoperative gynecological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chia; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Yanagihara, Theodore; Jani, Ashish; Xanthopoulos, Eric P; Tiwari, Akhil; Wright, Jason D; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Tergas, Ana I; Deutsch, Israel

    2018-01-01

    Pelvic radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies traditionally used a 4-field box technique. Later trials have shown the feasibility of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) instead. But vaginal movement between fractions is concerning when using IMRT due to greater conformality of the isodose curves to the target and the resulting possibility of missing the target while the vagina is displaced. In this study, we showed that the use of a rectal balloon during treatment can decrease vaginal displacement, limit rectal dose, and limit acute and late toxicities. Little is known regarding the use of a rectal balloon (RB) in treating patients with IMRT in the posthysterectomy setting. We hypothesize that the use of an RB during treatment can limit rectal dose and acute and long-term toxicities, as well as decrease vaginal cuff displacement between fractions. We performed a retrospective review of patients with gynecological malignancies who received postoperative IMRT with the use of an RB from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2015. Rectal dose constraint was examined as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 1203 and 0418. Daily cone beam computed tomography (CT) was performed, and the average (avg) displacement, avg magnitude, and avg magnitude of vector were calculated. Toxicity was reported according to RTOG acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Acute toxicity was defined as less than 90 days from the end of radiation treatment. Late toxicity was defined as at least 90 days after completing radiation. Twenty-eight patients with postoperative IMRT with the use of an RB were examined and 23 treatment plans were reviewed. The avg rectal V40 was 39.3% ± 9.0%. V30 was65.1% ± 10.0%. V50 was 0%. Separate cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images (n = 663) were reviewed. The avg displacement was as follows: superior 0.4 + 2.99 mm, left 0.23 ± 4.97 mm, and anterior 0.16 ± 5.18 mm. The avg magnitude of displacement was superior

  2. Balancing public health and resource limitations: A role for ethical low-level risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinn, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recognition of the pervasiveness of risk in everyday life in modern industrial society has elicited calls for greater efforts to protect individual and public health. Yet, it is increasingly clear that decisions to do so must often be made in the context of significant limits in the amounts of financial resources available for achieving that protection. Achieving risk-free work, residential, and community environments may be so expensive as to render a private business unit uncompetitive or as to divert resources from or prelude commencing with other governmental projects with equal or greater health benefit potential. Ethical low-level risk communication (LLRC) is something risk-generating entities are morally obligated to do. However, such communication also offers important opportunities for such entities to move toward achieving better balances between health and the costs of protecting it. In this paper, the authors elaborate on several features of an ethically ideal LLRC process, focusing on those with aspects they hope are not obvious or common knowledge. In discussing these features, they provide examples of conflicts between health risks and resource limits at the level of the individual private firm, the local community, or the national government, such that LLRC with the feature in question provides an opportunity for mitigating or at least clarifying the conflict in question

  3. Internationalization Process of Thai Office Furniture Company in India: A case study of Rockworth Public Company Limited

    OpenAIRE

    netwong, weeraya; trakarnthai, priyawat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the internationalization process by investigate how Rockworth Public Company Limited manage internationalization in Indian market efficiently. Additionally, we aim to improve our understanding and knowledge in international business comprehensively.

  4. An approach to the derivation of radionuclide intake limits for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The modification of occupational exposure limits for application to general populations is discussed. First, the permitted radiation dose needs to be modified from that considered appropriate for occupational exposure, to that considered appropriate for the particular general population exposure of concern. This is a problem of optimization and is considered only briefly. The second modification allows for the different physical, biological, and societal parameters applicable to general populations as contrasted with occupational populations. These differences derive from the heterogeneity of the general population particularly in terms of age and state-of-health, as these affect radionuclide deposition, absorption, distribution, and retention, and as they affect basic sensitivity to the development of detrimental effects. Environmental factors will influence physical availability and may alter the chemical and physical form of the radionuclide, and hence biological availability to the general population. Societal factors may modify the potential for exposure of different segments of the general population. This complex modifying factor will be different for each radioelement. The suggested approach is illustrated using plutonium as an example. (H.K.)

  5. Personalized commissioning, public spaces: the limits of the market in English social care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the implications of personal budgets within English social care services, which position the individual as market actor. Rooting the research in the broader personalization agenda, the study looks at the limitations of the market in relation to individual purchase of private goods (e.g. home care), in the pooling of funds to purchase group services and in the provision of public goods such as building-based services. The article takes a multi-method approach, combining an interpretive focus on the framing of the personal budget-holder by advocates of personalization with national evaluation data, and data from a small survey of day centre workers. The article identifies three framings of the individual budget-holder articulated by advocates of personalization. The first is that personal budget-holders will be empowered market actors, commissioning the services they need. The second is that budget-holders will pool resources with others to purchase group services in order to broaden the range of options available to them. The third is that services which cannot be disaggregated into individual or group budgets - such as day centres - are not valued by service users. The article looks at the evaluation data on these three claims in turn. It identifies four limitations to the capacity of people to purchase care goods on an individual basis: lack of transparency in allocating budgets, complexity in managing a budget, excessive auditing of spending and lack of responsiveness from the provider market. Pooling of budgets to purchase collective services is found to be underdeveloped, and hampered by the complexity which is a broader limitation on personal budgets. Day centres are found to be closing not in response to commissioning decisions by individual budget-holders but because of decommissioning by local authorities, minimising the scope for individuals to express a preference for this type of care. The survey highlights patterns of day centre

  6. Concurrent cisplatin, infusional fluorouracil, and conventionally fractionated radiation therapy in head and neck cancer: Dose-limiting mucosal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, J.W.; Abbott, R.L. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1991-03-01

    After a preliminary dose-finding study involving 12 patients with advanced or locally recurrent head and neck cancer, 27 patients were treated on a phase II protocol, using fluorouracil 350 mg/m2/d by continuous intravenous (IV) infusion over 5 days, followed on the sixth day by a 2-hour IV infusion of cisplatin 50 mg/m2, administered during the first and fourth weeks of radiation therapy to total doses between 60 and 64 Gy, using 2 Gy daily fractions. Eight of these 27 patients had American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging (AJCC) stage III disease, and 12 had stage IV disease. Four had recurrent disease after surgery. Three-year follow-up is now available. Twenty-one (77.8%) remitted completely following treatment, and 11 remain free of local and regional relapse at 3 years. Four have developed systemic metastases. Following successful salvage treatment in two cases, estimated determinate survival at 3 years is 64%. Acute toxicity was manageable with this regime. Eleven instances of grade 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) mucositis were observed, which caused interruptions to radiotherapy in only four cases. No late sequelae have so far been recorded. It is concluded that the protocol described is tolerable but probably did not cause a greater number of locoregional cures than would have been expected following conventional radiotherapy alone in this group of patients. The use of infusional fluorouracil with concurrent conventionally fractionated radiation therapy and cisplatin infusion results in mucositis that limits the dose of fluorouracil to levels that are probably subtherapeutic.

  7. Radioimmunology dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasango Lubambo.

    1978-01-01

    Potential applications of radioimmunoassay technique in Zaire are reviewed. A list of 15 hormones of prime importance is presented. Examples of applications in cancerology, physiological tests, detection of circulating anticorps, medical research are given

  8. The role of dose limitation and optimization in intervention. Approaches to the remediation of contaminated sites in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.; Helming, M.; Kuehnel, G.; Landfermann, H.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The clean-up of contaminated sites requires appropriate and efficient methodologies for the decision-making about priorities and extent of remedial measures, aiming at the two, usually conflicting, goals to protect people and the environment and to save money and other resources. Finding the cost-effective balance between these two primary objectives often is complicated by several factors. Sensible decision-making in this situation requires the use of appropriate methodologies and tools which assist in identifying and implementing the optimal solution. The paper discusses an approach developed in Germany to achieve environmentally sound and cost-effective solutions. A basic requirement within the German approach is the limitation of individual doses in order to limit inequity between people exposed. An Action Level of 1 mSv per annum is used in this sense for the identification of sites that require farther investigation and potentially remediation. On the basis of this individual dose related criterion secondary reference levels for directly measurable quantities such as activity concentrations have been derived, facilitating the practical application of the Action Level Concept. Decisions on remedial action, in particular for complex sites, are based on justification and optimization analyses. These take into consideration a variety of different contaminants and risks to humans and the environment arising on various exposure pathways. The optimization analyses, carried-out to identify optimal remediation options, address radiological risks as well as short and long term costs within a cost-benefit analysis framework. Other relevant factors of influence, e.g. chemical risks or ecological damage, are incorporated as well. Comprehensive methodologies utilizing probabilistic methods have been developed to assess site conditions and possible remediation options on this basis. The approaches developed are applied within the German uranium mine rehabilitation program

  9. The role of dose limitation and optimization in intervention. Approaches to the remediation of contaminated sites in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, W. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Helming, M.; Kuehnel, G.; Landfermann, H.-H. [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Bonn (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    The clean-up of contaminated sites requires appropriate and efficient methodologies for the decision-making about priorities and extent of remedial measures, aiming at the two, usually conflicting, goals to protect people and the environment and to save money and other resources. Finding the cost-effective balance between these two primary objectives often is complicated by several factors. Sensible decision-making in this situation requires the use of appropriate methodologies and tools which assist in identifying and implementing the optimal solution. The paper discusses an approach developed in Germany to achieve environmentally sound and cost-effective solutions. A basic requirement within the German approach is the limitation of individual doses in order to limit inequity between people exposed. An Action Level of 1 mSv per annum is used in this sense for the identification of sites that require farther investigation and potentially remediation. On the basis of this individual dose related criterion secondary reference levels for directly measurable quantities such as activity concentrations have been derived, facilitating the practical application of the Action Level Concept. Decisions on remedial action, in particular for complex sites, are based on justification and optimization analyses. These take into consideration a variety of different contaminants and risks to humans and the environment arising on various exposure pathways. The optimization analyses, carried-out to identify optimal remediation options, address radiological risks as well as short and long term costs within a cost-benefit analysis framework. Other relevant factors of influence, e.g. chemical risks or ecological damage, are incorporated as well. Comprehensive methodologies utilizing probabilistic methods have been developed to assess site conditions and possible remediation options on this basis. The approaches developed are applied within the German uranium mine rehabilitation program

  10. Estimating the increment of dose in members of the public due to discharges from norm facilities located in high background areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on the environmental monitoring of a monazite facility located in a region which environmental media contain a large range of values of natural radionuclide concentration, this paper addresses the challenge of applying radiological protection standards to facilities when considering the heterogeneous radionuclides distribution in the environment. By side of the dose due immersion in its water, the conceptual model pointed out the lagoon water as the main route for the contamination of fish, milk and beef. However, in the lagoon watercourse the contents of 228 Ra and 226 Ra vary from 0.08 to 0.36 Bq/l and 0.12 to 1.52 Bq/l, respectively; additionally, natural variability on the content of the main radionuclides in food ranges, e.g., from 226 Ra and 0.01 to 0.60 Bq/l for 228 Ra in milk, and from 0.15 to 1.37 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 0.20 to 2.88 Bq/kg for 228 Ra in fish. To comply with an optimised dose level below a dose constraint that is lower than the dose limit for the public, as defined in Brazilian standards, may be a difficult task as dose sums up over several different exposure pathways. The total natural variability, including several environmental pathways, such as external exposure and ingestion of water, milk and fish, is far larger (values ranging from 0.5 to 2.7 mSv/y) than the increment of dose to comply with (value of 0.3 mSy/y). (author)

  11. 76 FR 25773 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Project AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... approvals for the public transportation project listed below. The actions on this project, as well as the...

  12. 77 FR 51106 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... claim seeking judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation... given that FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation...

  13. 77 FR 64586 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is... actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on...

  14. 78 FR 53001 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on the projects...

  15. 76 FR 2950 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation projects will be... final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below...

  16. 78 FR 65756 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred... taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation project listed...

  17. 77 FR 76597 - Limitation on Claims against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is... issuing certain approvals for the public transportation project listed below. The actions on this project...

  18. 77 FR 6624 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before... approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the...

  19. 75 FR 13335 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation projects will be... FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects...

  20. 77 FR 71475 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before April 29, 2013. FOR... the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on the projects, as well as the laws...

  1. 76 FR 35939 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the...

  2. 77 FR 322 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be... FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects...

  3. 75 FR 71181 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation projects will be... issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these...

  4. 76 FR 60963 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the laws...

  5. 78 FR 45287 - Limitation on Claims against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... FTA action announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the... final agency action by issuing a certain approval for the public transportation project listed below...

  6. 77 FR 34122 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... claim seeking judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation... given that FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation...

  7. 76 FR 19522 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... herein for the listed public transportation projects will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the...

  8. 77 FR 43144 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before January 21, 2013. FOR... the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the laws...

  9. 76 FR 72746 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before May... approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the...

  10. 78 FR 23817 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on the projects...

  11. Limitation of Infarct Size and No-Reflow by Intracoronary Adenosine Depends Critically on Dose and Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetgin, Tuncay; Uitterdijk, André; Te Lintel Hekkert, Maaike; Merkus, Daphne; Krabbendam-Peters, Ilona; van Beusekom, Heleen M M; Falotico, Robert; Serruys, Patrick W; Manintveld, Olivier C; van Geuns, Robert-Jan M; Zijlstra, Felix; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-12-28

    In the absence of effective clinical pharmacotherapy for prevention of reperfusion-mediated injury, this study re-evaluated the effects of intracoronary adenosine on infarct size and no-reflow in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction using clinical bolus and experimental high-dose infusion regimens. Despite the clear cardioprotective effects of adenosine, when administered prior to ischemia, studies on cardioprotection by adenosine when administered at reperfusion have yielded contradictory results in both pre-clinical and clinical settings. Swine (54 ± 1 kg) were subjected to a 45-min mid-left anterior descending artery occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. In protocol A, an intracoronary bolus of 3 mg adenosine injected over 1 min (n = 5) or saline (n = 10) was administered at reperfusion. In protocol B, an intracoronary infusion of 50 μg/kg/min adenosine (n = 15) or saline (n = 21) was administered starting 5 min prior to reperfusion and continued throughout the 2-h reperfusion period. In protocol A, area-at-risk, infarct size, and no-reflow were similar between groups. In protocol B, risk zones were similar, but administration of adenosine resulted in significant reductions in infarct size from 59 ± 3% of the area-at-risk in control swine to 46 ± 4% (p = 0.02), and no-reflow from 49 ± 6% of the infarct area to 26 ± 6% (p = 0.03). During reperfusion, intracoronary adenosine can limit infarct size and no-reflow in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction. However, protection was only observed when adenosine was administered via prolonged high-dose infusion, and not via short-acting bolus injection. These findings warrant reconsideration of adenosine as an adjuvant therapy during early reperfusion. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of radiation doses received by workers and the public during the transportation of radioactive materials in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.; Fignon, M.; Mauny, G.; Bernard, H.; Morin, J.

    1989-01-01

    This study makes an inventory of external irradiation dose equivalents and collective dose equivalents received by workers and the public during the transportation of radioactive materials in France between 1982 and 1988 (in the following, the authors use only the term dose). It deals with the transport of radiopharmaceuticals, irradiated fuels, wastes and other various radioactive materials. The evolution of the doses is referred to the variation of the number of packages, the mass on the volume transported for these main categories of materials. The transportation of radioactive materials uses various transport means: road, rail, air, and implies the intervention of various societies. Most of them have taken part in this study. Most societies involved in the transport carry out an individual dosimetry of the workers. But the decisions to carry such a dosimetry depends on the appreciation of the employer in relation with the more or less evident level of risk resulting from the transport and handling of the radioactive materials. The relatively low level of risk in current situations could incite some carriers not to carry out individual dosimetry. Thus the knowledge of individual doses essentially variables with the workers would therefore be difficult

  13. Public education on the health effects of low dose radiation. Why the government underestimated the risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakiyama, Hisako

    2012-01-01

    Here the education on the health effects of radiation, which has not been taken up in the report of the National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC), is mentioned: The atomic power policy for the education on the health effects of radiation, the correspondence of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology after the Fukushima accident, the side readers on the radiation, Is there the clear evidence on the correlation of dose rate under 100 mSv to diseases?, the ploblem of dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor, the fluctuation range of the death rate 0.5% from cancer, the influence and assistance of the electric enterprise union to ICRP members, etc. (M.H.)

  14. ACUTRI a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, S; Noguchi, H; Ryufuku, S; Sasaki, T

    2002-01-01

    Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: i...

  15. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-01-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a "1"9"2Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  16. Collective dose, conceptual basis and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the ICRP Publications no. 22(1973) and no. 26(1977), the ICRP recommends that the maximum permissible whole-body dose by kept below the dose limits corresponding to the sum of all effective dose equivalents of the persons concerned, i.e. the collective dose. The effective dose equivalent is recommended by the ICRP for use as a new quantity for evaluating the stochastic radiation dose for individual persons. Examples are given by the author explaining cost-benefit analyses according to ICRP recommendations, especially discussing the definition of optimum local dose limits with regard to shielding design in nuclear installations. (DG) [de

  17. Reliability of the ICRP's dose coefficients for members of the public: IV. Basis of the human alimentary tract model and uncertainties in model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.; Harrison, J.; Phipps, A.

    2007-01-01

    The biokinetic and dosimetric model of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract applied in current documents of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was developed in the mid-1960's. The model was based on features of a reference adult male and was first used by the ICRP in Publication 30, Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers (Part 1, 1979). In the late 1990's an ICRP task group was appointed to develop a biokinetic and dosimetric model of the alimentary tract that reflects updated information and addresses current needs in radiation protection. The new age-specific and gender-specific model, called the Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM), has been completed and will replace the GI model of Publication 30 in upcoming ICRP documents. This paper discusses the basis for the structure and parameter values of the HATM, summarises the uncertainties associated with selected features and types of predictions of the HATM and examines the sensitivity of dose estimates to these uncertainties for selected radionuclides. Emphasis is on generic biokinetic features of the HATM, particularly transit times through the lumen of the alimentary tract, but key dosimetric features of the model are outlined, and the sensitivity of tissue dose estimates to uncertainties in dosimetric as well as biokinetic features of the HATM are examined for selected radionuclides. (authors)

  18. Radiation doses to members of the public around AWRE, Aldermaston, ROF, Burghfield and AERE, Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionian, J.; Wan, S.L.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1987-07-01

    All significant sources of radiation exposure are considered. (Natural radiation, fallout from nuclear weapons testing, medical procedures and reported atmospheric discharges). Discharges to the Thames are also made from the three sites, but the water downstream of the discharge points is not used for drinking, although consideration is given to doses that might be received by a few hypothetical individuals from a number of possible exposure pathways resulting from these liquid discharges. The peak annual dose equivalents to the red bone marrow of 1-year-old children at 5 km from the sites are many orders of magnitude below that received from natural radiation. The factors are 34,000, 190,000,000 and 1,600 for AWRE, Aldermaston, ROF, Burghfield and AERE, Harwell, respectively. Similar factors apply to other population groups considered. Even at 0.5 km from the sites, the doses from the discharges are only a factor of about 20 higher than those at 5 km. The conclusion is that reported discharges make negligible contribution to total radiation doses received by the population living around the sites and are in no way responsible for increased incidence of leukaemia amongst children, if an increased incidence is shown to exist. (author)

  19. Assessment of Patients’ Entrance Skin Dose from Diagnostic X-ray Examinations at Public Hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Nsikan U

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High doses of ionizing radiation can lead to adverse health outcomes such as cancer induction in humans. Although the consequences are less evident at very low radiation doses, the associated risks are of societal importance. This study aimed at assessing entrance skin doses (ESDs in patients undergoing selected diagnostic X-ray examinations at public hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods In total, six examinations were performed on 720 patients in this study.   CALDose_X5 software program was used in estimating ESDs based on patients’ information and technical exposure parameters. Results The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.59 to 0.61 mGy for PA and RLAT projections of the thorax, respectively. ESDs for the AP and RLAT projections of the cranium were 1.65 and 1.48 mGy, respectively. Also, ESD values for the AP view of the abdomen and pelvis were 1.89 and 1.88 mGy, respectively. The mean effective dose was within the range of 0.021-0.075 mGy for the thorax (mean= 0.037, 0.008-0.045 mGy for the cranium (mean= 0.016, 0.215-0.225 mGy for the abdomen (mean= 0.219 and 0.101-0.119 mGy for the pelvis (mean= 0.112. Conclusion The obtained results were comparable to the international reference dose levels, except for the PA projection of the thorax. Therefore, quality assurance programs are required in diagnostic X-ray units of Nigeria hospitals. The obtained findings add to the available data and can help authorities establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiography in Nigeria.

  20. Legal Limitations on Public Pension Plan Reform. Conference Paper 2009-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This paper presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Several states have legal protections that effectively prevent a state…

  1. 49 CFR 387.303 - Security for the protection of the public: Minimum limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security for the protection of the public: Minimum... Insurance for Motor Carriers and Property Brokers § 387.303 Security for the protection of the public... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 387.303 Security for the protection of...

  2. ACUTRI: a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Sumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ryufuku, Susumu; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Kurosawa, Naohiro [Visible Information Center, Inc., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: inhalation from a primary plume (HT and/or HTO) released from the facilities and inhalation from a secondary plume (HTO) reemitted from the ground following deposition of HT and HTO. This report describes an outline of the ACUTRI code, a user guide and the results of test calculation. (author)

  3. Radiation-induced cataracts: the Health Protection Agency's response to the ICRP statement on tissue reactions and recommendation on the dose limit for the eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffler, Simon; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Gilvin, Phil; Harrison, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the response of the Health Protection Agency (HPA) to the 2011 statement from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on tissue reactions and recommendation of a reduced dose limit for the lens of the eye. The response takes the form of a brief review of the most recent epidemiological and mechanistic evidence. This is presented together with a discussion of dose limits in the context of the related risk and the current status of eye dosimetry, which is relevant for implementation of the limits. It is concluded that although further work is desirable to quantify better the risk at low doses and following protracted exposures, along with research into the mechanistic basis for radiation cataractogenesis to inform selection of risk projection models, the HPA endorses the conclusion reached by the ICRP in their 2011 statement that the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye should be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year, averaged over a five year period, with no year's dose exceeding 50 mSv.

  4. Responsibilities and Limits of Local Government Actions against Users of Public Services of Planning and Sustainable Territorial Development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the changes that have occurred in the Romanian society, the public authorities are required to play a coordinating role in providing the framework for a sustainable and balanced development of the national territory, and to ensure the quality of life of the citizens. In order to achieve these goals of social responsibility, the public administration authorities must build and adapt the tools of public territorial action based on their specificity and within the existing legal framework and resources,. Thus, the study shows the national and European context that frames the actions of public administration for what concerns the sustainable territorial development. It analyzes the characteristics of administrative-territorial structures of Romania, highlighting their socio-demographic diversity and the territorial forms of institutional cooperation. The approach of these issues is based in the first instance on an analysis of the European strategic documents in the field, as well as on the national regulations concerning the organization and functioning of public administration and territorial planning. The implementation of decentralization and local public autonomy has led to the capitalization of the local potential of some administrative divisions and caused a competition and a difficult cooperation between them. By analogy with the provisions of the quality standards regarding the responsibilities of the organizations towards customers, the study illustrates and analyzes the responsibilities and limits of public administration authorities in promoting sustainable development, territorial equity and the quality of life for the users of public services, i.e. the community members.

  5. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  6. Indoor radon concentrations and radon doses at three districts of Ankara, Turkey and raising public awareness on the issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Kildir; Inci Goekmen; Ali Goekmen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations at METU, CIGDEM and DOSTLAR in Ankara were measured using electrets. The statistical analysis of the data indicated a lognormal distribution of radon concentrations, with no significant difference between CIGDEM and DOSTLAR with geometric means of GM = 87.5 and 54.5 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations did not change seasonally at CIGDEM which contain modern buildings, but at the slum district DOSTLAR, with poor insulation of houses a seasonal variation was observed. Annual effective radon doses were estimated (0.4-8.4 mSv). Public awareness about indoor radon was raised. (author)

  7. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital (Cyprus)

    1994-12-31

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  8. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofides, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author)

  9. 75 FR 16819 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment Civil Rights Front End and Limited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment Civil Rights Front End and Limited Monitoring Review AGENCY: Office... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The...-free Federal Information Relay Service at 800-877-8339. (Other than the HUD USER information line and...

  10. Annual limits on intake for members of the public and derived reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A proposal is presented recommending the introduction in Australia of Annual Limits on Intake of radionuclides for members of the public and of corresponding reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The proposal is related to recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and draft recommendations under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  11. 78 FR 77450 - Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Loan Purchase Limits: Request for Public Input on Implementation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... 20, 2014. Communications may be addressed to Federal Housing Finance Agency, (OPAR), [email protected] . Communications to FHFA may be made public and posted without change on the FHFA Web site at... 2011 loan limit reduction was substantively smaller. BILLING CODE 8070-01-P [[Page 77455

  12. Micropolitics of Public Space: On the Contested Limits of Citizenship as a Locational Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Di Masso, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a social-psychological account of how public space dynamics may be consequential for the daily construction of citizenship. The article is organised around three interrelated ideas that are illustrated by a case study. First, it is argued that certain social-psychological processes that are typically involved in the construction of citizenship can be re-conceptualised as place-based processes that are located in public space. This interest in the 'locational' constructio...

  13. Derived intervention levels for application in controlling radiation doses to the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This document sets out the principles and procedures for estimating derived intervention levels (DILs) and illustrates the application of these procedures to the estimation of DILs for a range of nuclides and exposure pathways, as aids to decisions on the application of protective measures for the public in the early and intermediate phases of a nuclear accident. The levels are derived subject to a number of assumptions about the intervention level of dose, the characteristics of the released material, the habits of the exposed individuals and local environmental conditions. Some guidance is given on the sensitivity of the estimated DILs to plausible variations in the above assumptions. The detailed procedures described in the document for estimating DILs and illustrations of their application are limited to accidental releases to the atmosphere

  14. Advantages and Limitations of the Public Private Partnerships and the Possibility of Using Them in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PÂRVU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is a means for the public sector to complete infrastructure projects by using the skills and the experience of the private sector. In many cases, PPP may also mean that the private sector finances public infrastructure investments. PPPs can present difficult and complex contractual issues for both the public and the private sector partners. The goal of this paper is to emphasize and to analyze the advantages and the risks posed by the publicprivate partnerships starting from the presentation of the experience acquired by the actors involved in the construction and the use of the Channel Tunnel. In addition, the paper aims to analyze the situation of the PPPs in Romania. Taking into consideration that, in the context of accession to the European Union, an increase in the number and importance of the PPP projects was observed at the level of several member states, the interest of the Romanian local public authorities in PPPs is prefigured to increase in the next period. The final part of the paper analyzes the causes of the reluctance manifested by the Romanian local authorities in using private resources to accomplish public investments.

  15. Micropolitics of Public Space: On the Contested Limits of Citizenship as a Locational Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Di Masso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a social-psychological account of how public space dynamics may be consequential for the daily construction of citizenship. The article is organised around three interrelated ideas that are illustrated by a case study. First, it is argued that certain social-psychological processes that are typically involved in the construction of citizenship can be re-conceptualised as place-based processes that are located in public space. This interest in the ‘locational’ construction of citizenship implies focusing on membership, belonging, status, rights, entitlements and recognition as emplaced practices rather than as dislocated entities. The second idea relates to the troubled nature of citizenship as a place-related psychological category whose boundaries are hotly contested whenever disputes about controversial behaviour in public spaces surface. Accordingly, ‘the citizen’ is constantly re-shaped as everyday place-discourses and territorial practices in the public domain unfold in problematic ways. Finally, it is argued that such ‘locational’ constructions and enactments of citizenship in public space are usually framed by broader ideological dilemmas that are relevant to the maintenance and change of a given socio-political order. The ultimate purpose of the article is to demonstrate the potential for public space to become a possible site for grounding a social psychology of citizenship.

  16. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of plutonium. Nuclear safety technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1993-12-23

    This report presents results of computations of doses and the associated health risks of postulated accidental atmospheric releases from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) of one gram of weapons-grade plutonium in a form that is respirable. These computations are intended to be reference computations that can be used to evaluate a variety of accident scenarios by scaling the dose and health risk results presented here according to the amount of plutonium postulated to be released, instead of repeating the computations for each scenario. The MACCS2 code has been used as the basis of these computations. The basis and capabilities of MACCS2 are summarized, the parameters used in the evaluations are discussed, and results are presented for the doses and health risks to the public, both the Maximum Offsite Individual (a maximally exposed individual at or beyond the plant boundaries) and the population within 50 miles of RFP. A number of different weather scenarios are evaluated, including constant weather conditions and observed weather for 1990, 1991, and 1992. The isotopic mix of weapons-grade plutonium will change as it ages, the {sup 241}Pu decaying into {sup 241}Am. The {sup 241}Am reaches a peak concentration after about 72 years. The doses to the bone surface, liver, and whole body will increase slightly but the dose to the lungs will decrease slightly. The overall cancer risk will show almost no change over this period. This change in cancer risk is much smaller than the year-to-year variations in cancer risk due to weather. Finally, x/Q values are also presented for other applications, such as for hazardous chemical releases. These include the x/Q values for the MOI, for a collocated worker at 100 meters downwind of an accident site, and the x/Q value integrated over the population out to 50 miles.

  17. Radiation by the numbers: developing an on-line Canadian radiation dose calculator as a public engagement and education tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalzell, M.T.J. [Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Concerns arising from misunderstandings about radiation are often cited as a main reason for public antipathy towards nuclear development and impede decision-making by governments and individuals. A lack of information about everyday sources of radiation exposure that is accessible, relatable and factual contributes to the problem. As part of its efforts to be a fact-based source of information on nuclear issues, the Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation has developed an on-line Canadian Radiation Dose Calculator as a tool to provide context about common sources of radiation. This paper discusses the development of the calculator and describes how the Fedoruk Centre is using it and other tools to support public engagement on nuclear topics. (author)

  18. The meaning of different limiters relations for definig public transport routes capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MOLECKI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutual affecting of different limiters of capacity is a very important feature, which makes difficult the right appreciation of the transport systems. In most cases, there is no way to use procedures which define relations by correlation coefficients etc. Completely divergent character of limiters induce that only way of effective appreciation is modeling by Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. The meaning of different limiters relations for definig public transport routes capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Adam MOLECKI

    2007-01-01

    The mutual affecting of different limiters of capacity is a very important feature, which makes difficult the right appreciation of the transport systems. In most cases, there is no way to use procedures which define relations by correlation coefficients etc. Completely divergent character of limiters induce that only way of effective appreciation is modeling by Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Implications of the new dose limit crystalline in operational radiation protection in interventional medicine; Implicaciones del nuevo limite de dosis en cristalino en la proteccion radiologica operacional en intervencionismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roch Gonzalez, M.; Garcia Castanon, P.; Giner Sala, M.; Rodriguez Martin, G.; Espana Lopez, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the implications of this new limit of equivalent dose in the lens can be assumed in the radiation protection of cardiologists, radiologists, nursing professionals, etc. that perform their work in units of intervention, both in terms of additional protective measures and the classification of them as workers exposed. (Author)

  1. Effective dose of individuals from the surrounding public to the facilities of the Abadia de Goiás radioactive waste disposal; Dose efetiva dos indivíduos do público circunvizinho às instalações dos repositórios de rejeitos radioativos de Abadia de Goiás

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, E.; Borges, A.F. de Almeida; Camargos, K.M.; Santos, E.E. dos; Correa, R. da S., E-mail: rcorrea@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goiás, GO (Brazil); Ferreira, N.C., E-mail: nclferreira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental; Ribeiro, N.V., E-mail: noely.ribeiro@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais

    2017-07-01

    The study presents the level of effective annual dose that individuals from the public - surrounding the repository of wastes with Cs-137, located in Abadia de Goiás, GO, Brazil - have received, according to analyzes carried out from June 2015 to July 2016. It was considered reference to the annual effective radiation dose limit of 0.3 mSv / year established by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for the impact of repositories on individuals in the public. Cs-137 activity determinations were performed on samples of surface water (ASU), groundwater (ASB), river bottom sediments (SED), soil (SOL) and vegetation (VEG). With these results, the effective doses were estimated for ASU and BSA consumption of 6.64 x 10{sup -4} mSv / year and for SED exposure, 3.92 x 10{sup -}6 mSv / year and for ASB use, 6.22 x 10{sup -3} mSv / year. For SOL and VEG, activity values of Cs-137 were used as indicators of contamination. It was observed that the effective annual doses were below the limit established by the norms, which can be inferred that the installation has been operating safely, without causing a radiological impact to the environment and individuals of the public.

  2. Understanding the Limitations to the Right to Strike in Essential and Public Services in the SADC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle le Roux

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the limitations to the right to strike in essential and public services in the nine sub-regional countries of Southern Africa – South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe – is examined in this contribution. While all of these countries share common influences and face common challenges, there appears to be a vast disparity in the approaches taken to the right to strike in public and essential services in the region. A brief overview of the demographics and labour markets in the countries under discussion is sketched, the salient features of the ILO's approach to strike in essential and public services is highlighted, and a broad overview of the contrasting and disparate approaches to essential and public services in the region is provided. The focus is, however, on the legislative approach taken to essential service employees in South Africa. It is concluded that – with the exception of South Africa and Namibia – the limitations to the right to strike of public sector employees exceed those endorsed by international conventions, and the broad definition of essential services generally relied upon effectively

  3. Low skeletal muscle mass is a predictive factor for chemotherapy dose-limiting toxicity in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Anne W; Swartz, Justin E; Bril, Sandra I; Wegner, Inge; de Graeff, Alexander; Smid, Ernst J; de Bree, Remco; Pothen, Ajit J

    OBJECTIVES: Low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) or sarcopenia is emerging as an adverse prognostic factor for chemotherapy dose-limiting toxicity (CLDT) and survival in cancer patients. Our aim was to determine the impact of low SMM on CDLT in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell

  4. 77 FR 4030 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ...)(1), the head of a Federal department or agency may issue a ``determination of inapplicability'' (a waiver of the Buy American provisions) if the application of section 1605 would be inconsistent with the... application of section 1605 restrictions would be inconsistent with the public interest for items donated...

  5. 78 FR 6273 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ..., P.O. Box 29052, San Francisco, CA 94129. All written comments submitted to the Trust will be considered, and these proposals may be modified accordingly. The final decision of the Trust will be... comments. The Trust will make available for public inspection all submissions from organizations or...

  6. Limits to the market. Privatization and deregulation of the public sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the results of a study on policies in a number of sectors (e.g. railways and electric utilities) the privatization of those sectors in the Netherlands is evaluated. Recommendations are formulated, among which a plead for 'public enterprise' as an alternative for privatization of large infrastructural businesses, e.g. railways, networks, and Schiphol (airport) [nl

  7. Sarcopenic obesity: A probable risk factor for dose limiting toxicity during neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandavadivelan, Poorna; Brismar, Torkel B; Nilsson, Magnus; Johar, Asif M; Martin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Profound weight loss and malnutrition subsequent to severe dysphagia and cancer cachexia are cardinal symptoms in oesophageal cancer (OC). Low muscle mass/sarcopenia has been linked to toxicity during neo-adjuvant therapy in other cancers, with worser effects in sarcopenic obesity. In this study the association between sarcopenia and/or sarcopenic obesity and dose limiting toxicity (DLT) during cycle one chemotherapy in resectable OC patients was evaluated. Body composition was assessed from computed tomography scans of 72 consecutively diagnosed OC patients. Lean body mass and body fat mass were estimated. Patients were grouped as sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic based on pre-defined gender-specific cut-offs for sarcopenia, and as underweight/normal (BMI sarcopenia combined with overweight and obesity. DLT was defined as temporary reduction/delay or permanent discontinuation of drugs due to adverse effects. Odds ratios for developing toxicity were ascertained using multiple logistic regression. Of 72 patients, 85% (n = 61) were males. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were present in 31 (43%) and 10 (14%), respectively, prior to chemotherapy. Sarcopenic patients had significantly lower adipose tissue index (p = 0.02) compared to non-sarcopenic patients. Patients with DLT (n = 24) had lower skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.04) than those without DLT. Sarcopenic patients (OR = 2.47; 95% CI: 0.88-6.93) showed a trend towards increased DLT risk (p < 0.10). Logistic regression with BMI as an interaction term indicated higher DLT risk in sarcopenic patients with normal BMI (OR = 1.60; 95% CI 0.30-8.40), but was non-significant. In the sarcopenic obese, risk of DLT increased significantly (OR = 5.54; 95% CI 1.12-27.44). Sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese OC patients may be at a higher risk for developing DLT during chemotherapy compared to non-sarcopenic OC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All

  8. Open and fast available dose rate data for the public. Challenges and opportunities of internet based communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaehringer, M.; Luff, R.; Schiesewitz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The BfS website ''ODLInfo'' had been operational for many years when it suddenly became frequently visited by the public due to the Fukushima accident. BfS responded with increased polling frequency of the gamma probes in the network and a higher frequency in update of the web site. Not yet validated data were also published. The web site was extended by explanatory text and additional functionalities, including a complete translation into english language. Many questions directed to BfS by E-mail and related to this web site had to be answered. This was used as a valuable feedback for improving the its design. Additional services were implemented for providers of special applications of smartphones. The market is characterized by a great variability between serious and lurid apps. BfS seeks to support providers in giving explanatory help. Similar websites exist on European and international level. The EU is publishing data from member states on the EURDEP site. NGOs established platforms for uploading and visualizing private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 march 2011. This development has important implication for emergency preparedness. Information platforms must be authentic and timely. They must compete with alternative data sources in contents and presentation. Data must be presented understandable. Ideally, the public can understand the data and set it into relation to reference values. Often people want to compare their own measurements - sometimes collected with low quality equipment - with official data. Radiation issues are much better understood by the lay public if visible effects in the variability of the measured dose rate are explained.

  9. Wireless smart meters and public acceptance: the environment, limited choices, and precautionary politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David J; Coley, Jonathan S

    2014-08-01

    Wireless smart meters (WSMs) promise numerous environmental benefits, but they have been installed without full consideration of public acceptance issues. Although societal-implications research and regulatory policy have focused on privacy, security, and accuracy issues, our research indicates that health concerns have played an important role in the public policy debates that have emerged in California. Regulatory bodies do not recognize non-thermal health effects for non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, but both homeowners and counter-experts have contested the official assurances that WSMs pose no health risks. Similarities and differences with the existing social science literature on mobile phone masts are discussed, as are the broader political implications of framing an alternative policy based on an opt-out choice. The research suggests conditions under which health-oriented precautionary politics can be particularly effective, namely, if there is a mandatory technology, a network of counter-experts, and a broader context of democratic contestation.

  10. A Micronutrient Fortified Beverage Given at Different Dosing Frequencies Had Limited Impact on Anemia and Micronutrient Status in Filipino Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Magsadia, Clarita R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Lloyd, Beate B.; Hilmers, David C.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a multi-micronutrient fortified juice drink given in different frequencies of consumption on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of schoolchildren. Hb was measured in 2423 schoolchildren aged 6- to 9-years-old at baseline. All anemic children (n = 246) were randomly allocated into groups: Daily dose (HD: high dose), 5X/week (MD: Moderate Dose), 3X/week (LD: Low Dose) and unfortified (Control). Pre- and post-study measurements of micronutrients were collected from 228 children. At the endpoint, significant Hb increases were observed in all groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. There was a significant reduction in anemia prevalence in all groups from 100% to 36% (Control), 30% (LD), 23% (MD) and 26% (HD). No dose-response effect was observed in Hb in this population. Most likely, this resulted from better than expected micronutrient status and lower than expected severity of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in this cohort. It is unlikely that the addition of a fortified beverage to school feeding programs in this population would have a positive impact. Whether such an intervention would be cost-effective as a preventative approach needs to be assessed. This study demonstrates the importance of targeting such interventions to appropriate populations. PMID:28895887

  11. The practical application of ICRP recommendations regarding dose-equivalent limits for workers to staff in diagnostic X-ray departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.; Beaver, P.F.; Dennis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Members of hospital staff who work in the X-ray room with patients, wear lead aprons to protect their bodies. These aprons greatly reduce the radiation dose rate at the surface of the body underneath the apron, but do not give any protection to parts of the body not covered by the apron, especially the head, neck, arms and legs. The ICRP's system of dose limitation for non-uniform irradiation of the body has been applied to exposure of this kind and a simple formula has been derived that permits the calculation of a good approximation to the effective dose-equivalent, using two dosemeters. One dosemeter is worn at chest or waist level under the apron to monitor the dose-equivalent received by protected organs while the other is worn on the collar or forehead to monitor the head and neck. Evidence based on published data is presented that suggests that in work of this nature, contrary to earlier opinion, the limiting factor is the dose equivalent received by the organs of the head and neck. The implications of this conclusion for routine personal monitoring are discussed. (H.K.)

  12. Dose limits, constraints, reference levels. What does it mean for radiation protection?; Grenzwerte, Richtwerte, Referenzwerte. Was bedeutet das fuer den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckow, J. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS)

    2016-07-01

    The established concept of radiation protection with its basic principles justification, optimization, and limitation has proved its value and is going to be continued. In its deeper meaning, however, the concept is rather subtle and complex. Furthermore, in some aspects there remain some breaches or inconsistencies. This is just true for the terms dose limit, reference lever, and constraint that are tightly associated with the radiation protection principles. In order to guarantee the ability of radiation protection in whole extent, the subtle differences of meaning have to be communicated. There is a permanent need to defend the conceptual function of these terms against deliberate or undeliberate misinterpretations. Reference levels are definitely not the same as dose limits and they may not be misused as such. Any attempt to misinterpret fundamental radiation protection principles for selfish purposes should discouraged vigorously.

  13. Methods of assessment of individual and collective doses to transport workers and members of the public during the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Subrahmanian, G.; Nandakumar, A.N.; Kher, R.K.; Iyer, S.R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Transport workers handling radioactive cargoes are generally exposed to the highest dose rates of any population group. Methods of assessment of dose received by transport workers are studied to arrive at a useful method. An empirical model based on a detailed work study of individuals handling radioactive cargoes and the exposure rates at various distances from specific individual packages is developed. The personnel doses thus calculated compared reasonably well with the doses recorded on personnel monitoring badges. The personnel doses were also evaluated with reference to the total transport index handled by the workers, yielding results consistent with those reported elsewhere by earlier researchers. For assessing the collective dose to the public due to urban transport of radioactive material, the space around the vehicle transporting cargo was divided into a number of cells of dimensions 1mx1m. The radiation level in each cell was measured and the pedestrian density along the route was obtained. Using the pedestrian occupancy in the cells and the measured radiation levels, the total dose to the public was assessed. A similar assessment was made with respect to the passengers in the neighbouring vehicles. The suggested method of calculation may aid determination of the route and time of transport and the preferable traffic configuration for the vehicle carrying the radioactive consignments for optimizing the dose to the urban public

  14. Immigration, Statecraft and Public Health: The 1920 Aliens Order, Medical Examinations and the Limitations of the State in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Becky

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the medical measures of the 1920 Aliens Order barring aliens from Britain. Building on existing local and port public health inspection, the requirement for aliens to be medically inspected before landing significantly expanded the duties of these state agencies and necessitated the creation of a new level of physical infrastructure and administrative machinery. This article closely examines the workings and limitations of alien medical inspection in two of England’s major ports—Liverpool and London—and sheds light on the everyday working of the Act. In doing so it reflects on the ambitions, actions and limitations of the state and so extends research by historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth century on the disputed histories of public health and the complexities of statecraft. Overall it suggests the importance of developing nuanced understandings of the gaps and failures arising from the translation of legislation into practice. PMID:27482146

  15. 75 FR 14592 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...). ACTION: Notice of limited waivers. SUMMARY: The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE... process on or before March 31, 2010; (4) in circumstances where the grantee solicited quotes without an... these products has inherently supported the goals of the Recovery Act and--as a popular use of Recovery...

  16. [Evaluation of scientific production in different subareas of Public Health: limits of the current model and contributions to the debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Martin, Denise; Camargo, Kenneth Rochel de; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the limits of the quantitative evaluation model for scientific production in Public Health. An analysis of the scientific production of professors from the various subareas of Public Health was performed for 2010-2012. Distributions of the mean annual score for professors were compared according to subareas. The study estimated the likelihood that 60% of the professors in the graduate studies programs scored P50 (Very Good) or higher in their area. Professors of Epidemiology showed a significantly higher median annual score. Graduate studies programs whose faculty included at least 60% of Epidemiology professors and fewer than 10% from the subarea Social and Human Sciences in Health were significantly more likely to achieve a "Very Good" classification. The observed inequalities in scientific production between different subareas of Public Health point to the need to rethink their evaluation in order to avoid reproducing iniquities that have harmful consequences for the field's diversity.

  17. Measurement of natural radioactivity in Jordanian building materials and their contribution to the public indoor gamma dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, J M; Hamideen, M S

    2013-10-01

    This study is undertaken to determine the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of commonly used building materials in Jordan. Samples of seven different materials were collected from construction sites and local agencies supplying raw construction materials and analyzed using a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer, taking into account self-attenuation in bulk samples. The average specific activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K ranged from 2.84 to 41.52, 0.78 to 58.42. and 3.74 to 897 Bq/kg, respectively. All the samples had radium equivalent activities well below the limit of 370 Bq/kg set by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1979). External and internal hazard indices, absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate associated with the radionuclides of interest were calculated and compared with the international legislation and guidance. In general, most of the activities did not exceed the recommended international limits, except for granite and ceramic samples which are usually used as secondary building materials in Jordan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A limitation of the split-dose method for evaluating rCBF changes using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Makoto; Noguchi, Eikichi; Ohtaki, Hiro; Shibaki, Mitsurou; Kasahara, Tosifumi; Hatano, Masayoshi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohkubo, Masaki

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate the split-dose method corrected with dose ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD for brain perfusion scan. A dose of 600 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was divided into two with various dose ratios from 1 : 1 to 1 : 4, and injected to eleven patients with various cerebral diseases. A lesser dose of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was injected under a control state for the first SPECT scan, and 15 min SPECT scan was performed 10 min after injection with a triple-head high resolution gamma camera. After the scan, the other dose of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was injected under the same control state and the second SPECT scan was performed as same as above. A ratio of the activity of the first scan to the net activity of the second scan corrected by dose ratio, defined as K, was measured in brain regions of each subject. Expected value of K was 1, but the value was distributed with large variations in each subject. The mean % error of the K value was 10.4{+-}4.9%. Hence it is considered that activity changes by more than 20% from the control values should be required to detect a significant rCBF change in an activation SPECT study. Then, we proposed a new method in which the activity of both two SPECT scans was normalized by cerebellar or occipital activity and compared. The ratio obtained by the proposed method came closer to 1 with less variations and with less mean % error in comparison with those of K value obtained by the dose-correction method. Although the proposed method has a limitation in the use of an activation study loaded with Diamox, it may be useful to evaluate an alteration of rCBF in the study such as postural testing or finger-moving test. (author)

  19. A limitation of the split-dose method for evaluating rCBF changes using 99mTc-ECD and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Makoto; Noguchi, Eikichi; Ohtaki, Hiro; Shibaki, Mitsurou; Kasahara, Tosifumi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Ohkubo, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate the split-dose method corrected with dose ratio of 99m Tc-ECD for brain perfusion scan. A dose of 600 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was divided into two with various dose ratios from 1 : 1 to 1 : 4, and injected to eleven patients with various cerebral diseases. A lesser dose of 99m Tc-ECD was injected under a control state for the first SPECT scan, and 15 min SPECT scan was performed 10 min after injection with a triple-head high resolution gamma camera. After the scan, the other dose of 99m Tc-ECD was injected under the same control state and the second SPECT scan was performed as same as above. A ratio of the activity of the first scan to the net activity of the second scan corrected by dose ratio, defined as K, was measured in brain regions of each subject. Expected value of K was 1, but the value was distributed with large variations in each subject. The mean % error of the K value was 10.4±4.9%. Hence it is considered that activity changes by more than 20% from the control values should be required to detect a significant rCBF change in an activation SPECT study. Then, we proposed a new method in which the activity of both two SPECT scans was normalized by cerebellar or occipital activity and compared. The ratio obtained by the proposed method came closer to 1 with less variations and with less mean % error in comparison with those of K value obtained by the dose-correction method. Although the proposed method has a limitation in the use of an activation study loaded with Diamox, it may be useful to evaluate an alteration of rCBF in the study such as postural testing or finger-moving test. (author)

  20. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  1. Limitations of a convolution method for modeling geometric uncertainties in radiation therapy: the radiobiological dose-per-fraction effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, William; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2004-01-01

    The convolution method can be used to model the effect of random geometric uncertainties into planned dose distributions used in radiation treatment planning. This is effectively done by linearly adding infinitesimally small doses, each with a particular geometric offset, over an assumed infinite number of fractions. However, this process inherently ignores the radiobiological dose-per-fraction effect since only the summed physical dose distribution is generated. The resultant potential error on predicted radiobiological outcome [quantified in this work with tumor control probability (TCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD)] has yet to be thoroughly quantified. In this work, the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of geometric displacements are compared to those of the convolution method for random geometric uncertainties of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm (standard deviation). The α/β CTV ratios of 0.8, 1.5, 3, 5, and 10 Gy are used to represent the range of radiation responses for different tumors, whereas a single α/β OAR ratio of 3 Gy is used to represent all the organs at risk (OAR). The analysis is performed on a four-field prostate treatment plan of 18 MV x rays. The fraction numbers are varied from 1-50, with isoeffective adjustments of the corresponding dose-per-fractions to maintain a constant tumor control, using the linear-quadratic cell survival model. The average differences in TCP and EUD of the target, and in NTCP and gEUD of the OAR calculated from the convolution and Monte Carlo methods reduced asymptotically as the total fraction number increased, with the differences reaching negligible levels beyond the treatment fraction number of ≥20. The convolution method generally overestimates the radiobiological indices, as compared to the Monte Carlo method, for the target volume, and underestimates those for the OAR. These effects are interconnected and attributed

  2. Compilation of nuclear decay data used for dose calculations. Data for radionuclides not listed in ICRP publication 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tamura, Tsutomu

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear decay data used for dose calculations were compiled for 162 nuclides with half-lives greater than or equal to 10 min that are not listed in ICRP Publication 38 (Publ. 38) and their 28 daughter nuclides. Additional 14 nuclides that are considered to be important in fusion reactor facilities were also included. The data were compiled using decay data sets of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version in August 1997. Investigations of the data sets were performed to check their consistency by referring to recent literature and NUBASE, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides, and by using the utility programs of ENSDF. Possible revisions of the data sets were made for their format and syntax errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. The revised data sets were processed by EDISTR in order to calculate the energies and intensities of {alpha} particles, {beta} particles, {gamma} rays including annihilation photons, internal conversion electrons, X rays, and Auger electrons emitted in nuclear transformations of the radionuclides. For spontaneously fissioning nuclides, the average energies and intensities of neutrons, fission fragments, prompt {gamma} rays, delayed {gamma} rays, and {beta} particles were also calculated. The compiled data were presented in two types of format; Publ. 38 and NUCDECAY formats. This report provides the decay data in the Publ. 38 format along with decay scheme drawings. The data will be widely used for internal and external dose calculations in radiation protection. (author)

  3. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of uranium and Class W plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents ''reference'' computations that can be used by safety analysts in the evaluations of the consequences of postulated atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. These computations deal specifically with doses and health risks to the public. The radionuclides considered are Class W Plutonium, all classes of Enriched Uranium, and all classes of Depleted Uranium. (The other class of plutonium, Y, was treated in an earlier report.) In each case, one gram of the respirable material is assumed to be released at ground leveL both with and without fire. The resulting doses and health risks can be scaled to whatever amount of release is appropriate for a postulated accident being investigated. The report begins with a summary of the organ-specific stochastic risk factors appropriate for alpha radiation, which poses the main health risk of plutonium and uranium. This is followed by a summary of the atmospheric dispersion factors for unfavorable and typical weather conditions for the calculation of consequences to both the Maximum Offsite Individual and the general population within 80 km (50 miles) of the site

  4. Internal radiation dose to the public from polonium-210 due to consumption of seafood from Bombay-harbour bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangera, V.S.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Marine organisms such as fishes, molluscs and crustaceans are known to accumulate 210 Po. Distribution of 210 Po in coastal marine organisms mainly fishes and shell fishes is studied. Concentration of 210 Po obtained in muscle of common fishes (edible portion) varied from 2.10 ± 0.11 to 21.90 ± 5.00 Bq kg -1 dry muscle (for fishes like Pampus argenteus (Pomfret), Cynoglossus elongatus (sole), Rastrelliger kanagurta (mackerel), Harpodon nehereus (Bombay duck) etc. Concentration factors for 210 Po in edible portion of fish from sea water works out to 10 3 to 10 4 . Radiation dose to the public has been evaluated on the basis of daily intake of 40 g of fish (15 kg y -1 ). Committed effective dose (CED) to 210 Po due to consumption of sea food is calculated, CED varied from 2.05 x 10 -3 to 4 x 10 -2 mSv y -1 . (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Sustainability at the Edge of Chaos: Its Limits and Possibilities in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G. Hudson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews the expanding literature on applications of sustainability to healthcare policy and planning. It argues that the concept has been overgeneralized and has become a buzzword masking disparate agendas. It ignores the insights of the newest generation of systems theory on complex systems on the ubiquity of far-from-equilibrium conditions. Yet, a central meaning often ascribed to sustainability is the level continuation of healthcare programs and their institutionalization. Sustainability is only coherent in health care when it is more narrowly delimited to involve public health and treated as only one of several evaluative criteria that informs not only the continuation of programs but more often their expansion or contraction as needs dynamically change.

  6. Proof of evidence by National Nuclear Corporation Limited for Sizewell 'B' public inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1983-02-01

    The history, experience and capability of National Nuclear Corporation Limited (NNC) and the requirements for the Sizewell B PWR project are reviewed. A Joint Project Team comprising staff from NNC, Westinghouse, Bechtel and the CEGB has been formed to develop the design of the station and the safety case. It is concluded that Sizewell B will be economic in its own right and will equip NNC with expertise, experience and resources in PWR technology. The construction of Sizewell B will provide the experience on which future PWR projects can proceed with confidence. (U.K.)

  7. Sustainability of public health in diadema, 2000 - 2011: a picture of SUS building limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alves Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: between 2000 to 2011, Diadema paulista municipality has faced many obstacles in health management, struggling to ensure the sustainability of its health system. Objective: to contribute to the discussion of the Unified Health System (SUS and its foreseable turbulent future, based on the analysis of the municipal point of view, identifying the limits of its building in Diadema. Methods: Diadema is characterized as one of the first municipalities that adhered to the principles of the SUS, since its implementation, allowing an analysis as a case study in view of the system's sustainability at the local level. The term sustainability used was addressed in two dimensions: the structure of this system and its process. Results: in SUS implementation period, Diadema stood out by increasing investment in health, reaching an average allocation of about 30% of its tax revenues, including constitutional transfers. Results diagnosed by observing the structure of dimensions and the process indicate that the sustainability of the municipal health system is threatened, as the significant expansion of the range of services and health actions was not followed by sufficient resources to its health maintenance. Conclusions: the existence of obstacles justified and formed the basis for the diagnosis of the main limits on SUS conformation, in health policy and management of resources, funding and budgetary impacts.

  8. SU-G-JeP3-06: Lower KV Image Dose Are Expected From a Limited-Angle Intra-Fractional Verification (LIVE) System for SBRT Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, G [Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN (United States); Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In order to track the tumor movement for patient positioning verification during arc treatment delivery or in between 3D/IMRT beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the limited-angle kV projections acquisition simultaneously during arc treatment delivery or in-between static treatment beams as the gantry moves to the next beam angle was proposed. The purpose of this study is to estimate additional imaging dose resulting from multiple tomosynthesis acquisitions in-between static treatment beams and to compare with that of a conventional kV-CBCT acquisition. Methods: kV imaging system integrated into Varian TrueBeam accelerators was modeled using EGSnrc Monte Carlo user code, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc code was used in dose calculations. The simulated realistic kV beams from the Varian TrueBeam OBI 1.5 system were used to calculate dose to patient based on CT images. Organ doses were analyzed using DVHs. The imaging dose to patient resulting from realistic multiple tomosynthesis acquisitions with each 25–30 degree kV source rotation between 6 treatment beam gantry angles was studied. Results: For a typical lung SBRT treatment delivery much lower (20–50%) kV imaging doses from the sum of realistic six tomosynthesis acquisitions with each 25–30 degree x-ray source rotation between six treatment beam gantry angles were observed compared to that from a single CBCT image acquisition. Conclusion: This work indicates that the kV imaging in this proposed Limited-angle Intra-fractional Verification (LIVE) System for SBRT Treatments has a negligible imaging dose increase. It is worth to note that the MV imaging dose caused by MV projection acquisition in-between static beams in LIVE can be minimized by restricting the imaging to the target region and reducing the number of projections acquired. For arc treatments, MV imaging acquisition in LIVE does not add additional imaging dose as the MV images are acquired from treatment beams directly during the

  9. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of 137 Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg -1 from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of 137 Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg -1 . Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on 137 Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual 137 Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m -2 . There is concern in several countries about the potential radiation exposure of people from

  10. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of {sup 137}Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg{sup -1} from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of {sup 137}Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg{sup -1}. Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on {sup 137}Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual {sup 137}Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m{sup -2}. There is concern in several countries about the

  11. Damage control resuscitation using blood component therapy in standard doses has a limited effect on coagulopathy during trauma hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sirat; Davenport, Ross; Raza, Imran; Glasgow, Simon; De'Ath, Henry D; Johansson, Pär I; Curry, Nicola; Stanworth, Simon; Gaarder, Christine; Brohi, Karim

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of blood component therapy in the correction of trauma-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhage. Severe hemorrhage remains a leading cause of mortality in trauma. Damage control resuscitation strategies target trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) with the early delivery of high-dose blood components such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions. However, the ability of these products to correct TIC during hemorrhage and resuscitation is unknown. This was an international prospective cohort study of bleeding trauma patients at three major trauma centers. A blood sample was drawn immediately on arrival and after 4, 8 and 12 packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. FFP, platelet and cryoprecipitate use was recorded during these intervals. Samples were analyzed for functional coagulation and procoagulant factor levels. One hundred six patients who received at least four PRBC units were included. Thirty-four patients (32 %) required a massive transfusion. On admission 40 % of patients were coagulopathic (ROTEM CA5 ≤ 35 mm). This increased to 58 % after four PRBCs and 81 % after eight PRBCs. On average all functional coagulation parameters and procoagulant factor concentrations deteriorated during hemorrhage. There was no clear benefit to high-dose FFP therapy in any parameter. Only combined high-dose FFP, cryoprecipitate and platelet therapy with a high total fibrinogen load appeared to produce a consistent improvement in coagulation. Damage control resuscitation with standard doses of blood components did not consistently correct trauma-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhage. There is an important opportunity to improve TIC management during damage control resuscitation.

  12. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs

  13. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  14. Emergency reference levels: criteria for limiting doses to the public in the event of accidental exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    Recommended ERLs for whole body, thyroid, lung and other single organs are presented in tabular form, and related to the relevant counter measures such as evacuation, sheltering, distribution of stable iodine tablets, etc. Application of ERLs to local environments and contamination of foodstuffs and buildings are also discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Who presents past the gestational age limit for first trimester abortion in the public sector in Mexico City?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Schiavon, Raffaela; Sanhueza, Patricio; Rios-Polanco, Ranulfo; Garcia-Martinez, Laura; Darney, Blair G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify socio-demographic factors associated with presenting for abortion services past the gestational age (GA) limit (12 weeks), and thus not receiving services, in Mexico City’s public sector first trimester abortion program. Methods We used clinical data from four high volume sites in the Interrupción Legal de Embarazo (ILE) program, 2007–2015. We used descriptive statistics to quantify the proportion of women who did not receive an abortion due to presenting past the gestational age limit. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify associations between women’s characteristics and presenting past the GA limit and calculated predicted probabilities of late presentation for key characteristics. Results Our sample included 52,391 women, 8.10% (n = 4,246) of whom did not receive abortion services due to presenting past the GA limit. Adolescents (12–17) made up 8.69% of the total sample and 13.40% of those presenting past the GA limit (p = 40 years’ old respectively). Women living in Mexico City and with higher levels of education had lower odds of presenting past the GA limit, and there was an educational gradient across all age groups. In the multivariable predicted probability models, adolescents at every level of education have significantly higher probabilities of not receiving an abortion due to presenting past the gestational age limit compared with adults (among women with a primary education: 11.75% adolescents vs. 9.02–4.26% across adult age groups). Conclusions Our results suggest that continued efforts are needed to educate women, especially younger and less educated women, about early pregnancy recognition. In addition, all women need information about the availability of first trimester legal abortion to ensure timely access to abortion services. PMID:29414987

  16. Who presents past the gestational age limit for first trimester abortion in the public sector in Mexico City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biani Saavedra-Avendano

    Full Text Available To identify socio-demographic factors associated with presenting for abortion services past the gestational age (GA limit (12 weeks, and thus not receiving services, in Mexico City's public sector first trimester abortion program.We used clinical data from four high volume sites in the Interrupción Legal de Embarazo (ILE program, 2007-2015. We used descriptive statistics to quantify the proportion of women who did not receive an abortion due to presenting past the gestational age limit. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify associations between women's characteristics and presenting past the GA limit and calculated predicted probabilities of late presentation for key characteristics.Our sample included 52,391 women, 8.10% (n = 4,246 of whom did not receive abortion services due to presenting past the GA limit. Adolescents (12-17 made up 8.69% of the total sample and 13.40% of those presenting past the GA limit (p = 40 years' old respectively. Women living in Mexico City and with higher levels of education had lower odds of presenting past the GA limit, and there was an educational gradient across all age groups. In the multivariable predicted probability models, adolescents at every level of education have significantly higher probabilities of not receiving an abortion due to presenting past the gestational age limit compared with adults (among women with a primary education: 11.75% adolescents vs. 9.02-4.26% across adult age groups.Our results suggest that continued efforts are needed to educate women, especially younger and less educated women, about early pregnancy recognition. In addition, all women need information about the availability of first trimester legal abortion to ensure timely access to abortion services.

  17. A Contralateral Esophagus-Sparing Technique to Limit Severe Esophagitis Associated With Concurrent High-Dose Radiation and Chemotherapy in Patients With Thoracic Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Halabi, Hani; Paetzold, Peter; Sharp, Gregory C.; Olsen, Christine; Willers, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Severe (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade 3 or greater) esophagitis generally occurs in 15% to 25% of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CCRT), which may result in treatment breaks that compromise local tumor control and pose a barrier to dose escalation. Here, we report a novel contralateral esophagus-sparing technique (CEST) that uses intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to reduce the incidence of severe esophagitis. Methods and Materials: We reviewed consecutive patients with thoracic malignancies undergoing curative CCRT in whom CEST was used. The esophageal wall contralateral (CE) to the tumor was contoured as an avoidance structure, and IMRT was used to guide a rapid dose falloff gradient beyond the target volume in close proximity to the esophagus. Esophagitis was recorded based on the RTOG acute toxicity grading system. Results: We identified 20 consecutive patients treated with CCRT of at least 63 Gy in whom there was gross tumor within 1 cm of the esophagus. The median radiation dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 63-72.15 Gy). In all patients, ≥99% of the planning and internal target volumes was covered by ≥90% and 100% of prescription dose, respectively. Strikingly, no patient experienced grade ≥3 esophagitis (95% confidence limits, 0%-16%) despite the high total doses delivered. The median maximum dose, V45, and V55 of the CE were 60.7 Gy, 2.1 cc, and 0.4 cc, respectively, indicating effective esophagus cross-section sparing by CEST. Conclusion: We report a simple yet effective method to avoid exposing the entire esophagus cross-section to high doses. By using proposed CE dose constraints of V45 <2.5 cc and V55 <0.5 cc, CEST may improve the esophagus toxicity profile in thoracic cancer patients receiving CCRT even at doses above the standard 60- to 63-Gy levels. Prospective testing of CEST is warranted

  18. Neutron- and photon-activation detection limits in breast milk analysis for prospective dose evaluation of the suckling infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipenyuk, Yu.M.; Firsov, V.I.; Cantone, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Complex situations related to the environment, as in the regions affected by the Chernobyl accident and regions in which nuclear weapons testing were undertaken, as in Semipalatinsk, could be reflected in the trace element content in mothers' milk. The evaluation of fractional transfer to milk of ingested or inhaled activity and of the corresponding dose coefficients for the infant, following a mothers' radioactive intake, can take advantage from wide-ranging studies of elemental and radionuclide contents in mothers' milk. In this work the possibility to determine elements, such as Ru, Zr, Nb, Te, Ce, Th, U, in milk powder has been investigated. Although results from elemental analyses of breast milk are to be found in the literature, the determination of the identified elements has attracted poor attention since they are not considered essential elements from a biological point of view. Nevertheless, in the case of radioactive releases to the environment, such data could be of interest in evaluation of dose to the breast-fed infant

  19. Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio W; Rodrigues, Natália P; Silva, Angélica L; Bernardo, Sandra A; Hallak, Jaime E C; Guimarães, Francisco S; Crippa, José A S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in humans follows the same pattern of an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve observed in many animal studies. Sixty healthy subjects of both sexes aged between 18 and 35 years were randomly assigned to five groups that received placebo, clonazepam (1 mg), and CBD (100, 300, and 900 mg). The subjects were underwent a test of public speaking in a real situation (TPSRS) where each subject had to speak in front of a group formed by the remaining participants. Each subject completed the anxiety and sedation factors of the Visual Analog Mood Scale and had their blood pressure and heart rate recorded. These measures were obtained in five experimental sessions with 12 volunteers each. Each session had four steps at the following times (minutes) after administration of the drug/placebo, as time 0: -5 (baseline), 80 (pre-test), 153 (speech), and 216 (post-speech). Repeated-measures analyses of variance showed that the TPSRS increased the subjective measures of anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure. Student-Newman-Keuls test comparisons among the groups in each phase showed significant attenuation in anxiety scores relative to the placebo group in the group treated with clonazepam during the speech phase, and in the clonazepam and CBD 300 mg groups in the post-speech phase. Clonazepam was more sedative than CBD 300 and 900 mg and induced a smaller increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than CBD 300 mg. The results confirmed that the acute administration of CBD induced anxiolytic effects with a dose-dependent inverted U-shaped curve in healthy subjects, since the subjective anxiety measures were reduced with CBD 300 mg, but not with CBD 100 and 900 mg, in the post-speech phase.

  20. Compilation of nuclear decay data used for dose calculation. Revised data for radionuclides listed in ICRP Publication 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2001-03-01

    New nuclear decay data used for dose calculation have been compiled for 817 radionuclides that are listed in ICRP Publication 38 (Publ. 38) and for 6 additional isomers. The decay data were prepared using decay data sets from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version in August 1997. Basic nuclear properties in the decay data sets that are particularly important for calculating energies and intensities of emissions were examined and updated by referring to NUBASE, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides. The reviewed and updated data were half-life, decay mode and its branching ratio, spin and parity of the ground and isomeric states, excitation energy of isomers, and Q value. In addition, possible revisions of partial and incomplete decay data sets were done for their format and syntax errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. After that, the decay data sets were processed by EDISTR in order to compute the energies and intensities of α particles, β particles, γ rays, internal conversion electrons, X rays, and Auger electrons emitted in nuclear transformation. For spontaneously fissioning nuclides, the average energies and intensities of neutrons, fission fragments, prompt γ rays, delayed γ rays, and β particles were also calculated. The compiled data were prepared in two different types of format: Publ. 38 and NUCDECAY formats. Comparison of the compiled decay data with those in Publ. 38 was also presented. The decay data will be widely used for internal and external dose calculations in radiation protection and will be beneficial to a future revision of ICRP Publ. 38. (author)

  1. Compilation of nuclear decay data used for dose calculation. Revised data for radionuclides listed in ICRP Publication 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    New nuclear decay data used for dose calculation have been compiled for 817 radionuclides that are listed in ICRP Publication 38 (Publ. 38) and for 6 additional isomers. The decay data were prepared using decay data sets from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version in August 1997. Basic nuclear properties in the decay data sets that are particularly important for calculating energies and intensities of emissions were examined and updated by referring to NUBASE, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides. The reviewed and updated data were half-life, decay mode and its branching ratio, spin and parity of the ground and isomeric states, excitation energy of isomers, and Q value. In addition, possible revisions of partial and incomplete decay data sets were done for their format and syntax errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. After that, the decay data sets were processed by EDISTR in order to compute the energies and intensities of {alpha} particles, {beta} particles, {gamma} rays, internal conversion electrons, X rays, and Auger electrons emitted in nuclear transformation. For spontaneously fissioning nuclides, the average energies and intensities of neutrons, fission fragments, prompt {gamma} rays, delayed {gamma} rays, and {beta} particles were also calculated. The compiled data were prepared in two different types of format: Publ. 38 and NUCDECAY formats. Comparison of the compiled decay data with those in Publ. 38 was also presented. The decay data will be widely used for internal and external dose calculations in radiation protection and will be beneficial to a future revision of ICRP Publ. 38. (author)

  2. Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio W. Zuardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol (CBD in humans follows the same pattern of an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve observed in many animal studies. Sixty healthy subjects of both sexes aged between 18 and 35 years were randomly assigned to five groups that received placebo, clonazepam (1 mg, and CBD (100, 300, and 900 mg. The subjects were underwent a test of public speaking in a real situation (TPSRS where each subject had to speak in front of a group formed by the remaining participants. Each subject completed the anxiety and sedation factors of the Visual Analog Mood Scale and had their blood pressure and heart rate recorded. These measures were obtained in five experimental sessions with 12 volunteers each. Each session had four steps at the following times (minutes after administration of the drug/placebo, as time 0: -5 (baseline, 80 (pre-test, 153 (speech, and 216 (post-speech. Repeated-measures analyses of variance showed that the TPSRS increased the subjective measures of anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure. Student-Newman-Keuls test comparisons among the groups in each phase showed significant attenuation in anxiety scores relative to the placebo group in the group treated with clonazepam during the speech phase, and in the clonazepam and CBD 300 mg groups in the post-speech phase. Clonazepam was more sedative than CBD 300 and 900 mg and induced a smaller increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than CBD 300 mg. The results confirmed that the acute administration of CBD induced anxiolytic effects with a dose-dependent inverted U-shaped curve in healthy subjects, since the subjective anxiety measures were reduced with CBD 300 mg, but not with CBD 100 and 900 mg, in the post-speech phase.

  3. Confidence in Assessment of Lumbar Spondylolysis Using Three-Dimensional Volumetric T2-Weighted MRI Compared With Limited Field of View, Decreased-Dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavan, Joshua Adam; Stence, Nicholas V; Mirsky, David M; Gralla, Jane; Fadell, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Limited z-axis-coverage computed tomography (CT) to evaluate for pediatric lumbar spondylolysis, altering the technique such that the dose to the patient is comparable or lower than radiographs, is currently used at our institution. The objective of the study was to determine whether volumetric 3-dimensional fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) can provide equal or greater diagnostic accuracy compared with limited CT in the diagnosis of pediatric lumbar spondylolysis without ionizing radiation. Volumetric 3D MRI can provide equal or greater diagnostic accuracy compared with low-dose CT for pediatric lumbar spondylolysis without ionizing radiation. Clinical review. Level 2. Three pediatric neuroradiologists evaluated 2-dimensional (2D) MRI, 2D + 3D MRI, and limited CT examinations in 42 pediatric patients who obtained imaging for low back pain and suspected spondylolysis. As there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of spondylolysis besides surgery, interobserver agreement and degree of confidence were compared to determine which modality is preferable. Decreased-dose CT provided a greater level of agreement than 2D MRI and 2D + 3D MRI. The kappa for rater agreement with 2D MRI, 2D + 3D MRI, and CT was 0.19, 0.32, and 1.0, respectively. All raters agreed in 31%, 40%, and 100% of cases with 2D MRI, 2D + 3D MRI, and CT. Lack of confidence was significantly lower with CT (0%) than with 2D MRI (30%) and 2D + 3D MRI (25%). For diagnosing spondylolysis, radiologist agreement and confidence trended toward improvement with the addition of a volumetric 3D MRI sequence to standard 2D MRI sequences compared with 2D MRI alone; however, agreement and confidence remain significantly greater using decreased-dose CT when compared with either MRI acquisition. Decreased-dose CT of the lumbar spine remains the optimal examination to confirm a high suspicion of spondylolysis, with dose essentially equivalent to radiographs. If clinical symptoms are not classic for

  4. Analysis of Incidental Radiation Dose to Uninvolved Mediastinal/Supraclavicular Lymph Nodes in Patients with Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated Without Elective Nodal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Irfan; DeMarco, Marylou; Stevens, Craig W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Fulp, William J. [Biostatistics Core, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Classic teaching states that treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC) requires large treatment fields covering the entire mediastinum. However, a trend in modern thoracic radiotherapy is toward more conformal fields, employing positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans to determine the gross tumor volume (GTV). This analysis evaluates the dosimetric results when using selective nodal irradiation (SNI) to treat a patient with L-SCLC, quantitatively comparing the results to standard Intergroup treatment fields. Sixteen consecutive patients with L-SCLC and central mediastinal disease who also underwent pretherapy PET/CT scans were studied in this analysis. For each patient, we created SNI treatment volumes, based on the PET/CT-based criteria for malignancy. We also created 2 ENI plans, the first without heterogeneity corrections, as per the Intergroup 0096 study (ENI{sub off}) and the second with heterogeneity corrections while maintaining constant the number of MUs delivered between these latter 2 plans (ENI{sub on}). Nodal stations were contoured using published guidelines, then placed into 4 'bins' (treated nodes, 1 echelon away, >1 echelon away within the mediastinum, contralateral hilar/supraclavicular). These were aggregated across the patients in the study. Dose to these nodal bins and to tumor/normal structures were compared among these plans using pairwise t-tests. The ENI{sub on} plans demonstrated a statistically significant degradation in dose coverage compared with the ENI{sub off} plans. ENI and SNI both created a dose gradient to the lymph nodes across the mediastinum. Overall, the gradient was larger for the SNI plans, although the maximum dose to the '1 echelon away' nodes was not statistically different. Coverage of the GTV and planning target volume (PTV) were improved with SNI, while simultaneously reducing esophageal and spinal cord dose though at the expense of modestly reduced dose to

  5. Analysis of incidental radiation dose to uninvolved mediastinal/supraclavicular lymph nodes in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer treated without elective nodal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Irfan; DeMarco, Marylou; Stevens, Craig W; Fulp, William J; Dilling, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Classic teaching states that treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC) requires large treatment fields covering the entire mediastinum. However, a trend in modern thoracic radiotherapy is toward more conformal fields, employing positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans to determine the gross tumor volume (GTV). This analysis evaluates the dosimetric results when using selective nodal irradiation (SNI) to treat a patient with L-SCLC, quantitatively comparing the results to standard Intergroup treatment fields. Sixteen consecutive patients with L-SCLC and central mediastinal disease who also underwent pretherapy PET/CT scans were studied in this analysis. For each patient, we created SNI treatment volumes, based on the PET/CT-based criteria for malignancy. We also created 2 ENI plans, the first without heterogeneity corrections, as per the Intergroup 0096 study (ENI(off)) and the second with heterogeneity corrections while maintaining constant the number of MUs delivered between these latter 2 plans (ENI(on)). Nodal stations were contoured using published guidelines, then placed into 4 "bins" (treated nodes, 1 echelon away, >1 echelon away within the mediastinum, contralateral hilar/supraclavicular). These were aggregated across the patients in the study. Dose to these nodal bins and to tumor/normal structures were compared among these plans using pairwise t-tests. The ENI(on) plans demonstrated a statistically significant degradation in dose coverage compared with the ENI(off) plans. ENI and SNI both created a dose gradient to the lymph nodes across the mediastinum. Overall, the gradient was larger for the SNI plans, although the maximum dose to the "1 echelon away" nodes was not statistically different. Coverage of the GTV and planning target volume (PTV) were improved with SNI, while simultaneously reducing esophageal and spinal cord dose though at the expense of modestly reduced dose to anatomically distant lymph nodes

  6. SU-G-201-11: Exploring the Upper Limits of Dose Sculpting Capacity of the Novel Direction Modulated Brachytherapy (DMBT) Tandem Applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D; Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore and quantify the upper limits in dose sculpting capacity of the novel direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator compared with conventional tandem design for "1"9"2Ir-based HDR planning. Methods: The proposed DMBT tandem applicator is designed for image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT), especially MRI, of cervical cancer. It has 6 peripheral holes of 1.3-mm width, grooved along a 5.4-mm diameter nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod of density 18.0 g/cc, capable of generating directional dose profiles – leading to enhanced dose sculpting capacity through inverse planning. The external dimensions are identical to that of conventional tandem design to ensure clinical compatibility. To explore the expansive dose sculpting capacity, we constructed a hypothetical circular target with 20-mm radius and positioned the DMBT and conventional tandems at the center. We then incrementally shifted the positions laterally away from the center of up to 15 mm, at 1-mm steps. The in-house coded gradient projection-based inverse planning system was then used to generate inverse optimized plans ensuring identical V100=100% coverage. Conformity index (CI) was calculated for all plans. Results: Overall, the DMBT tandem generates more conformal dose distributions than conventional tandem for all lateral positional shifts of 0-15 mm (CI=0.91–0.52 and 0.99–0.34, respectively), with an exception at the central position due to the ideal circular dose distribution, generated by the "1"9"2Ir, fitting tightly around the circular target (CI = 0.91 and 0.99, respectively). The DMBT tandem is able to generate dose conformity of CI>0.8 at up to 6-mm positional shift while the conventional tandem violates this past 2-mm shift. Also, the CI ratio (=DMBT/conv.) increases rapidly until about 8 mm and then stabilizes beyond. Conclusion: A substantial enhancement in the dose sculpting capacity has been demonstrated for the novel DMBT tandem applicator. While

  7. SU-G-201-11: Exploring the Upper Limits of Dose Sculpting Capacity of the Novel Direction Modulated Brachytherapy (DMBT) Tandem Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Safigholi, H; Soliman, A [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Song, W [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To explore and quantify the upper limits in dose sculpting capacity of the novel direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator compared with conventional tandem design for {sup 192}Ir-based HDR planning. Methods: The proposed DMBT tandem applicator is designed for image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT), especially MRI, of cervical cancer. It has 6 peripheral holes of 1.3-mm width, grooved along a 5.4-mm diameter nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod of density 18.0 g/cc, capable of generating directional dose profiles – leading to enhanced dose sculpting capacity through inverse planning. The external dimensions are identical to that of conventional tandem design to ensure clinical compatibility. To explore the expansive dose sculpting capacity, we constructed a hypothetical circular target with 20-mm radius and positioned the DMBT and conventional tandems at the center. We then incrementally shifted the positions laterally away from the center of up to 15 mm, at 1-mm steps. The in-house coded gradient projection-based inverse planning system was then used to generate inverse optimized plans ensuring identical V100=100% coverage. Conformity index (CI) was calculated for all plans. Results: Overall, the DMBT tandem generates more conformal dose distributions than conventional tandem for all lateral positional shifts of 0-15 mm (CI=0.91–0.52 and 0.99–0.34, respectively), with an exception at the central position due to the ideal circular dose distribution, generated by the {sup 192}Ir, fitting tightly around the circular target (CI = 0.91 and 0.99, respectively). The DMBT tandem is able to generate dose conformity of CI>0.8 at up to 6-mm positional shift while the conventional tandem violates this past 2-mm shift. Also, the CI ratio (=DMBT/conv.) increases rapidly until about 8 mm and then stabilizes beyond. Conclusion: A substantial enhancement in the dose sculpting capacity has been demonstrated for the novel DMBT tandem applicator. While

  8. Low-dose multi-slice CT (LMCT) assessment of pulmonary emphysema in public-school teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Noriaki; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Jiro; Suemitsu, Ichizou; Kamei, Tadashi; Tada, Shinya; Ueda, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    Although rates of emphysematous change in smokers have been reported previously, the precise effects of smoking on emphysematous change have not been established because the study subjects of previous reports were heterogeneous. This study was designed to determine the incidence of emphysematous change identified by low-dose multi-slice CT (LMCT) imaging in public-school teachers. We reviewed 1776 consecutive subjects (ages from 31 to 61 years) who had undergone LMCT scanning during health care examinations. In addition, their replies to questionnaires about smoking were obtained. Emphysematous change was found by LMCT imaging in 22 male smokers. In these 22 smokers, the scores of emphysematous change according to Goddard's method was well correlated with smoking history. According to the questionnaires, the smoking rates of male and female teachers were 56.7% and 4%, respectively. Eighty-five percent of the teachers worked in offices separated from smokers. Most smokers wished to quit smoking and most teachers knew the risk of nicotine as well as the rate of smoking among high school students. However, knowledge of the relationships between smoking and lung cancer, myocardial infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were not adequate. Our present study clearly demonstrated the incidence of emphysematous change in school teachers. In addition, early exposure to information about the risks of smoking is believed to be important for students, but school teachers did not have enough of such information. (author)

  9. Study on indoor radon concentration and gamma radiation dose rate in different rooms in some dwellings around Bharath Gold Mines Limited, Karnataka State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umesha Reddy, K.; Jayasheelan, A.; Sannappa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon contributes significantly to the total radiation exposure caused to human beings. The indoor concentration of radon in different rooms in the same type of dwellings around Bharath Gold Mines Limited (BGML), Karnataka State (12°57' min N and 78°16' min E) were measured by using LR-115 (type-Il) Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). The maximum indoor radon concentration is observed in the bathroom and minimum in the hall. The maximum average indoor radon concentration is observed in the Champion and minimum in the BEML nagar. The indoor gamma radiation dose rate is also measured in these locations using scintillometer. The geology of this part forms predominantly Hornblende Schist, Granite gneiss, Champion gneiss, Quartzite etc. The indoor radon concentration shows good correlation with the indoor gamma radiation dose. (author)

  10. Assessment of temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after a nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, A Ra; Kim, Min Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Chan; Seol, Jeung Gun [Radiation Safety Team, Korea Electric Power Corporation Nuclear Fuel, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    It has been about 5 years since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, which contaminated large area with radioactive materials. It is necessary to assess radiation dose to establish evacuation areas and to set decontamination goal for the large contaminated area. In this study, we assessed temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The dose assessment was performed based on Chernobyl model and RESRAD model for two evacuation lift areas, Kawauchi and Naraha. It was reported that deposition densities in the areas were 4.3-96 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 134}Cs, 1.4-300 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. Radiation dose to the residents depended on radioactive cesium concentrations in the soil, ranging 0.11-2.4 mSv y{sup -1} at Kawauchi area and 0.69-1.1 mSv y{sup -1} at Naraha area in July 2014. The difference was less than 5% in radiation doses estimated by two different models. Radiation dose decreased with calendar time and the decreasing slope varied depending on dose assessment models. Based on the Chernobyl dosimetry model, radiation doses decreased with calendar time to about 65% level of the radiation dose in 2014 after 1 year, 11% level after 10 years, and 5.6% level after 30 years. RESRAD dosimetry model more slowly decreased radiation dose with time to about 85% level after 1 year, 40% level after 10 years, and 15% level after 30 years. The decrease of radiation dose can be mainly attributed into radioactive decays and environmental transport of the radioactive cesium. Only environmental transports of radioactive cesium without consideration of radioactive decays decreased radiation dose additionally 43% after 1 year, 72% after 3 years, 80% after 10 years, and 83% after 30 years. Radiation doses estimated with cesium concentration in the soil based on Chernobyl dosimetry model were compared with directly measured radiation doses

  11. Lean body mass as an independent determinant of dose-limiting toxicity and neuropathy in patients with colon cancer treated with FOLFOX regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Raafi; Sawyer, Michael B.; Bianchi, Laurent; Roberts, Sarah; Mollevi, Caroline; Senesse, Pierre; Baracos, Vickie E.; Assenat, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lean body mass (LBM) may be useful to normalize chemotherapy doses. Data from one prospective and one retrospective study were used to determine if the highest doses of oxaliplatin/kg LBM within FOLFOX regimens would be associated with dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in colon cancer patients. Toxicity over four cycles was graded according to NCI Common Toxicity Criteria V2 or V3 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD). Muscle tissue was measured by computerized tomography (CT) and used to evaluate the LBM compartment of the whole body. In prospective randomized clinical trials conducted in France (n = 58), for patients given FOLFOX-based regimens according to body surface area, values of oxaliplatin/kg LBM were highly variable, ranging from 2.55 to 6.6 mg/kg LBM. A cut point of 3.09 mg oxaliplatin/kg LBM for developing toxicity was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, below this value 0/17 (0.0%) of patients experienced DLT; in contrast above this value 18/41 (44.0%) of patients were dose reduced or had treatment terminated owing to toxicity (≥Grade 3 or neuropathy ≥Grade 2); for 9/41 the DLT was sensory neuropathy. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of colon cancer patients (n = 80) receiving FOLFOX regimens as part of standard care, in Canada. Low LBM is a significant predictor of toxicity and neuropathy in patients administered FOLFOX-based regimens using conventional body surface area (BSA) dosing

  12. Radiological assessment of NORM industries in Ireland-radiation doses to workers and members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organo, C.; Fenton, D.

    2008-12-01

    Natural resources that are extracted from the ground such as coal, oil, natural gas and other mineral ores contain various amounts of natural radioactivity. When these resources are extracted and processed, their natural state can be modified which may result in the enhancement of the natural radioactivity content originally present. Such enhancements may be observed in the residues or the waste created and/or in the products or by-products and are sometimes high enough to pose a risk to both humans and the environment if they are not controlled properly. Materials of this kind are commonly referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials or NORM. Up to 1996, international regulatory attention dealing with exposure to natural sources of radiation focused mostly on exposures arising from the mining and processing of uranium ores because such activities need to be controlled as part of the nuclear fuel cycle. More recently, the attention of the international radiation protection community has been broadened to include industries dealing with NORM. The most recent revision of the European Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive took place in 1996 and includes special provisions concerning exposure to natural sources of ionising radiation. The implementation of the 1996 European Directive resulted in significant legal changes in Ireland. Previously the national radiation protection regulations did not cover work activities involving exposure to natural sources. This changed on 13th May 2000 and according to current Irish regulations, work activities involving exposure to natural sources of radiation such as NORM are amenable to control if they are liable to give rise to an effective dose to workers or members of the public in excess of 1 mSv above background in any 12-month period. To assist Member States in the implementation of the 1996 European Directive with regards to the provisions dealing with natural sources of radiation, recommendations on how to target

  13. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  14. Public health assessment for French Limited, Crosby, Harris County, Texas, Region 6. CERCLIS No. TXD980514814. addendum. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The French Limited Site is a former petroleum based waste disposal site located in Harris County about 20 miles northeast of Houston, Texas. Although there is evidence of past exposure to site contaminants, the site currently poses no apparent public health hazard. Since part of the remediation process involves aerating the lagoon, future inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds through inhalation is possible. Modeling data, based on fenceline measurements taken during lagoon aeration, were used to estimate contaminant concentrations in each of the surrounding communities. The ambient air concentrations predicted by the model, for each of the communities, are upper-bound estimates and greatly overestimate actual ambient air levels. Based on the predicted values, the residents in the surrounding communities have no apparent increased lifetime risk of developing cancer from exposure to these contaminants

  15. Results for SEAFP-subtask A 10: Assessments of individual and collective doses to the public for routine and accidental releases of tritium and activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1995-04-01

    Dose calculations have been performed for accidental releases of tritium and activation products. Unit releases of 1 GBq per nuclide have been investigated for 31 fusion relevant nuclides. Additionally, unit releases of 1g of tritium and several activated materials have been studied. Under normal operation conditions, dose calculations have been performed for real source terms of tritium and activated materials. The individual dose values at the fence of the site (1 km) as well as the collective dose to the public (from 1 km to 100 km) have been obtained. As site specific parameters are still missing, different so called ''worst case'' release conditions have been applied. To have a first guess of the influence of the release duration on the dose to the Most Exposed Individual (MEI) in the vicinity of a reactor, different release durations, ranging from 1 hour up to 168 hours have been investigated, too. Finally, dose calculations have been performed for mobilisation source terms which take account of deposition and retention in the plant. This has been done for several RPM and APM source terms. The dose values of these final source terms seem to be less than every criteria to start emergency actions, however, some problems e.g. the behaviour of tritium in the plant, remain unsolved. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of radiation doses to the public in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Shogo; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Kimura, Masanori; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    In the areas contaminated by radioactive materials due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, many residents are exposed to radiation through various exposure pathways. Dose assessment is important for providing appropriate protection to the people and clarifying the impact of the accident. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary results of the assessment of radiation doses received by the inhabitants of Fukushima Prefecture. To assess the doses realistically and comprehensively, a probabilistic approach was adopted using data that reflected realistic environmental trends and lifestyle habits in Fukushima Prefecture. In the first year after the contamination, the 95th percentile of the annual effective dose received by the inhabitants evacuated from the evacuation areas and the deliberate evacuation areas was mainly in the 1-10 mSv dose band. However, the 95th percentile of the dose received by some outdoor workers and inhabitants evacuated from highly contaminated areas was in the 10-50 mSv dose band. The doses due to external exposure to deposited radionuclides were the dominant exposure pathway, and their contributions were about 90% under prevailing contamination conditions in Fukushima Prefecture. In addition, 20%-30% of the lifetime effective dose was delivered during the first year after the contamination. (author)

  17. Dose rate survey inside and outside three public buildings located approximately 40 km northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Kamada, So

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed the reduction of the dose rate inside three public buildings compared to the dose rate outside in Kawamata-machi, Fukushima Prefecture. The three buildings—a wooden construction district meeting place, a steel construction public hall, and a reinforced concrete school building—are located approximately 40 km northwest of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations. The dose rate measurement, performed with a NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meter, was carried out on January 19, 2012. We evaluated the reduction of the dose rate inside the building using the reduction factor, which was determined to be the ratio of the dose rate inside the building to that outside the building. The reduction factors 1 m inside from the window were 0.51-0.56 for the wooden building, 0.34-0.51 for the steel construction building, and 0.27-0.31 for the concrete building. The reduction factors at the center of the room were 0.48 for the wooden building, 0.23-0.34 for the steel construction building, and 0.10-0.16 for the concrete building. (author)

  18. Limited Releases of Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Krsko Nuclear Power Plant is about 700 MW Pressurised Water Reactor plant located in Slovenia close to the border with Croatia. The authorised limit for the radioactive releases is basically set to 50 μSv effective dose per year to the members of the public. There is also additional limitation of total activities released in a year and concentration. The poster presents the effluents of the year 2000 and evaluated dose referring to the limits and to the natural and other sources of radiation around the plant. (author)

  19. Comparative study of radiological impact of nuclear power plant and coal-fired power plant: estimation of radiation dose to public from nuclear power plant and coal-fired power plant generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbara, Heru; Yatim, Sofyan

    1998-01-01

    Radiation impact assessment of Nuclear Power Plant and Coal-Fired Power Plant in Muria Penninsula was carried out. The computation of radionuclide releases to the atmosphere subjects to gaussian plume model, on the other hand, the radionuclide transfer model between environmental compartment (pathway) follow concentration factor methods. Both models are compiled in GENII-The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System, which is used in the assessment. Most of all input data for GENII package are site specific, such as meteorological data, stack flow, stack height, population, local consumption except the transfer factor data are taken from the GENII package. The results show that during operation of NPP the maximal exposed individual received annual effective dose 150 nSv at 300 -700 m from the site toward east otherwise in operation of CPP the maximal exposed individual received annual effective dose 410 nSv in the same distance and direction. Both results of the maximal exposed individual received annual effective dose about 0,003 % and 0,008 % of whole body annual dose limit for members of public for NPP and CPP. (author)

  20. Late Toxicity After Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Exploration of Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters to Limit Genitourinary and Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, Aaron W.; Fricano, Janine; Correa, David; Pelizzari, Charles A. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for prostate cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and propose dose-volume histogram (DVH) guidelines to limit late treatment-related toxicity. Methods and Materials: In this study 296 consecutive men were treated with IMRT for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Most patients received treatment to the prostate with or without proximal seminal vesicles (90%), to a median dose of 76 Gy. Concurrent androgen deprivation therapy was given to 150 men (51%) for a median of 4 months. Late toxicity was defined by Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0 as greater than 3 months after radiation therapy completion. Four groupings of DVH parameters were defined, based on the percentage of rectal or bladder tissue receiving 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), 65 Gy (V{sub 65}), and 40 Gy (V{sub 40}). These DVH groupings, as well as clinical and treatment characteristics, were correlated to maximal Grade 2+ GU and GI toxicity. Results: With a median follow-up of 41 months, the 4-year freedom from maximal Grade 2+ late toxicity was 81% and 91% for GU and GI systems, respectively, and by last follow-up, the rates of Grade 2+ GU and GI toxicity were 9% and 5%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, whole-pelvic IMRT was associated with Grade 2+ GU toxicity and age was associated with Grade 2+ GI toxicity. Freedom from Grade 2+ GI toxicity at 4 years was 100% for men with rectal V{sub 70} {<=}10%, V{sub 65} {<=}20%, and V{sub 40} {<=}40%; 92% for men with rectal V{sub 70} {<=}20%, V{sub 65} {<=}40%, and V{sub 40} {<=}80%; and 85% for men exceeding these criteria (p = 0.13). These criteria were more highly associated with GI toxicity in men aged {>=}70 years (p = 0.07). No bladder dose-volume relationships were associated with the risk of GU toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with low rates of severe GU or GI toxicity after treatment for prostate cancer. Rectal dose constraints

  1. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  2. Identification of radiation response genes and proteins from mouse pulmonary tissues after high-dose per fraction irradiation of limited lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hee; Jeon, Seulgi; Kang, Ga-Young; Lee, Hae-June; Cho, Jaeho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2017-02-01

    The molecular effects of focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose per fraction irradiation (HDFR) such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) have not been fully characterized. In this study, we used such an irradiation system and identified the genes and proteins after HDFR to mouse lung, similar to those associated with human therapy. High focal radiation (90 Gy) was applied to a 3-mm volume of the left lung of C57BL6 mice using a small-animal stereotactic irradiator. As well as histological examination for lungs, a cDNA micro array using irradiated lung tissues and a protein array of sera were performed until 4 weeks after irradiation, and radiation-responsive genes and proteins were identified. For comparison, the long-term effects (12 months) of 20 Gy radiation wide-field dose to the left lung were also investigated. The genes ermap, epb4.2, cd200r3 (up regulation) and krt15, hoxc4, gdf2, cst9, cidec, and bnc1 (down-regulation) and the proteins of AIF, laminin, bNOS, HSP27, β-amyloid (upregulation), and calponin (downregulation) were identified as being responsive to 90 Gy HDFR. The gdf2, cst9, and cidec genes also responded to 20 Gy, suggesting that they are universal responsive genes in irradiated lungs. No universal proteins were identified in both 90 Gy and 20 Gy. Calponin, which was downregulated in protein antibody array analysis, showed a similar pattern in microarray data, suggesting a possible HDFR responsive serum biomarker that reflects gene alteration of irradiated lung tissue. These genes and proteins also responded to the lower doses of 20 Gy and 50 Gy HDFR. These results suggest that identified candidate genes and proteins are HDFR-specifically expressed in lung damage induced by HDFR relevant to SBRT in humans.

  3. High Dose MicroCT Does Not Contribute Toward Improved MicroPET/CT Image Quantitative Accuracy and Can Limit Longitudinal Scanning of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A. McDougald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining accurate quantitative measurements in preclinical Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT imaging is of paramount importance in biomedical research and helps supporting efficient translation of preclinical results to the clinic. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1 to investigate the effects of different CT acquisition protocols on PET/CT image quality and data quantification; and (2 to evaluate the absorbed dose associated with varying CT parameters.Methods: An air/water quality control CT phantom, tissue equivalent material phantom, an in-house 3D printed phantom and an image quality PET/CT phantom were imaged using a Mediso nanoPET/CT scanner. Collected data was analyzed using PMOD software, VivoQuant software and National Electric Manufactures Association (NEMA software implemented by Mediso. Measured Hounsfield Unit (HU in collected CT images were compared to the known HU values and image noise was quantified. PET recovery coefficients (RC, uniformity and quantitative bias were also measured.Results: Only less than 2 and 1% of CT acquisition protocols yielded water HU values < −80 and air HU values < −840, respectively. Four out of 11 CT protocols resulted in more than 100 mGy absorbed dose. Different CT protocols did not impact PET uniformity and RC, and resulted in <4% overall bias relative to expected radioactive concentration.Conclusion: Preclinical CT protocols with increased exposure times can result in high absorbed doses to the small animals. These should be avoided, as they do not contributed toward improved microPET/CT image quantitative accuracy and could limit longitudinal scanning of small animals.

  4. Northeast Empire Limited Partnership No. 2 Alternative Energy, Inc. and Maine Public Service Company (Docket No. EA-95): Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in connection with the application (the Application) by Alternative Energy, Inc. (AEI), Northeast Empire Limited Partnership number-sign 2 (the Partnership) and Maine Public Service Company (MPS and, collectively with AEI and the Partnership, the Applicants), filed on January 6, 1992, for authorization to transmit electric energy to a foreign country. The electric energy to be exported would be produced by a 39-megawatt (MW), wood-fired powerplant (the Project) to be developed by AEI and to be built by the Partnership in Ashland, Maine, which is located in MPS' service territory. In the Application, the Applicants requested authorization for MPS to transmit electricity generated by the Project from Maine through New Brunswick, Canada, on route back to the US for domestic use by Central Maine Power Company (MP). The need to cross the US -Canadian border arises due to the geography of the area and to facilitate access to an existing transmission line. None of the power will be used in Canada. This EA addresses the environmental impacts associated with the export of electric energy and the connected actions which are expected to result from the authorization of those exports. The electricity would be exported over cross-border transmission facilities maintained between MPS and New Brunswick Power Corporation (NB Power). No new cross-border facilities, and no modification of any existing cross-border facilities, are required in connection with the proposed action

  5. Evaluation of averted doses to members of the Public by tap water restrictions after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinase, Sakae; Kimura, Masanori; Hato, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of urgent protective measures such as tap water restrictions and bottled water supplies in the early stage of an emergency exposure situation was studied after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Temporal changes in the concentration of an important radionuclide –iodine 131– in tap water were analyzed using published data in Fukushima, Ibaraki and Tokyo. Averted doses to members of the public due to chronic intakes of iodine 131 through tap water restrictions were also evaluated using an internal dose calculation code, DSYS-chronic code. In addition, the costs of bottled water supplies were calculated approximately. Consequently, it was found that the apparent half-life of iodine 131 in tap water was 2.8±1.2 days. The averted equivalent doses to the thyroid of members of the public –1-year-old children– were found to have a maximum value of 8.2 mSv in a local area of Fukushima. In comparison with Fukushima, the bottled water supplies might be a large sum of money regardless of the low doses in Tokyo. In conclusion, apart from the bottled water supplies, the tap water restrictions implemented by the authorities would be effective after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  6. Estimation of the fetal dose by dose measurement during an irradiation of a parotid tumor; Estimation de la dose foetale par mesure de dose lors d'une irradiation d'une tumeur de la parotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, V.; Graff-Cailleaud, P.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, CRAN CNRS UMR-7039, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-11-15

    The irradiation of a five months pregnant patient has been made for a right parotid attack. In conformation with the legislative texts relative to radiation protection ( publication 84 of the ICRP) an estimation of the dose received for the fetus has been led by dose measurement on phantom. With the dose limit ( 100 mGy) recommended in the publication 84 of the ICRP neither modification of the treatment nor abortion was necessary. (N.C.)

  7. Estimation of dose challenge in radiological exams policontuses patients in public hospital in Santiago with digital radiology equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Munoz Ihmaidan, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    lonizing radiation is always present in our natural environment and with the development of new technologies in diagnostic radiology we have elevated the exposure to radiation with an increased dose to both patient and professionals. This is of great importance for secondary stochastic effects that could be generated by exposure to ionizing radiation. There are different x-ray entrance dose studies in patients with radiological examinations in conventional radiology equipment, but not in trauma patients examinated with digital radiology equipment where there is a supposed greater exposure to radiation because of the increase of the number of radiological examinations requested. This study determined the doses received by trauma patients in a direct digital x ray equipment (in a ER in Santiago, Chile) and see if the doses are within the ones recommended by international societies. We used thermoluminescent crystals which were first properly calibrated and located in the center of the radiation beam. The results obtained show that using good practice we can obtain acceptable dose levels, independently of the digital equipment used where it is presumed that could give a higher dose of ionizing radiation exposure than conventional x-ray equipment

  8. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protecion (1977) ICRP Publication 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The subject is dealt with under the following headings: principles of radiation protection (the reports of ICRP; basis for establishing dose limits; types of radiation harm; occupational dose limits; estimates of tissue dose equivalent; uniformity of tissue dose equivalent; systems of dose limitation; protection of members of the public; exposure of the population); radiation protection in practice (protection standards, types of exposure). (U.K.)

  9. Dose constraints, what are they now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a source-related dose constraint was first introduced in ICPR publication 60. The idea was to provide a number that individual exposures from a single, specific source should not exceed, and below which optimisation of protection should take place. Dose constraints were applied to occupational and public exposures from practices. In order to simplify and clarify the ICRP's recommendations, the latest draft, RPO5, presents dose constraints again, and with the same meaning as in publication 60. However, the dose constraints are now applied in all situations, not just practices. This new approach does provide simplification, in that a single concept is applied to all types of exposures (normal situations, accident situations, and existing situations). However, the approach and numerical values that are selected by regulatory authorities for the application of the concept, particularly in normal situations which are also subject to dose limits, will be crucial to the implementation of the system of radiological protection. (author)

  10. Outdoor radon levels and dose to the members of public residing in and around the new BARC campus, Visakhapatnam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod Kumar, A.; Sumesh, C.G.; Krishna, N.S.; Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radiation is the largest contributor to the collective radiation dose to the world population. The greatest fraction of the natural radiation exposure to humans results from inhalation of the short-lived decay products of Radon ( 222 Rn) and Thoron ( 220 Rn), which occur in the free atmosphere and in higher concentrations in the room air of buildings. 222 Rn, being the most important radon isotope in terms of radiation exposure contributes about 55% of the annual radiation dose to the general population from natural radiation sources

  11. Estimation of population dose from all sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Takeo; Kai, Michiaki; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of estimation of population doses are to understand the per-caput doses of the public member from each artificial radiation source and to determine the proportion contributed of the doses from each individual source to the total irradiated population. We divided the population doses into two categories: individual-related and source-related population doses. The individual-related population dose is estimated based on the maximum assumption for use in allocation of the dose limits for members of the public. The source-related population dose is estimated both to justify the sources and practices and to optimize radiation protection. The source-related population dose, therefore, should be estimated as realistically as possible. We investigated all sources that caused exposure to the population in Japan from the above points of view

  12. 78 FR 67118 - Notice of Limited, Program-Wide, Public Interest Waivers of Section 1605(a) (Buy American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... diligence. Requiring NIST construction grant recipients to expend substantial resources to comply with Buy... life safety concerns. Further, while system function and interoperability is of primary public interest...

  13. Natural radioactivity measurements and dose calculations to the public: Case of the uranium-bearing region of Poli in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidou; Bochud, Francois O.; Baechler, Sebastien; Moise, Kwato Njock; Merlin, Ngachin; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to carry out a baseline study of the uranium-bearing region of Poli in which lies the uranium deposit of Kitongo, prior to its impending exploitation. This study required sampling soil, water and foodstuffs representative of the radioactivity exposure and food consumption patterns of the population of Poli. After sampling and radioactivity measurements were taken, our results indicated that the activities of natural series in soil and water samples are low. However, high levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb in foodstuffs (vegetables) were discovered and elevated activities of 40 K were observed in some soil samples. All components of the total dose were assessed and lead to an average value of 5.2 mSv/year, slightly higher than the average worldwide value of 2.4 mSv/year. Most of this dose is attributable to the ingestion dose caused by the high levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb contained in vegetables, food items which constitute an important part of the diet in Northern Cameroon. Consequently, bringing uranium ore from underground to the surface might lead to an increased dose for the population of Poli through a higher deposition of 222 Rn decay products on leafy vegetables.

  14. Assessing the reliability of dose coefficients for exposure to radioiodine by members of the public, accounting for dosimetric and risk model uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, M; Zhang, W; Harrison, J D; Wakeford, R

    2017-06-26

    Assessments of risk to a specific population group resulting from internal exposure to a particular radionuclide can be used to assess the reliability of the appropriate International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dose coefficients used as a radiation protection device for the specified exposure pathway. An estimate of the uncertainty on the associated risk is important for informing judgments on reliability; a derived uncertainty factor, UF, is an estimate of the 95% probable geometric difference between the best risk estimate and the nominal risk and is a useful tool for making this assessment. This paper describes the application of parameter uncertainty analysis to quantify uncertainties resulting from internal exposures to radioiodine by members of the public, specifically 1, 10 and 20-year old females from the population of England and Wales. Best estimates of thyroid cancer incidence risk (lifetime attributable risk) are calculated for ingestion or inhalation of 129 I and 131 I, accounting for uncertainties in biokinetic model and cancer risk model parameter values. These estimates are compared with the equivalent ICRP derived nominal age-, sex- and population-averaged estimates of excess thyroid cancer incidence to obtain UFs. Derived UF values for ingestion or inhalation of 131 I for 1 year, 10-year and 20-year olds are around 28, 12 and 6, respectively, when compared with ICRP Publication 103 nominal values, and 9, 7 and 14, respectively, when compared with ICRP Publication 60 values. Broadly similar results were obtained for 129 I. The uncertainties on risk estimates are largely determined by uncertainties on risk model parameters rather than uncertainties on biokinetic model parameters. An examination of the sensitivity of the results to the risk models and populations used in the calculations show variations in the central estimates of risk of a factor of around 2-3. It is assumed that the direct proportionality of excess thyroid cancer

  15. Low-dose irradiation of fresh, non-frozen chicken and other preservation methods for shelf-life extension and for improving its public-health quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahan, R.S.; Howker, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Fresh eviscerated broiler chicken, both with salt treatment (part of kosher processing) and without, were gamma irradiated and stored at -1, 0, +1.6 and +4.4 0 C for up to 31 days. At intervals samples were withdrawn for microbial, physical and sensory evaluations. Combination of a 250 krad irradiation dose and storage at 1.6 0 C were adequate for a radurized chicken process. The product was free from microbial spoilage and of excellent quality for at least 15 days and, in addition, was essentially free from Salmonella and other organisms of public-health significance. It is therefore proposed that the doses recommended recently by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Committee are unnecessarily high and should be markedly reduced. A 500 krad dose caused marked flesh discolouring without improving the microbiological or enzymatic preservation, and this is likely to be found generally true for commercial poultry flocks under veterinary inspection. Flesh discolouring of chicken treated with 300 krad is unlikely to be detectable by the untrained eye and a maximum dose of 300 krad should be the target for non-frozen chicken irradiation processes. (author)

  16. Measurement of the radon concentration in an underground public facility and dose assessment. Fukuoka Tenjin Shopping Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narazaki, Yukinori; Tokonami, Shinji; Sanada, Tetsuya; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    Radon concentrations were measured with a passive radon detector from April 1998 through June 1999 in the Fukuoka Tenjin Underground Shopping Center to assess the dose affecting workers because of radon progeny inhalation. The radon concentration during the period was distributed from a range of 1.9 to 13.6 Bq/m 3 . The arithmetic average concentration was estimated to be 6.9±2.4 Bq/ 3 . The radon level was lower than that in dwellings in Japan and other countries. No spatial distribution of radon concentration was found in that area. From continuous measurement, the radon concentration was found to be high from midnight to noon and low in the afternoon. Little difference was noted between the daily average radon concentration and that during working hours. There was no seasonal variation. The equilibrium factor of 0.21±0.10 was obtained during working hours. The activity-weighted size distribution of radon progeny was evaluated by using the number distribution of ambient aerosols and the classical attachment theory. Consequently, the activity median diameter was 150 nm. The unattached fraction of radon progeny was estimated to be 0.025 with an empirical equation. The annual effective dose of workers at the Tenjin center was calculated with the dose conversion factor from the UNSCEAR 1993 report and estimated to be 0.024 mSv/y. (author)

  17. Evaluation of ingestion dose to different age groups of public of Chutka (MP) environment due to 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejpal, Menaria; Tiwari, S.N.; Mulchandani, U.; Goyal, S.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The activity levels of 40 K in the locally produced biological samples of food items as well as trend indicator samples from different locations of Chutka area of Madhya Pradesh site, were estimated by gamma spectrometry as part of preoperational survey. The observed 40 K activity in these samples is comparable with reported values from other areas of India. The annual effective dose through ingestion pathway due to 40 K is estimated for infant, child and adult categories of local population. The computed average ingestion dose due to intake of 40 K is found to be highest for infant child (0.34 mSv/y). Radionuclides enter the human body through complex mechanism including foodstuffs via the food chain. The most predominant naturally occurring radionuclides in foodstuffs is 40 K, other contributions to the radionuclides in foods include deposited fallouts from fission and activation products released during nuclear accidents and constituents of weapons tests released after detonation. The primary objective of the present study is to estimate the activity levels of 40 K in the dietary matrices and to evaluate internal dose due to annual intake of various dietary items by the population around Chutka environment, a proposed nuclear power station site near Jabalpur of Madhya Pradesh

  18. Use of dose constraints for occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaijage, Tunu

    2015-02-01

    The use of dose constraints for occupational exposure was reviewed in this project. The role of dose constraints as used in optimization of protection of workers was described. Different issues to be considered in application of the concept and challenges associated with their implementation were also discussed. The situation where dose constraints could be misinterpreted to dose limits is also explained as the two are clearly differentiated by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103. Moreover, recommendations to all parties responsible for protection and safety of workers were discussed. (au)

  19. Consideration of Dose Limits for Organs at Risk of Thoracic Radiotherapy: Atlas for Lung, Proximal Bronchial Tree, Esophagus, Spinal Cord, Ribs, and Brachial Plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Feng-Ming; Ritter, Timothy; Quint, Douglas J.; Senan, Suresh; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Komaki, Ritsuko U.; Hurkmans, Coen W.; Timmerman, Robert; Bezjak, Andrea; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Movsas, Benjamin; Marsh, Lon; Okunieff, Paul; Choy, Hak; Curran, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review the dose limits and standardize the three-dimenional (3D) radiographic definition for the organs at risk (OARs) for thoracic radiotherapy (RT), including the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: The present study was performed by representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Soutwestern Oncology Group lung cancer committees. The dosimetric constraints of major multicenter trials of 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT were reviewed and the challenges of 3D delineation of these OARs described. Using knowledge of the human anatomy and 3D radiographic correlation, draft atlases were generated by a radiation oncologist, medical physicist, dosimetrist, and radiologist from the United States and reviewed by a radiation oncologist and medical physicist from Europe. The atlases were then critically reviewed, discussed, and edited by another 10 radiation oncologists. Results: Three-dimensional descriptions of the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus are presented. Two computed tomography atlases were developed: one for the middle and lower thoracic OARs (except for the heart) and one focusing on the brachial plexus for a patient positioned supine with their arms up for thoracic RT. The dosimetric limits of the key OARs are discussed. Conclusions: We believe these atlases will allow us to define OARs with less variation and generate dosimetric data in a more consistent manner. This could help us study the effect of radiation on these OARs and guide high-quality clinical trials and individualized practice in 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT.

  20. A radiological dose assessment for the Port Hope conversion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Cooper, F.; Janes, A.; Stager, R.; Peters, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Port Hope Conversion Facility (PHCF) receives uranium trioxide for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) or uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). The PHCF Site has a long history of industrial use. A Radiological Dose Assessment was undertaken as part of a Site Wide Risk Assessment. This assessment took into account all possible human receptors, both workers and members of the public. This paper focuses on a radiological assessment of dose to members of the public. The doses to members of the public from terrestrial pathways were added to the doses from aquatic pathways to obtain overall dose to receptors. The benchmark used in the assessment is 1 mSv/y. The estimated doses related to PHCF operations are much lower than the dose limit. (author)

  1. The concept of the effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiation of the human body by external or internal sources leads mostly to a simultaneous exposure of several organs. However, so far no clear and consistent recommendations for the combination of organ doses and the assessment of an exposure limit under such irradiation conditions are available. Following a proposal described in ICRP-publication 14 one possible concept for the combination of organ doses is discussed in this paper. This concept is based on the assumption that at low doses the total radiation detriment to the exposed person is given by the sum of radiation detriments to the single organs. Taking into account a linear dose-risk relationship, the sum of weighted organ doses leads to the definition of an 'Effective Dose'. The applicability and consequences of this 'Effective Dose Concept' are discussed especially with regard to the assessment of the maximum permissible intake of radionuclides into the human body and the combination of external and internal exposure. (orig.) [de

  2. Performance of ultralow-dose CT with iterative reconstruction in lung cancer screening: limiting radiation exposure to the equivalent of conventional chest X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Adrian [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); University Hospital Pitie-Salpetriere, Department of Polyvalent and Oncological Radiology, Paris (France); Landau, Julia; Buetikofer, Yanik; Leidolt, Lars; Brela, Barbara; May, Michelle; Heverhagen, Johannes; Christe, Andreas [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Ebner, Lukas [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the detection rate of pulmonary nodules in ultralow-dose CT acquisitions. In this lung phantom study, 232 nodules (115 solid, 117 ground-glass) of different sizes were randomly distributed in a lung phantom in 60 different arrangements. Every arrangement was acquired once with standard radiation dose (100 kVp, 100 references mAs) and once with ultralow radiation dose (80 kVp, 6 mAs). Iterative reconstruction was used with optimized kernels: I30 for ultralow-dose, I70 for standard dose and I50 for CAD. Six radiologists examined the axial 1-mm stack for solid and ground-glass nodules. During a second and third step, three radiologists used maximum intensity projection (MIPs), finally checking with computer-assisted detection (CAD), while the others first used CAD, finally checking with the MIPs. The detection rate was 95.5 % with standard dose (DLP 126 mGy*cm) and 93.3 % with ultralow-dose (DLP: 9 mGy*cm). The additional use of either MIP reconstructions or CAD software could compensate for this difference. A combination of both MIP reconstructions and CAD software resulted in a maximum detection rate of 97.5 % with ultralow-dose. Lung cancer screening with ultralow-dose CT using the same radiation dose as a conventional chest X-ray is feasible. (orig.)

  3. NESHAP Area-Specific Dose-Release Factors for Potential Onsite Member-of-the-Public Locations at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). In this report, the DRFs were calculated for potential radionuclide atmospheric releases from 13 SRS release points. The three potential onsite MEI locations to be evaluated are B-Area, Three Rivers Landfill (TRL), and Savannah River Ecology Lab Conference Center (SRELCC) with TRL’s onsite workers considered as members-of-the-public, and the potential future constructions of dormitories at SRELCC and Barracks at B-Area. Each MEI location was evaluated at a specified compass sector with different area to receptor distances and was conducted for both ground-level and elevated release points. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014). The resulting DRFs are compared to the 2014 NESHAP offsite MEI DRFs for three operational areas; A-Area, H-Area, and COS for a release rate of 1 Ci of tritium oxide at 0 ft. elevation. CAP88 was executed again using the 2016 NESHAP MEI release rates for 0 and 61 m stack heights to determine the radionuclide dose at TRL from the center-of-site (COS).

  4. The impact of assumptions regarding vaccine-induced immunity on the public health and cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination: Is one dose sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Desmond; de Ridder, Marc; Van Effelterre, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis A vaccination stimulates memory cells to produce an anamnestic response. In this study, we used a mathematical model to examine how long-term immune memory might convey additional protection against clinical/icteric infections. Dynamic and decision models were used to estimate the expected number of cases, and the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), respectively. Several scenarios were explored by assuming: (1) varying duration of vaccine-induced immune memory, (2) and/or varying levels of vaccine-induced immune memory protection (IMP), (3) and/or varying levels of infectiousness in vaccinated individuals with IMP. The base case analysis assumed a time horizon of 25 y (2012 – 2036), with additional analyses over 50 and 75 y. The analyses were conducted in the Mexican public health system perspective. In the base case that assumed no vaccine-induced IMP, the 2-dose hepatitis A vaccination strategy was cost-effective compared with the 1-dose strategy over the 3 time horizons. However, it was not cost-effective if we assumed additional IMP durations of at least 10 y in the 25-y horizon. In the 50- and 75-y horizons, the 2-dose strategy was always cost-effective, except when 100% reduction in the probability of icteric Infections, 75% reduction in infectiousness, and mean durations of IMP of at least 50 y were assumed. This analysis indicates that routine vaccination of toddlers against hepatitis A virus would be cost-effective in Mexico using a single-dose vaccination strategy. However, the cost-effectiveness of a second dose depends on the assumptions of additional protection by IMP and the time horizon over which the analysis is performed. PMID:27428611

  5. Exploring the interaction of activity limitations with context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services: A presentation of South African case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mji, Gubela; Braathen, Stine H; Vergunst, Richard; Scheffler, Elsje; Kritzinger, Janis; Mannan, Hasheem; Schneider, Marguerite; Swartz, Leslie; Visagie, Surona

    2017-02-08

    There are many factors that influence access to public health services, such as the context people live in, the existing health services, and personal, cultural and community factors. People with disabilities (activity limitations), through their experience of health services, may offer a particular understanding of the performance of the health services, thus exposing health system limitations more clearly than perhaps any other health service user. This article explores how activity limitations interact with factors related to context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services in South Africa. We present four case studies of people with disabilities from four low-resource diverse contexts in South Africa (rural, semi-rural, farming community and peri-urban) to highlight challenges of access to health services experienced by people with activity limitations in a variety of contexts. One case study of a person with disabilities was chosen from each study setting to build evidence using an intensive qualitative case study methodology to elucidate individual and household experiences of challenges experienced by people with activity limitations when attempting to access public health services. In-depth interviews were used to collect data, using an interview guide. The analysis was conducted in the form of a thematic analysis using the interview topics as a starting point. First, these four case studies demonstrate that equitable access to health services for people with activity limitations is influenced by a complex interplay of a variety of factors for a single individual in a particular context. Secondly, that while problems with access to public health services are experienced by everyone, people with activity limitations are affected in particular ways making them particularly vulnerable in using public health services. The revitalisation of primary health care and the introduction of national health

  6. Radiation safety practice at nuclear power stations and estimation of dose burdens to the USSR general public in the context of the country's nuclear power development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Il'in, L.A.; Turovskij, V.D.; Buldakov, L.A.; Lusev, N.G.; Pavlovskij, O.A.; Parkhomenko, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper sets forth the main features of the State system of health protection for staff and the general public, and likewise the essentials of environmental protection. The principles of standardizing radiation factors are given for power station personnel and for the general public, together with the main provisions of the health Standards and Rules for radiation protection at present valid in the USSR. Data are quoted on the radiation situation at nuclear power stations and on the size of releases of radioactive aerosols and liquid effluents to the environment. The paper pays particular attention to analyses of the radiation situation in districts where nuclear power stations are situated and also to the type and scope of monitoring of radioactive environmental contamination. An analysis of the coefficients achieved with Soviet pressurized water (WWER), high-power channel-type (RBMK) and fast (BN) reactors currently in large-scale use shows that in terms both of release levels of radioactive substances and of the dose burdens to staff and general public these reactors are comparable with the best foreign nuclear power installations. Values actually measured and values calculated for the basic parameters of the radiation situation in areas of the USSR where nuclear power stations are situated confirm the safety of these facilities as regards the health of the general public and the extremely low levels of their effects on the environment. In conclusion, the paper quotes estimates of the collective effective dose equivalent to the USSR population expected to result from implementation of the country's nuclear power programme up to the year 2000. Radiation safety problems associated with nuclear power production which still require solution are enumerated. (author)

  7. Folic acid fortification and public health: report on threshold doses above which unmetabolised folic acid appear in serum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Mary Rose

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All flour in the USA is fortified with folic acid at a level of 140 microg\\/100 g which is estimated to supply an extra 100 microg daily to the average diet. Some researchers have advocated that this be increased to double and even four times this amount. Based on previous research these higher levels are likely to lead to the appearance of unmetabolised vitamin in the circulation, which may have safety implications for sub-groups of the population. The UK and the Republic of Ireland will likely introduce mandatory fortification also in the next year or so. The aim of this study was to capture the short-term effect of folic acid fortification on unmetabolised folic acid in serum after chronic consumption of folic acid. METHODS: After pre-saturation with 400 microg folic acid supplements daily for 14-weeks, healthy folate replete adults (n = 20) consumed folic acid fortified bread, at three different levels (400 microg, 200 microg, 100 microg) over a period of one week each. The dose was administered in two-equal sized slices consumed at 09.00 hrs and 13.00 hrs. Serum samples for total folate and folic acid were collected at baseline, after 14-weeks of supplementation, and pre and post (at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours) each dose tested. RESULTS: Unmetabolised folic acid was detected after the 14-week supplementation period. Folic acid was not detected in either the 200 microg or 100 microg (current US regime) doses tested but was present at the highest level (400 microg) tested. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that persons exposed to the current US fortification programme supplying an average of 100 microg per day or less are unlikely to have unmetabolised folic acid in serum. It also seems that daily consumption of the higher level of 200 microg or less is unlikely to be problematic. Increasing the level however to 400 microg on the other hand is likely to lead to unmetabolised folic acid appearance.

  8. Folic acid fortification and public health: Report on threshold doses above which unmetabolised folic acid appear in serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPartlin Joseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All flour in the USA is fortified with folic acid at a level of 140 μg/100 g which is estimated to supply an extra 100 μg daily to the average diet. Some researchers have advocated that this be increased to double and even four times this amount. Based on previous research these higher levels are likely to lead to the appearance of unmetabolised vitamin in the circulation, which may have safety implications for sub-groups of the population. The UK and the Republic of Ireland will likely introduce mandatory fortification also in the next year or so. The aim of this study was to capture the short-term effect of folic acid fortification on unmetabolised folic acid in serum after chronic consumption of folic acid. Methods After pre-saturation with 400 μg folic acid supplements daily for 14-weeks, healthy folate replete adults (n = 20 consumed folic acid fortified bread, at three different levels (400 μg, 200 μg, 100 μg over a period of one week each. The dose was administered in two-equal sized slices consumed at 09.00 hrs and 13.00 hrs. Serum samples for total folate and folic acid were collected at baseline, after 14-weeks of supplementation, and pre and post (at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours each dose tested. Results Unmetabolised folic acid was detected after the 14-week supplementation period. Folic acid was not detected in either the 200 μg or 100 μg (current US regime doses tested but was present at the highest level (400 μg tested. Conclusion Our findings suggest that persons exposed to the current US fortification programme supplying an average of 100 μg per day or less are unlikely to have unmetabolised folic acid in serum. It also seems that daily consumption of the higher level of 200 μg or less is unlikely to be problematic. Increasing the level however to 400 μg on the other hand is likely to lead to unmetabolised folic acid appearance.

  9. [Risk of deterministic effects after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation: retrospective study among health workers in view of a new publication of International Commission on Radiological Protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrone, Mario; Di Lascio, Doriana

    2016-01-01

    The new recommended equivalent (publication n. 118 of International Commission on Radiological Protection) dose limit for occupational exposure of the lens of the eye is based on prevention of radiogenic cataracts, with the underlying assumption of a nominal threshold which has been adjusted from 2,5 Gy to 0.5 Gy for acute or protracted exposure. The study aim was to determine the prevalence of ocular lens opacity among healthcare workers (radiologic technologists, physicians, physician assistants) with respect to occupational exposures to ionizing radiations. Therefore, we conducted another retrospective study to explore the relationship between occupational exposure to radiation and opacity lens increase. Healthcare data (current occupational dosimetry, occupational history) are used to investigate risk of increase of opacity lens of eye. The sample of this study consisted of 148 health-workers (64 M and 84 W) aged from 28 to 66 years coming from different hospitals of the ASL of Potenza (clinic, hospital and institute with scientific feature). On the basis of the evaluation of the dosimetric history of the workers (global and effective dose) we agreed to ascribe the group of exposed subjects in cat A (equivalent dose > 2 mSV) and the group of non exposed subjects in cat B (workers with annual absorbed level of dose near 0 mSv). The analisys was conducted using SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for Social Science). A trend of increased ocular lens opacity was found with increasing number for workers in highest category of exposure (cat. A, Yates' chi-squared test = 13,7 p = 0,0002); variable significantly related to opacity lens results job: nurse (Χ(2)Y = 14,3 p = 0,0002) physician (Χ(2)Y = 2.2 p = 0,1360) and radiologic technologists (Χ(2)Y = 0,1 p = 0,6691). In conclusion our provides evidence that exposure to relatively low doses of ionizing radiation may be harmful to the lens of the eye and may increase a long-term risk of cataract formation; similary

  10. Limited partnership: The lack of sustainable development in relation to participation in Hungarian public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regeczi, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Public-private partnerships represent a new form of network governance, potentially offering flexibility, economic efficiencies and non-governmental participation in policy development. Such partnerships can be viewed in terms of sustainable development, achieving two of its three tenets - economic

  11. The Limits to Buying Stability in Tibet: Tibetan Representation and Preferentiality in China's Contemporary Public Employment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín); A. Zenz (Adrian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBased on an entirely unexplored source of data, this paper analyses the evolution of Tibetan representation and preferentiality within public employment recruitment across all Tibetan areas from 2007 to 2015. While recruitment collapsed after the end of the job placement system (fenpei)

  12. 76 FR 30144 - Limited Public Interest Waiver Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... JMC 320 gas reciprocating engine. EERE recognizes that there are US manufacturers of generator sets... have worked with GTR to find a US manufactured generator set that met their needs. In a case where a... and domestic producers. EERE believes the public interest is best served by supporting projects that...

  13. Low skeletal muscle mass is a predictive factor for chemotherapy dose-limiting toxicity in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendrich, Anne W; Swartz, Justin E; Bril, Sandra I; Wegner, Inge; de Graeff, Alexander; Smid, Ernst J; de Bree, Remco; Pothen, Ajit J

    2017-08-01

    Low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) or sarcopenia is emerging as an adverse prognostic factor for chemotherapy dose-limiting toxicity (CLDT) and survival in cancer patients. Our aim was to determine the impact of low SMM on CDLT in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) treated with primary radiochemotherapy (RCT). Consecutive patients diagnosed with LA-HNSCC and treated with primary RCT between 2007 and 2011 in our center were included. Clinical variables were retrospectively retrieved and SMM was measured at the level of the third cervical vertebra using pre-treatment head and neck CT-scans. After determining a cut-off value for low SMM, multivariate analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for CDLT. Of 112 patients included, 30.4% experienced CDLT. The optimal cut-off value for low SMM as a predictor of CDLT was ≤43.2cm 2 /m 2 . Using this cut-off, 54.5% patients had low SMM. Patients with low SMM experienced CDLT more frequently than patients with normal SMM (44.3% vs. 13.7%, pSMM, p=0.044). At multivariate analysis, low SMM was independently inversely associated with CDLT (OR 0.93, 95%CI: 0.88-0.98). Patients experiencing CDLT had a lower overall survival than patients who did not (mean 36.6vs. 54.2months, p=0.038). Low SMM is an independent risk factor for CDLT in LA-HNSCC patients treated with primary RCT. Pre-therapeutic estimation of SMM using routine CT-scans of the head and neck region may identify patients at risk of CDLT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-dose ionizing radiation limitations to seed germination: Results from a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hu, Dawei; Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Qin, Youcai; Sun, Yi; Liu, Dianlei; Li, Lei; Liu, Hong

    2017-08-01

    There is much uncertainty about the risks of seed germination after repeated or protracted environmental low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination using a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation. A low-dose ionizing radiation environment simulator was built to investigate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds germination process and then a kinetic model expressing the relationship between wheat seed germination dynamics and low-dose ionizing radiation intensity variations was developed by experimental data, plant physiology, relevant hypotheses and system dynamics, and sufficiently validated and accredited by computer simulation. Germination percentages were showing no differences in response to different dose rates. However, root and shoot lengths were reduced significantly. Plasma governing equations were set up and the finite element analysis demonstrated H 2 O, CO 2 , O 2 as well as the seed physiological responses to the low-dose ionizing radiation. The kinetic model was highly valid, and simultaneously the related influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination proposed in the modeling process was also adequately verified. Collectively these data demonstrate that low-dose ionizing radiation has an important effect on absorbing water, consuming O 2 and releasing CO 2 , which means the risk for embryo and endosperm development was higher. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Limit of the radionuclides in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaling; Jiang Rangrong

    2003-01-01

    Granite is an important sort of building materials. Their radionuclide contents are limited by the national standard GB6566-2001 just as other building materials. This standard divides them into main materials and decorative materials, and relaxes the limit of the latter obviously. Owing to the consideration of public dose limit and environment protection, this method needs discussion. Otherwise, red granite contains high radionuclide contents relatively, especially the sort of Indian Red, and need be paid more attention

  16. Just telling and selling: current limitations in the use of digital media in public health: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clar, C; Dyakova, M; Curtis, K; Dawson, C; Donnelly, P; Knifton, L; Clarke, A

    2014-12-01

    To undertake a scoping review and to map research in the area of digital media use in public health. Scoping review. PubMed, PsycINFO, Google and major textbooks of public health communication and health psychology were searched for primary studies or systematic reviews examining the use of digital media in a health context. Searches focussed on studies published between the start of 2000 and the end of June 2013. Abstracts of reviews of public health interventions were examined with respect to target groups, health topic, intervention characteristics, media used, study design, issues of quality and ethics, and outcomes. To map this area of work fully, this information was supplemented by adding information from primary studies. Areas were identified where systematic review evidence was scarce or non-existent by comparing the final map with information from the reviews analysed. 221 systematic reviews related to digital media use in a public health context were included. Most reviews included studies with an experimental design and general 'at risk' target populations. Specific settings were not specified in the majority of reviews. A large variety of health topics were covered. About a quarter of reviews did not specify a health topic but were concerned with broader issues of health promotion, disease prevention, or health education. Over half of the reviews focussed on eHealth and telemedicine, and another third were concerned with mass media - social marketing. Reviews most frequently reported behaviour-related outcomes or conducted some form of content analysis or analysis of the use of particular media. Research gaps were identified relating to community-based research, participation and empowerment, active media use (especially with respect to visual media und use of specific visual methodologies), and the use of salutogenic or assets-based approaches. The available research relating to digital media use in public health is dominated by studies relating to e

  17. Controllable dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  18. The limits of public communication coordination in a nuclear emergency: lessons from media reporting on the Fukushima case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezelj, Iztok; Perko, Tanja; Cantone, Marie C; Gallego, Eduardo; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Oughton, Deborah H

    2016-06-01

    Coordination of public communication has become a key issue in management of complex emergencies, and is a matter of debate between nuclear emergency management professionals. A particular problem is when inconsistent information is sent to the media and public by official sources from different levels, which has led to calls for a more coordinated approach. The IAEA created guidelines recommending a one-voice communication approach that provides clear, consistent and coordinated information by relevant stakeholders. The reviewed theory on the emergency communication coordination and the empirical results in this paper demonstrate some challenges regarding the feasibility of the above stated goal. This paper explores the communication process in the two-month period of the Fukushima nuclear emergency by using a quantitative comparative content and discourse analysis of 1340 printed media articles on the Fukushima nuclear disaster from two major newspapers in Spain ('El País' and 'El Mundo'), Italy ('Corriere della Sera' and 'La Repubblica'), Norway ('Aftenposten' and 'Dagsavisen'), Slovenia ('Delo' and 'Večer'), Belgium ('Le Soir' and 'De Standaard') and Russia ('Komsomolskaya Pravda' and 'Izvestiya'). The results show that it will be difficult to achieve a truly coordinated approach and one-voice communication in severe nuclear and radiological emergency due to the communication difficulties created by the dispersion of information sources, a broad and dispersed focus of the reported information, partially subjective and conflicting media reporting. The paper suggests ways to improve public communication coordination in nuclear and radiological disasters.

  19. Entrance surface dose and image quality: Comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambali, A. S.; Ng, K. H.; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Wang, H. B.; Jamal, N.; Spelic, D. C.; Suleiman, O. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia. (authors)

  20. Study of dose levels absorbed by members of the public in the nuclear medicine departments; Estudo dos niveis de dose em individuos do publico nos servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Geovanna Oliveira de Mello

    2001-03-01

    In nuclear Medicine, radioisotopes are bound to various compounds (called radiopharmaceuticals) for use in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. These unsealed sources are administered in various forms to patients, who remain radioactive for hours or days, and represent a source of potential radiation exposure for others. Thus, in nuclear medicine departments, radiation protection of workers and members of the public, especially persons accompanying patients, must consider, this exposure. In Brazil, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) establishes that, in nuclear medicine departments, the patients and persons accompanying should be separated each other. However, this rule is not always followed due to many factors such as physical and emotional conditions of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was the investigation of dose levels, which the persons accompanying patients are exposed to. For monitoring, thermoluminescent dosimeters were employed. The dosimeters were given to 380 persons who were accompanying patients in nuclear medicine departments. Exposure results were lower than 1 mSv. On the basis of CNEN rules, issues regarding stay conditions for members of the public in these departments are discussed. (author)

  1. The cost of occupational dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, A.B.; Clark, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The optimization of radiological protection will routinely involve the balancing of public and occupational exposure, particularly within the nuclear fuel cycle. For example the reduction of public exposure from an effluent stream could lead to increases in occupational exposure from treatment, storage and disposal operations. A methodology is propased for the estimation of the cost of occupational exposure in the UK (Pound man-Sv -1 ) based on valuations of changes in risk. A variable value for the cost of the occupational man-Sv is obtained depending on per caput dose levels. The values at particular per caput dose levels are different for occupational workers and the general public, because of different demography and assumptions on risk perception and aversion. They are however approximately the same when the per caput doses are expressed as percentages of the dose limits for workers and the general public respectively. An example of the application of the derived cost of the occupational man-Sv to an optimisation problem is given. (author)

  2. Phase I North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial-N9923 of escalating doses of twice-daily thoracic radiation therapy with amifostine and with alternating chemotherapy in limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, Yolanda I.; Okuno, Scott H.; Schild, Steven E.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Bot, Brian M.; Martens, John M.; Wender, Donald B.; Soori, Gamini S.; Moore, Dennis F.; Kozelsky, Timothy F.; Jett, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal was to identify the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) that can be given with chemotherapy and amifostine for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC). Methods and Materials: Treatment began with two cycles of topotecan (1 mg/m 2 ) Days 1 to 5 and paclitaxel (175 mg/m 2 ) Day 5 (every 3 weeks) given before and after TRT. The TRT began at 6 weeks. The TRT was given in 120 cGy fractions b.i.d. and the dose escalation (from 4,800 cGy, dose level 1, to 6,600 cGy, dose level 4) followed the standard 'cohorts of 3' design. The etoposide (E) (50 mg/day) and cisplatin (C) (3 mg/m 2 ) were given i.v. before the morning TRT and amifostine (500 mg/day) was given before the afternoon RT. This was followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were defined as Grade ≥4 hematologic, febrile neutropenia, esophagitis, or other nonhematologic toxicity, Grade ≥3 dyspnea, or Grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Results: Fifteen patients were evaluable for the Phase I portion of the trial. No DLTs were seen at dose levels 1 and 2. Two patients on dose level 4 experienced DLTs: 1 patient had a Grade 4 pneumonitis, dyspnea, fatigue, hypokalemia, and anorexia, and 1 patient had a Grade 5 hypoxia attributable to TRT. One of 6 patients on dose level 3 had a DLT, Grade 3 esophagitis. The Grade ≥3 toxicities seen in at least 10% of patients during TRT were esophagitis (53%), leukopenia (33%), dehydration (20%), neutropenia (13%), and fatigue (13%). The median survival was 14.5 months. Conclusion: The MTD of b.i.d. TRT was 6000 cGy (120 cGy b.i.d.) with EP and amifostine

  3. Investigation of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China and evaluation of internal dose to public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Changshou; Liu Yulan; Xu Ning; Hu Aiying; Kou Tiluo; Shi Zhongxin

    1992-12-01

    In order to obtain background radiation levels of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China, the determination and analysis of water and food samples have been completed by organizations of radiological protection from 28 provinces, autonomous regions and three major cities. Ranges of specific activity of natural radionuclides for U, Th, Ra, K, Pb and Po are (2.2 ∼ 25.5) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (0.5 ∼ 6.9) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (3.4 ∼ 25.5) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (25 ∼ 420) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (3.9 ∼ 55) x 10 -2 Bq/kg and (2.7 ∼ 58) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, respectively. Samples of drinking water were taken from tap water or well. The average concentrations in tap water and well water are 2.8 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L for U, 0.8 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 1.3 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Ra, 0.07 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 0.06 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Th, 0. 3 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 1.1 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Pb and 0.3 Bq/L and 0.5 Bq/L for Po respectively. The annual intakes by ingestion have been calculated. The annual intake of male adult from six main natural radionuclides is about 205 Bq. Among them 64% of total intake of U is from drinking water. The contributions from grains to the total intake of Ra, Pb and Po are 55.7%, 59.7% and 70% respectively. The total annual average effective dose equivalent of 6 natural radionuclides for male adult in China is about 310 μSv

  4. Patient and staff dose during hysterosalpinography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buls, N.; Osteaux, M.

    2001-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a useful and widely employed technique which uses X-ray fluoroscopy to investigate the female genital tract. Fluoroscopy is assessed by a gynaecologist, a physician who is not always trained to work with ionising radiation. Dose-area product measurements in a group of 34 patients allowed an estimation of the median effective dose (0,83 mSv) and the median dose to the ovaries (1,63 mGy) of the patient per procedure. The dose to the staff was estimated using thermoluminescent dosimetry. The following median entrance surface doses were estimated per procedure: 0,22 mGy to the lens of the eye, 0,15 mGy to the neck at thyroid level and 0,19 mGy to the back of the hand. The annual eye dose limit could be exceeded if the gynaecologist is a member of the public. (author)

  5. Effect of high-dose phytase and citric acid, alone or in combination, on growth performance of broilers given diets severely limited in available phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, H R; Jabbari, Z; Adibnia, S; Shahir, M H; Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    1. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of high-dose phytase alone or in combination with citric acid (CA) in the diet severely limited in available phosphorus (P) on performance, plasma P and plasma Ca of broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. 2. In Trial 1, 297 21-d-old female chicks were placed into 27 pens and allocated to 9 maize-soybean meal-based dietary treatments, which were a positive control [PC, 4.23 g/kg non-phytate P (NPP)] and 8 negative control (NC, 1.35 g/kg NPP) groups consisting of two concentrations of CA (0 and 20 g/kg) and 4 concentrations of phytase (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 U/kg) in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. In Trial 2, 192 21-d-old male chicks were placed into 24 pens and allocated to 6 wheat-canola meal-based dietary treatments, which were a PC (4.2 g/kg NPP), a NC (1.68 g/kg NPP) and 4 NC groups consisting of two concentrations of CA (0 and 20 g/kg) and two concentrations of phytase (2000 and 4000 U/kg) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. 3. In both trials, birds fed on the PC had significantly higher average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), plasma P and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and plasma Ca than those of birds fed on the NC. CA supplementation significantly increased ADG and ADFI. There was a significant interaction between CA and phytase on plasma P where CA improved the effect of phytase on plasma P. In Trial 1, phytase addition improved ADG, ADFI, FCR and plasma Ca linearly. 4. Briefly, this research showed the interaction effect between CA and phytase on plasma P when broilers were fed on diets based on maize-soybean meal or wheat-canola meal. The results showed that CA supplementation lowered the concentration of phytase that is needed in low NPP diets to increase plasma P.

  6. Variation in X-ray dose quantity using an amorphous selenium based flat-panel detector - a study on the dose reduction rate up to the limit of diagnostical utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, T.; Wohlers, J.; Manegold, K.; Wetter, A.; Jacobi, V.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Streng, W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic quality and minimum required dose to obtain acceptable images for diagnostic purposes in the field of musculoskeletal radiology. Materials and methods: A critical comparison of the image quality produced by a novel flat panel detector and the conventional screen/film system using a contrast-detail phantom was performed in phase I. Images from both systems were obtained with the same dose and displayed with similar contrast and density. In phase II images of significant anatomical structures in cadaver extremities obtained using the digital detector system and the standard film/screen system were critically evaluated. After a successive reduction in the X-ray dose for 84 patients in phase III, eight independent radiologists compared the image quality of the screen/film system to that of the novel flat panel detector. Results: Phases I and II revealed a difference in the image quality achieved by the standard screen/film system and the digital detector system to the advantage of the digital detector system. In 77 of 84 patients (91.7%), phase III showed equal image quality after a 50% reduction in the X-ray dose. In 3 cases (3.6%) the image quality and the level of contrast were better. No unified statement could be made for 4 patients (4.7%). Conclusion: Digital imaging of skeletal disorders using the novel flat panel detector makes it possible to reduce the X-ray dose by 50% with equal or even better image quality. (orig.)

  7. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs

  8. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  9. Multi-institutional phase I study of low-dose ultra-fractionated radiotherapy as a chemosensitizer for gemcitabine and erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or limited metastatic pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; Meyer, Joshua E.; Joiner, Michael; Hall, Michael J.; Philip, Philip; Shields, Anthony; McSpadden, Erin; Choi, Minsig; Adaire, Beth; Duncan, Gail; Meropol, Neal J.; Cescon, Terrence P.; Cohen, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gemcitabine (G) has been shown to sensitize pancreatic cancer to radiotherapy but requires lower doses of G and thus delays aggressive systemic treatment, potentially leading to distant failure. We initiated a phase I trial combining ultra-fractionated low-dose radiotherapy with full dose G and erlotinib in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer confined to the abdomen and an ECOG performance status (PS) of 0–1 who had received 0–1 prior regimens (without G or E) and no prior radiotherapy were eligible. Patients were treated in 21 day cycles with G IV days 1 and 8, E once PO QD, and twice daily RT fractions separated by at least 4 h on days 1, 2, 8, and 9. Whole abdominal RT fields were used. Primary endpoint was to define dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Results: 27 patients (median age 64 years and 15 male) were enrolled between 11/24/08 and 4/12/12. 1 patient withdrew consent prior to receiving any protocol therapy. 17 patients had a PS of 1. The majority of patients were stage IV. One DLT was noted out of 7 patients at dose level (DL) 1. Subsequently no DLTs were noted in 3 patients each enrolled at DL2-4 or 11 patients in the expansion cohort. The majority of grade 3 toxicities were hematologic with 1 grade 5 bowel perforation in dose level 1 in cycle 4. Best response in 24 evaluable patients: PR (8), stable (15), PD 1. Median survival for the entire group was 9.1 months. Conclusion: This phase I study combining low-dose ultra-fractionated RT as a sensitizer to full dose G plus E was well tolerated with encouraging efficacy. This represents a novel strategy worthy of further investigation in advanced pancreatic cancer patients

  10. Investigation of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China and evaluation of internal dose to public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changshou, Zhu; Yulan, Liu; Ning, Xu; Aiying, Hu; Tiluo, Kou; Zhongxin, Shi [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Ministry of Public Health (China); and others

    1992-12-01

    In order to obtain background radiation levels of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China, the determination and analysis of water and food samples have been completed by organizations of radiological protection from 28 provinces, autonomous regions and three major cities. Ranges of specific activity of natural radionuclides for U, Th, Ra, K, Pb and Po are (2.2 {approx} 25.5) x 10 {sup -2} Bq/kg, (0.5 {approx} 6.9) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, (3.4 {approx} 25.5) x 10 {sup -2} Bq/kg, (25 {approx} 420) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, (3.9 {approx} 55) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg and (2.7 {approx} 58) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, respectively. Samples of drinking water were taken from tap water or well. The average concentrations in tap water and well water are 2.8 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 3.7 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for U, 0.8 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 1.3 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Ra, 0.07 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 0.06 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Th, 0. 3 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 1.1 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Pb and 0.3 Bq/L and 0.5 Bq/L for Po respectively. The annual intakes by ingestion have been calculated. The annual intake of male adult from six main natural radionuclides is about 205 Bq. Among them 64% of total intake of U is from drinking water. The contributions from grains to the total intake of Ra, Pb and Po are 55.7%, 59.7% and 70% respectively. The total annual average effective dose equivalent of 6 natural radionuclides for male adult in China is about 310 {mu}Sv.

  11. Uncertainties in planned dose due to the limited voxel size of the planning CT when treating lung tumors with proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana, Samuel; Paganetti, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Dose calculation for lung tumors can be challenging due to the low density and the fine structure of the geometry. The latter is not fully considered in the CT image resolution used in treatment planning causing the prediction of a more homogeneous tissue distribution. In proton therapy, this could result in predicting an unrealistically sharp distal dose falloff, i.e. an underestimation of the distal dose falloff degradation. The goal of this work was the quantification of such effects. Two computational phantoms resembling a two-dimensional heterogeneous random lung geometry and a swine lung were considered applying a variety of voxel sizes for dose calculation. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compare the dose distributions predicted with the voxel size typically used for the treatment planning procedure with those expected to be delivered using the finest resolution. The results show, for example, distal falloff position differences of up to 4 mm between planned and expected dose at the 90% level for the heterogeneous random lung (assuming treatment plan on a 2 x 2 x 2.5 mm 3 grid). For the swine lung, differences of up to 38 mm were seen when airways are present in the beam path when the treatment plan was done on a 0.8 x 0.8 x 2.4 mm 3 grid. The two-dimensional heterogeneous random lung phantom apparently does not describe the impact of the geometry adequately because of the lack of heterogeneities in the axial direction. The differences observed in the swine lung between planned and expected dose are presumably due to the poor axial resolution of the CT images used in clinical routine. In conclusion, when assigning margins for treatment planning for lung cancer, proton range uncertainties due to the heterogeneous lung geometry and CT image resolution need to be considered.

  12. Corporate and public governances in transition: the limits of property rights and the significance of legal institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Nivet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-socialist transition raises crucial issues about the institutional setting of a market economy. The priority has been given to property rights, and privatization has been advocated as a means to depoliticize economic activities. The dismissal of external interventions, allied with the attraction to the American model and Hayekian ideas, often led to the introduction of minimal laws and wait for their evolutionary development. The failure of corporate and public governance, notably in Russia, helps to show why, on the contrary, democratically established legal rules are essential. Legislation should not only protect corporate shareholders and stakeholders, but more fundamentally all citizens against predatory collusive behavior of political, economic and criminal elites

  13. Marker-assisted selection in maize: current status, potential, limitations and perspectives from the private and public sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragot, M.; Lee, M.

    2007-01-01

    More than twenty-five years after the advent of DNA markers, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has become a routine component of some private maize breeding programmes. Line conversion has been one of the most productive applications of MAS in maize breeding, reducing time to market and resulting in countless numbers of commercial products. Recently, applications of MAS for forward breeding have been shown to increase significantly the rate of genetic gain when compared with conventional breeding. Costs associated with MAS are still very high. Further improvements in marker technologies, data handling and analysis, phenotyping and nursery operations are needed to realize the full benefits of MAS for private maize breeding programmes and to allow the transfer of proven approaches and protocols to public breeding programmes in developing countries. (author)

  14. The ethics of limiting informed debate: censorship of select medical publications in the interest of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several articles in the scholarly literature on medical ethics proclaim the need for "responsible scholarship" in the debate over the proper criteria for death, in which "responsible scholarship" is defined in terms of support for current neurological criteria for death. In a recent article, James M. DuBois is concerned that academic critiques of current death criteria create unnecessary doubt about the moral acceptability of organ donation, which may affect the public's willingness to donate. Thus he calls for a closing of the debate on current death criteria and for journal editors to publish only critiques that "substantially engage and advance the debate." We argue that such positions as DuBois' are a threat to responsible scholarship in medical ethics, especially scholarship that opposes popular stances, because it erodes academic freedom and the necessity of debate on an issue that is literally a matter of life and death, no matter what side a person defends.

  15. Estimation of 210Po activity in mussel sample and its contribution in radiation dose to the public around Kanyakumari Coast, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin Rani, L.; Govindaraju, M.; Jeevanram, R.K.; Muthukumaran, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 ( 210 Po), a naturally occurring á-emitting radionuclide exists in the environment as a result of Uranium- 238 ( 238 U) decay chain. It is therefore ubiquitously distributed in the rocks, soils, making up Earths crust, in the atmosphere and in natural waters. 210 Po enters in marine organisms via adsorption, absorption and ingestion and is transferred through seafood consumption. The concentration of 210 Po in the edible portions of marine organisms may be many folds higher than that in the seawater because of biological re-concentration processes. In the present study, sampling sites were chosen to determine the difference of 210 Po concentration in bivalve mussel, an appropriate bio-indicator for radioactive contamination. The concentration of radionuclide Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) in brown mussel (Perna perna), obtained from different locations of Kanyakumari coastal area were estimated, which ranged between 76.0 ± 5.1 Bq/kg and 310.20 ± 18.4 Bq/kg. The highest activity was observed at Kalluvilai. The daily and annual intake of 210 Po from ingestion via mussel was estimated in these areas. To evaluate the internal exposure, annual committed effective dose to the adult population of this coastal area was determined and compared with the Indian and worldwide values to assess the risk status of the study area. It was observed that the average annual committed effective dose of 210 Po through ingestion is higher than the recommended dose of ICRP, 1990 (1 mSv/year) for general public due to the contribution of seafood, mussel species (3.09 mSv/year) in daily diet. (author)

  16. Work plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944, with descriptions of uncertainties inherent in such estimates. The secondary objective is to make project records--information that HEDR staff members used to estimate radiation doses--available to the public. Preliminary dose estimates for a limited geographic area and time period, certain radionuclides, and certain populations are planned to be available in 1990; complete results are planned to be reported in 1993. Project reports and references used in the reports are available to the public in the DOE Public Reading Room in Richland, Washington. Project progress is documented in monthly reports, which are also available to the public in the DOE Public Reading Room.

  17. Summary and recommendations of a National Cancer Institute workshop on issues limiting the clinical use of Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms for megavoltage external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; Smathers, James; Deye, James

    2003-01-01

    Due to the significant interest in Monte Carlo dose calculations for external beam megavoltage radiation therapy from both the research and commercial communities, a workshop was held in October 2001 to assess the status of this computational method with regard to use for clinical treatment planning. The Radiation Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, in conjunction with the Nuclear Data and Analysis Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, gathered a group of experts in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning and Monte Carlo dose calculations, and examined issues involved in clinical implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation methods in clinical radiotherapy. The workshop examined the current status of Monte Carlo algorithms, the rationale for using Monte Carlo, algorithmic concerns, clinical issues, and verification methodologies. Based on these discussions, the workshop developed recommendations for future NCI-funded research and development efforts. This paper briefly summarizes the issues presented at the workshop and the recommendations developed by the group

  18. Editorial: dose-dependent ZnO particle-induced acute phase response in humans warrants re-evaluation of occupational exposure limits for metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2018-01-01

    in autonomic imbalance and particle-induced pulmonary inflammation and acute phase response.The acute phase response is the systemic response to acute and chronic inflammatory states caused by for example bacterial infection, virus infection, trauma and infarction. It is characterized by differential...... studies and SAA has been causally related to the formation of plaques in the aorta in animal studies.In a recent paper in Particle and Fibre Toxicology, Christian Monse et al. provide evidence that inhalation of ZnO nanoparticles induces dose-dependent acute phase response in humans at dose levels well...

  19. Interim report of the JHPS expert committee on radiation protection of the lens of the eye (1). Overview of the lens, radiogenic cataract, and equivalent dose limit for the lens newly recommended by the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwai, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Yamauchi, Chiyo; Tsujimura, Norio; Hotta, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued the statement on tissue reactions. This stimulated interest in many countries. The Expert Committee on Radiation Protection of the Lens of the Eye was established in the Japanese Health Physics Society, and in April 2013, started discussion about the international developments and recent studies related to the dosimetry of the lens of the eye. This committee now publishes the interim report consisting of parts I-VI. Of these, this Part I overviews the structure of the eye and lens, cataract types and the scientific evidence of its new dose threshold and equivalent dose limit newly recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  20. The limitations of point of care testing for pandemic influenza: what clinicians and public health professionals need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchette, Todd F; Bastien, Nathalie; Berry, Jody; Booth, Tim F; Chernesky, Max; Couillard, Michel; Drews, Steven; Ebsworth, Anthony; Fearon, Margaret; Fonseca, Kevin; Fox, Julie; Gagnon, Jean-Nicolas; Guercio, Steven; Horsman, Greg; Jorowski, Cathy; Kuschak, Theodore; Li, Yan; Majury, Anna; Petric, Martin; Ratnam, Sam; Smieja, Marek; Van Caeseele, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the world prepares for the next influenza pandemic, governments have made significant funding commitments to vaccine development and antiviral stockpiling. While these are essential components to pandemic response, rapid and accurate diagnostic testing remains an often neglected cornerstone of pandemic influenza preparedness. Clinicians and Public Health Practitioners need to understand the benefits and drawbacks of different influenza tests in both seasonal and pandemic settings. Culture has been the traditional gold standard for influenza diagnosis but requires from 1-10 days to generate a positive result, compared to nucleic acid detection methods such as real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Although the currently available rapid antigen detection kits can generate results in less than 30 minutes, their sensitivity is suboptimal and they are not recommended for the detection of novel influenza viruses. Until point-of-care (POC) tests are improved, PILPN recommends that the best option for pandemic influenza preparation is the enhancement of nucleic acid-based testing capabilities across Canada.

  1. The use and value of polling to determine public opinion on GMOs in Europe: limitations and ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaint, Nilsy; Varbanova, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess existing surveys that attempt to gauge public opinion about GM crops. This review shows that consumer surveys can be something of a blunt instrument. Questionnaires, however well-constructed and professionally delivered, are answered in a vacuum of knowledge and elicit misleading responses. People recurrently admit they lack information on the technology behind GM food. It is a part of the general unfamiliarity with the food production process with which people show equal, if not greater, concern. Lacking control over a process involving such an emotive subject like food makes people uneasy and reluctant to accept "unknowns". In addition, if people give answers to hypothetical questions, they do so as "cautious citizens" rather than consumers and this is not a good guide to actual behavior in real life. Qualitative studies using focus groups can be a much better guide to how people really feel about issues, but they also need expert facilitation and analysis to be of real value. An even better guide to acceptance and purchasing behavior (if that is the objective) is to put people in a situation where they are actually making a choice of whether or not to buy GM products.

  2. Simplification of antiretroviral therapy: a necessary step in the public health response to HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Marco; Ford, Nathan; Doherty, Meg; Flexner, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past decade represents one of the great public health and human rights achievements of recent times. Moving from an individualized treatment approach to a simplified and standardized public health approach has been critical to ART scale-up, simplifying both prescribing practices and supply chain management. In terms of the latter, the risk of stock-outs can be reduced and simplified prescribing practices support task shifting of care to nursing and other non-physician clinicians; this strategy is critical to increase access to ART care in settings where physicians are limited in number. In order to support such simplification, successive World Health Organization guidelines for ART in resource-limited settings have aimed to reduce the number of recommended options for first-line ART in such settings. Future drug and regimen choices for resource-limited settings will likely be guided by the same principles that have led to the recommendation of a single preferred regimen and will favour drugs that have the following characteristics: minimal risk of failure, efficacy and tolerability, robustness and forgiveness, no overlapping resistance in treatment sequencing, convenience, affordability, and compatibility with anti-TB and anti-hepatitis treatments.

  3. Estimated radiation dose from timepieces containing tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Luminescent timepieces containing radioactive tritium, either in elemental form or incorporated into paint, are available to the general public. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential radiation dose commitments received by the public annually as a result of exposure to tritium which may escape from the timepieces during their distribution, use, repair, and disposal. Much uncertainty is associated with final dose estimates due to limitations of empirical data from which exposure parameters were derived. Maximum individual dose estimates were generally less than 3 μSv/yr, but ranged up to 2 mSv under worst-case conditions postulated. Estimated annual collective (population) doses were less than 5 person/Sv per million timepieces distributed

  4. Committed dose equivalent per intake of unit activity of radionuclides, for four age-groups, concerning the members of the public for the environmental impact evaluation's of radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Brofferio, C.; Sacripanti, A.

    1983-01-01

    In the present work, with the aim of estimating more realistically the committed dose equivalent for the members of the public in the environmental impact evaluation's of nuclear plants, the authors supply a methodology for calculating the committed dose equivalents for inhalation and ingestion, and the values for fiftheen organs and sixi-three radionuclides, concerning four specific age-groups on the ground of data published by Icrp n.30 part 1, 2, 3

  5. The Principles of Proportionality, Legal Argumentation and the Discretionary Power of the Public Administration: An Analysis from the Limits on Fundamental Rights and Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yezid Carrillo-de la Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the implications of the principle of proportionality with regards to administrative decisions that limit civil liberties and fundamental rights. The hypothesis we intend to demonstrate is that a discretionary power of the Public Administration for issuing measures that restricts individual rights and liberties is just apparent, since the reach of agency discretion for choosing time, means and place conditions is very narrow. As the following research shows, the principle of proportionality obliges administrative agencies to implement effective means to attain the purposes of their intervention, but minimizing its impacts on constitutionally protected rights and liberties.

  6. Protocol for the systematic review of the prevention, treatment and public health management of impetigo, scabies and fungal skin infections in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philippa; Bowen, Asha; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew; Prince, Sam; Andrews, Ross; Currie, Bart; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-09-23

    Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and control groups for cultural, ethical or economic reasons. Likewise, a synthesis of the evidence for public health control within endemic populations is also lacking. We propose a systematic review of the evidence for the prevention, treatment and public health management of skin infections in resource-limited settings, to inform the development of guidelines for the standardised and streamlined clinical and public health management of skin infections in endemic populations. The protocol has been designed in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols statement. All trial designs and analytical observational study designs will be eligible for inclusion. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature will include PubMed, Excertpa Medica and Global Health. Grey literature databases will also be systematically searched, and clinical trials registries scanned for future relevant studies. The primary outcome of interest will be the clinical cure or decrease in prevalence of impetigo, scabies, crusted scabies, tinea capitis, tinea corporis or tinea unguium. Two independent reviewers will perform eligibility assessment and data extraction using standardised electronic forms. Risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two independent reviewers according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Data will be tabulated and narratively synthesised. We expect there will be insufficient data to conduct meta-analysis. The final body of evidence will be reported against the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation grading system. The evidence

  7. SPEEDI: a computer code system for the real-time prediction of radiation dose to the public due to an accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiko; Chino, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    1985-10-01

    SPEEDI, a computer code system for prediction of environmental doses from radioactive materials accidentally released from a nuclear plant has been developed to assist the organizations responsible for an emergency planning. For realistic simulation, have been developed a model which statistically predicts the basic wind data and then calculates the three-dimensional mass consistent wind field by interpolating these predicted data, and a model for calculation of the diffusion of released materials using a combined model of random-walk and PICK methods. These calculation in the system is carried out in conversational mode with a computer so that we may use the system with ease in an emergency. SPEEDI has also versatile files, which make it easy to control the complicated flows of calculation. In order to attain a short computation time, a large-scale computer with performance of 25 MIPS and a vector processor of maximum 250 MFLOPS are used for calculation of the models so that quick responses have been made. Simplified models are also prepared for calculation in a minicomputer widely used by local governments and research institutes, although the precision of calculation as same with the above models can not be expected to obtain. The present report outlines the structure and functions of SPEEDI, methods for prediction of the wind field and the models for calculation of the concentration of released materials in air and on the ground, and the doses to the public. Some of the diffusion models have been compared with the field experiments which had been carried out as a part of the SPEEDI development program. The report also discusses the reliability of the diffusion models on the basis of the compared results, and shows that they can reasonably simulate the diffusion in the internal boundary layer which commonly occurs near the coastal region. (J.P.N.)

  8. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Mexican American (MA) adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA), added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium) by NHW, NHB, and MA adults. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811), NHB (2,062), and MA (n=1,950) adults 19+ years. The 2003-2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied. Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate.

  9. Analysis of occupational doses in radioactive and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, A.; Gomez P, I.; Pardo, G.; Thomasz, E.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational doses were analyzed in the most important nuclear and radioactive facilities in Argentina, on the period 1988-1994. The areas associated with uranium mining and milling, and medical uses of radiation facilities were excluded from this analysis. The ICRP publication 60 recommendations, adopted in 1990, and enforced in Argentine in 1994, keep the basic criteria of dose limitation system and recommend a substantial reduction in the dose limits. The reduction of the dose limits will affect the individual dose distributions, principally in those installations with occupational doses close to 50 mSv. It were analyzed Occupational doses, principally in the following facilities: Atucha-I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, radioisotope production plants, research reactors and radioactive waste management plants. The highest doses were identified in each facility, as well as the task associated with them. Trends in the individual dose distribution and collective and average doses were analyzed. It is concluded, that no relevant difficulties should appear in accomplishing with the basic standards for radiological safety, except for the Atucha-I Nuclear Power Plant. In this NPP a significant effort for the optimization of radiological safety procedures in order to diminish the occupational doses, and a change of the fuel channels by new ones free of cobalt are being carried out. (authors). 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The estimation of derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Bryant, P.M.; Clarke, R.H.; Morley, F.

    1979-08-01

    In practical radiation protection, it is often necessary to calculate limits of intake of radionuclides associated with various quantities; such limits are needed, for example, to assess the adequacy of the control of environmental contamination. In publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these limits, when related to the basic limits of dose-equivalent by a defined model, are referred to as Derived Limits (DLs). In the present report the principles to be adopted by the Board in calculating DLs to be recommended for general application within the United Kingdom are outlined. DLs will be recommended for a wide range of radionuclides and for circumstances relevant to the workplace, and, more frequently, the general environment. The latter will include DLs in foodstuffs and associated environmental materials, such as soil and grass, and DLs for discharges from stacks. DLs will be related to dose equivalents for workers or members of the public for stochastic or non-stochastic effects as appropriate. Consideration will be given to relevant data on radiosensitivity, metabolism and dosimetry for children and to the physicochemical forms of radionuclides. (author)

  11. Empty virions in AAV8 vector preparations reduce transduction efficiency and may cause total viral particle dose-limiting side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty virions are inadvertent by-products of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV packaging process, resulting in vector lots with mixtures of full and empty virions at variable ratios. Impact of empty virions on the efficiency and side effects of rAAV transduction has not been well characterized. Here, we generated partially and completely empty AAV8 virions, fully packaged rAAV8 lots, and mixtures of empty and fully packaged virions with variable ratios of empty virions. The aforementioned dosing formulations of rAAV8 expressing either cellular (EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein or nuclear-targeted (n LacZ or secreted (human α1-antitrypsin (hA1AT reporter genes were intravenously injected into two different mouse strains, followed by analyses of transgene expressions and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels at different time points. We found that addition of empty particles to the fixed doses of rAAV8 preparations repressed liver transduction up to 64% (serum hA1AT and 44% (nLacZ in C57BL/6 mice, respectively. The similar trend in inhibiting EGFP expression together with concurrent elevations of serum ALT levels were observed in the BALB/c mice, indicating that empty particles may also exacerbate side effects of rAAV8 EGFP transduction. Our results suggest that removal of empty particles from rAAV preparations may improve efficacy and safety of AAV in clinical applications.

  12. Chemoimmunotherapy for relapsed/refractory and progressive 17p13-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose rituximab is effective and tolerable and limits loss of CD20 expression by circulating CLL cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Clive S; Taylor, Ronald P; Lindorfer, Margaret A; Beum, Paul V; LaPlant, Betsy; Wu, Wenting; Call, Timothy G; Bowen, Deborah A; Conte, Michael J; Frederick, Lori A; Link, Brian K; Blackwell, Sue E; Veeramani, Suresh; Baig, Nisar A; Viswanatha, David S; Weiner, George J; Witzig, Thomas E

    2014-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients with purine analog refractory disease or TP53 dysfunction still have limited treatment options and poor survival. Alemtuzumab-containing chemoimmunotherapy regimens can be effective but frequently cause serious infections. We report a Phase II trial testing the efficacy and tolerability of a short-duration regimen combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose high-frequency rituximab designed to decrease the risk of treatment-associated infections and to limit the loss of CD20 expression by CLL cells. The study enrolled 39 patients with progressive CLL that was either relapsed/refractory (n = 36) or previously untreated with 17p13 deletion (17p13-) (n = 3). Thirteen (33%) patients had both 17p13- and TP53 mutations predicted to be dysfunctional, and eight patients had purine analog refractory CLL without TP53 dysfunction. Twenty-six (67%) patients completed therapy, with only five (13%) patients having treatment-limiting toxicity and no treatment-related deaths. Twenty-two (56%) patients responded to treatment, with 11 (28%) complete responses (four with incomplete bone marrow recovery). Median progression-free survival was 7.2 months, time to next treatment was 9.1 months, and overall survival was 34.1 months. The majority of deaths (82%) were caused by progressive disease, including transformed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 6). Correlative studies showed that low-dose rituximab activates complement and natural killer cells without a profound and sustained decrease in expression of CD20 by circulating CLL cells. We conclude that pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose high-frequency rituximab is a tolerable and effective therapy for CLL and that low-dose rituximab therapy can activate innate immune cytotoxic mechanisms without substantially decreasing CD20 expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. EMP Attachment 3 DOE-SC PNNL Site Dose Assessment Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-12-21

    This Dose Assessment Guidance (DAG) describes methods to use to determine the Maximally-Exposed Individual (MEI) location and to estimate dose impact to that individual under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). This guidance applies to public dose from radioactive material releases to the air from PNNL Site operations. This document is an attachment to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) and describes dose assessment guidance for radiological air emissions. The impact of radiological air emissions from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) PNNL Site is indicated by dose estimates to a maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). Reporting requirements associated with dose to members of the public from radiological air emissions are in 40 CFR Part 61.94, WAC 246-247-080, and DOE Order 458.1. The DOE Order and state standards for dose from radioactive air emissions are consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards in 40 CFR 61.92 (i.e., 10 mrem/yr to a MEI). Despite the fact that the current Contract Requirements Document (CRD) for the DOE-SC PNNL Site operations does not include the requirement to meet DOE CRD 458.1, paragraph 2.b, public dose limits, the DOE dose limits would be met when EPA limits are met.

  14. Doses from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H-G.; Harrison, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP’s 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effective dose. In preparation for the calculation of new dose coefficients, Committee 2 and its task groups have provided updated nuclear decay data (ICRP Publication 107) and adult reference computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). New dose coefficients for external exposures of workers are complete (ICRP Publication 116), and work is in progress on a series of reports on internal dose coefficients to workers from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Reference phantoms for children will also be provided and used in the calculation of dose coefficients for public exposures. Committee 2 also has task groups on exposures to radiation in space and on the use of effective dose.

  15. Limiting the financial risks of electricity generation capital investments under carbon constraints: Applications and opportunities for public policies and private investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam

    Increasing demand for electricity and an aging fleet of generators are the principal drivers behind an increasing need for a large amount of capital investments in the US electric power sector in the near term. The decisions (or lack thereof) by firms, regulators and policy makers in response to this challenge have long lasting consequences, incur large economic and environmental risks, and must be made despite large uncertainties about the future operating and business environment. Capital investment decisions are complex: rates of return are not guaranteed; significant uncertainties about future environmental legislation and regulations exist at both the state and national levels---particularly about carbon dioxide emissions; there is an increasing number of shareholder mandates requiring public utilities to reduce their exposure to potentially large losses from stricter environmental regulations; and there are significant concerns about electricity and fuel price levels, supplies, and security. Large scale, low carbon electricity generation facilities using coal, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facilities coupled with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, have been technically proven but are unprofitable in the current regulatory and business environment where there is no explicit or implicit price on carbon dioxide emissions. The paper examines two separate scenarios that are actively discussed by policy and decision makers at corporate, state and national levels: a future US electricity system where coal plays a role; and one where the role of coal is limited or nonexistent. The thesis intends to provide guidance for firms and policy makers and outline applications and opportunities for public policies and for private investment decisions to limit financial risks of electricity generation capital investments under carbon constraints.

  16. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  17. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Uji, Teruyuki; Sakuyama, Keiko; Fujikawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  18. Two Sudden and Unexpected Deaths of Patients with Schizophrenia Associated with Intramuscular Injections of Antipsychotics and Practice Guidelines to Limit the Use of High Doses of Intramuscular Antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasratullah Wahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes (TdP. These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions (ADRs following intramuscular (IM antipsychotics. The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection, leading to death within hours. The first case was a 27-year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues. His death was probably caused by repeated IM haloperidol injections of 10 mg (totaling 35 mg in 2 days. The second case involves a 42-year-old African-American female with metabolic syndrome. Her probable cause of death was the last ziprasidone IM injection of 20 mg in addition to (1 three extra haloperidol doses (2 hours before the ziprasidone injection, 5 mg oral haloperidol; approximately 21 hours earlier, 5 mg oral haloperidol; and 2 days prior, one 10 mg IM haloperidol injection, (2 10 mg/day of scheduled oral haloperidol for 6 days before death, and (3 a long-acting paliperidone injection of 156 mg 18 days before death. The study of haloperidol glucuronidation and its impairment in some African-Americans is urgently recommended.

  19. Fire Hydrants, Both public and private fire hydrants in Johnson County. Spring Hill is hte only entity missing. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative Utiity Exchange) Participants and subcontractors of them., Published in 2004, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire Hydrants dataset current as of 2004. Both public and private fire hydrants in Johnson County. Spring Hill is hte only entity missing. Data is limited to CUE...

  20. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE's derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for the DOE Paducah C-746-U Landfill. A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines. The ORISE-derived soil guidelines are specifically applicable to the Landfill at the end of its operational life. A suggested 'upper bound' multiple of the derived soil guidelines for individual shipments is provided

  1. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, A. J. [IEAVP, ORISE, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maldonado, D. G. [IEAVP, ORISE, Oak Ridge, TN (United States; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for the DOE Paducah C-746-U Landfill. A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines. The ORISE-derived soil guidelines are specifically applicable to the Landfill at the end of its operational life. A suggested 'upper bound' multiple of the derived soil guidelines for individual shipments is provided.

  2. Chemoimmunotherapy for Relapsed/Refractory and Progressive 17p13 Deleted Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Combining Pentostatin, Alemtuzumab, and Low Dose Rituximab is Effective and Tolerable and Limits Loss of CD20 Expression by Circulating CLL Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Clive S.; Taylor, Ronald P.; Lindorfer, Margaret A.; Beum, Paul V.; LaPlant, Betsy; Wu, Wenting; Call, Timothy G.; Bowen, Deborah A.; Conte, Michael J.; Frederick, Lori A.; Link, Brian K.; Blackwell, Sue E.; Veeramani, Suresh; Baig, Nisar A.; Viswanatha, David S.; Weiner, George J.; Witzig, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients with purine analogue refractory disease or TP53 dysfunction still have limited treatment options and poor survival. Alemtuzumab containing chemoimmunotherapy regimens can be effective but frequently cause serious infections. We report a phase II trial testing the efficacy and tolerability of a short duration regimen combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low dose high frequency rituximab (PAR) designed to decrease the risk of treatment associated infections and limit loss of CD20 expression by CLL cells. The study enrolled 39 patients with progressive CLL that was either relapsed/refractory (n=36) or previously untreated with 17p13 deletion (17p13-)(n=3). Thirteen (33%) patients had both 17p13- and TP53 mutations predicted to be dysfunctional and eight patients had purine analogue refractory CLL without TP53 dysfunction. Twenty-six (67%) patients completed therapy with only five (13%) patients having treatment limiting toxicity, and no treatment related deaths. Twenty-two (56%) patients responded to treatment with 11 (28%) complete responses (four with incomplete bone marrow recovery). Median progression free survival was 7.2 months, time to next treatment 9.1 months, and overall survival 34.1 months. The majority of deaths (82%) were caused by progressive disease including transformed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n=6). Correlative studies showed that low dose rituximab activates complement and NK cells without a profound and sustained decrease in expression of CD20 by circulating CLL cells. We conclude that PAR is a tolerable and effective therapy for CLL and that low dose rituximab therapy can activate innate immune cytotoxic mechanisms without substantially decreasing CD20 expression. PMID:24723493

  3. Basic approaches to the limitation of doses and radiological risks from surface disposal of long-lived radioactive waste for future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Berkovskiy, V.

    2001-01-01

    National radiation standards of Ukraine (NRSU-97/D-2000) recently put into force, which consider the basic principles of radiological protection from the sources of potential exposure, introduce four groups of potential exposure sources depending on types and scope of the consequences of occurrence of different critical events. In the third group are those occurrence which are associated with the events that can take place in the future (including the distant future) at the exempted from regulation facilities as a result of natural abnormal processes and catastrophes as well as inadvertent human intrusions. Future generations living at the moment of the event occurrence can become the subject of exposure. These sources must be taken into account at the stage of radioactive waste repositories designing. Taking into account the peculiarity of sources of the third group of potential, that they are associated with those critical events, which can take place in the distant future (in hundreds and thousands of years) and as a consequence may result in the exposure of future generations of people NRSU-97/D2000 sets an additional principle for potential exposure from sources of third group which requires that the future generations are guaranteed to have at least the same level of radiation protection against actions undertaken nowadays as the present generation. This principle is implemented through setting a requirement that harm for human health of future generation must not exceed the harm corresponding to negligible risk which is 5 x 10 -7 year -1 . NRSU-97/D-2000 establishes two reference dose levels A and B (50 and 1 mSv year -1 ) depending on which the acceptability of surface (or near-surface) disposals of long-lived radioactive waste is determined. In presentation the requirements on the critical events occurrence probability, two groups of scenario, which can lead to the critical event, and five reference scenarios of exposure and their parameters are discussed

  4. Consequences of the planned dose limits for the population in the new EURATOM radiation protection basis norm; Auswirkung der in den neuen Euratom-Strahlenschutzgrundnormen geplanten Dosisbegrenzung fuer die Bevoelkerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, Stefan [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Bereich Strahlenschutz, Kerntechnik und Stilllegung

    2013-07-01

    The implementation of the new EU radiation protection basic standards from May 2013 into the German law will lead to changes in the German radiation protection law (Strahlenschutzverordnung). The preliminary work is being performed already there remain several questions including the implementation of the requirement that the individual dose limit of 1 mSv/a for the general population for every postulated exposure. Discussion and need of adjustment is based on the fact that the actual radiation protection law considers and evaluates ''practices'' and ''work activities'' separately.

  5. Low dose X-irradiation of thymus filler cells in limiting dilution cultures of LPS-reactive B cells reduces the background Ig-secreting cells without affecting growth-supporting capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooijkaas, H.; Preesman, A.A.; Benner, R.

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reactive B cells in the mouse can be determined in the limiting dilution culture system developed by Andersson et al. (1976, 1977) which is completely dependent upon the presence of thymus filler cells, usually of rat origin. The assessment of B cell clones of mouse origin, however, can be hampered by the occurrence of varying numbers of thymus-derived immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells. The number of these background Ig-secreting cells can be significantly reduced by low dose (110 mgray = 11 rad) X-irradiation of the rat thymus filler cells, without affecting their growth-supporting capacity. (Auth.)

  6. Estimation of the contribution of neutrons to the equivalent dose for personnel occupationally exposed and public in medical facilities: X-ray with energy equal or greater than 10MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Alfonso Mayer; Jimenez, Roberto Ortega; Sanchez, Mario A. Reyes; Moranchel y Mejia, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and Occupationally Staff Exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents an estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  7. The embryogenesis of dose assessment at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Several significant events occurred between 1955 and 1960 that resulted in major changes in environmental monitoring at Hanford and in the initiation of comprehensive dose assessments. These included: (1) specification of dose limits for nonoccupational exposure (including internal emitters); (2) a national and international awakening to the need for managing the disposal of radioactive wastes; (3) identification of the most important radionuclides and their sources of exposure; (4) data that quantified the transfer coefficients of nuclides along environmental pathways; and (5) development of greatly improved radiation detection instrumentation. In response to a growing need, the Hanford Laboratories formed the Environmental Studies and Evaluation component. This group revamped the monitoring and sampling programs so that analytical results contributed directly to dose estimation. Special studies were conducted to ascertain local dietary and recreational habits that affected dose calculations and to calibrate the models. These studies involved extensive contact with the public and governmental agencies, which elicited a positive reaction

  8. Realistic assessment of doses to members of the public according to council directive 96/29/Euratom and common practice in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung-Lauxmann, L.; Steiner, M.

    2003-01-01

    According to Article 45 of the Council Directive 96/29/Euratom competent authorities of member states are obliged to assess radiation doses to the population as a whole and to reference groups of the population as realistic as possible. In EU member states different approaches are in use, both to identify reference groups and to assess doses. In addition realistic dose assessments are in general not systematically performed. Hence, the European Commission commissioned a study on the realistic assessment of radiation doses due to radioactive discharges from nuclear installations under normal operation. Based on this study a guide including recommendations for dose assessment has been established by an Article 31 expert group, which is applicable to retrospective and prospective dose assessment as well. The most important recommendation is to use as much site-specific information as possible. Concerning the dose assessment of reference groups it is recommended to use critical groups. Critical groups comprise of persons who receive the highest effective doses because of their living habits. In the opinion of EU experts it is sufficient to take into account only the age groups of one-year-olds, ten-years-olds and adults. Exposure pathways have been sub-divided into three groups: Those, which have to be considered in any case, those, which contribute significantly to dose depending on local conditions, and those, which only insignificantly contribute to dose. It is recommended to use only models for dose assessment which are robust, appropriate, and validated against measurements. In Germany, (hypothetical) reference persons are used for the assessment of radiation exposure to the population due to radioactive discharges from nuclear installations under normal operation. They are assumed to live at the most disadvantageous location around the site and to eat foodstuff produced at the most disadvantageous locations. For this purpose models, generalized assumptions and

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of High, Moderate and Low-Dose Statins in the Prevention of Vascular Events in the Brazilian Public Health System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ziegelmann, Patricia Klarmann; Stella, Steffan Frosi; Vieira, Jose Luiz da Costa; Restelatto, Luciane Maria Fabian; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) perspective. We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk) of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg) were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40mg), intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80mg, rosuvastatin 20mg), high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770) was applied. Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of High, Moderate and Low-Dose Statins in the Prevention of Vascular Events in the Brazilian Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. Objective: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS perspective. Methods: We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40mg, intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80mg, rosuvastatin 20mg, high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$. A willingness-to-pay (WTP threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770 was applied. Results: Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. Conclusions: Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of High, Moderate and Low-Dose Statins in the Prevention of Vascular Events in the Brazilian Public Health System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini, E-mail: rodrigo.ribeiro@htanalyze.com [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Duncan, Bruce Bartholow [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cardiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Ziegelmann, Patricia Klarmann [Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Estatística da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Stella, Steffan Frosi [Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cardiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vieira, Jose Luiz da Costa [Instituto de Cardiologia / Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Restelatto, Luciane Maria Fabian [Serviço de Medicina Interna do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Polanczyk, Carisi Anne [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cardiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) perspective. We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk) of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg) were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40mg), intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80mg, rosuvastatin 20mg), high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770) was applied. Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil.

  12. Outreach to the Public on Earthquake and Tsunami Safety with Limited Human Resources: Train the Trainers Pilot Program in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Ruiz, W.; Vanacore, E. A.; Gomez, G.; Martinez Colon, J. F.; Perez, F.; Baez-Sanchez, G.; Flores Hots, V. E.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano, V.; Figueroa, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Given the limited human resources available to interact directly with the public and disseminate information on earthquake and tsunami safety, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network has developed the Train the Trainers course, designed exclusively for emergency management officers (EMOs). This three-day training course provides a complete package of educational tools that will allow EMOs to present standard conferences, and lectures, with the appropriate and accurate information for different audiences on earthquake and tsunami hazard and safety. Here we present preliminary observations and lessons learned from the pilot program that was offered in July 2017 to 20 EMOs from the twelve Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) zones and two students from the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez. To ensure sufficient preparation, the training course provided evaluation tools including written and practical exams that participants were required to score 80% or more to complete the training successfully. Of the 20 EMO participants, 18 EMOs passed the final exam. Preliminary analysis of the pre-test scores and the post-test scores, show a score improvement between 8% to 46% amongst the participants. These 18 participants will receive a certificate as well as tools and resources to offer earthquakes and tsunamis conferences for up to two years across Puerto Rico and its outlying islands. To ensure that the pilot participants will provide conferences to the public PRSN required a signed commitment to give at least 5 conferences in one year from each participant and PRSN will monitor the participants for the next two years to evaluate the efficacy of the program. However, based on the preliminary data this program appears to be an effective method to increase the amount of outreach professionals on the Island.

  13. Adverse effects after radical external beam radiotherapy of localized prostatic adenocarcinoma using two-dimensional dose-planning and a limited field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljung, G.; Haeggman, M.; Hansson, H.; Holmberg, L.; Nilsson, S.

    1996-01-01

    Adverse effects were assessed after definitive limited field, 2-dimensional CT-planned radiation treatment of localized prostatic adenocarcinoma. In 66 surviving patients, out of a total of 176 treated patients, personal interviews were performed and self-administered questionnaires distributed. The average follow-up was 6.6 years. Adverse effects with regard to bowel function and micturition were investigated, and graded 0-4 with increasing severity and impact on performance status, essentially according to the RTOG toxicity scoring system. Sexual functions were registered on visual analogue scales. The majority of adverse effects were considered minor (grade 1) and did not require any treatment. Late adverse effects on bowel and bladder or urethra that required treatment (grade 2-4) were reported in up to 8% (n=5) of cases respectively. Late bowel side-effects that interfered with life style (grade 3-4) occurred in up to 3% (n=2) of patients; the majority were rectal complications. Corresponding urinary side-effects were registered in up to 6% (n=4) of the patients. Major surgical interventions were not required. Sexual functions were substantially affected in 60% of cases not administered endocrine treatment. Multivariate analyses could not identify patient or treatment risk factors related to complications. (orig.)

  14. Focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose irradiation down-regulated organ development-related functions and up-regulated the immune response in mouse pulmonary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Yeo; Jin, Hee; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Ga-Young; Cho, Jaeho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2016-01-27

    Despite the emergence of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of medically inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients, the molecular effects of focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose radiation have not been fully characterized. This study was designed to identify molecular changes induced by focal high-dose irradiation using a mouse model of SBRT. Central areas of the mouse left lung were focally-irradiated (3 mm in diameter) with a single high-dose of radiation (90 Gy). Temporal changes in gene expression in the irradiated and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions were analyzed by microarray. For comparison, the long-term effect (12 months) of 20 Gy radiation on a diffuse region of lung was also measured. The majority of genes were down-regulated in the focally-irradiated lung areas at 2 to 3 weeks after irradiation. This pattern of gene expression was clearly different than gene expression in the diffuse region of lungs exposed to low-dose radiation. Ontological and pathway analyses indicated these down-regulated genes were mainly associated with organ development. Although the number was small, genes that were up-regulated after focal irradiation were associated with immune-related functions. The temporal patterns of gene expression and the associated biological functions were also similar in non-irradiated neighboring lung regions, although statistical significance was greatly reduced when compared with those from focally-irradiated areas of the lung. From network analysis of temporally regulated genes, we identified inter-related modules associated with diverse functions, including organ development and the immune response, in both the focally-irradiated regions and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions. Focal exposure of lung tissue to high-dose radiation induced expression of genes associated with organ development and the immune response. This pattern of gene expression was also observed in non

  15. INTERCOMPARISON ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE QUANTITY PERSONAL DOSE EQUIVALENT HP(10) IN PHOTON FIELDS. LINEARITY DEPENDENCE, LOWER LIMIT OF DETECTION AND UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT OF DOSIMETRY SYSTEMS OF INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICES IN GABON AND GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo Meye, P; Schandorf, C; Amoako, J K; Manteaw, P O; Amoatey, E A; Adjei, D N

    2017-12-01

    An inter-comparison study was conducted to assess the capability of dosimetry systems of individual monitoring services (IMSs) in Gabon and Ghana to measure personal dose equivalent Hp(10) in photon fields. The performance indicators assessed were the lower limit of detection, linearity and uncertainty in measurement. Monthly and quarterly recording levels were proposed with corresponding values of 0.08 and 0.025 mSv, and 0.05 and 0.15 mSv for the TLD and OSL systems, respectively. The linearity dependence of the dosimetry systems was performed following the requirement given in the Standard IEC 62387 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The results obtained for the two systems were satisfactory. The procedure followed for the uncertainty assessment is the one given in the IEC technical report TR62461. The maximum relative overall uncertainties, in absolute value, expressed in terms of Hp(10), for the TL dosimetry system Harshaw 6600, are 44. 35% for true doses below 0.40 mSv and 36.33% for true doses ≥0.40 mSv. For the OSL dosimetry system microStar, the maximum relative overall uncertainties, in absolute value, are 52.17% for true doses below 0.40 mSv and 37.43% for true doses ≥0.40 mSv. These results are in good agreement with the requirements for accuracy of the International Commission on Radiological protection. When expressing the uncertainties in terms of response, comparison with the IAEA requirements for overall accuracy showed that the uncertainty results were also acceptable. The values of Hp(10) directly measured by the two dosimetry systems showed a significant underestimation for the Harshaw 6600 system, and a slight overestimation for the microStar system. After correction for linearity of the measured doses, the two dosimetry systems gave better and comparable results. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Dose apportionment for BARC facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preetha, J.; Sundar, D.; Munshi, S.K.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the important responsibilities of BARC Safety Council (BSC) is to ensure that appropriate measures are in place to protect the members of the public and the environment from the undue effects of radioactive releases from the facilities regulated by BSC. It is with this aim in mind that a Standing Committee for Dose Apportionment (DAC) was constituted by BSC in 2005, to ensure that the limits are set by the regulatory body for release of low-level gaseous and liquid effluents into the environment from BARC facilities. There are three Committees for dose apportionment constituted by the Chairman, BSC, viz, DAC-TK for Tarapur and Kalpakkam facilities, DAC-TV for Trombay and DACSF for specific faculties

  17. Implications for high-precision dose radiation therapy planning or limited surgical resection after percutaneous computed tomography-guided lung nodule biopsy using a tract sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. de Groot, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Precision radiation therapy such as stereotactic body radiation therapy and limited resection are being used more frequently to treat intrathoracic malignancies. Effective local control requires precise radiation target delineation or complete resection. Lung biopsy tracts (LBT on computed tomography (CT scans after the use of tract sealants can mimic malignant tract seeding (MTS and it is unclear whether these LBTs should be included in the calculated tumor volume or resected. This study evaluates the incidence, appearance, evolution, and malignant seeding of LBTs. Methods and materials: A total of 406 lung biopsies were performed in oncology patients using a tract sealant over 19 months. Of these patients, 326 had follow-up CT scans and were included in the study group. Four thoracic radiologists retrospectively analyzed the imaging, and a pathologist examined 10 resected LBTs. Results: A total of 234 of 326 biopsies (72%, including primary lung cancer [n = 98]; metastases [n = 81]; benign [n = 50]; and nondiagnostic [n = 5] showed an LBT on CT. LBTs were identified on imaging 0 to 3 months after biopsy. LBTs were typically straight or serpiginous with a thickness of 2 to 5 mm. Most LBTs were unchanged (92% or decreased (6.3% over time. An increase in LBT thickness/nodularity that was suspicious for MTS occurred in 4 of 234 biopsies (1.7%. MTS only occurred after biopsy of metastases from extrathoracic malignancies, and none occurred in patients with lung cancer. Conclusions: LBTs are common on CT after lung biopsy using a tract sealant. MTS is uncommon and only occurred in patients with extrathoracic malignancies. No MTS was found in patients with primary lung cancer. Accordingly, potential alteration in planned therapy should be considered only in patients with LBTs and extrathoracic malignancies being considered for stereotactic body radiation therapy or wedge resection.

  18. Publication of new results from the INWORKS epidemiological study about the risk of cancer among nuclear industry workers chronically exposed to low ionizing radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In this cohort study, 308297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17?957 were due to solid cancers. Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated with protracted radiation exposures can help strengthen the foundation for radiation protection standards

  19. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  20. Effect of dose of thoracic irradiation on recurrence in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer. Initial results of a Canadian Multicenter Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, P.; Hodson, I.; Payne, D.G.; Evans, W.K.; Feld, R.; MacDonald, A.S.; Osoba, D.; Pater, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer were initially randomized to receive either three courses of Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, and Vincristine (CAV) followed by three courses of VP-16 and Cis-platin (VP-PT) or six courses of alternating CAV and VP-PT. Responding patients received prophylactic cranial radiation (PCI) after three courses of chemotherapy (CT) and loco-regional thoracic radiation (LRTR) after six courses. No maintenance chemotherapy was given. Patients receiving LRTR were randomized to receive either 25 Gy in ten fractions over 2 weeks (SD) or 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks (HD). In both arms the pre-chemotherapy disease was treated with a 2 cm margin around the primary tumor volume. The mediastinum was included in the treatment volume and the supraclavicular nodes were also included if involved originally. The spinal cord was shielded after 32 Gy. Of the 333 patients enrolled by the time the trial closed in October 1984, 168 were eventually randomized to LRTR and are eligible for response assessment. The overall response rate after combined RT and CT was 94% (CR 67%, PR 27%). The CR rate for SD was 65% and for HD 69%. The combined treatment was well tolerated by most patients. Forty-nine percent of HD patients developed dysphagia compared to 26% of those SD (p less than 0.01). At the time of this analysis the median duration of follow-up since randomization to radiotherapy is 30 months. The median local progression-free survival on HD is 49 weeks. On SD it is 38 weeks (p = 0.05, one sided). The actuarial incidence of local progression by 2 years is 69% on HD and 80% on LD. There is as yet no significant difference in overall survival between the two arms. It appears that HD radiotherapy as administered in this study may have an impact on local control, but it is too early to determine if this will translate into a survival benefit

  1. Effect of high-dose phytase supplementation in broilers from 22 to 42 days post-hatch given diets severely limited in available phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, H R; Heidari, A; Shahir, M H

    2015-01-01

    1. Two trials were conducted from 22 to 42 d post-hatch to evaluate the effectiveness of high concentrations of supplemental phytase in maize-soya bean meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (P). Growth performance, plasma P and tibia ash (TA) were measured. 2. Each trial used 220 21-d-old male broilers in 20 pens with 11 birds per pen. Dietary treatments included a positive control [PC, 4.3 g/kg nonphytate P (NPP)], negative control [NC, 2.3 g/kg NPP (Trial 1) or 1.4 g/kg NPP (Trial 2)] and NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg of the diet. 3. Birds fed on the PC diet had higher average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed ratio (G:F), plasma P (Trials 1 and 2) and TA (Trial 2) than those fed on the NC. 4. In Trial 1, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC. Plasma P values of the NC plus 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached that of the PC. Although TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 reached that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was more than that of the PC. 5. In Trial 2, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC; nevertheless, plasma P values of the NC diets did not come up to that of the PC. While TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 did not reach that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was greater than that of the PC. 6. Results of this study showed that, in the diets with 2.3 and 1.4 g/kg NPP, respectively, 1000 and 4000 phytase U/kg can be sufficient to obtain a comparable performance in broilers to those given diets adequate in available P.

  2. Public trust and 'ethics review' as a commodity: the case of Genomics England Limited and the UK's 100,000 genomes project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gabrielle Natalie; Farsides, Bobbie

    2018-06-01

    The UK Chief Medical Officer's 2016 Annual Report, Generation Genome, focused on a vision to fully integrate genomics into all aspects of the UK's National Health Service (NHS). This process of integration, which has now already begun, raises a wide range of social and ethical concerns, many of which were discussed in the final Chapter of the report. This paper explores how the UK's 100,000 Genomes Project (100 kGP)-the catalyst for Generation Genome, and for bringing genomics into the NHS-is negotiating these ethical concerns. The UK's 100 kGP, promoted and delivered by Genomics England Limited (GEL), is an innovative venture aiming to sequence 100,000 genomes from NHS patients who have a rare disease, cancer, or an infectious disease. GEL has emphasised the importance of ethical governance and decision-making. However, some sociological critique argues that biomedical/technological organisations presenting themselves as 'ethical' entities do not necessarily reflect a space within which moral thinking occurs. Rather, the 'ethical work' conducted (and displayed) by organisations is more strategic, relating to the politics of the organisation and the need to build public confidence. We set out to explore whether GEL's ethical framework was reflective of this critique, and what this tells us more broadly about how genomics is being integrated into the NHS in response to the ethical and social concerns raised in Generation Genome. We do this by drawing on a series of 20 interviews with individuals associated with or working at GEL.

  3. Insignificant levels of dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; McLean, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for making decisions concerning controllable sources of radiation exposure of the public include 'justification' and 'optimisation'. The tool recommended by the ICRP for reaching these decisions is collective dose or dose commitment supplemented by consideration of doses to individuals. In both these considerations the practical problem arises of whether very small doses to large numbers of people should contribute to the final decision-making process. It may be that at levels of dose which are small increments on natural background, the relationship between dose and effect is linear even though the slope may be close to zero. If so, collective dose is a meaningful concept and the calculation of total detriment for the purpose of justification could legitimately include all doses. In the calculation of collective doses for the purpose of optimisation, which involves decisions on how much money or resource should be allocated to dose reduction, it is necessary to appraise radiation detriment realistically. At low levels of dose to the individual such as those small by comparison with variations in natural background within the UK, the risk to the individual is such that his well-being will not be significantly changed by the presence or absence of the radiation dose. These small doses, which are well below the point at which an individual attaches significance, should not carry a societal significance. Societal acceptance of risk is analysed with a view to assessing a level of possible risk, and hence dose, below which resources should not in general be diverted to secure further reduction. A formulation for collective dose commitment is proposed incorporating a cut-off to exclude insignificant doses. The implications of this formulation in practical situations are discussed

  4. Problems arising in the evaluation of collective dose commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Beau, P.

    1979-01-01

    In order to apply the concept of optimization it is necessary to evaluate the collective dose commitment for the population as a whole. This is found by summing the dose commitments for the different population groups involved, including persons occupationally exposed and members of the public both locally and globally. The average dose received by each of these groups can vary considerably: for occupational exposure it is about one order of magnitude below the limits, whereas for the general public it is far below, although certain local groups may be subjected to a much higher exposure than the overall average. The question arises, therefore, whether certain groups should not be weighted differently in order to take into account the heterogeneity of the distribution of exposure. As far as the validity of forecast evaluations is concerned, one may assume that for occupational exposure the dose commitment over the whole period of operation of a facility can be estimated fairly accurately. The overall collective dose commitment for the public is relatively insensitive to local variations in the environment and in the public itself but is strongly dependent on long-term developments which cannot at present be forecast. For the evaluation of dose equivalent to the critical group, local variations are of considerable importance and need to be foreseen, which is not always possible. By taking into account a period which includes the annual maximum collective dose equivalent one can make some of these difficulties less severe. (author)

  5. Estimation of concentration of naturally occurring 210Po in dietary items collected from Tarapur site and public dose due to ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    210 Po is one of the naturally occurring radioactive (T 1/2 : 138.4 d, Energy: 5.297 MeV) member of 238 U series which delivers a significantly high natural dose through ingestion because of its high specific activity (165 TBq/g). The main source of 210 Po in atmosphere is 222 Rn. The paper presents the results of analysis of 210 Po in different terrestrial and aquatic environmental matrices like marine seafood, vegetable, drinking water, crop etc and estimation of population dose due to their consumption at Tarapur, west coast of India. The annual Committed Effective Dose (CED) received by the member of Tarapur population through consumption of these food items estimated to be 102.4 μSV which is 6.3 % of the total internal dose from natural sources. Contribution from marine food items was found to be significant (78.7%) compared to other terrestrial food items. (author)

  6. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th concentrations in various foodstuffs in Morocco and resulting radiation doses to the members of the public; Concentrations en {sup 238}U et {sup 232}Th dans differents aliments au Maroc et doses de radiations en resultant pour les membres du public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Elamyn, H.; Erramli, H. [Cadi Ayyad Univ., Nuclear Physics and Techniques Lab., Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco)

    2008-04-15

    Uranium ({sup 238}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) concentrations were measured in different foods widely consumed in Morocco by using C.R.-39 and L.R.-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (S.S.N.T.D.). Data obtained were compared to those obtained by using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (I.D.M.S.). Total daily intakes of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th for a typical food basket were estimated to be 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mBq d{sup -1} and 0.98 {+-} 0.08 mBq d{sup -1}, 1.4 {+-} 0.1 mBq d{sup -1} and 1.06 {+-} 0.08 mBq d{sup -1}, 1.7 {+-} 0.1 mBq d{sup -1} and 1.26 {+-} 0.08 mBq d{sup -1} and 2.0 {+-} 0.1 mBq d{sup -1} and 1.5 {+-} 0.1 Bq d{sup -1} for the 2-7 years, 7-12 years, 12-17 years and adult's age groups, respectively. Alpha-activities due to annual {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th intakes from the ingestion of the studied foodstuffs were determined in different organs and tissues of the human body of members of the public by using the ICRP gastrointestinal tract and systemic part models for these radionuclides. Committed equivalent doses due to annual intakes of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th were evaluated in the human body organs and tissues for different age groups of the Moroccan population by exploiting data obtained for alpha-doses deposited by 1 Bq of {sup 238}U and 1 Bq of {sup 232}Th in the considered human organs and tissues. The influence of the mass of the target tissue and activities due to {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th on the committed equivalent doses due to annual intakes of these radionuclides in the organs and tissues of the human body was studied. (authors)

  7. OCCUPATIONAL DOSE DURING ADULT INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY: FIRST VALUES WITH PERSONAL ACTIVE DOSIMETERS IN CHILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Morales, Claudio; Gutiérrez, Diego; Oliveira, Marcus; Manterola, Carlos

    2018-05-11

    The objective of this article is to present initial occupational dose values using digital active personal dosimeters for medical staff during adult interventional cardiology procedures in a public hospital in Chile. Personal dose equivalent Hp(10) over the lead apron of physician, nurse and radiographer were measured during 59 procedures. Mean values of occupational dose Hp(10) per procedure were 47.6, 6.2 and 4.3 μSv for physician, nurse and radiographer, respectively. If no protective tools are used, physician dose can exceed the new eye lens dose limit.

  8. Effective dose evaluation of NORM-added consumer products using Monte Carlo simulations and the ICRP computational human phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Cheol; Yoo, Do Hyeon; Testa, Mauro; Shin, Wook-Geun; Choi, Hyun Joon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. Using the Monte Carlo method, the radioactive products were simulated with ICRP reference phantom and the organ doses were calculated with the usage scenario. Finally, the annual effective doses were evaluated as lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y"−"1 for 44 products. It was demonstrated that NORM-added consumer products could be quantitatively assessed for the safety regulation. - Highlights: • Consumer products considered that NORM would be included should be regulated. • 44 products were collected and its gamma activities were measured with HPGe detector. • Through Monte Carlo simulation, organ equivalent doses and effective doses on human phantom were calculated. • All annual effective doses for the products were evaluated as lower than dose limit for the public.

  9. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  10. Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. A fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr should be used to recalculate dose to the average individual from L-Reactor restart. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr

  11. Assessment of prospective foodchain doses from radioactive discharges from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Tucker, S.; Webbe-Wood, D.; Mondon, K.; Hunt, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the method used by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) to assess the potential impact of proposed radioactive discharges from the Sellafield nuclear site on food and determine their acceptability. It explains aspects of a cautious method that has been adopted to reflect the UK government policy and uncertainties related to people's habits with regard to food production and consumption. Two types of ingestion doses are considered in this method: 'possible' and 'probable' doses. The method is specifically applied to Sellafield discharge limits and calculated possible and probable ingestion doses are presented and discussed. Estimated critical group ingestion doses are below the dose limit and constraint set for members of the public. The method may be subject to future amendments to take account of changes in government policy and the outcome of a recent Consultative Exercise on Dose Assessments carried out by FSA. Uncertainties inherent in dose assessments are discussed and quantified wherever possible

  12. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The radionuclides considered are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents: tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters, radioiodines, and certain radioactive particulates (Cs, Ru, Sr, Te). The standard focuses on the calculation of radiation doses for external exposures from radioactive material in the cloud; internal exposures for inhalation of radioactive material in the cloud and skin penetration of tritium; and external exposures from radionuclides deposited on the ground. It uses as modified Gaussian plume model to evaluate the time-integrated concentration downwind. (52 refs., 12 tabs., 21 figs.)

  13. General considerations of the choice of dose limits, averaging areas and weighting factors for the skin in the light of revised skin cancer risk figures and experimental data on non-stochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent biological data from man and pig on the non-stochastic effects following exposure with a range of β-emitters are combined with recent epidemiological analyses of skin cancer risks in man to form a basis for suggested improved protection criteria following whole- or partial-body skin exposures. Specific consideration is given to the choice of an organ weighting factor for evaluation of effective dose-equivalent. Since stochastic and non-stochastic end-points involve different cell types at different depths in the skin, the design of an ideal physical dosemeter may depend on the proportion of the body skin exposed and the radiation penetrating power. Possible choices of design parameters for skin dosemeters are discussed. Limitation of skin exposure from small radioactive sources ('hot particles') is addressed using animal data. (author)

  14. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This Standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The specific radionuclides considered in the Standard are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents (eg, tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters (Kr-Rb, Xe-Cs), and radioiodines (I)); and certain radioactive particulates (eg, Cs, Ru, Sr, Te) that may become airborne under exceptional circumstances

  15. Evaluation of radioprotection conditions and patient dose in thorax exams carried out in a public children's hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Marco A.S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Guedes, Elton C.; Khoury, Helen J.; Azevedo, Ana C.P.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a survey of the conditions of radiation protection, radiographic techniques, dose and risk for pediatric patients undergoing chest X-rays exams in a children's hospital in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. From a total of 125 chest exams (projections AP and PA) were noted the patient data (gender, weight, and age) and parameters of radiographic technique (kV, mAs and distance focus-skin). I was also evaluated the working procedures and the conditions of radiation protection. The values of input air kerma (K a,e ) and effective dose (E) were determined using the DoseCal software developed by Radiological Protection Center of Saint Georges's Hospital in London. With respect to the procedures and conditions for radiation protection, many aspects of Portaria 453 are not considered. The use of radiographic techniques with high values of mAs and low voltage values are not according with the quality criteria adopted by the European Community (EC). The values of Ka for patients aged 1 to 5 years varied between 51 μGy and 64 μGy, below the reference levels proposed by the EC. For patients over 5 years old, the values of Ka were substantially higher than those for other patients. The results allow to conclude that there is a need for optimization of the procedures adopted in order to reduce the dose and the risk to patients

  16. National and international considerations of a de minimis dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews current efforts by national and international agencies to establish a generally applicable de minimis radiation dose. A de minimis dose is derived from a level of risk that is widely regarded as negligible by the general public, and defines a level below which control of radiation exposures would be deliberately and specifically curtailed. A de minimis dose can be used to derive quantities of radionuclides in various materials that would be exempt or below regulatory concern for such purposes as resale, recycling, or disposal. The specification of exempt levels of radioactivity could lead to significant reductions in the required capacity of radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities and in the costs associated with management of slightly contaminated materials. A de minimis dose must be set well below the limit on acceptable dose for public exposures. A de minimis dose in the range 0.1-30 mrem (0.001-0.3 mSv) per year committed effective dose equivalent has been considered by various agencies, with most recommendations at 1 or 5 mrem per year. A value of 30 mrem per year may be too high for a de minimis dose, because a dose limit of 25 mrem per year is widely used in the US for regulating specific practices (e.g., low-level waste disposal). A value as low as 0.1 mrem per year could lead to great difficulties in measuring associated levels of radioactivity. We propose a de minimis dose of 1 mrem (0.01 mSv) per year committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime and 5 mrem (0.05 mSv) in any year

  17. Radioecological activity limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, E. Osmanlioglu

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides. Near surface disposal term includes broad range of facilities from simple trenches to concrete vaults. Principally, disposal of radioactive waste requires the implementation of measures that will provide safety for human health and environment now and in the future. For this reason preliminary activity limits should be determined to avoid radioecological problems. Radioactive waste has to be safely disposed in a regulated manner, consistent with internationally agreed principles and standards and with national legislations to avoid serious radioecological problems. The purpose of this study, presents a safety assessment approach to derive operational and post-closure radioecological activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal system has three components; the waste, the facility (incl. engineered barriers) and the site (natural barriers). Form of the waste (unconditioned or conditioned) is effective at the beginning of the migration scenerio. Existence of the engineered barriers in the facility will provide long term isolation of the waste from environment. The site characteristics (geology, groundwater, seismicity, climate etc.) are important for the safety of the system. Occupational exposure of a worker shall be controlled so that the following dose limits are not exceeded: an effective dose of 20mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years; and an effective dose of 50mSv in any single year. The effective dose limit for members of the public recommended by ICRP and IAEA is 1 mSv/y for exposures from all man-made sources [1,2]. Dose constraints are typically a fraction of the dose limit and ICRP recommendations (0.3 mSv/y) could be applied [3,4]. Radioecological activity concentration limits of each radionuclide in the waste (Bq/kg) were calculated. As a result of this study radioecological activity

  18. Dose conversion coefficients for high-energy photons, electrons, neutrons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y; Sato, O; Tanaka, S I; Tsuda, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    2003-01-01

    In the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 Recommendations, radiation weighting factors were introduced in the place of quality factors, the tissue weighting factors were revised, and effective doses and equivalent doses of each tissues and organs were defined as the protection quantities. Dose conversion coefficients for photons, electrons and neutrons based on new ICRP recommendations were cited in the ICRP Publication 74, but the energy ranges of theses data were limited and there are no data for high energy radiations produced in accelerator facilities. For the purpose of designing the high intensity proton accelerator facilities at JAERI, the dose evaluation code system of high energy radiations based on the HERMES code was developed and the dose conversion coefficients of effective dose were evaluated for photons, neutrons and protons up to 10 GeV, and electrons up to 100 GeV. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalent were also evaluated using quality fact...

  19. Reappraisal of the reference dose distribution in the UNSCEAR 1977 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides the update of the reference dose distribution proposed by G.A.M. Web and D. Beninson in Annex E to the UNSCEAR 1977 Report. To demonstrate compliance with regulatory obligations regarding doses to individuals, they defined it with the following properties: 1) The distribution of annual doses is log-normal; 2) The mean of the annual dose distribution is 5 m Gy (10% of the ICRP 1977 dose limit); 3) The proportion of workers exceeding 50 m Gy is 0.1%. The concept of the reference dose distribution is still important to understand the inherent variation of individual doses to workers controlled by source-related and individual-related efforts of best dose reduction. In the commercial nuclear power plant, the dose distribution becomes the more apart from the log-normal due to the stronger ALARA efforts and the revised dose limits. The monitored workers show about 1 m Sv of annual mean and far less than 0.1% of workers above 20 m Sv. The updated models of dose distribution consist of log-normal (no feedback on dose X) ln(X)∼N(μ,σ 2 ), hybrid log-normal (feedback on higher X by ρ) hyb(ρX)=ρX+ln(ρX)∼N(μ,σ 2 ), hybrid S B (feedback on higher dose quotient X/(D-X) not close to D by ρ) hyb[ρX/(D.X)]∼N(μ,σ 2 ) and Johnson's S B (limit to D) ln[X/(D-X)]∼N(μ,σ 2 ). These models afford interpreting the degree of dose control including dose constraint/limit to the reference distribution. Some of distributions are examined to characterize the variation of doses to members of the public with uncertainty. (author)

  20. Dose apportionment using statistical modeling of the effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are always operated under the guidelines stipulated by the regulatory body. These guidelines basically contain the technical specifications of the specific power plant and provide the knowledge of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluent into the environment through atmospheric and aquatic route. However, operational constraints sometimes may violate the technical specification due to which there may be a failure to satisfy the stipulated dose apportioned to that plant. In a site having multi facilities sum total of the dose apportioned to all the facilities should be constrained to 1 mSv/year to the members of the public. Dose apportionment scheme basically stipulates the limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent released into the environment. Existing methodology of dose apportionment is subjective in nature that may result the discharge limit of the effluent in atmospheric and aquatic route in an adhoc manner. Appropriate scientific basis for dose apportionment is always preferable rather than judicial basis from the point of harmonization of establishing the dose apportionment. This paper presents an attempt of establishing the discharge limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent first on the basis of the existing value of the release of the same. Existing release data for a few years (for example 10 years) for any nuclear power station have taken into consideration. Bootstrap, a resampling technique, has been adopted on this data sets to generate the population which subsequently provide the corresponding population distribution of the effluent release. Cumulative distribution of the population distribution obtained is constructed and using this cumulative distribution, 95th percentile (upper bound) of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluents is computed. Dose apportioned for a facility is evaluated using this estimated upper bound of the release limit. Paper describes the detail of the bootstrap method in evaluating the

  1. Radiological characterization and dose assessment in different scenarios of occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2012-01-01

    Cuba has identified situations where there working environments with the presence of natural radioactivity. Dose estimates in these environments could exceed the measured values for occupationally exposed workers, without there existed so far, with regulatory requirements for programs of radiation protection. In light of these situations, it has been necessary to assess the potential impact on these working groups of radiational load that they are subjected and establish regulatory criteria for protection in cases that require it. (author) [es

  2. Discussion on the methods for calculation release limits for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fengbo; Liu Xiaochao

    2012-01-01

    The release request for low-level radioactive waste are briefly described in this paper. Associating with the conditions of low-level radioactive waste of some radioactive waste processing station, the methods and gist for calculating release limits for low-level radioactive waste with national release limits and annual effective dose limit for the public or the occupation are discussed. Then release limits for the low-level radioactive waste are also proposed. (authors)

  3. Limiting value definition in radiation protection physics, legislation and toxicology. Fundamentals, contrasts, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich; Koenig, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The volume is the documentation of an ENTRIA workshop discussion on limiting value definition in radiation protection including the following contributions: Introduction in radiation protection -fundamentals concepts of limiting values, heterogeneity; evaluation standards for dose in radiation protection in the context of final repository search; definition of limiting values in toxicology; public participation to limiting value definition - a perspective for the radiation protection regulation; actual developments in radiation protection.

  4. The software program Peridose to calculate the fetal dose or dose to other critical structures outside the target area in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giessen, P.H. van der

    2001-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the dose outside the target area is of utmost importance when pregnant patients have to undergo radiotherapy, something that occurs in every radiotherapy department once in a while. Such peripheral doses (PD) are also of interest for late effects risk estimations for doses to specific organs as well as estimations of dose to pacemakers. A software program, Peridose, is described to allow easy calculation of this peripheral dose. The calculation is based on data from many publications on peripheral dose measurements, including those by the author. Clinical measurements have shown that by using data averaged over many measurements and different machine types PDs can be estimated with an accuracy of ± 60% (2 standard deviations). The program allows easy and fairly accurate estimates of peripheral doses in patients. Further development to overcome some of the constraints and limitations is desirable. The use of average data is to be preferred if general applicability is to be maintained. (author)

  5. Overview of the use of dose constraints in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuyisenge, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The project overviewed the use of dose constraints in medical exposure in literature. Different documents on the establishment, the development and the application of this concept are reviewed with regard to the use of medical exposure of patients, including their comforters and carers or helpers, and volunteers in biomedical research. It has been showed that the concept of Dose Constraints along with many other concepts of radiation protection is widely applied in the optimisation of exposure to radiation. These concepts include Dose Limits, Dose References levels and Guidance levels among others. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints, because such limits would often do more harm than good as far as benefits from such an exposure is concerned. Dose constraints do not apply with regard to any exposure of patient for his/her diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. With regard to patient comforters, carers or helpers, and volunteers in biomedical research, the benefits of such an exposure are not direct to the exposed individuals; therefore dose constraints will be appropriately applied. From the beginning of the establishment of Dose Constraints as a concept in radiation protection, the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published a number of documents that provide detailed application related to radiological protection and safety in the medical applications of ionising radiation. Each of these publications addresses a specific topic defined by the type of radiation source and the medical discipline in which the source is applied. This is done in the intention of communicating directly to the relevant medical radiation users, competent radiation authorities and health related institutions concerns with radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources in medical applications. This project provides an overview of such publications and related documents. (author)

  6. External contamination and skin dose. From ICRP and regulations to skin dose evaluation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coulteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.; Fenolland, J.; Frey, R.; Gonin, M.; Landry, B.; Laporte, E.; Le Guen, B.; Leval, D.

    2006-01-01

    Dose limitation to the skin is an objective of radiation protection. Our aim is to propose in case of skin contamination in EDF NPPs a simply, quickly and reproducible procedure for evaluating skin dose. French regulation admit an annual limit for skin dose over one square centimeter equal to 500 mSv. ICRP Publication 26 and 60 recommend that dose assessment be performed only if skin dose might be equal to or more than 50 mSv at basal cells. To respect this recommendation, an alert value (A) must be determined. This value is the lowest value of measurement from which dose assessment has to be made, based on the hypothesis that uninterrupted work time in controlled area is no more than four hours. This alert value (A) has been established for three external detection equipments, and for the ten radionuclides commonly detected. In case of external contamination, a first measurement is performed. If the value exceeds value (A), other measurements are instituted because skin dose evaluation needs to know other parameters as: - the radioactivity of the most contaminated square centimeter of the skin, - the identity of the radionuclides and their relative proportion. At the same time, we have to evaluate the length of the exposure. At last, we use different compiled results in a program developed from excel software which allow to calculate automatically the skin dose. This work has allowed us to publish an occupational health guideline about the assessment of skin dose in case of external contamination in EDF NPPs and to create an information booklet for workers. The authors propose to examine used methodology and to demonstrate the software. (authors)

  7. Offsite radiation doses summarized from Hanford environmental monitoring reports for the years 1957-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; McCormack, W.D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1957, evaluations of offsite impacts from each year of operation have been summarized in publicly available, annual environmental reports. These evaluations included estimates of potential radiation exposure to members of the public, either in terms of percentages of the then permissible limits or in terms of radiation dose. The estimated potential radiation doses to maximally exposed individuals from each year of Hanford operations are summarized in a series of tables and figures. The applicable standard for radiation dose to an individual for whom the maximum exposure was estimated is also shown. Although the estimates address potential radiation doses to the public from each year of operations at Hanford between 1957 and 1984, their sum will not produce an accurate estimate of doses accumulated over this time period. The estimates were the best evaluations available at the time to assess potential dose from the current year of operation as well as from any radionuclides still present in the environment from previous years of operation. There was a constant striving for improved evaluation of the potential radiation doses received by members of the public, and as a result the methods and assumptions used to estimate doses were periodically modified to add new pathways of exposure and to increase the accuracy of the dose calculations. Three conclusions were reached from this review: radiation doses reported for the years 1957 through 1984 for the maximum individual did not exceed the applicable dose standards; radiation doses reported over the past 27 years are not additive because of the changing and inconsistent methods used; and results from environmental monitoring and the associated dose calculations reported over the 27 years from 1957 through 1984 do not suggest a significant dose contribution from the buildup in the environment of radioactive materials associated with Hanford operations

  8. The use of the effective dose equivalent, Hsub(E), as a risk parameter in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.; Sandison, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    This note employs the concept of the effective dose equivalent, Hsub(E) to overcome the problems of comparing the non-uniform radiation doses encountered in CT examinations with the whole-body dose-equivalent limits imposed for non-medical exposures for members of the public (5 mSv/year), or with the risks from familiar everyday activities such as smoking cigarettes or driving cars. (U.K.)

  9. Lack of proportionality. Seven specifications of public interest that override post-approval commercial interests on limited access to clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strech Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the protection of commercial interests, licensing bodies such as the EMA and health technology assessment institutions such as NICE restrict full access to unpublished evidence. Their respective policies on data transparency, however, lack a systematic account of (1 what kinds of commercial interests remain relevant after market approval has been granted, (2 what the specific types of public interest are that may override these commercial interests post approval, and, most importantly, (3 what criteria guide the trade-off between public interest and legitimate measures for the protection of commercial interest. Comparing potential commercial interests with seven specifications of relevant public interest reveals the lack of proportionality inherent in the current practices of EMA and NICE.

  10. Methods of assessment of individual and collective doses to transport workers and members of the public during the transport of radioactive materials. Part of a coordinated programme on safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1983-12-01

    A study in India, partially supported by an IAEA research contract, provided measurements of exposure to transport workers associated with the transport of radioisotopes for medical, industry and research purposes. A survey showed this to be the single most significant source of transport worker exposure in India. The largest exposures were found with transport workers at the Bombay airport through which these packages are ''funnelled''. The maximum occupational doses were found to be between 1.8 and 2.0 mSv/y assuming only four men handle all of the packages throughout the year. Furthermore, it was found that the surface transport of these materials in the Bombay area results in an estimated maximum annual collective dose to the public of only 0.1 man Sv/y. It was further noted that this collective dose results not from high radiation levels but from the high population density involved in the Bombay area. The model provides reasonable correlation with the measured data, but it was indicated that additional testing of the model needed to be performed. The data indicate a correlation between persons preparing the packages and persons handling the packages in transport. It was not possible to derive a simple empirical model based solely on Transport Index

  11. Measurement of activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, 2{sup 32T}h and {sup 238}U in TSP aerosols and the associated inhalation annual effective radiation dose to the public in Gosan site, Jeju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chung Hun; Park, Youn Hyun; Park, Jae Woo [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Gamma radiation emitted from naturally occurring radioisotopes, such as 40K and the radionuclides from the {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U series and their decay products, which exist at trace levels in all ground formations, represents the main external source of irradiation to the human body. The objective of the current study is to determine the activity concentrations of 40K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in airborne TSP and the associated internal radiation dose to the public due to inhalation in Gosan site, Jeju Island, Korea. The atmospheric total suspended particulates (TSP) aerosols were collected at Gosan site of Jeju Island, which is one of the background sites of Korea, during January to April 2013. This study analyzed using ICP-DRC-MS the concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium, and evaluated the annual effective dose by breathing from the results. The correlations between the studied natural isotopes is a good positive correlation between {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, supporting the conclusion that they originated from the same source, mostly the crust. The backward trajectory analysis has confirmed that the 40K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th are delivered as the air masses have moved from the China continent. The inhalation annual effective radiation dose (default mode F) to the public due to natural isotopes of the airborne TSP was in the range 16.195 - 77.051 nSv/y, depending on the age group. Jeju Island with less pollution source and low population density is also one of the best places as a background area in Asia.

  12. New recommendations for dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In its report 39, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), has defined four new quantities for the determination of dose equivalents from external sources: the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent, penetrating and the individual dose equivalent, superficial. The rationale behind these concepts and their practical application are discussed. Reference is made to numerical values of these quantities which will be the subject of a coming publication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. (Author)

  13. On the new recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Publication 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukhin, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radioligical Protection (ICRP) published in 1990 new main recommendations (Publication 60), in which the recommendations of 1977 (Publication 26) were revised and noticeable changes were introduced. The main changes in ICRP recommendations important for practical personnel are discussed. These important changes include introduction of two protection systems, which are the protection system in practice and that during intervention, conception of potential irradiation, dose and risk limits, changes in dose limits and risk coefficients, determination of the effective dose and its numerical values by changing the weighting coefficients. The problems open to arguments are formulated

  14. Dose conversion coefficients for high-energy photons, electrons, neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for photons, electrons and neutrons based on new ICRP recommendations were cited in the ICRP Publication 74, but the energy ranges of these data were limited and there are no data for high energy radiations produced in accelerator facilities. For the purpose of designing the high intensity proton accelerator facilities at JAERI, the dose evaluation code system of high energy radiations based on the HERMES code was developed and the dose conversion coefficients of effective dose were evaluated for photons, neutrons and protons up to 10 GeV, and electrons up to 100 GeV. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalent were also evaluated using quality factors to consider the consistency between radiation weighting factors and Q-L relationship. The effective dose conversion coefficients obtained in this work were in good agreement with those recently evaluated by using FLUKA code for photons and electrons with all energies, and neutrons and protons below 500 MeV. There were some discrepancy between two data owing to the difference of cross sections in the nuclear reaction models. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalents for high energy radiations based on Q-L relation in ICRP Publication 60 were evaluated only in this work. The previous comparison between effective dose and effective dose equivalent made it clear that the radiation weighting factors for high energy neutrons and protons were overestimated and the modification was required. (author)

  15. Radiation protection principles as applied to the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste and protection of the public. Commentary of ICRP publication 81 and publication 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    2001-01-01

    This commentary is for ICRP Publication 81 concerning the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste to which the Publication 82 giving theoretical basis for protection of the public exposed for a long period. The primary object for prevention is the public in this disposal, which is quite different from the concept hitherto where the object is the facility. The essential points in the prevention are the definition and direction for the protection of future generations, critical group, potential exposures, protection optimization, principles in the technology and management, consistency of the principle, and evidence of observance to radiological standards. Dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/y or 10 -5 risk, reasonable measures taken for reduction of probable human invasion of its influence and observance to technological and control principles are recommended. Publication 82 principally describes and discusses the reference level for intervention and dose limits to the public due to action.(K.H.)

  16. Open and fast available dose rate data for the public. Challenges and opportunities of internet based communication; Offene und schnelle Verfuegbarkeit von ODL-Messwerten in der Oeffentlichkeit. Herausforderungen und Chancen durch internetbasierte Kommunikationsformen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, M.; Luff, R.; Schiesewitz, M. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    The BfS website ''ODLInfo'' had been operational for many years when it suddenly became frequently visited by the public due to the Fukushima accident. BfS responded with increased polling frequency of the gamma probes in the network and a higher frequency in update of the web site. Not yet validated data were also published. The web site was extended by explanatory text and additional functionalities, including a complete translation into english language. Many questions directed to BfS by E-mail and related to this web site had to be answered. This was used as a valuable feedback for improving the its design. Additional services were implemented for providers of special applications of smartphones. The market is characterized by a great variability between serious and lurid apps. BfS seeks to support providers in giving explanatory help. Similar websites exist on European and international level. The EU is publishing data from member states on the EURDEP site. NGOs established platforms for uploading and visualizing private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 march 2011. This development has important implication for emergency preparedness. Information platforms must be authentic and timely. They must compete with alternative data sources in contents and presentation. Data must be presented understandable. Ideally, the public can understand the data and set it into relation to reference values. Often people want to compare their own measurements - sometimes collected with low quality equipment - with official data. Radiation issues are much better understood by the lay public if visible effects in the variability of the measured dose rate are explained.

  17. Graduação em Saúde Coletiva: limites e possibilidades como estratégia de formação profissional Undergraduate on Public Health: limits and possibilities as a professional education strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Magalhães Bosi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo problematiza a Saúde Coletiva como âmbito de profissionalização, sistematizando alguns fundamentos teóricos, sociais e ético-políticos de uma formação em nível de graduação. Para tanto, recupera a trajetória em que se vem dando a formulação desses cursos e, mais recentemente, sua emergência nas instituições de ensino superior brasileiras. No Brasil, tais projetos resultam do acúmulo no ensino da Saúde Coletiva em diferentes cursos de graduação na área da saúde, acrescido da tradição na pós- graduação lato e stricto sensu, tendo dentre os seus desdobramentos o reconhecimento da pertinência de fomentar novas estratégias de formação. Mais recentemente, políticas voltadas à inclusão social e à expansão do ensino superior vêm impulsionando o movimento, ao que se soma a constatação de que o Sistema Único de Saúde demanda novos atores, com capacidade de dar respostas diferenciadas e complementares àquelas possibilitadas pelas graduações tradicionais. No momento em que diversas instituições se encontram em fase de oferta dessa formação à sociedade, este artigo apresenta um conjunto de elementos derivados da reflexão nos planos epistemológico, sociológico e político-sanitário, visando a contribuir para um diálogo acerca da emergência desse projeto no contexto brasileiro.This article aims to call into question Public Health as a field for professionalization by systematizing theoretical, social and ethical-political bases for undergraduate education. We also attempt to record the trajectory in formulating undergraduate courses in that field and, more recently, the emergence of these projects in Brazilian Universities. In Brazil, the current projects are a result of institutional experience gained in Public Health teaching in different undergraduate courses in the field of health. Additionally, there is also a teaching tradition in non-degree and master's and PhD graduate courses

  18. Impact of ICRP publication 68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Woods, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    ICRP Publication 61 was a temporary replacement for ICRP Publication 30. It gave ALIs but not the underlying dose conversion factors. ICRP Publication 68 has now been issued to replace Publication 61; it contains the dose conversion factors but not the ALIs, so comparison is impossible without carrying out calculations. This paper presents comparisons between the two publications and calculates the ICRP Publication 68 ALIs for some of the more common radionuclides. (author)

  19. Towards a new dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF)? Some comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, K H

    2017-06-26

    The aim of this article is to offer a broader, mechanism-based, analytical tool than that used by (Rühm et al 2016 Ann. ICRP 45 262-79) for the interpretation of cancer induction relationships. The article explains the limitations of this broader analytical tool and the implications of its use in view of the publications by Leuraud et al 2015 (Lancet Haematol. 2 e276-81) and Richardson et al 2015 (Br. Med. J. 351 h5359). The publication by Rühm et al 2016 (Ann. ICRP 45 262-79), which is clearly work in progress, reviews the current status of the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) as recommended by the ICRP. It also considers the issues which might influence a reassessment of both the value of the DDREF as well as its application in radiological protection. In this article, the problem is approached from a different perspective and starts by commenting on the limited scientific data used by Rühm et al 2016 (Ann. ICRP 45 262-79) to develop their analysis which ultimately leads them to use a linear-quadratic dose effect relationship to fit solid cancer mortality data from the Japanese life span study of atomic bomb survivors. The approach taken here includes more data on the induction of DNA double strand breaks and, using experimental data taken from the literature, directly relates the breaks to cell killing, chromosomal aberrations and somatic mutations. The relationships are expanded to describe the induction of cancer as arising from radiation induced cytological damage coupled to cell killing since the cancer mutated cell has to survive to express its malignant nature. Equations are derived for the induction of cancer after both acute and chronic exposure to sparsely ionising radiation. The equations are fitted to the induction of cancer in mice to illustrate a dose effect relationship over the total dose range. The 'DDREF' derived from the two equations varies with dose and the DDREF concept is called into question. Although the equation for

  20. Crisis Communication in Public Health Emergencies: The Limits of 'Legal Control' and the Risks for Harmful Outcomes in a Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul

    2018-02-06

    Communication by public authorities during a crisis situation is an essential and indispensable part of any response to a situation that may threaten both life and property. In the online connected world possibilities for such communication have grown further, in particular with the opportunity that social media presents. As a consequence, communication strategies have become a key plank of responses to crises ranging from epidemics to terrorism to natural disaster. Such strategies involve a range of innovative practices on social media. Whilst being able to bring about positive effects, they can also bring about a range of harmful unintended side effects. This include economic harms produced by incorrect information and a range of social harms that can be fuelled by myths and rumours, worsening negative phenomena such as stigmatisation and discrimination. Given the potential for such harms, one might expect that affected or potentially affected individuals would be able to challenge such measures before courts or administrative tribunals. As this paper demonstrates however this is not the case. More often than not seemingly applicable legal approaches are unlikely to be able to engage such methods. This is often because such measures represent activities that are purely expressive in nature and therefore not capable of imposing any binding legal or corporeal changes on individuals. Whilst some forms of soft law may pose requirements for public officials involved in such activities (e.g. codes of conduct or of professional ethics), they are not likely to offer potentially harmed individuals the chance to to challenge particular communication strategies before courts or legal tribunals. The result is that public authorities largely have a free reign to communicate how they wish and do not have to have to comply with a range of requirements (e.g. relating to form and substantive) content) that would in general apply to most forms of official administrative act.

  1. Principios bioéticos en salud pública: limitaciones y propuestas Bioethical principles in public health: limitations and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta caracterizar la especificidad de los problemas morales en salud pública y analizar la aplicabilidad del modelo principialista como padrón para dirimir sus conflictos. Aunque considerado pertinente para la bioética clínica, este modelo no es aplicable sin más a los dilemas en salud pública, puesto que se fundamenta en la moral de las interrelaciones médico-paciente. Se analiza la pertinencia de los principios de "solidaridad", de "responsabilidad óntica" según Jonas, y de "responsabilidad diacónica" según Lévinas, destacando la inaplicabilidad del primero y la posible adaptación de los otros dos a la salud pública. A ese respecto se discute la posibilidad de vincular la preocupación ontológica de Jonas y la trascendental de Lévinas, proponiendo un principio de protección que sería más adecuado a los propósitos de una ética de la salud pública, permitiendo identificar claramente los objetivos y los actores implicados en una implementación de políticas públicas moralmente correctas y pragmáticamente efectivas.We propose to analyze the specificity of ethical problems in public health issues and to elucidate the applicability of principlism as a problem-solving strategy in this realm. Although well-established in clinical ethics, principlism is not an adequate model to be used in public health, since it is basically intended to serve as a moral guide in the physician-patient encounter. We discuss the possible adequacy of principles like "solidarity", "ontic responsibility" (as proposed by Jonas, and "caring or diaconal responsibility" as presented by Lévinas. Solidarity appears to be insufficiently specified, whereas the other two perspectives may be adapted to public health issues by bringing together Jonas´ ontological and Lévinas´ transcendental concerns to form a principle of protection that might better serve the purposes of such an ethics. This principle would help to identify more clearly

  2. A single dose of a MIV-150/Zinc acetate gel provides 24 h of protection against vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase infection, with more limited protection rectally 8-24 h after gel use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Jessica; Singer, Rachel; Derby, Nina; Aravantinou, Meropi; Abraham, Ciby J; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Zhang, Shimin; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2012-11-01

    Previously we showed that repeated vaginal application of a MIV-150/zinc acetate carrageenan (MIV-150/ZA/CG) gel and a zinc acetate carrageenan (ZA/CG) gel significantly protected macaques from vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection. Gels were applied either daily for 2 weeks or every other day for 4 weeks, and the animals were challenged 4-24 h later. Herein, we examined the effects of a single vaginal dose administered either before or after virus challenge. Encouraged by the vaginal protection seen with MIV-150/ZA/CG, we also tested it rectally. Vaginal applications of MIV-150/ZA/CG, ZA/CG, and CG gel were performed once 8-24 h before, 1 h after, or 24 h before and 1 h after vaginal challenge. Rectal applications of MIV-150/ZA/CG and CG gel were performed once 8 or 24 h before rectal challenge. While vaginal pre-challenge and pre/post-challenge application of MIV-150/ZA/CG gel offered significant protection (88%, pinfection prechallenge, but not significantly, and the effect was completely lost post-challenge. Rectal application of MIV-150/ZA/CG gel afforded limited protection against rectal challenge when applied 8-24 h before challenge. Thus, MIV-150/ZA/CG gel is a highly effective vaginal microbicide that demonstrates 24 h of protection from vaginal infection and may demonstrate efficacy against rectal infection when given close to the time of HIV exposure.

  3. Effective dose and dose to crystalline lens during angiographic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, J.

    1998-01-01

    The highest radiation doses levels received by radiologists are observed during interventional procedures. Doses to forehead and neck received by a radiologist executing angiographic examinations at the department of radiology at the academic hospital (AZ-VUB) have been measured for a group of 34 examinations. The doses to crystalline lens and the effective doses for a period of one year have been estimated. For the crystalline lens the maximum dose approaches the ICRP limit, that indicates the necessity for the radiologist to use leaded glasses. (N.C.)

  4. Intercomparison On Depth Dose Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmah, N; Akhadi, M

    1996-01-01

    Intercomparation on personal dose evaluation system has been carried out between CSRSR-NAEA of Indonesia toward Standard Laboratory of JAERI (Japan) and ARL (Australia). The intercomparison was in 10 amm depth dose measurement , Hp (10), from the intercomparison result could be stated that personal depth dose measurement conducted by CSRSR was sufficiently good. Deviation of dose measurement result using personal dosemeter of TLD BG-1 type which were used by CSRSR in the intercomparison and routine photon personal dose monitoring was still in internationally agreed limit. Maximum deviation of reported doses by CSRSR compared to delivered doses for dosemeter irradiation by JAERI was -10.0 percent and by ARL was +29 percent. Maximum deviation permitted in personal dose monitoring is ± 50 percent

  5. A model to optimize public health care and downstage breast cancer in limited-resource populations in southern Brazil. (Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomazzi Juliana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC is a major public health problem, with rising incidence in many regions of the globe. Although mortality has recently dropped in developed countries, death rates are still increasing in some developing countries, as seen in Brazil. Among the reasons for this phenomenon are the lack of structured screening programs, a long waiting period between diagnosis and treatment, and lack of access to health services for a large proportion of the Brazilian population. Methods and design Since 2004, an intervention study in a cohort of women in Southern Brazil, denominated Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort, is being conducted in order to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a model for BC early detection and treatment. In this study, over 4,000 women from underserved communities aged 40 to 69 years are being screened annually with mammography and clinical breast examination performed by a multidisciplinary team, which also involves nutritional counseling and genetic cancer risk assessment. Risk factors for BC development are also being evaluated. Active search of participants by lay community health workers is one of the major features of our program. The accrual of new participants was concluded in 2006 and the study will last for 10 years. The main goal of the study is to demonstrate significant downstaging of BC in an underserved population through proper screening, attaining a higher rate of early-stage BC diagnoses than usually seen in women diagnosed in the Brazilian Public Health System. Preliminary results show a very high BC incidence in this population (117 cases per 100,000 women per year, despite a low prevalence of classical risk factors. Discussion This study will allow us to test a model of BC early diagnosis and treatment and evaluate its cost-effectiveness in a developing country where the mortality associated with this disease is very high. Also, it might contribute to the

  6. New ICRP recommendations on occupational limits for radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ICRP has recommended in 1959 for the first time a maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for the occupational exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters. Since this time more realistic dosimetric models for radon daughters have been developed. Taking into account epidemiological and new dosimetric findings the ICRP has adopted in March this year new recommendations on occupational limits for inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short-lived daughters. This report will be published this year as ICRP Publication 32 (ICRP 1981). The recommended limits for radon daughters were derived from the basic dose and risk limits as they were proposed by ICRP in its new basic recommendations (ICRP Publ. 26, 1977). In the following this basic system of dose limitation is shortly outlined before the special recommendations for radon daughters are described

  7. Controllable dose; Dosis controlable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T; Anaya M, R A [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reason