WorldWideScience

Sample records for public domain state

  1. Public domain small-area cancer incidence data for New York State, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis P. Boscoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has long been a demand for cancer incidence data at a fine geographic resolution for use in etiologic hypothesis generation and testing, methodological evaluation and teaching. In this paper we describe a public domain dataset containing data for 23 anatomic sites of cancer diagnosed in New York State, USA between 2005 and 2009 at the census block group level. The dataset includes 524,503 tumours distributed across 13,823 block groups with an average population of about 1400. In addition, the data have been linked with race/ethnicity and with socioeconomic indicators such as income, educational attainment and language proficiency. We demonstrate the application of the dataset by confirming two well-established relationships: that between breast cancer and median household income and that between stomach cancer and Asian race. We foresee that this dataset will serve as the basis for a wide range of spatial analyses and as a benchmark for evaluating spatial methods in the future.

  2. PUBLIC DOMAIN PROTECTION. USES AND REUSES OF PUBLIC DOMAIN WORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Adriana LUPAȘCU

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to highlight the necessity of an awareness of the right of access to the public domain, particularly using the example of works whose protection period has expired, as well as the ones which the law considers to be excluded from protection. Such works are used not only by large libraries from around the world, but also by rights holders, via different means of use, including incorporations into original works or adaptations. However, the reuse that follows these uses often on...

  3. Cultural Heritage and the Public Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Savenije

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, libraries, archives and museums from across Europe have been the custodians of our rich and diverse cultural heritage. They have preserved and provided access to the testimonies of knowledge, beauty and imagination, such as sculptures, paintings, music and literature. The new information technologies have created unbelievable opportunities to make this common heritage more accessible for all. Recently, the European Commission commissioned a ‘Comité des Sages’ to make recommendations on ways and means to make Europe's cultural heritage and creativity available on the Internet and to preserve it for future generations. In the United States the Association of Research Libraries (ARL endorsed a number of principle recommendations to its members regarding the digitisation of cultural heritage. Both the Comité des Sages and the ARL emphasize the added value of digitisation. The Comité underlines that the digitised material can in itself be a driver of innovation and can be at the basis of new services in sectors such as tourism and learning (Comité des Sages 2011 and the ARL stresses the added value for researchers (ARL Principles July 2010. For over a century, libraries have participated in successful resource sharing cooperatives that have made content widely accessible. According to both the ARL and the Comité, the same spirit should govern commercial digitisation activities. In the best of all possible worlds, there would in our view be some level of free access to all content, with only special value-added services restricted to a subscription model. A landmark in the discussion about Open Access to information is the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities. Referring to this Declaration, people often put emphasis on recent research publications. But the following is also one of the objectives of the Declaration: “encouraging the holders of cultural heritage to support open access

  4. Comparison of the domain and frequency domain state feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, we present explicitly the equivalence of the time domain and frequency domain state feedbacks, as well as the dynamic state feedback and a modified frequency domain state feedback, from the closed-loop transfer function point of view. The difference of the two approaches is also shown.

  5. Preserving the positive functions of the public domain in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Samuelson

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Science has advanced in part because data and scientific methodologies have traditionally not been subject to intellectual property protection. In recent years, intellectual property has played a greater role in scientific work. While intellectual property rights may have a positive role to play in some fields of science, so does the public domain. This paper will discuss some of the positive functions of the public domain and ways in which certain legal developments may negatively impact the public domain. It suggests some steps that scientists can take to preserve the positive functions of the public domain for science.

  6. The Definition, Dimensions, and Domain of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the field of public relations has left itself vulnerable to other fields that are making inroads into public relations' traditional domain, and to critics who are filling in their own definitions of public relations. Proposes a definition and a three-dimensional framework to compare competing philosophies of public relations and to…

  7. Public Goods and State Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova T.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that state services are classified into two groups depending on the level of market mechanism use: public services and private services. These services have different characteristics: individual choice of consumption, type and quality of goods, financing, institutional regulation, decision-making subject, external effects, opportunity of effects control. The mechanism of public state services regulation is based on the influence on formal institutes, while the mechanism of private state services regulation is based on informal institutes. Joint mechanism of both types of state services provision includes the procedures of standartization and regulatory activity implying the provision of services by “one stop” principle and minimization of consumer - agent contacts. The optimization of services rendering process and their quality improvement are ensured by administrative regulations which establish strict standards of public service provided by the bodies of executive power and subordinate organizations The means of institutional regulation allow inclusion of market elements but on the condition of state control that ensures stimulation of public institutes. During the process of market institutes initialization in the sphere of state services rendering to government bodies, it is necessary to consider their dependence on marginal profits of one or another institute. In the long-term prospect those institutes got a foothold in the market that strengthen and encompass marginal effect for all individuals under the growth of individuals who observe the rules and restrictions. The activities organized by these institutes deserve positive response on behalf of the majority of individuals and, therefore there is no need in enforcement and violence in order to keep rules and restrictions. In the sphere of state and municipal services we can find the example of services provided in the scope of free contraction, in particular the

  8. Development and Initial Validation of Public Domain Basic Interest Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsin-Ya; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    Goldberg (Goldberg, L. R. (1999). "A broad-bandwidth, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models." In: I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), "Personality psychology in Europe" (Vol. 7, pp. 7-28). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press) has argued that the…

  9. Copyright and the Value of the Public Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Heald, Paul; Homberg, Fabian; Kretschmer, Martin; Mendis, Dinusha

    2015-01-01

    This research report documents the results of a year-long knowledge exchange initiative undertaken between the Intellectual Property Office, researchers at the University of Glasgow CREATe Centre, and more than two dozen UK businesses and innovators, to explore how value is generated from the public domain. The study was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Intellectual Property Office (IPO). The core research team consisted of Dr. Kristofer Erickson (Lord Kelv...

  10. The State Public Health Laboratory System

    OpenAIRE

    Inhorn, Stanley L.; Astles, J. Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M.; Wilcke, Burton W.; White, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the go...

  11. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  12. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  13. Publication List - New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Museum, Albany.

    Presented is a list of publications in six areas: (1) Anthropology and Archeology, (2) Botany, (3) Entomology, (4) Zoology, (5) Geology and Paleontology, and (6) Miscellaneous. This list was produced by the New York State Department of Education in cooperation with the New York State Museum. The list includes the publication number, author(s),…

  14. Public-domain software for root image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the search for high efficiency in root studies, computational systems have been developed to analyze digital images. ImageJ and Safira are public-domain systems that may be used for image analysis of washed roots. However, differences in root properties measured using ImageJ and Safira are supposed. This study compared values of root length and surface area obtained with public-domain systems with values obtained by a reference method. Root samples were collected in a banana plantation in an area of a shallower Typic Carbonatic Haplic Cambisol (CXk, and an area of a deeper Typic Haplic Ta Eutrophic Cambisol (CXve, at six depths in five replications. Root images were digitized and the systems ImageJ and Safira used to determine root length and surface area. The line-intersect method modified by Tennant was used as reference; values of root length and surface area measured with the different systems were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and compared by the confidence interval and t-test. Both systems ImageJ and Safira had positive correlation coefficients with the reference method for root length and surface area data in CXk and CXve. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.54 to 0.80, with lowest value observed for ImageJ in the measurement of surface area of roots sampled in CXve. The IC (95 % revealed that root length measurements with Safira did not differ from that with the reference method in CXk (-77.3 to 244.0 mm. Regarding surface area measurements, Safira did not differ from the reference method for samples collected in CXk (-530.6 to 565.8 mm² as well as in CXve (-4231 to 612.1 mm². However, measurements with ImageJ were different from those obtained by the reference method, underestimating length and surface area in samples collected in CXk and CXve. Both ImageJ and Safira allow an identification of increases or decreases in root length and surface area. However, Safira results for root length and surface area are

  15. Heterogeneous Ferroelectric Solid Solutions Phases and Domain States

    CERN Document Server

    Topolov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The book deals with perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions for modern materials science and applications, solving problems of complicated heterophase/domain structures near the morphotropic phase boundary and applications to various systems with morphotropic phases. In this book domain state–interface diagrams are presented for the interpretation of heterophase states in perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions. It allows to describe the stress relief in the presence of polydomain phases, the behavior of unit-cell parameters of coexisting phases and the effect of external electric fields. The novelty of the book consists in (i) the first systematization of data about heterophase states and their evolution in ferroelectric solid solutions (ii) the general interpretation of heterophase and domain structures at changing temperature, composition or electric field (iii) the complete analysis of interconnection domain structures, unit-cell parameters changes, heterophase structures and stress relief.

  16. Assessment of current cybersecurity practices in the public domain : cyber indications and warnings domain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.

    2010-09-01

    This report assesses current public domain cyber security practices with respect to cyber indications and warnings. It describes cybersecurity industry and government activities, including cybersecurity tools, methods, practices, and international and government-wide initiatives known to be impacting current practice. Of particular note are the U.S. Government's Trusted Internet Connection (TIC) and 'Einstein' programs, which are serving to consolidate the Government's internet access points and to provide some capability to monitor and mitigate cyber attacks. Next, this report catalogs activities undertaken by various industry and government entities. In addition, it assesses the benchmarks of HPC capability and other HPC attributes that may lend themselves to assist in the solution of this problem. This report draws few conclusions, as it is intended to assess current practice in preparation for future work, however, no explicit references to HPC usage for the purpose of analyzing cyber infrastructure in near-real-time were found in the current practice. This report and a related SAND2010-4766 National Cyber Defense High Performance Computing and Analysis: Concepts, Planning and Roadmap report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  17. An outlook on the nature of mental creations after belonging to public domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedjman Mohammadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public domain of copyright which considers the end of protection period, attempts to cause balance among the rights of authors, society and third parties. So at the end of financial rights of author’s protection period the possibility of free utilization of these literary works will be possible. But in this situation one of the controversial difficulties is the nature of these kinds of literary works which, according to some scholars, after belonging to public domain, they will change in to the Allowable. To approve their idea, they focus on common features existing in these literary works(works relating to public domain and the Allowable. On the other hand it is believed that literary works after belonging to public domain essentially works after belonging to public domain essentially due to lacking of scarcity element are not considered property at all.

  18. Basement domain map of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Box, Stephen E.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; San Juan, Carma A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Saltus, Richard W.; Anderson, Eric D.; DeWitt, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a base layer for national-scale mineral resource assessments. Seventy-seven basement domains are represented as eighty-three polygons on the map. The domains are based on interpretations of basement composition, origin, and architecture and developed from a variety of sources. Analysis of previously published basement, lithotectonic, and terrane maps as well as models of planetary development were used to formulate the concept of basement and the methodology of defining domains that spanned the ages of Archean to present but formed through different processes. The preliminary compilations for the study areas utilized these maps, national-scale gravity and aeromagnetic data, published and limited new age and isotopic data, limited new field investigations, and conventional geologic maps. Citation of the relevant source data for compilations and the source and types of original interpretation, as derived from different types of data, are provided in supporting descriptive text and tables.

  19. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  20. The Use and Abuse of Research in the Public Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, education think tanks have become increasingly influential in policy circles through "reports" to government, and in public debate through the mainstream media. Invariably think-tanks draw on educational research to lend authority and legitimacy to their work. This is desirable if the research deepens understandings about…

  1. The Creative Commons. A Third Way between Public Domain and Community ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Bert-Erboul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available How have the Creative Commons’ ownership rules used by free websites like Wikipedia or Flickr and in 3D printer projects or in alternative kitchen gardens, been develo­ped? Internet users and technological experimentation communities rely heavily on these free tools, but the ideologies of the public domain and online communities that allowed their birth often remain obscure. In this article we used American legal doctri­ne, the scientific literature and specialized press archives. From these sources we analyzed the links between Copyright reforms and the institutionalization of the activity of free software developers, at the origin of Creative Commons licenses. The case of intangible goods property applied to tangibles goods shows how the community members and institutions legitimize their IT practices by means of several producers of norms, such as States or communities.

  2. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  3. Suburban development – a search for public domains in Danish suburban neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    , potentials for bridge-building across the enclaves of the suburb are looked for through a combined architectural-anthropological mapping of public spaces in a specific suburb in Denmark, the analyses being carried out in the light of Hajer & Reijndorp’s definition of public domains and the term exchange....... The results so far show that suburban spaces with a potential for creating bridge-building across the segregated enclaves do exist but that, among other things, focus on spatial design is needed before actual public domains creating the basis for exchange are achieved....

  4. Materialities of Law: Celebrity Production and the Public Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Milne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Celebrity production and consumption are powerful socio-economic forces. The celebrity functions as a significant economic resource for the commercial sector and plays a fundamental symbolic role within culture by providing a shared ‘vocabulary’ through which to understand contemporary social relations. A pivotal element of this allure is the process by which the celebrity figure is able to forge an intimate link with its audience, often producing public expressions of profound compassion, respect or revulsion. This process, however, is complicated by emerging participatory media forms whose impact is experienced as new conditions of possibility for celebrity production and consumption. As Marshall argues, video mash-ups of celebrity interviews, such as those of Christian Bale or Tom Cruise, are dramatically changing the relation between celebrity and audience (Marshall, 2006: 640. Meanings produced by these audience remixes challenge the extent to which a celebrity might control her image. So is the celebrity personality, therefore, a public or private commodity? Who owns the celebrity image within remix culture? Although the celebrity figure has been thoroughly researched in relation to its patterns of consumption; semiotic power; and industry construction; less attention has been focused on the forms of celebrity governance enabled by legislative and case law settings. How might the law deal with the significant economic and cultural power exercised within celebrity culture?

  5. Domain Walls: Momentum Conservation in Absence of Asymptotic States

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, D V; Spirin, P

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational potentials of the domain walls in the linearized gravity are growing with distance, so the particle scattering by the wall can not be described in terms of free asymptotic states. In the non-relativistic case this problem is solved using the concept of the potential energy. We show that in the relativistic case one is able to introduce gravitationally dressed momenta the sum of which is conserved up to the momentum flux through the lateral surface of the world tube describing losses due to excitation of the branon waves.

  6. Mechanisms for Automated Negotiation in State Oriented Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenschein, J S; 10.1613/jair.72

    2011-01-01

    This paper lays part of the groundwork for a domain theory of negotiation, that is, a way of classifying interactions so that it is clear, given a domain, which negotiation mechanisms and strategies are appropriate. We define State Oriented Domains, a general category of interaction. Necessary and sufficient conditions for cooperation are outlined. We use the notion of worth in an altered definition of utility, thus enabling agreements in a wider class of joint-goal reachable situations. An approach is offered for conflict resolution, and it is shown that even in a conflict situation, partial cooperative steps can be taken by interacting agents (that is, agents in fundamental conflict might still agree to cooperate up to a certain point). A Unified Negotiation Protocol (UNP) is developed that can be used in all types of encounters. It is shown that in certain borderline cooperative situations, a partial cooperative agreement (i.e., one that does not achieve all agents' goals) might be preferred by all agents,...

  7. Quantally fed steady-state domain distributions in Stochastic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, M; Deza, R R; Bellini, Mauricio; Sisterna, Pablo D.; Deza, Roberto R.

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of stochastic inflationary cosmology we derive esteady-state distributions P_c(V) of domains in comoving coordinates, under the assumption of slow-rolling and for two specific choices of the coarse-grained inflaton potential $V(\\Phi)$. We model the process as a Starobinsky-like equation in V-space plus a time-independent source term P_w(V) which carries (phenomenologically) quantum-mechanical information drawn from either of two known solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation: Hartle-Hawking's and Vilenkin's wave functions. The presence of the source term leads to the existence of nontrivial steady-state distributions P^w_c(V). The relative efficiencies of both mechanisms at different scales are compared for the proposed potentials.

  8. Learning through ferroelectric domain dynamics in solid-state synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyn, Sören; Grollier, Julie; Lecerf, Gwendal; Xu, Bin; Locatelli, Nicolas; Fusil, Stéphane; Girod, Stéphanie; Carrétéro, Cécile; Garcia, Karin; Xavier, Stéphane; Tomas, Jean; Bellaiche, Laurent; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès; Saïghi, Sylvain; Garcia, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity. Here we report on synapses based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions and show that STDP can be harnessed from inhomogeneous polarization switching. Through combined scanning probe imaging, electrical transport and atomic-scale molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that conductance variations can be modelled by the nucleation-dominated reversal of domains. Based on this physical model, our simulations show that arrays of ferroelectric nanosynapses can autonomously learn to recognize patterns in a predictable way, opening the path towards unsupervised learning in spiking neural networks.

  9. Safety features in nuclear power plants to eliminate the need of emergency planning in public domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Vijayan; M T Kamble; A K Nayak; K K Vaze; R K Sinha

    2013-10-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the safety features of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are being re-examined worldwide including India to demonstrate capabilities to cope with severe accidents. In order to restore public confidence and support for nuclear power, it is felt necessary to design future NPPs with near zero impact outside the plant boundary and thus enabling elimination of emergency planning in public domain. Authors have identified a set of safety features which are needed to be incorporated in advanced reactors to achieve this goal. These features enabling prevention, termination, mitigation and containment of radioactivity for beyond design basis accidents arising from extreme natural events are essential for achieving the goal of elimination of emergency planning in public domain. Inherent safety characteristics, passive and engineered safety features to achieve these functions are discussed in this paper. Present trends and future developments in this direction are also described briefly.

  10. The state of Public Performance Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Moon, M. Jae

    This paper reviews the PA literature on Public Performance Management (PPM) with the purpose of first providing a broad description of some basic characteristics of this literature and second more specifically to focus on the distinction between conceptualizations and definitions of public perfor...

  11. Inform, influence, evaluate: the power of state public opinion polls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Shiloh; O'Connor, Patricia; Rademacher, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Politicians use public opinion polling data if the data are available to them. Most of these data are from national polls and do not allow for state-level analysis. One promising strategy for informing elected state officials about health issues is to administer public opinion polls at the state level. Combined with health assessment surveys, public opinion data provide a powerful tool for health policy development. This Report reviews one regional foundation's efforts at providing public opinion poll data at the state level and the results of these efforts.

  12. Danish Public Diplomacy - A dialogic approach to international relations between states and publics

    OpenAIRE

    Meiner-Jensen,Nicklas

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the approach to Public Diplomacy in the Danish Foreign Ministry. Public Diplomacy is the international communication between a state and a foreign public that aims to promote the state, its policies and the relationship between the sender and the receiver. The study takes a dialogic approach to the concept that focuses on dialogue, symmetry and credibility. It is the conclusion of the study that a more reciprocal approach to Public Diplomacy is beneficial to the sender-s...

  13. 37 CFR 201.26 - Recordation of documents pertaining to computer shareware and donation of public domain computer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pertaining to computer shareware and donation of public domain computer software. 201.26 Section 201.26... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.26 Recordation of documents pertaining to computer shareware and donation of public domain computer software. (a) General. This section prescribes the procedures for submission of...

  14. 32 CFR 644.24 - Acquisition by Transfer from other Government Departments or Agencies (except Public Domain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Departments or Agencies (except Public Domain). 644.24 Section 644.24 National Defense Department of Defense... Departments or Agencies (except Public Domain). When a requirement develops for the acquisition of Government... of existing improvements, the estimated cost of the proposed construction, attitude of the...

  15. State Profiles: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditure, and collection sizes.These...

  16. State-Sponsored Tourism: A Growth Field for Public Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda K.

    1985-01-01

    This article explores the growth of public sector tourism development. It reports the findings of a 1984 survey of state and territorial tourism offices regarding their budgets, personnel needs, intergovernmental relations, and political support functions. The impact of public sector tourism management on public administration careers and…

  17. 75 FR 3952 - Delegation by the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Delegation by the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the Coordinator, Bureau... the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs by law, including by Delegation... Management and Resources, and the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs may at...

  18. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  19. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  20. Towards development of a high quality public domain global roads database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is clear demand for a global spatial public domain roads data set with improved geographic and temporal coverage, consistent coding of road types, and clear documentation of sources. The currently best available global public domain product covers only one-quarter to one-third of the existing road networks, and this varies considerably by region. Applications for such a data set span multiple sectors and would be particularly valuable for the international economic development, disaster relief, and biodiversity conservation communities, not to mention national and regional agencies and organizations around the world. The building blocks for such a global product are available for many countries and regions, yet thus far there has been neither strategy nor leadership for developing it. This paper evaluates the best available public domain and commercial data sets, assesses the gaps in global coverage, and proposes a number of strategies for filling them. It also identifies stakeholder organizations with an interest in such a data set that might either provide leadership or funding for its development. It closes with a proposed set of actions to begin the process.

  1. State Wildlife Management Area Boundaries - Publicly Accessible

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This polygon theme contains boundaries for approximately 1392 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) across the state covering nearly 1,288,000 acres. WMAs are part of the...

  2. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This point theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as points. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  3. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  4. A Biennial Survey of Public School Finance in the United States, 1920-1922. Bulletin, 1923, No. 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Fletcher Harper

    1923-01-01

    Every great war in which the United States has played a part has been followed by educational developments of supreme national importance. As the result of the Revolutionary War the Federal Government acquired a vast public land domain from which it has carved generous grants to the States. Those became the foundation of systems of free public…

  5. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  6. Public Rates of Return on Higher Education Investments, by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Stephen H.; Fry, Cary G.

    2007-01-01

    Public rates of return on higher education expenditures are calculated by state. Benefits accruing to states from their investments in higher education are measured by differential tax revenues collected from college-educated citizens versus high-school-educated citizens. For most states we find an adequate rate of return on such investments.…

  7. Molecular scaffold analysis of natural products databases in the public domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongye, Austin B; Waddell, Jacob; Medina-Franco, José L

    2012-11-01

    Natural products represent important sources of bioactive compounds in drug discovery efforts. In this work, we compiled five natural products databases available in the public domain and performed a comprehensive chemoinformatic analysis focused on the content and diversity of the scaffolds with an overview of the diversity based on molecular fingerprints. The natural products databases were compared with each other and with a set of molecules obtained from in-house combinatorial libraries, and with a general screening commercial library. It was found that publicly available natural products databases have different scaffold diversity. In contrast to the common concept that larger libraries have the largest scaffold diversity, the largest natural products collection analyzed in this work was not the most diverse. The general screening library showed, overall, the highest scaffold diversity. However, considering the most frequent scaffolds, the general reference library was the least diverse. In general, natural products databases in the public domain showed low molecule overlap. In addition to benzene and acyclic compounds, flavones, coumarins, and flavanones were identified as the most frequent molecular scaffolds across the different natural products collections. The results of this work have direct implications in the computational and experimental screening of natural product databases for drug discovery.

  8. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  9. Public Libraries in the United States Survey: Fiscal Year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Justin; Manjarrez, C. Arturo; Miller, Kim A.; Owens, Timothy; Swan, Deanne W.; Vese, Rodney D., Jr.; Arroyo, J. Andrea; Craig, Terri; Dorinski, Suzanne; Freeman, Michael; Isaac, Natasha; O'Shea, Patricia; Schilling, Peter; Scotto, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The relatively high use rates and program attendance highlight the public value provided by local libraries at a time of dramatic economic, technology, and demographic change. The Public Libraries in the United States Survey is one important way of examining when, where and how library services are changing to meet those needs. The data, supplied…

  10. Capitalism and Public Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The United States democratic system includes characteristics of capitalism as well as socialism. Perhaps the most socialistic endeavor of the US is its K-12 public school system; in fact, US public schools are necessary for democracy to thrive and to create an educated and well-informed populace. However, capitalism and socialism are strange…

  11. Daas: A Web-based System for User-specific Dietary Analysis and Advice for the Public Healthcare Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deirdre Nugent; Kudakwashe Dube; Wu Bing

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a Dietary Analysis and Advice System (DAAS), a web-based system for providing, within the public healthcare domain, user-specific diet advice based on a preliminary analysis of current diet or eating habits and lifestyle, using knowledge from domain expertise and experts' interpretation of national dietary guidelines.

  12. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kanekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported.  Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential.  In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health.  There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  13. Direct imaging of topological edge states at a bilayer graphene domain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Jiang, Hua; Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2016-06-01

    The AB-BA domain wall in gapped graphene bilayers is a rare naked structure hosting topological electronic states. Although it has been extensively studied in theory, a direct imaging of its topological edge states is still missing. Here we image the topological edge states at the graphene bilayer domain wall by using scanning tunnelling microscope. The simultaneously obtained atomic-resolution images of the domain wall provide us unprecedented opportunities to measure the spatially varying edge states within it. The one-dimensional conducting channels are observed to be mainly located around the two edges of the domain wall, which is reproduced quite well by our theoretical calculations. Our experiment further demonstrates that the one-dimensional topological states are quite robust even in the presence of high magnetic fields. The result reported here may raise hopes of graphene-based electronics with ultra-low dissipation.

  14. Bowie State College Teaching Faculty's Attitudes toward Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wanda E.; And Others

    This survey sought the opinions of faculty members at Bowie State College on 40 questions concerning academic and societal issues in public education. Responses to the survey questionnaire by faculty members represented a return of 14.5 percent, or 15 individuals. Tables are included comparing the responses of the Bowie State College sample and…

  15. Public Provision for Epileptics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Harry

    A sociological study, the text reports data concerning epilepsy and public provisions for the epileptic. The general state of persons with epilepsy is discussed in terms of definition, general conditions, etiology, recovery or improvement, numbers in the United States, trends in numbers, sex distribution, age distribution, age at onset, race and…

  16. Open access high throughput drug discovery in the public domain: a Mount Everest in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; McDonald, Peter R; Sittampalam, Sitta; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2010-11-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) facilitates screening large numbers of compounds against a biochemical target of interest using validated biological or biophysical assays. In recent years, a significant number of drugs in clinical trails originated from HTS campaigns, validating HTS as a bona fide mechanism for hit finding. In the current drug discovery landscape, the pharmaceutical industry is embracing open innovation strategies with academia to maximize their research capabilities and to feed their drug discovery pipeline. The goals of academic research have therefore expanded from target identification and validation to probe discovery, chemical genomics, and compound library screening. This trend is reflected in the emergence of HTS centers in the public domain over the past decade, ranging in size from modestly equipped academic screening centers to well endowed Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network (MLPCN) centers funded by the NIH Roadmap initiative. These centers facilitate a comprehensive approach to probe discovery in academia and utilize both classical and cutting-edge assay technologies for executing primary and secondary screening campaigns. The various facets of academic HTS centers as well as their implications on technology transfer and drug discovery are discussed, and a roadmap for successful drug discovery in the public domain is presented. New lead discovery against therapeutic targets, especially those involving the rare and neglected diseases, is indeed a Mount Everestonian size task, and requires diligent implementation of pharmaceutical industry's best practices for a successful outcome.

  17. Kalman Based Finite State Controller for Partially Observable Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Levent Akin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A real world environment is often partially observable by the agents either because of noisy sensors or incomplete perception. Moreover, it has continuous state space in nature, and agents must decide on an action for each point in internal continuous belief space. Consequently, it is convenient to model this type of decisionmaking problems as Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs with continuous observation and state space. Most of the POMDP methods whether approximate or exact assume that the underlying world dynamics or POMDP parameters such as transition and observation probabilities are known. However, for many real world environments it is very difficult if not impossible to obtain such information. We assume that only the internal dynamics of the agent, such as the actuator noise, interpretation of the sensor suite, are known. Using these internal dynamics, our algorithm, namely Kalman Based Finite State Controller (KBFSC, constructs an internal world model over the continuous belief space, represented by a finite state automaton. Constructed automaton nodes are points of the continuous belief space sharing a common best action and a common uncertainty level. KBFSC deals with continuous Gaussian-based POMDPs. It makes use of Kalman Filter for belief state estimation, which also is an efficient method to prune unvisited segments of the belief space and can foresee the reachable belief points approximately calculating the horizon N policy. KBFSC does not use an "explore and update" approach in the value calculation as TD-learning. Therefore KBFSC does not have an extensive exploration-exploitation phase. Using the MDP case reward and the internal dynamics of the agent, KBFSC can automatically construct the finite state automaton (FSA representing the approximate optimal policy without the need for discretization of the state and observation space. Moreover, the policy always converges for POMDP problems.

  18. A case for using grid architecture for state public health informatics: the Utah perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolfs Robert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the rationale for designing and implementing the next-generation of public health information systems using grid computing concepts and tools. Our attempt is to evaluate all grid types including data grids for sharing information and computational grids for accessing computational resources on demand. Public health is a broad domain that requires coordinated uses of disparate and heterogeneous information systems. System interoperability in public health is limited. The next-generation public health information systems must overcome barriers to integration and interoperability, leverage advances in information technology, address emerging requirements, and meet the needs of all stakeholders. Grid-based architecture provides one potential technical solution that deserves serious consideration. Within this context, we describe three discrete public health information system problems and the process by which the Utah Department of Health (UDOH and the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of Utah in the United States has approached the exploration for eventual deployment of a Utah Public Health Informatics Grid. These three problems are: i integration of internal and external data sources with analytic tools and computational resources; ii provide external stakeholders with access to public health data and services; and, iii access, integrate, and analyze internal data for the timely monitoring of population health status and health services. After one year of experience, we have successfully implemented federated queries across disparate administrative domains, and have identified challenges and potential solutions concerning the selection of candidate analytic grid services, data sharing concerns, security models, and strategies for reducing expertise required at a public health agency to implement a public health grid.

  19. Geothermal publications list for Geopowering the West States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    A list of geothermal publications is provided for each of the states under the ''GeoPowering the West'' program. They are provided to assist the various states in developing their geothermal resources for direct-use and electric power applications. Each state publication list includes the following: (1) General papers on various direct-uses and electric power generation available from the Geo-Heat Center either by mail or on-line at: http://geoheat.oit.edu. (2) General Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin articles related to various geothermal uses--also available either by mail or on-line; (3) Publications from other web sites such as: Geothermal-Biz.com; NREL, EGI, GEO and others ; and (4) Geothermal Resources Council citations, which are available from their web site: www.geothermal.org.

  20. 78 FR 14791 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Indiana AGENCY: Environmental... has tentatively approved three revisions to the State of Indiana's public water system supervision... the State of Indiana's public water system supervision program, thereby giving IDEM...

  1. GENERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT AND PUBLIC DEBT IN EU MEMBER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is the presentation and the attempt to analyse such phenomena as: an excessive general government deficit and public debt in EU Member States over the past 3 years. For the European Union the years 2008-2010 were the time when public finances of most member countries worsened dramatically. The average budget deficit in the EU increased during that period to a value of almost 7% compared to gross domestic product and public debt reached almost 80% of GDP. Referring the ...

  2. State Aid as a Defence for Public Authorities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    of consistent interpretation, which it considered could provide various solutions for the national court to draw all the necessary consequences of the possible breach of the duty to notify State aid. In the alternative, the CJEU considered the principle of effectiveness and found that due to the fundamental...... principle of State aid control, the national court’s broad interpretation of the principle of res judicata could not be retained. The judgment cements the specific limitation on national principles of res judicata in a State aid context and tropicalises the issue of how breach of State aid law by public...

  3. Systematic analysis of public domain compound potency data identifies selective molecular scaffolds across druggable target families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lounkine, Eugen; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2010-01-28

    Molecular scaffolds that yield target family-selective compounds are of high interest in pharmaceutical research. There continues to be considerable debate in the field as to whether chemotypes with a priori selectivity for given target families and/or targets exist and how they might be identified. What do currently available data tell us? We present a systematic and comprehensive selectivity-centric analysis of public domain target-ligand interactions. More than 200 molecular scaffolds are identified in currently available active compounds that are selective for established target families. A subset of these scaffolds is found to produce compounds with high selectivity for individual targets among closely related ones. These scaffolds are currently underrepresented in approved drugs.

  4. The international river interface cooperative: Public domain flow and morphodynamics software for education and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Abe, Takaaki; Asahi, Kazutake; Gamou, Mineyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kakinuma, Takaharu; Kawamura, Satomi; Kimura, Ichiro; Kyuka, Tomoko; McDonald, Richard R.; Nabi, Mohamed; Nakatsugawa, Makoto; Simões, Francisco R.; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new, public-domain interface for modeling flow, sediment transport and morphodynamics in rivers and other geophysical flows. The interface is named after the International River Interface Cooperative (iRIC), the group that constructed the interface and many of the current solvers included in iRIC. The interface is entirely free to any user and currently houses thirteen models ranging from simple one-dimensional models through three-dimensional large-eddy simulation models. Solvers are only loosely coupled to the interface so it is straightforward to modify existing solvers or to introduce other solvers into the system. Six of the most widely-used solvers are described in detail including example calculations to serve as an aid for users choosing what approach might be most appropriate for their own applications. The example calculations range from practical computations of bed evolution in natural rivers to highly detailed predictions of the development of small-scale bedforms on an initially flat bed. The remaining solvers are also briefly described. Although the focus of most solvers is coupled flow and morphodynamics, several of the solvers are also specifically aimed at providing flood inundation predictions over large spatial domains. Potential users can download the application, solvers, manuals, and educational materials including detailed tutorials at www.-i-ric.org. The iRIC development group encourages scientists and engineers to use the tool and to consider adding their own methods to the iRIC suite of tools.

  5. The international river interface cooperative: Public domain flow and morphodynamics software for education and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Abe, Takaaki; Asahi, Kazutake; Gamou, Mineyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kakinuma, Takaharu; Kawamura, Satomi; Kimura, Ichiro; Kyuka, Tomoko; McDonald, Richard R.; Nabi, Mohamed; Nakatsugawa, Makoto; Simoes, Francisco J.; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new, public-domain interface for modeling flow, sediment transport and morphodynamics in rivers and other geophysical flows. The interface is named after the International River Interface Cooperative (iRIC), the group that constructed the interface and many of the current solvers included in iRIC. The interface is entirely free to any user and currently houses thirteen models ranging from simple one-dimensional models through three-dimensional large-eddy simulation models. Solvers are only loosely coupled to the interface so it is straightforward to modify existing solvers or to introduce other solvers into the system. Six of the most widely-used solvers are described in detail including example calculations to serve as an aid for users choosing what approach might be most appropriate for their own applications. The example calculations range from practical computations of bed evolution in natural rivers to highly detailed predictions of the development of small-scale bedforms on an initially flat bed. The remaining solvers are also briefly described. Although the focus of most solvers is coupled flow and morphodynamics, several of the solvers are also specifically aimed at providing flood inundation predictions over large spatial domains. Potential users can download the application, solvers, manuals, and educational materials including detailed tutorials at www.-i-ric.org. The iRIC development group encourages scientists and engineers to use the tool and to consider adding their own methods to the iRIC suite of tools.

  6. Switching of ± 360° domain wall states in a nanoring by an azimuthal Oersted field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N R; Licht, A S; Li, Y; Sun, Y; Tuominen, M T; Aidala, K E

    2011-12-02

    We demonstrate magnetic switching between two 360° domain wall vortex states in cobalt nanorings, which are candidate magnetic states for robust and low power magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) devices. These 360° domain wall (DW) or 'twisted onion' states can have clockwise or counterclockwise circulation, the two states for data storage. Reliable switching between the states is necessary for any realistic device. We accomplish this switching by applying a circular Oersted field created by passing current through a metal atomic force microscope tip placed at the center of the ring. After initializing in an onion state, we rotate the DWs to one side of the ring by passing a current through the center, and can switch between the two twisted states by reversing the current, causing the DWs to split and meet again on the opposite side of the ring. A larger current will annihilate the DWs and create a perfect vortex state in the rings.

  7. Fast resolution of the neutron diffusion equation through public domain Ode codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, V.M.; Vidal, V.; Garayoa, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos, Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Valencia (Spain); Gomez, R. [I.E.S. de Tavernes Blanques, Valencia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is a partial differential equation with source terms. The resolution method usually includes discretizing the spatial domain, obtaining a large system of linear, stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs), whose resolution is computationally very expensive. Some standard techniques use a fixed time step to solve the ODE system. This can result in errors (if the time step is too large) or in long computing times (if the time step is too little). To speed up the resolution method, two well-known public domain codes have been selected: DASPK and FCVODE that are powerful codes for the resolution of large systems of stiff ODEs. These codes can estimate the error after each time step, and, depending on this estimation can decide which is the new time step and, possibly, which is the integration method to be used in the next step. With these mechanisms, it is possible to keep the overall error below the chosen tolerances, and, when the system behaves smoothly, to take large time steps increasing the execution speed. In this paper we address the use of the public domain codes DASPK and FCVODE for the resolution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. The efficiency of these codes depends largely on the preconditioning of the big systems of linear equations that must be solved. Several pre-conditioners have been programmed and tested; it was found that the multigrid method is the best of the pre-conditioners tested. Also, it has been found that DASPK has performed better than FCVODE, being more robust for our problem.We can conclude that the use of specialized codes for solving large systems of ODEs can reduce drastically the computational work needed for the solution; and combining them with appropriate pre-conditioners, the reduction can be still more important. It has other crucial advantages, since it allows the user to specify the allowed error, which cannot be done in fixed step implementations; this, of course

  8. Theoretical and applied aspects of public-state partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Bodelan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the main approaches to the formation and the development of public-state partnership in foreign countries and in Ukraine. The category «Public-state Partnership» has no clear definition in science, and in public administration it is used in many senses. The lack of theoretical justification, no systematic approach to the separation of theoretical and methodological foundations of the public-state partnerships, the forms of its practical implementation does not allow our country to be competitive internationally. In particular, this applies to such an aspects such as social maturity of business and entrepreneurship. Such companies create NGOs that in many countries provide 3 to 9% of GDP, attract domestic and foreign investments, benefit society and are a form of targeting state impact on the condition and development of social processes and relationships. Ukraine has not yet established the culture of social entrepreneurship, both government authorities and NGOs are not aware how promising such activity authorized by the legislation of Ukraine is. The reserve and the capacity of NGOs when considering formation of a special investment climate, development of production, replenishment of the budgets at all levels, creating conditions for entrepreneurship etc. are not applied. Main role is assigned for the NGOs that make a significant contribution to socio-economic development of the country and become its reliable investment partner.

  9. Public understanding of climate change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U; Stern, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our review supports a constructivist account of human judgment. Public understanding is affected by the inherent difficulty of understanding climate change, the mismatch between people's usual modes of understanding and the task, and, particularly in the United States, a continuing societal struggle to shape the frames and mental models people use to understand the phenomena. We conclude by discussing ways in which psychology can help to improve public understanding of climate change and link a better understanding to action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Policy Perspectives on State Elementary and Secondary Public Education Finance Systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…

  11. Combining Public Domain and Professional Panoramic Imagery for the Accurate and Dense 3d Reconstruction of the Destroyed Bel Temple in Palmyra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, W.; Nebiker, S.; Fangi, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper exploits the potential of dense multi-image 3d reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by either using public domain touristic imagery only or by combining the public domain imagery with professional panoramic imagery. The focus of our work is placed on the reconstruction of the temple of Bel, one of the Syrian heritage monuments, which was destroyed in September 2015 by the so called "Islamic State". The great temple of Bel is considered as one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East with a unique design. The investigations and the reconstruction were carried out using two types of imagery. The first are freely available generic touristic photos collected from the web. The second are panoramic images captured in 2010 for documenting those monuments. In the paper we present a 3d reconstruction workflow for both types of imagery using state-of-the art dense image matching software, addressing the non-trivial challenges of combining uncalibrated public domain imagery with panoramic images with very wide base-lines. We subsequently investigate the aspects of accuracy and completeness obtainable from the public domain touristic images alone and from the combination with spherical panoramas. We furthermore discuss the challenges of co-registering the weakly connected 3d point cloud fragments resulting from the limited coverage of the touristic photos. We then describe an approach using spherical photogrammetry as a virtual topographic survey allowing the co-registration of a detailed and accurate single 3d model of the temple interior and exterior.

  12. Public-health education at Kansas State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jennifer; Payne, Patricia; Ann Holcomb, Carol; Rush, Bonnie; Renter, David; Moro, Manuel H; Freeman, Lisa C

    2008-01-01

    What are veterinary medical and public-health professionals doing to remedy the immediate and impending shortages of veterinarians in population health and public practice? This question was addressed at the joint symposium of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges and the Association of Schools of Public Health, held in April 2007. Thinking locally, faculty and students at Kansas State University (KSU) asked similar questions after attending the symposium: What are we doing within the College of Veterinary Medicine to tackle this problem? What can we do better with new collaborators? Both the professional veterinary curriculum and the Master of Public Health (MPH) at KSU provide exceptional opportunities to address these questions. Students are exposed to public health as a possible career choice early in veterinary school, and this exposure is repeated several times in different venues throughout their professional education. Students also have opportunities to pursue interests in population medicine and public health through certificate programs, summer research programs, study abroad, and collaborations with contributing organizations unique to KSU, such as its Food Science Institute, National Agricultural Biosecurity Center, and Biosecurity Research Institute. Moreover, students may take advantage of the interdisciplinary nature of public-health education at KSU, where collaborations with several different colleges and departments within the university have been established. We are pleased to be able to offer these opportunities to our students and hope that our experience may be instructive for the development of similar programs at other institutions, to the eventual benefit of the profession at large.

  13. Public consultation in public policy information: a state-of-the-art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, A.B.; McKee, M.; Hansen, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to site, construct and operate nuclear waste repositories at several locations. Recent experience indicates that the public is aware of the problems of nuclear waste disposal, and correspondingly there is public concern about how and where to dispose of nuclear wastes. The selection of sites involves a wide range of considerations including geological, technical and environmental feasibility. In addition to these, it is important that societal acceptance of repository options also be taken into account in moving foward with the NWTS Program. Such an incorporation of social considerations and preferences correspondingly implies the need for public consultation in the site selection process. In exploring the concept and state-or-the-art of public involvement in public policy decision, a number of important questions are relevant: (1) What are the basic objectives of public participation in policy formation and program decisions. (2) Who are the ''publics'' that should be involved and how can they be identified. (3) What information should be communicated between the agency and the publics. (4) What techniques are available to elicit public participation and involvement and what are their capabilities. At the outset, it should be noted that the purpose of this paper in addressing these questions is not to design public participation procedures for the NWTS program. Rather, the above are questions that provide a broad framework for developing an understanding of citizen participation in public policy decisions, such as nuclear waste disposal. In this sense, the following discussion is to provide a context and guidance for approaching the problem of organizing and structuring involvement in the NWTS program. Annotated bibliography of 95 references is included.

  14. Ultrafast folding of WW domains without structured aromatic clusters in the denatured state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, N; Johnson, C M; Macias, M; Oschkinat, H; Fersht, A

    2001-11-06

    Ultrafast-folding proteins are important for combining experiment and simulation to give complete descriptions of folding pathways. The WW domain family comprises small proteins with a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet topology. Previous studies on the 57-residue YAP 65 WW domain indicate the presence of residual structure in the chemically denatured state. Here we analyze three minimal core WW domains of 38-44 residues. There was little spectroscopic or thermodynamic evidence for residual structure in either their chemically or thermally denatured states. Folding and unfolding kinetics, studied by using rapid temperature-jump and continuous-flow techniques, show that each domain folds and unfolds very rapidly in a two-state transition through a highly compact transition state. Folding half-times were as short as 17 micros at 25 degrees C, within an order of magnitude of the predicted maximal rate of loop formation. The small size and topological simplicity of these domains, in conjunction with their very rapid two-state folding, may allow us to reduce the difference in time scale between experiment and theoretical simulation.

  15. Nonsteady dynamic properties of a domain wall for the creep state under an alternating driving field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N. J.; Zheng, B.

    2014-07-01

    With Monte Carlo simulations, the nonsteady dynamic properties of a domain wall have been systematically investigated for the thermally activated creep state under an alternating driving field. Taking the driven random-field Ising model in two dimensions as an example, two distinct growth stages of the domain interface are identified with both the correlation length and roughness function. One stage belongs to the universality class of the random depositions, and the other to that of the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson equation. In the latter case, due to the dynamic effect of overhangs, the domain interface may exhibit an intrinsic anomalous scaling behavior, different from that of the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson equation.

  16. 77 FR 21099 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio AGENCY: Environmental... has tentatively approved three revisions to the State of Ohio's public water system supervision... of Ohio's public water system supervision program, thereby giving Ohio EPA primary...

  17. 77 FR 76034 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio AGENCY: Environmental... has tentatively approved revisions to the State of Ohio's public water system supervision program... public water system supervision program, thereby giving Ohio EPA primary enforcement responsibility...

  18. Terrorism and emergency preparedness in state and territorial public health departments--United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-13

    After the events of September 11, 2001, federal funding for state public health preparedness programs increased from $67 million in fiscal year (FY) 2001 to approximately $1 billion in FY 2002. These funds were intended to support preparedness for and response to terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and other public health threats and emergencies. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) assessed the impact of funding on epidemiologic capacity, including terrorism preparedness and response, in state health departments in November 2001 and again in May 2004, after distribution of an additional $1 billion in FY 2003. This report describes the results of those assessments, which indicated that increased funding for terrorism preparedness and emergency response has rapidly increased the number of epidemiologists and increased capacity for preparedness at the state level. However, despite the increase in epidemiologists, state public health officials estimate that 192 additional epidemiologists, an increase of 45.3%, are needed nationwide to fully staff terrorism preparedness programs.

  19. Public Libraries and Internet Access across the United States: A Comparison by State 2004–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Jaeger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon findings from a national survey of U.S. public libraries, this paper examines trends in Internet and public computing access in public libraries across states from 2004 to 2006. Based on library-supplied information about levels and types of Internet and public computing access, the authors offer insights into the network-based content and services that public libraries provide. Examining data from 2004 to 2006 reveals trends and accomplishments in certain states and geographic regions. This paper details and discusses the data, identifies and analyzes issues related to Internet access, and suggests areas for future research.

  20. Assessing water availability over peninsular Malaysia using public domain satellite data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. I.; Hashim, M.; Zin, H. S. M.

    2014-02-01

    Water availability monitoring is an essential task for water resource sustainability and security. In this paper, the assessment of satellite remote sensing technique for determining water availability is reported. The water-balance analysis is used to compute the spatio-temporal water availability with main inputs; the precipitation and actual evapotranspiration rate (AET), both fully derived from public-domain satellite products of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and MODIS, respectively. Both these satellite products were first subjected to calibration to suit corresponding selected local precipitation and AET samples. Multi-temporal data sets acquired 2000-2010 were used in this study. The results of study, indicated strong agreement of monthly water availability with the basin flow rate (r2 = 0.5, p < 0.001). Similar agreements were also noted between the estimated annual average water availability with the in-situ measurement. It is therefore concluded that the method devised in this study provide a new alternative for water availability mapping over large area, hence offers the only timely and cost-effective method apart from providing comprehensive spatio-temporal patterns, crucial in water resource planning to ensure water security.

  1. Preserving Madagascar's Natural Heritage: The Importance of Keeping the Island's Vertebrate Fossils in the Public Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Samonds

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Madagascar’s highly endemic vertebrate fauna remains one of the great unsolved mysteries of natural history. From what landmasses did the basal stocks of this unique and imbalanced fauna come? When and how did the ancestral populations arrive on the island? How rapidly did they diversify, and why? The most direct means of addressing these questions, and other enigmas concerning the evolutionary and biogeographic history of Madagascar’s vertebrate fauna, is through discovery of fossils from a sequence of well-dated geological horizons. Many fossils relevant to these queries have been discovered by paleontologists in recent years ... but many more are being lost to commercial enterprises, both foreign and domestic, that have little or no regard for the scientific significance of fossils. The objectives of this essay are to 1 provide an overview of Madagascar’s vertebrate fossil record and its importance, 2 raise awareness concerning the illegal collection, exportation, and sale of vertebrate fossils, and 3 stress the importance of keeping vertebrate fossils from the island in the public domain. In light of these issues, we underscore the necessity for development of adequate repositories and support infrastructure in Madagascar to safeguard and display the country’s vertebrate fossil collections; doing so would ensure the preservation and appreciation of Madagascar’s rich natural heritage for future generations of scientists and Malagasy citizens alike.

  2. A simple technique for morphological measurement of cerebral arterial circle variations using public domain software (Osiris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Saeed; Dadmehr, Majid; Eftekhar, Behzad; McConnell, Douglas J; Ganji, Sarah; Azari, Hassan; Kamali-Ardakani, Shahab; Hoh, Brian L; Mocco, J

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a straightforward method to measure the dimensions and identify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle using the general-purpose software program Osiris. This user-friendly and portable program displays, manipulates, and analyzes medical digital images, and it has the capability to determine morphometric properties of selected blood vessels (or other anatomical structures) in humans and animals. To ascertain morphometric variations in the cerebral arterial circle, 132 brains of recently deceased fetuses, infants, and adults were dissected. The dissection procedure was first digitized, and then the dimensions were measured with Osiris software. Measurements of each vessel's length and external diameters were used to identify and classify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle. The most commonly observed anatomical variations were uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of the posterior communicating artery. This study demonstrates that public domain software can be used to measure and classify cerebral arterial circle vessels. This method could be extended to examine other anatomical regions or to study other animals. Additionally, knowledge of variations within the circle could be applied clinically to enhance diagnostic and treatment specificity.

  3. Developing a personal computer-based data visualization system using public domain software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip C.

    1999-03-01

    The current research will investigate the possibility of developing a computing-visualization system using a public domain software system built on a personal computer. Visualization Toolkit (VTK) is available on UNIX and PC platforms. VTK uses C++ to build an executable. It has abundant programming classes/objects that are contained in the system library. Users can also develop their own classes/objects in addition to those existing in the class library. Users can develop applications with any of the C++, Tcl/Tk, and JAVA environments. The present research will show how a data visualization system can be developed with VTK running on a personal computer. The topics will include: execution efficiency; visual object quality; availability of the user interface design; and exploring the feasibility of the VTK-based World Wide Web data visualization system. The present research will feature a case study showing how to use VTK to visualize meteorological data with techniques including, iso-surface, volume rendering, vector display, and composite analysis. The study also shows how the VTK outline, axes, and two-dimensional annotation text and title are enhancing the data presentation. The present research will also demonstrate how VTK works in an internet environment while accessing an executable with a JAVA application programing in a webpage.

  4. State options in lighting: efficiency standards for existing public buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, F.

    1979-07-01

    This report discusses requirements and options for state lighting-efficiency standards for existing public buildings under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. EPCA, as implemented under present regulations, is found to allow great flexibility to the states in what they adopt, so long as they do adopt some standard. A wide variety of substantive standards is described, and it is recommended that states adopt a standard based on a maximum-lighting power budget with cost-effectiveness criteria. Several options for adoption and enforcement of standards are discussed. It is recommended that states adopt a requirement that owners of all public buildings submit reports of lighting energy audits and estimates of energy savings from modifications to comply with substantive standards. It is further recommended that while filing of reports should be mandatory, substantive compliance, at least initially, need not be; if it turns out that voluntary compliance is not great enought to achieve a state's desired energy savings, compliance could then be made mandatory. It is recommended that exemptions from the standards be limited to small buildings and that variances under a mandatory standard be available only when an applicant can show insufficient capital to make required modifications, even though they would soon pay for themselves in reduced operating costs. It is suggested that a lighting standard of the kind recommended could substantially reduce wasted energy in lighting, be simple enough to be easily understood and applied, be technically and economically reasonable, and allow for needed exemptions without loopholes.

  5. Magnetic vortex state and multi-domain pattern in electrodeposited hemispherical nanogranular nickel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samardak, Alexander; Sukovatitsina, Ekaterina; Ognev, Alexey; Stebliy, Maksim; Davydenko, Alexander; Chebotkevich, Ludmila [Laboratory of Thin Film Technologies, School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Keun Kim, Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nasirpouri, Forough [Department of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janjan, Seyed-Mehdi [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasirpouri, Farzad, E-mail: nasirpouri@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic states of nickel nanogranular films were studied in two distinct structures of individual and agglomerated granules electrodeposited on n-type Si(1 1 1) surface from a modified Watts bath at a low pH of 2. Magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations revealed three-dimensional out-of-plane magnetic vortex states in stand-alone hemispherical granules and their arrays, and multi-domain patterns in large agglomerates and integrated films. Once the granules coalesce into small chains or clusters, the coercivity values increased due to the reduction of inter-granular spacing and strengthening of the magnetostatic interaction. Further growth leads to the formation of a continuous granulated film which strongly affected the coercivity and remanence. This was characterized by the domain wall nucleation and propagation leading to a stripe domain pattern. Magnetoresistance measurements as a function of external magnetic field are indicative of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) for the continuous films electrodeposited on Si substrate. - Highlights: • Magnetic states of electrodeposited nickel in isolated spherical and agglomerated nanogranules, and a continuous film. • Preferential magnetization reversal mechanism in isolated granules is vortex state. • Micromagnetic simulations confirm the three-dimensional vortex. • Transition between the vortex state and multi-domain magnetic pattern causes a significant decrease in the coercive force. • Continuous nickel films electrodeposited on silicon substrate exhibit AMR whose magnitude increases with the film thickness.

  6. A solid-state NMR method to determine domain sizes in multi-component polymer formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagnitweit, Judith; Tang, Mingxue; Baias, Maria; Richardson, Sara; Schantz, Staffan; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-12-01

    Polymer domain sizes are related to many of the physical properties of polymers. Here we present a solid-state NMR experiment that is capable of measuring domain sizes in multi-component mixtures. The method combines selective excitation of carbon magnetization to isolate a specific component with proton spin diffusion to report on domain size. We demonstrate the method in the context of controlled release formulations, which represents one of today's challenges in pharmaceutical science. We show that we can measure domain sizes of interest in the different components of industrial pharmaceutical formulations at natural isotopic abundance containing various (modified) cellulose derivatives, such as microcrystalline cellulose matrixes that are film-coated with a mixture of ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC).

  7. The public understanding of nanotechnology in the food domain: the hidden role of views on science, technology, and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    In spite of great expectations about the potential of nanotechnology, this study shows that people are rather ambiguous and pessimistic about nanotechnology applications in the food domain. Our findings are drawn from a survey of public perceptions about nanotechnology food and nanotechnology food packaging (N = 752). Multinomial logistic regression analyses further reveal that knowledge about food risks and nanotechnology significantly influences people's views about nanotechnology food packaging. However, knowledge variables were unrelated to support for nanofood, suggesting that an increase in people's knowledge might not be sufficient to bridge the gap between the excitement some business leaders in the food sector have and the restraint of the public. Additionally, opposition to nanofood was not related to the use of heuristics but to trust in governmental agencies. Furthermore, the results indicate that public perceptions of nanoscience in the food domain significantly relate to views on science, technology, and nature.

  8. Inner products of Bethe states as partial domain wall partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We study the inner product of Bethe states in the inhomogeneous periodic XXX spin-1/2 chain of length L, which is given by the Slavnov determinant formula. We show that the inner product of an on-shell M-magnon state with a generic M-magnon state is given by the same expression as the inner product of a 2M-magnon state with a vacuum descendent. The second inner product is proportional to the partition function of the six-vertex model on a rectangular Lx2M grid, with partial domain-wall boundary conditions.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations from putative transition states of alpha-spectrin SH3 domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periole, Xavier; Vendruscolo, Michele; Mark, Alan E.

    2007-01-01

    A series of molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent were started from nine structural models of the transition state of the SH3 domain of alpha-spectrin, which were generated by Lindorff Larsen et al. (Nat Struct Mol Biol 2004;11:443-449) using molecular dynamics simulations in which expe

  10. Photonic realization of topologically protected bound states in domain-wall waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Lee-Thorp, James P; Xu, Xinan; Yang, Jinghui; Fefferman, Charles L; Wong, Chee Wei; Weinstein, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytical theory of topologically protected photonic states for the two-dimensional Maxwell equations for a class of continuous periodic dielectric structures, modulated by a domain wall. We further numerically confirm the applicability of this theory for three-dimensional structures.

  11. Astronomy in the United States: Workforce Development and Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    Astronomy workforce development and public engagement in the United States are described. The number of professional astronomers has grown by about a third in the past 25 years, to about 4000. Only one in four are faculty in an academic setting; the rest work in a wide range of public and private research institutes. PhD production has remained steady at about 200 per year. Women account for roughly half of BSc degrees and a third of PhD degrees, but their participation declines to about 10% at the level of full professor. Minorities are underrepresented by a substantial factor at all levels of the profession. In terms of public engagement, astronomy has unique advantages associated with its visual appeal and the large and active amateur astronomy community. The are 1400 public planetaria in the US, with another 110 in schools and universities. Astronomers have made good use of new media such as blogs and podcasts and social networks, but the biggest impact has been in the area of citizen science, where people with no technical background contribute directly to a research project by, for example, classifying galaxies. The International Year of Astronomy and the remarkable success of the Galileoscope have inspired large numbers of people to appreciate astronomy, contributing indirectly to the professional vitality of the field.

  12. Islamophobia and Public Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-11-01

    Anti-Muslim sentiments are increasingly common globally and in the United States. The recent rise in Islamophobia calls for a public health perspective that considers the stigmatized identity of Muslim Americans and health implications of Islamophobic discrimination. Drawing on a stigma, discrimination, and health framework, I expand the dialogue on the rise of Islamophobia to a discussion of how Islamophobia affects the health of Muslim Americans. Islamophobia can negatively influence health by disrupting several systems-individual (stress reactivity and identity concealment), interpersonal (social relationships and socialization processes), and structural (institutional policies and media coverage). Islamophobia deserves attention as a source of negative health outcomes and health disparities. Future public health research should explore the multilevel and multidimensional pathways between Islamophobia and population health.

  13. High Turnover Among State Health Officials/Public Health Directors: Implications for the Public's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Paul K; Lumpkin, John R; Yeager, Valerie A; Castrucci, Brian C; Moffatt, Sharon; Tilson, Hugh

    State health officials (SHOs) serve a critical role as the leaders of state public health systems. Despite their many responsibilities, there is no formal process for preparation to become an SHO, and few requirements influence the selection of an SHO. Furthermore, to date, no studies have examined SHO tenure or their experiences. This study examines SHO tenure over time and the relationship between SHO tenure and organizational and state attributes. This longitudinal study employed primary data on SHOs and secondary data from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials on organizational attributes of state public health agencies. This study examines SHOs within the United States. SHOs who served in years 1980-2017. Annual average SHO tenure; average SHO tenure by state. In the 38 years of this study, 508 individuals served as SHOs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The average tenure over this period was 4.1 years, with a median tenure of 2.9 years. During the study period, almost 20% of SHOs served terms of 1 year or less. A total of 32 SHOs (32/508 or 6.3%) served for 10 years or longer. Excluding SHOs who served 10 years or longer (n = 32 SHOs who had a collective 478 years of tenure) reduces the average term in office to 3.5 years. The average number of new SHOs per year is 12.3. SHOs appointed by a board of health averaged more than 8 years in office compared with averages just under 4 years for those appointed by governors or secretaries of state agencies. There are notable differences in SHO tenure across states. Future research is needed to further examine SHO tenure, effectiveness, job satisfaction, transitions, and the relationship between SHOs and state health. It may be valuable to expand on opportunities for new SHOs to learn from peers who have moderate to long tenures as well as SHO alumni. Given that average SHO tenure is approximately 4 years and that an SHO could be thrust into the national spotlight at a moment's notice

  14. NAFTA, public health, and environmental issues in border states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, A. [Texas Office of the Attorney General, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    During the last decade, the ties that draw countries together both economically and environmentally have become increasingly apparent. This was clearly exposed in the recent debate over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and in recent decisions interpreting the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Environmental aspects of other international treaties have also come under close scrutiny. This article examines the effects NAFTA and its companion, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, may have on public health and environmental regulation in border states.

  15. Linear-scaling computation of excited states in time-domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAM ChiYung; CHEN GuanHua

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of quantum mechanical methods is severely limited by their poor scaling.To circumvent the problem,linearscaling methods for quantum mechanical calculations had been developed.The physical basis of linear-scaling methods is the locality in quantum mechanics where the properties or observables of a system are weakly influenced by factors spatially far apart.Besides the substantial efforts spent on devising linear-scaling methods for ground state,there is also a growing interest in the development of linear-scaling methods for excited states.This review gives an overview of linear-scaling approaches for excited states solved in real time-domain.

  16. 版权法上的公共领域研究%On public domain in copyright law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汇

    2009-01-01

    Public domain is a core rule of copyright law, under which various creative materials are available for an author to use without charge or liability for infringement, hence ensuring the effective implementation of copyright law.Public domain is characterized by openness, public ownership, irrevocability and formality. Based on the premise that the author's work will not be interfered, public domain ultimately aims at the enlargement of its own universe and prosperity of the culture of human society. Its introduction into copyright law satisfies both historical and logical demands. Without its acknowledgement,copyright cannot be justified. In that sense, public domain and copyright can be deemed as twins. Public domain is not only an existing institution, but also an ideological tendency or a methodology. It has evaluative and inspective values towards copyright. It is an important precondition of copy-rights, and what is more, an important measure for controlling the expansion and realizing the purpose of copyright.%公共领域是版权法的核心,它是保证作者有效运用各种创作素材从而使版权的其余部分得以良好运转的工具.公共领域具有开放性、有主性、不可撤销性和程序性等特征,它以保证作者的创作为前提,却最终以自身的不断扩大和人类社会的文化繁衍为依归.公共领域在版权法上的生成既是历史的,更是逻辑的.没有公共领域的被承认,也就没有版权的正当性可言,因此公共领域和版权实际上一同诞生.公共领域不仅是一种制度存在物,它更是一种思想倾向和方法论,公共领域对版权具有评价和检视功能,它既是版权运行的重要前提,又是控制版权扩张和实现版权目的的重要手段.

  17. Evolution of Industry Knowledge in the Public Domain: Prior Art Searching for Software Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinseok Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching prior art is a key part of the patent application and examination processes. A comprehensive prior art search gives the inventor ideas as to how he can improve or circumvent existing technology by providing up to date knowledge on the state of the art. It also enables the patent applicant to minimise the likelihood of an objection from the patent office. This article explores the characteristics of prior art associated with software patents, dealing with difficulties in searching prior art due to the lack of resources, and considers public contribution to the formation of prior art databases. It addresses the evolution of electronic prior art in line with technological development, and discusses laws and practices in the EPO, USPTO, and the JPO in relation to the validity of prior art resources on the Internet. This article also investigates the main features of searching sources and tools in the three patent offices as well as non-patent literature databases. Based on the analysis of various searching databases, it provides some strategies of efficient prior art searching that should be considered for software-related inventions.

  18. 77 FR 12580 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Colorado has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  19. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  20. 78 FR 18336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Michigan AGENCY: Environmental... has tentatively approved five revisions to the State of Michigan's public water system...

  1. 77 FR 8865 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval... State of Illinois submitted a primacy application for its approved Public Water System...

  2. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  3. Combined Parameter and State Estimation Problem in a Complex Domain: RF Hyperthermia Treatment Using Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo Varon, L. A.; Orlande, H. R. B.; Eliçabe, G. E.

    2016-09-01

    The particle filter methods have been widely used to solve inverse problems with sequential Bayesian inference in dynamic models, simultaneously estimating sequential state variables and fixed model parameters. This methods are an approximation of sequences of probability distributions of interest, that using a large set of random samples, with presence uncertainties in the model, measurements and parameters. In this paper the main focus is the solution combined parameters and state estimation in the radiofrequency hyperthermia with nanoparticles in a complex domain. This domain contains different tissues like muscle, pancreas, lungs, small intestine and a tumor which is loaded iron oxide nanoparticles. The results indicated that excellent agreements between estimated and exact value are obtained.

  4. Multiple Case Studies of Public Library Systems in New York State: Service Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoai

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the functions and roles of public library systems in New York State and the services they provide for individual libraries and the public. The dissertation further studied the service decision-making processes at three selected New York State cooperative public library systems. Public library systems have played an important…

  5. Multiple Case Studies of Public Library Systems in New York State: Service Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoai

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the functions and roles of public library systems in New York State and the services they provide for individual libraries and the public. The dissertation further studied the service decision-making processes at three selected New York State cooperative public library systems. Public library systems have played an important…

  6. Structural Studies of Metastable and Ground State Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, E. R.; Kuhn, S. J.; Rastovski, C.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Leishman, A.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Littrell, K.; Karpinski, J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.

    2015-03-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in the type-II superconductor MgB2 have revealed an unprecedented degree of metastability that is demonstrably not due to vortex pinning, [C. Rastovski et al . , Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 107002 (2013)]. Application of an AC magnetic field to drive the VL to the ground state revealed a two-step power law behavior, indicating a slow nucleation of ground state domains followed by a faster growth. The dependence on the number of applied AC cycles is reminiscent of jamming of soft, frictionless spheres. Here, we report on detailed structural studies of both metastable and ground state VL domains. These include measurements of VL correlation lengths as well as spatially resolved SANS measurements showing the VL domain distribution within the MgB2 single crystal. We discuss these results and how they may help to resolve the mechanism responsible for stabilizing the metastable VL phases. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award DE-FG02-10ER46783.

  7. Two distinct states of the HAMP domain from sensory rhodopsin transducer observed in unbiased molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gushchin

    Full Text Available HAMP domain is a ubiquitous module of bacterial and archaeal two-component signaling systems. Considerable progress has been made recently in studies of its structure and conformational changes. However, the mechanism of signal transduction through the HAMP domain is not clear. It remains a question whether all the HAMPs have the same mechanism of action and what are the differences between the domains from different protein families. Here, we present the results of unbiased molecular dynamics simulations of the HAMP domain from the archaeal phototaxis signal transducer NpHtrII. Two distinct conformational states of the HAMP domain are observed, that differ in relative position of the helices AS1 and AS2. The longitudinal shift is roughly equal to a half of an α-helix turn, although sometimes it reaches one full turn. The states are closely related to the position of bulky hydrophobic aminoacids at the HAMP domain core. The observed features are in good agreement with recent experimental results and allow us to propose that the states detected in the simulations are the resting state and the signaling state of the NpHtrII HAMP domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of the same HAMP domain in different conformations. The simulations also underline the difference between AMBER ff99-SB-ILDN and CHARMM22-CMAP forcefields, as the former favors the resting state and the latter favors the signaling state.

  8. 78 FR 22593 - The United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy Notice of Charter Renewal The Department of State has renewed the charter of the United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy. The Commission... public diplomacy activities (activities intended to understand, inform, and influence foreign...

  9. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  10. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's...

  11. Transient and steady-state velocity of domain walls for a complete range of drive fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Bartran, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    Approximate analytic solutions for transient and steady-state 180 deg domain wall motion in bulk magnetic material are obtained from the dynamic torque equations with a Gilbert damping term. The results for the Walker region in which the transient solution approaches the familiar Walker steady-state solution are presented in a slightly new form for completeness. An analytic solution corresponding to larger drive fields predicts an oscillatory motion with an average value which decreases with drive field for reasonable values of the damping parameter. These results agree with those obtained by a computer solution of the torque equation and those obtained with the assumption of a very large anisotropy field.

  12. Characterization of crystal transformation in the solid-state by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Min; Wang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Zengyan; Yu, Xiaohan; Li, Wenxin

    2007-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was utilized to investigate crystal transformation between p-benzoquinone and p-dihydroxybenzene in the solid-state. This process can be clearly visualized by THz spectral patterns of the pure starting compounds and the products at different conditions. The observed results were further confirmed by characteristic X-ray powder diffraction and mid-infrared spectra. The extent of crystal-to-crystal transformation was quantified by the absorption intensity ratio according to the Beer-Lambert law. THz-TDS was demonstrated to be a promising and complementary method in analyzing solid-state reactions.

  13. A State Space Method for Modal Identification of Mechanical Systems from Time Domain Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new state space method is presented for modal identification of a mechanical system from its time domain impulse or initial condition responses. A key step in this method is the identification of the characteristic polynomial coefficients of an adjoint system. Once these coefficients are determined, a canonical state space realization of the adjoint system and the system's modal parameters are formulated straightforwardly. This method is conceptually and mathematically simple and is easy to be implemented. Detailed mathematical treatments are demonstrated and numerical examples are provided to illustrate the use and effectiveness of the method.

  14. Host society acculturation and health practices and outcomes in the United States: public health policy and research implications worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Unger, Jennifer B

    2014-08-01

    The unprecedented ethnocultural diversity in the United States and other Western countries likely changes the social norms for various health practices in the host populations, thus impacting prevalence of such practices and leading to the need for modification of public health policies. However, application of host acculturation (HA) principles in the public health domain remains underdeveloped. We conducted a narrative review of theoretical and empirical information about the association between HA and health practices or outcomes, drawing on evidence from health-care services, complementary and alternative medicine, diet, smoking, alcohol use, and psychological well-being. Given the experience of different countries with large immigrant populations, future multidisciplinary studies are needed both to supply additional empirical evidence and to identify ubiquitous HA processes, and thus inform public health promotion initiatives in the United States and worldwide.

  15. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  16. Public Education in the United States: A Nation Divided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2012-01-01

    The 44th annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools showed some sharp divisions among the public's attitude toward the public schools, but also some hopeful signs of broad agreement in some areas. Satisfaction with President Barack Obama declined in the last year, but remains ahead of two years ago and the public…

  17. What does it mean to be pseudo single domain? Demystifying the PSD state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, I.; Harrison, R. J.; Einsle, J. F.; Ball, M.

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, non-interacting stable single domain grains were thought to be the sole reliable paleomagnetic recorders. However most natural samples contain so-called "non-ideal" paleomagnetic recorders, which are either interacting single domain particles, or magnetic grains larger than single domain grains, but smaller than proper multi domain grains, which are poor paleomagnetic recorders. The grain size range for these recorders, which for magnetite comprises grains from 100 nm to a few μm in size, is known as the pseudo single domain (PSD) state. Natural samples containing abundant PSD grains have been shown time and again to reliably record thermomagnetic remanent magnetizations that are stable over billions of years. Here we attempt to shed new light on the PSD state by investigating obsidian varieties found at Glass Butte, Oregon, which present the opportunity to study simple cases of magnetic grains encapsulated in volcanic glass. We do this by combining rock magnetism, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) nanotomography, and finite-element micromagnetic modeling. Using rock magnetism we have identified PSD signatures in these samples via their fingerprint in first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. Tomographic reconstructions obtained by stacking SEM images acquired via sequential milling through sample volumes of a few tens of cubic μm reveal the presence of abundant grains that span the PSD grain size interval. These grains have a variety of shapes, from simple ellipsoidal particles, to more complex morphologies attained through the coalescence of neighboring grains during crystallization, to intricate "rolling snowball" morphologies in larger grains that contain appendices formed as a result of particle growth in a dynamic environment as the flowing lava cooled. Micromagnetic modeling of the simplest morphologies reveals that these grains are in single vortex states, with the remanence controlled by irregularities in grain morphology. Coalesced

  18. Housing in China: State Governance, Market and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese house prices have been receiving huge coverage in both the domestic and the international media. Although the Chinese government has implemented many policies to control house prices, especially in the big cities, it is obvious that there is disequilibrium between demand for and supply of houses. Even though numerous housing policies have been put in place to overcome that, house prices in China are still rising. Many Chinese citizens from the low- and middle-incomes group find it difficult to purchase a house in the cities due to high house prices. This paper covers the current situation of the house prices in China, introduces the existing state of affairs about the Chinese housing market, explores a series of important reasons for high house prices, examines various public policies the Chinese government is using to control real estate, as well as reveals the citizens’ perceptions related to rising house prices. To gauge citizens’ perception of the current state of affairs in this regard, a questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information with a final sample of 256 respondents from more than ten cities of different tiers in the different regions of China.

  19. Frequency Domain Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronic Systems Using Harmonic State Space Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    For the efficiency and simplicity of electric systems, the dc power electronic systems are widely used in a variety of applications such as electric vehicles, ships, aircraft and also in homes. In these systems, there could be a number of dynamic interactions and frequency coupling between network...... with different switching frequency or harmonics from ac-dc converters makes that harmonics and frequency coupling are both problems of ac system and challenges of dc system. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling...... and loads and other converters. Hence, time-domain simulations are usually required to consider such a complex system behavior. However, simulations in the time-domain may increase the calculation time and the utilization of computer memory. Furthermore, frequency coupling driven by multiple converters...

  20. Domain of the Gods: Do traditional beliefs hinder public acceptance of the human role in climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S.

    2008-12-01

    Public acceptance of new scientific discoveries like natural selection, plate tectonics, or the human role in climate change naturally lags behind the pace of the discoveries. In the case of climate change, unease or outright rejection of the scientific evidence for the role of human activity in climate change has been a hindrance to mitigation and adaptation efforts. This skepticism is normally attributed to everything from the quality of science education, to disinformation campaigns by representatives of the coal and gas industry, to individual resistance to behavioral change, to the nature of the modern information culture. This skepticism of scientific evidence for climate change, though often inspired by politics, economics and the particular dynamics of climate change, may actually be rooted in ancient beliefs that the climate is beyond the influence of humans. In this presentation, I will outline how the notion that humans control or influence the weather runs contrary to thousands of years of belief in a separation between the earth - the domain of man - and sky - the domain of the gods. Evidence from religious history, traditional villages in the Pacific (Fjij and Kiribati) and from public discourse in North America all indicates that the millennia-old belief in an earth-sky separation hinders people's acceptance that human activity is affecting the climate. The human role in climate change therefore represents a substantial paradigm shift, similar to the role of natural selection in human evolution. These deep roots of climate change skepticism must be factored into public climate change education efforts.

  1. The Maritime Public Domain - concept and implementation in diferent national legal systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gameiro Antunes

    2014-05-01

    The paper will also describe how the ownership (public vs. private of coastal and estuarine margins is seen in some legal systems, considering the contribution of MPD to the protection of estuarine water and to the biodiversity resources.

  2. 32 CFR 705.35 - Armed Forces participation in events in the public domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense to ensure compliance with public law, to assure equitable distribution of resources to... primary attraction. (4) Armed Forces participation is authorized in a fund-raising event only when the...

  3. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  4. Shaping public policy and population health in the United States: why is the public health community missing in action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Renewed international interest in the structural determinants of health manifests itself in a focus on the social determinants of health and the public policy antecedents that shape their quality. This increased international interest in public policy in support of the structural determinants of health has had little traction in the United States. This should be surprising since the United States presents one of the worst population health profiles and public policy environments in support of health among wealthy developed nations. The U.S. position as a health status and policy outlier results from long-term institutional changes that are shaped by political, economic, and social forces. U.S. public health researchers' and workers' neglect of these structural and public policy issues conforms to the dominant ideological discourses that serve to justify these changes. The author presents some means by which public health researchers and workers can challenge these dominant discourses.

  5. Production of radioactive phantoms using a standard inkjet printer and the public domain multi-printing code GENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafè, R; Auer, P; Bennati, P; La Porta, L; Pisacane, F; Cinti, M N; Pellegrini, R; De Vincentis, G; Conte, G; Pani, R

    2011-10-01

    The public domain code GENIA, based on multi-printing method for producing surface sources with appropriate radioactivity, is described. The conventional technique, running on standard inkjet printer with radio-marked ink filling, is improved by repeating elementary printing commands in the same band. Well outlined sources with adjustable radioactivity can be obtained without refilling. The intrinsic limitation of printable radioactivity, depending on the value available at nozzles at printing time, was overcome. In addition the method permits the accurate calibration of the amount of activity released onto the paper.

  6. 75 FR 23264 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY: Environmental... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the..., EPA is tentatively approving this revision to the State of Alabama's Public Water System...

  7. 77 FR 44238 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY: Environmental... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the... State of Alabama's Public Water System Supervision Program. DATES: Any interested person may request...

  8. State and Executive Perceptions of Public Sector Reform in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S.D. Curry; G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard); S.R. Jilke (Sebastian); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Like most other areas of the world, the public sector in Europe has undergone significant reform in the past two decades, shaped in part by a broader New Public Management (NPM) paradigm, but one that also introduces a unique European flavour to this form of public mana

  9. Report on enhanced publications state-of-the-art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen-Windhouwer, S.; Brandsma, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the current status of enhanced publications in publishing and repository environments. We define an enhanced publication as a publication that is enhanced with three categories of information: (1) research data (evidence of the research), (2) extra materials (to i

  10. Finite difference time domain modeling of steady state scattering from jet engines with moving turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Deirdre A.; Langdon, H. Scott; Beggs, John H.; Steich, David J.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1992-01-01

    The approach chosen to model steady state scattering from jet engines with moving turbine blades is based upon the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The FDTD method is a numerical electromagnetic program based upon the direct solution in the time domain of Maxwell's time dependent curl equations throughout a volume. One of the strengths of this method is the ability to model objects with complicated shape and/or material composition. General time domain functions may be used as source excitations. For example, a plane wave excitation may be specified as a pulse containing many frequencies and at any incidence angle to the scatterer. A best fit to the scatterer is accomplished using cubical cells in the standard cartesian implementation of the FDTD method. The material composition of the scatterer is determined by specifying its electrical properties at each cell on the scatterer. Thus, the FDTD method is a suitable choice for problems with complex geometries evaluated at multiple frequencies. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the FDTD method.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  12. The State of Inclusion of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in United States Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Whalon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Legislation in the United States mandates that all children with disabilities (including those with autism spectrum disorder have access to the general education curriculum in the least restrictive environment. Although a number of benefits associated with including children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD in settings with their typically developing peers have been documented in the literature, skepticism remains regarding the ability of general education teachers to fully address the myriad of challenges experienced by children with ASD in these settings. This paper examines the current state of inclusion in United States Public Schools, reviews the research documenting the outcomes of the inclusion for learners with ASD, and explores arguments both supporting and questioning the role of inclusion when educating children with ASD. This paper also reviews research findings from programs that emphasize inclusion, and the educational methods that support the successful inclusion of children with ASD in general education settings.

  13. Citing National Publications as a metrics for localization of Science: A Study on Scholar Journals of Social Science Domain in Iran from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tavakolizadeh-Ravari

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Based on this metric, the tendency toward the use of national publications in the social science domain is constant despite the number of scientific productions is growing in Iran. This means that the Iranian social science domain not only doesn’t tend to the science localization but its use of foreign science is growing in the span of time as well.

  14. Changing Perceptions of Homesteading as a Policy of Public Domain Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The inspiring story of homesteaders claiming free land and realizing their dreams became one of the enduring narratives of American history. But scholars who have studied homesteading have often been much more ambivalent, even harshly negative, about how successful it was in practice. While the public often views our history differently from…

  15. 77 FR 15367 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Minnesota AGENCY: Environmental... of Minnesota is revising its approved public water system supervision program for four major...

  16. 75 FR 80493 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Wisconsin AGENCY: Environmental... of Wisconsin submitted a primacy application for its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  17. 78 FR 10689 - Pipeline Safety: Public Forum State One-Call Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Forum State One-Call... sponsor a public forum on state one-call exemptions. The forum will be held on March 14, 2013, in West... in state one-call programs and actions taken to date. In addition, damage prevention...

  18. Flexibility for Survival: State Funding and Contingent Faculty Employment at Public Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Joanna R.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of state funding for public higher education in the United States are changing. Per-student state appropriations to higher education have decreased over the past few decades and have become increasingly volatile from year to year. As public higher education institutions seek ways to educate more students with fewer and less…

  19. 78 FR 73858 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma AGENCY: United States... that the State of Oklahoma is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program....

  20. 75 FR 9895 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma AGENCY: United States... the State of Oklahoma is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program adopting...

  1. 78 FR 9047 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas AGENCY: United States... that the State of Texas is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Texas...

  2. 76 FR 45794 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana AGENCY: United States... the State of Louisiana is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program, by...

  3. 77 FR 35676 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas AGENCY: United States... that the State of Texas is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Texas...

  4. How Public Universities Close Budget Gaps Matters for States. Schools in Crisis: Making Ends Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Alicia; Roza, Marguerite; Murphy, Patrick; Gross, Betheny

    2012-01-01

    When the Great Recession took its toll on state budgets, public universities felt the pain. Many public universities attempted to offset reductions in state funds by raising tuition, shifting admission spots to more out-of-state students, and, in some cases, increasing enrollment. For a given budget gap, these three strategies should be weighted…

  5. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00...

  6. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory...

  7. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that...

  8. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper...

  9. Establishing the Public Sphere and Abolishing the Private Domain:The Rise of a Doctrine and Its Social Significance in the Spring and Autumn Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zehua

    2006-01-01

    The dominant views regarding the concepts of "the public"(gong)and"the private"(si) took shape in the Spring and Autumn period and matured in the succeeding years of the Warring States period.This paper is an attempt to trace both the growth of the vocabulary containing "gong"and "si"and the development of philosophical views regarding issues that center on the relation between the individual and the larger social/communal/political body,of which that individual is a member;it also touches on issues related to the proper handling of public afrairs and the relation between state,sovereign,and the individual.The era is often characterized as"The Contention of the Hundred Schools of Thought,"notwithstanding it ended with but one view that is universally accepted by thinkers of diverse persuasion,namely,si is the source of all social evil and.therefore,should be condemned.This is the doctrine known as ligong miesi(abolishing si so gong may be established),which contributed to the orthodox for that era and the millennium to come.By extolling gong and condemning si.it painted a portrait of the Pair as two irreconcilable nomas or forces in social and political life;it provided a iustification for the then emerging new social arrangement and Ways of distribution of power and resources.and it also led to acute conflicts between the sovereign andthe state,the ruledandthe ruler,the stateandthe subject,as well as the public sphere and the private domain.

  10. EJSCREEN States Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Public Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The States table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the state...

  11. EJSCREEN States Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Public Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The States table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the state...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  13. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  14. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  15. Defining the Role of Public Health in Disaster Recovery: An Evaluation of State Public Health Planning Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Brahmbhatt , Jennifer L. Chan, Edbert B. Hsu,Hani Mowafi, Thomas D. Kirsch, Asma Quereshi P. Gregg Greenough, “Public Health Preparedness of Post-Katrina...are not covered by Medicaid or private insurance.73 Recently, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted gaps in...reference to specific states was to name those states (Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic states from Texas through Virginia) that were included in the

  16. Designing personal attentive user interfaces in the mobile public safety domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Esch van-Bussemakers, M.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the mobile computing environment, there is a need to adapt the information and service provision to the momentary attentive state of the user, operational requirements and usage context. This paper proposes to design personal attentive user interfaces (PAUI) for which the content and style of inf

  17. Observation and analysis of mixed domain states in sputtered Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 50} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Jeffrey E-mail: j.mccord@ifw-dresden.de; Dieter, Sascha; Seemann, Klaus

    2004-04-01

    Mixed domain states in sputtered Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 50} films were observed by Kerr microscopy. Coexisting domain patterns of different origin were found. Low- and high-pass image filtering in the frequency regime was used to separate the congruently occurring stripe and patched domain patterns from each other. Two mechanisms are responsible for the domain development. Firstly, a magnetoelastically induced magnetic out-of-plane anisotropy component introduced by compressive stress in the films, diminishing with reduced stress amplitude in the films. Differences between calculated and observed occurrence of stripe domains are explained with a thickness dependant stress distribution in the films. Secondly, additional contributions on the domain formation from the microstructure of the films are observed. A (1 1 0)-texture, together with the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the films, leads to additional anisotropy components relevant for the domain configuration. Furthermore, grain coarsening with increasing thickness due to columnar growth of the films is observed. The microstructural characteristics lead to a patch-like domain pattern, decreasing in size with film thickness. A direct connection between stress, texture, and microstructure on domain distribution is made.

  18. Maximal lactate steady state and the upper boundary of heavy intensity domain in trained cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Coelho Greco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the validity of maximum lactate steady state (MLSS for the identification of the upper limit of the heavy-intensity domain in well-trained cyclists. Fourteen male cyclists (25.5 ± 4.4 years, 69.5 ± 7.8 kg, 175.8 ± 7.5 cm underwent the following tests on different days: incremental exercise test until exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, and 2 to 4 constant submaximal load tests to determine MLSS. VO2 obtained in the 30th min was significantly higher than that obtained in the 3rd min of exercise performed at 100% MLSS (3379.3 ± 250.1 vs. 3496.7 ± 280.2 ml/min, p0.05. These results suggest that during heavy exercise (MLSS VO2 does not present stability when values obtained around the 3rd minute of exercise are used as reference. MLSS does not seem to be the upper limit of the heavy-intensity domain in trained subjects since VO2peak is not reached by the end of 30 min of exercise when exercise is performed above this intensity (~ 5%.

  19. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  20. A high-order public domain code for direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Babkovskaia, N; Brandenburg, A

    2010-01-01

    A high-order scheme for direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion is discussed. Its implementation in the massively parallel and publicly available Pencil Code is validated with the focus on hydrogen combustion. Ignition delay times (0D) and laminar flame velocities (1D) are calculated and compared with results from the commercially available Chemkin code. The scheme is verified to be fifth order in space. Upon doubling the resolution, a 32-fold increase in the accuracy of the flame front is demonstrated. Finally, also turbulent and spherical flame front velocities are calculated and the implementation of the non-reflecting so-called Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Condition is validated in all three directions.

  1. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... While the public Corporations are established by governments, private service operations are ... Data were also collected from records of the Transport Corporation relating to passenger traffic, bus ...

  2. Broadband absorption spectroscopy by combining frequency-domain and steady-state techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota B.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Butler, John A.; Hsiang, D.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2001-06-01

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media is presented using a combination of frequency-domain (FD) and steady-state (SS) reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light SS measurement, while the FD data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption ((mu) a) and reduced scattering ((mu) s') derived from the FD data are used to intensity-calibrate the SS measurements and to estimate (mu) s' at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. After these steps are performed, (mu) a can be determined by comparing the SS reflectance values to the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. We present an application of this method to breast tumor characterization. A case study of a fibroadenoma is shown, where different absorption spectra were found between the normal and the tumor sides.

  3. Renewable energy policy design and framing influence public support in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Warshaw, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The United States has often led the world in supporting renewable energy technologies at both the state and federal level. However, since 2011 several states have weakened their renewable energy policies. Public opinion will probably be crucial for determining whether states expand or contract their renewable energy policies in the future. Here we show that a majority of the public in most states supports renewable portfolio standards, which require a portion of the electricity mix to come from renewables. However, policy design and framing can strongly influence public support. Using a survey experiment, we show that effects of renewable portfolio standards bills on residential electricity costs, jobs and pollution, as well as bipartisan elite support, are all important drivers of public support. In many states, these bills' design and framing can push public opinion above or below majority support.

  4. Steady state signatures in the time domain for nonintrusive appliance identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jimenez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grid paradigm promotes advanced load monitoring applications to support demand side management and energy savings. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring to estimate the individual operation and power consumption of the residential appliances, from single point electrical measurements. This approach takes advantage of signal processing in order to reduce the hardware effort associated to systems with multiple dedicated sensors. Discriminative characteristics of the appliances, namely load signatures, could be extracted from the transient or steady state electrical signals. In this paper the effect of impact factors that can affect the steady state load signatures under realistic conditions are investigated: the voltage supply distortion, the network impedance and the sampling frequency of the metering equipment. For this purpose, electrical measurements of several residential appliances were acquired and processed to obtain some indices in the time domain. Results include the comparison of distinct scenarios, and the evaluation of the suitability and discrimination capacity of the steady state information.

  5. On the State Space Geometry of the Kuramoto--Sivashinsky Flow in a Periodic Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanovic, Predrag; Davidchack, Ruslan L.; Siminos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    The continuous and discrete symmetries of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system restricted to a spatially periodic domain play a prominent role in shaping the invariant sets of its chaotic dynamics. The continuous spatial translation symmetry leads to relative equilibrium (traveling wave) and relative periodic orbit (modulated traveling wave) solutions. The discrete symmetries lead to existence of equilibrium and periodic orbit solutions, induce decomposition of state space into invariant subspaces, and enforce certain structurally stable heteroclinic connections between equilibria. We show, for the example of a particular small-cell Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system, how the geometry of its dynamical state space is organized by a rigid cage built by heteroclinic connections between equilibria, and demonstrate the preponderance of unstable relative periodic orbits and their likely role as the skeleton underpinning spatiotemporal turbulence in systems with continuous symmetries. We also offer novel visualizations of the high-dimensional Kuramoto-Sivashinsky state space flow through projections onto low-dimensional, PDE representation-independent, dynamically invariant intrinsic coordinate frames, as well as in terms of the physical, symmetry invariant energy transfer rates.

  6. Applications of Out-of-Domain Knowledge in Students' Reasoning about Computer Program State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Colleen Marie

    To meet a growing demand and a projected deficit in the supply of computer professionals (NCWIT, 2009), it is of vital importance to expand students' access to computer science. However, many researchers in the computer science education community unproductively assume that some students lack an innate ability for computer science and therefore cannot be successful learning to program. In contrast, I hypothesize that the degree to which computer science students make productive use of their out-of-domain knowledge can better explain the range of success of novices learning to program. To investigate what non-programming knowledge supports students' success, I conducted and videotaped approximately 40 hours of clinical interviews with 30 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory programming courses. During each interview, a participant talked as they solved programming problems, many of which were multiple-choice problems that were highly correlated with success on an Advanced Placement Computer Science exam. In the analysis of the interviews I focused on students' strengths rather than the typical decision to focus on students' weaknesses. I documented specific competencies of the participants and applied analytic tools from the Knowledge in Pieces theoretical framework (diSessa, 1993) to attempt to understand the source and nature of these competencies. I found that participants appeared to build upon several kinds of out-of-domain knowledge. For example, many students used algebraic substitution techniques when tracing the state of recursive functions. Students appeared to use metaphors and their intuitive knowledge of both iteration and physics to understand infinite loops and base cases. On the level of an individual students' reasoning, a case study analysis illustrated the ways in which a participant integrated her linguistic knowledge of "and" into her reasoning about the computer science command "and." In addition to identifying these specific

  7. Interaction Operators with State through Public Consolidated Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhan Ionuţ Dragos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Operation of a proper market economy is influenced in an important measure ofthe interaction with operators, respectively, how to run the financial relations between thepublic and strengthened economic resources for the purposes of training and public budgetaryallocation of resources in economic benefit. In the above still trying to achieve severalimportant issues relating to financial relations between the private and the public enhanced.

  8. The Power of State Legislatures in Public University Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Jan W.; Wood, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the power of state legislatures to veto, in effect, the collective bargaining agreements of faculty unions. Analyzes state statutes authorizing collective bargaining for faculty in higher education. (Author)

  9. State Profiles: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditures, and collection sizes.These...

  10. The role of public services in state- and nation building: Exploring lessons from European history for fragile states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); Z. Scott (Zoë)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConcerns about failed and fragile states have put state- and nation-building firmly on the academic and policy agenda. The crucial role of public services in this process has remained under-explored. The 1960s and 70s generated a substantial set of literature on state- and nation-buildin

  11. Development of mooring-anchor program in public domain for coupling with floater program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, MooHyun [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the development of offshore anchor data sets which are intended to be used to develop a database that allows preliminary selection and sizing of anchors for the conceptual design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). The study is part of a project entitled “Development of Mooring-Anchor Program in Public Domain for Coupling with Floater Program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)”, under the direction of Dr. Moo-Hyun Kim at the Texas A&M University and with the sponsorship from the US Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-EE0005479, CFDA # 81.087 for DE-FOA-0000415, Topic Area 1.3: Subsurface Mooring and Anchoring Dynamics Models).

  12. Teacher Perspectives on the Current State of Computer Technology Integration into the Public School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Ramiro

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of computers into the public school arena over forty years ago, educators have been convinced that the integration of computer technology into the public school classroom will transform education. Joining educators are state and federal governments. Public schools and others involved in the process of computer technology…

  13. 77 FR 64336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Florida AGENCY: Environmental... of Florida is revising its Public Water System Supervision Program by adopting the Lead and Copper... Florida's Public Water System Supervision Program. DATES: Any interested person may request a...

  14. 78 FR 38714 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois AGENCY: Environmental... of Illinois is revising its approved public water system supervision program for the Ground Water Rule, the Arsenic Rule and the ] new Public Water System Definition. EPA has determined that...

  15. Open window: when easily identifiable genomes and traits are in the public domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Angrist

    Full Text Available "One can't be of an enquiring and experimental nature, and still be very sensible."--Charles Fort. As the costs of personal genetic testing "self-quantification" fall, publicly accessible databases housing people's genotypic and phenotypic information are gradually increasing in number and scope. The latest entrant is openSNP, which allows participants to upload their personal genetic/genomic and self-reported phenotypic data. I believe the emergence of such open repositories of human biological data is a natural reflection of inquisitive and digitally literate people's desires to make genomic and phenotypic information more easily available to a community beyond the research establishment. Such unfettered databases hold the promise of contributing mightily to science, science education and medicine. That said, in an age of increasingly widespread governmental and corporate surveillance, we would do well to be mindful that genomic DNA is uniquely identifying. Participants in open biological databases are engaged in a real-time experiment whose outcome is unknown.

  16. Vive la Difference: What It Means for State Boards to Embrace Two Models for Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarick, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The charter school model differs fundamentally from the district-based model of public education delivery that is still dominant in every state. Instead of creating government bodies that directly operate all of an area's public schools, the state approves entities that authorize and oversee schools run by nonprofit organizations. In this article,…

  17. Income distribution, public services expenditures, and all cause mortality in US states

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this paper is to investigate the relation between state and local government expenditures on public services and all cause mortality in 48 US states in 1987, and determine if the relation between income inequality and mortality is conditioned on levels of public services available in these jurisdictions.

  18. The Role of the State Department of Public Instruction in the Del Mod System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiher, John F.

    This is one of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System). The State Department of Public Instruction is the agency that represents the public schools of Delaware. The two branches of the state department with which Del Mod interacts are the Instructional Services…

  19. Using the laws and the regularities of public administration in the state strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Yevmieshkina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the use of laws of public administration in the state strategic planning; defined a methodological basis of state strategic planning. State strategic planning as a function of public administration exists in accordance with its laws and regularities. Author established the use of public administration laws as: unity socio-economic system, required diversity, system integrity, unity techniques and basic functions of social management at all levels of public administration: central, sectorial, regional. At the public administration level this laws as a rule us in working and realization of state strategy, state, region and sectorial program, which directed to improve of political, economic and social process. State strategic planning as a function of public administration exists in accordance with its laws. The law in our research is considered as objective, substantive, necessary, sustainable relationship between events. The most essential feature of law is reflecting the objective state of affairs, objective relations between things, items and phenomenon’s. The other difficult sign of law is necessity as relation, which inevitably revealed in the development process of different things. Law category with regularity category is relation. Regularity is wider category then the law. The state strategic planning is an integrated, systematic process due to the action and use laws and regularities of public administration. That improves the efficiency of public administration.

  20. 75 FR 69436 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota AGENCY... hereby given that the State of South Dakota has revised its Public Water System Supervision...

  1. 77 FR 12582 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota AGENCY... hereby given that the state of North Dakota has revised its Public Water System Supervision...

  2. 76 FR 7845 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Utah has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by adopting...

  3. 75 FR 69435 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota AGENCY... hereby given that the State of North Dakota has revised its Public Water System Supervision...

  4. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  5. Acoustic-Wave-Induced Magnetization Switching of Magnetostrictive Nanomagnets from Single-Domain to Nonvolatile Vortex States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Vimal; D'Souza, Noel; Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Atkinson, Gary M.; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2016-09-01

    We report manipulation of the magnetic states of elliptical cobalt magnetostrictive nanomagnets (of nominal dimensions ~ 340 nm x 270 nm x 12 nm) delineated on bulk 128{\\deg} Y-cut lithium niobate with Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) launched from interdigitated electrodes. Isolated nanomagnets that are initially magnetized to a single domain state with magnetization pointing along the major axis of the ellipse are driven into a vortex state by surface acoustic waves that modulate the stress anisotropy of these nanomagnets. The nanomagnets remain in the vortex state until they are reset by a strong magnetic field to the initial single domain state, making the vortex state non-volatile. This phenomenon is modeled and explained using a micromagnetic framework and could lead to the development of extremely energy efficient magnetization switching methodologies.

  6. Monitoring Urban Tree Cover Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Halabisky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly variable landscapes. Landsat imagery has historically been used for per-pixel driven land use/land cover (LULC classifications, but the spatial resolution limits our ability to map small urban features. In such cases, hyperspatial resolution imagery such as aerial or satellite imagery with a resolution of 1 meter or below is preferred. Object-based image analysis (OBIA allows for use of additional variables such as texture, shape, context, and other cognitive information provided by the image analyst to segment and classify image features, and thus, improve classifications. As part of this research we created LULC classifications for a pilot study area in Seattle, WA, USA, using OBIA techniques and freely available public aerial photography. We analyzed the differences in accuracies which can be achieved with OBIA using multispectral and true-color imagery. We also compared our results to a satellite based OBIA LULC and discussed the implications of per-pixel driven vs. OBIA-driven field sampling campaigns. We demonstrated that the OBIA approach can generate good and repeatable LULC classifications suitable for tree cover assessment in urban areas. Another important finding is that spectral content appeared to be more important than spatial detail of hyperspatial data when it comes to an OBIA-driven LULC.

  7. Effectiveness of Contemporary Public-Private Partnerships for Large Scale Infrastructure in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bosso, Doran Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, states are relying on creative financing and asset management to maintain and improve the nationâ s transportation infrastructure since budgetary challenges constrain potential options. One method of tapping into alternative sources of capital is the public-private partnership (PPP or P3). A public-private partnership is a long-term contractual agreement in which the public sector authority assigns a traditionally public responsibility (such as operations and/or financing) to t...

  8. State interference in the governance of public schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996, protects the fundamental ... and security of the person, and just administrative action. ... In terms of section 15 of the Schools Act, a public school is a legal person ("juristic per-.

  9. PR: The State of Public Relations in Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Vikki

    1985-01-01

    Presents results of survey of 48 academic library directors on use and effectiveness of public relations (PR) programs (planned PR programs administered by one person, coordinated PR programs, favored channels of communication, importance of academic library PR). Recommendations based on survey results and review of literature are offered. (22…

  10. assessement of information resource of public libraries in rivers state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    The checklist was analyzed based on the degree to which the items are ... agency of knowledge, providing opportunities for life–long learning, ... is the store house of knowledge and information. .... computers, periodicals, children books, government publications, Internet, CD- ..... behaviour pattern of journalists in Nigeria.

  11. State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

  12. The welfare state: a glossary for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Eikemo (Terje); C. Bambra (Clare)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractRecently, there has been a surge in comparative social epidemiology, and a sizeable amount of this has examined the relation between different aspects of the welfare state and population health. Such research draws strongly, though usually implicitly, on welfare state theories and concep

  13. The Notice on the Notion of State Aid and Public Procurement Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    The Commission Notice on the notion of State aid includes elaboration on the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law. To begin with, the article examines some of the reasons why the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law is surrounded by legal...... uncertainty. Then the elaborations made in the Notice on the notion of aid concerning the relation between the two areas of law are analysed and discussed, in particular, first, the question whether adhering to the procurement procedures laid down in the public procurement directives will eliminate the risk...... of granting State aid and, second, the issues rising from State aid control of in-house situations. It is concluded that even though the Notice on the notion of aid brings some needed clarity that fosters coherence between State aid law and public procurement law, the existing legal uncertainty is not even...

  14. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  15. 1H, 15N and 13C assignments of domain 5 of Dictyostelium discoideum gelation factor (ABP-120) in its native and 8M urea-denatured states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John; Dobson, Christopher M

    2009-06-01

    The gelation factor from Dictyostelium discoideum (ABP-120) is an actin binding protein consisting of six immunoglobulin (Ig) domains in the C-terminal rod domain. We have recently used the pair of domains 5 and 6 of ABP-120 as a model system for studying multi-domain nascent chain folding on the ribosome. Here we present the NMR assignments of domain 5 in its native and 8M urea-denatured states.

  16. The Remaking of Leviathan: The State and Public Sector Reform in Advanced Capitalist Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Peters

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that recent comparatives literatures on the welfare state have yet to adequately consider the public sector and how governments have reshaped their public services. Drawing on macro-level data from the OECD, qualitative studies, and trade union research, it is claimed that governments have substantially remade their administrative and financial procedures in order to cut expenditures and lower labour costs. It is also contended that because of financial globalization and rising debt, states have made a series of reforms to public sector industrial relations. These have worsened wages, working conditions, and jobs throughout the public sector. It is concluded that such developments are central to reforming the nature of state functioning across North America and Western Europe. This is the first study to report on government reforms to fiscal policies, public sector services, and public sector labour forces in 13 OECD countries between 1980-2005.

  17. Crystal structure of the GTPase domain and the bundle signalling element of dynamin in the GDP state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Roopsee; Eschenburg, Susanne; Reubold, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Dynamin is the prototype of a family of large multi-domain GTPases. The 100 kDa protein is a key player in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, where it cleaves off vesicles from membranes using the energy from GTP hydrolysis. We have solved the high resolution crystal structure of a fusion protein of the GTPase domain and the bundle signalling element (BSE) of dynamin 1 liganded with GDP. The structure provides a hitherto missing snapshot of the GDP state of the hydrolytic cycle of dynamin and reveals how the switch I region moves away from the active site after GTP hydrolysis and release of inorganic phosphate. Comparing our structure of the GDP state with the known structures of the GTP state, the transition state and the nucleotide-free state of dynamin 1 we describe the structural changes through the hydrolytic cycle.

  18. Public Perception of Climate Change in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odafivwotu Ohwo

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the public perception of climate change in Yenagoa. The sample survey method was adopted, which involved the administration of 360 questionnaires to randomly selected households. The results showed that 43.33% of respondents lack adequate knowledge of climate change. Further interview revealed that 55.3% of the respondents are unaware that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major greenhouse gas, contributing about 55% to global warming. It was revealed that responde...

  19. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Anna M [Cornell University, Nanobiotechnology Center (United States)], E-mail: amw37@cornell.edu; Spencer, Douglas [Edu, Inc. (United States); Batt, Carl A [Cornell University (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology.

  20. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  1. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  2. The Domain of Distributive Justice: Personal Choices, Institutions, States of Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair MacLeod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines G.A. Cohen’s celebrated critique of the Rawlsian doctrine of “the basic structure as subject.” Cohen describes the principal difference between his and Rawls’s view of “the site of distributive justice” – that is, of “the sorts of items to which principles of distributive justice apply” – by claiming that whereas in his view “both just rules and just personal choice within the framework set by just rules are necessary for distributive justice,” the Rawlsian view is that “distributive justice and injustice are features of the rules of the public order alone.” Despite the acuteness of Cohen’s criticisms of the Rawlsian positions he targets, there are important strands in Rawls’s view of the domain within which judgments of distributive justice can be made that are not adequately reflected in these positions. When these ambiguities in Rawls’s writings are given due weight, it emerges that the similarities between the views Rawls and Cohen take of the task of a theory of distributive justice are more striking than the differences. The only major difference, arguably, concerns the status of judgments about the “personal choices” the members of a society must make when their options are unconstrained by just institutional rules – that is, when the alternatives they can opt for are neither required nor prohibited by these rules. For Rawls these are choices they are at liberty to make in any way they please. According to Cohen, however, at least some of these choices must be made by direct appeal to the principles of distributive justice that underpin just institutional rules.

  3. Time-Domain Pure-state Polarization Analysis of Surface Waves Traversing California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J; Walter, W R; Lay, T; Wu, R

    2003-11-04

    A time-domain pure-state polarization analysis method is used to characterize surface waves traversing California parallel to the plate boundary. The method is applied to data recorded at four broadband stations in California from twenty-six large, shallow earthquakes which occurred since 1988, yielding polarization parameters such as the ellipticity, Euler angles, instantaneous periods, and wave incident azimuths. The earthquakes are located along the circum-Pacific margin and the ray paths cluster into two groups, with great-circle paths connecting stations MHC and PAS or CMB and GSC. The first path (MHC-PAS) is in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), and the second (CMB-GSC) traverses the Sierra Nevada Batholith parallel to and east of the SAFS. Both Rayleigh and Love wave data show refractions due to lateral velocity heterogeneities under the path, indicating that accurate phase velocity and attenuation analysis requires array measurements. The Rayleigh waves are strongly affected by low velocity anomalies beneath Central California, with ray paths bending eastward as waves travel toward the south, while Love waves are less affected, providing observables to constrain the depth extent of the anomalies. Strong lateral gradients in the lithospheric structure between the continent and the ocean are the likely cause of the path deflections.

  4. Interest Groups and Governmental Institutions: The Politics of State Funding of Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, David

    2010-01-01

    In attempting to explain state support of public higher education, this study develops a theory-driven, comprehensive conceptualization of the state political system within a larger theoretical framework that consists of state economic and demographic factors and higher education system attributes. Furthermore, although the higher education policy…

  5. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for corn under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA). Since the standards were last revised, the use of corn for ethanol and the number of...-AB16 Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Corn AGENCY: Grain...

  6. National Trends in Public Opinion on LGBT Rights in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This report analyzes over 325 national public opinion surveys dating back to June 1977 that ask the public their opinions on LGBT rights and finds that national trends indicate a rapid and significant increase over the last three decades in public support for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the United States. On average, public support for marriage equality has more than doubled since the early 2000s, public support for adoption rights for same-sex couples has a...

  7. National Trends in Public Opinion on LGBT Rights in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This report analyzes over 325 national public opinion surveys dating back to June 1977 that ask the public their opinions on LGBT rights and finds that national trends indicate a rapid and significant increase over the last three decades in public support for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the United States. On average, public support for marriage equality has more than doubled since the early 2000s, public support for adoption rights for same-sex couples has a...

  8. National Public Health Surveillance in China:Implications for Public Health in China and the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGONG-HUAN; DONNAF·STROUP

    1997-01-01

    Study Objective:Throughout the world,political developments have brought new demands to communities to prevent and intervene in the incidence of infectious and noninfectious conditions.Historically,these developments have required new and more effective public health surveillance ac-tivities.This report describes public health surveillance practice in the People's Republic of China,making comparisons with selected aspects of surveillance in the United States with respect to collec-tion,analysis,dissemination,and use of data.Main results:In both the People's Republc of China and the United States.political change has affected health,and multiple surveillance system are used in public health practice.Surveillance of acute infectious diseases based on the reporting of legally notifiable diseases and the use of vital records for surveillance have the longest established history in both countries.In both countries,da-ta from the surveillance systems have been used to affect public health policy.Conclusions:in comparing surveillance practices in these countries,we find similarities in con-ditions reported and in the dissemination of the data.At the same time,legal,social,cultural,and economic differences between the nations have affected the practice of surveillance in analysis and evaluation.We make explicit recommendations for improement and evaluation of systems in both countries,including sentinel surveillance system and data quality measures in China and computer networking and data analysis in the United States.

  9. What wins public support? Communicating or obfuscating welfare state retrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Elmelund-Præstekær; M. Baggesen Klitgaard; G. Schumacher

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that in order to evade electoral punishment governments obfuscate welfare state retrenchment. However, governments do not uniformly lose votes in elections after they cut back on welfare benefits or services. Recent evidence indicates that some of these unpopular reforms ar

  10. Florida's Public Education Spending. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes and explains Florida's education finance system. It explains the sources of revenue and the expenditure of funds, reporting figures for each of the state's 67 districts. It also analyzes the trend in current expenditures --that is, the day-to-day operating costs of schools--to address the question of whether they have been…

  11. 130 PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF CORRUPTION IN ANAMBRA STATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is a cross sectional survey and Bandura's social learning theory constituted the .... How do people perceive corruption in Aguata local government area? 2. .... Social learning theory is a social psychological theory which states that learning is a cognitive ... structured questionnaire as the instrument for data collection.

  12. The entrepreneurial state debunking public vs. private sector myths

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucato, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This new bestseller from leading economist Mariana Mazzucato – named by the ‘New Republic’ as one of the ‘most important innovation thinkers’ today – is stirring up much-needed debates worldwide about the role of the State in innovation. Debunking the myth of a laggard State at odds with a dynamic private sector, Mazzucato reveals in case study after case study that in fact the opposite situation is true, with the private sector only finding the courage to invest after the entrepreneurial State has made the high-risk investments. Case studies include examples of the State’s role in the ‘green revolution’, in biotech and pharmaceuticals, as well as several detailed examples from Silicon Valley. In an intensely researched chapter, she reveals that every technology that makes the iPhone so ‘smart’ was government funded: the Internet, GPS, its touch-screen display and the voice-activated Siri. Mazzucato also controversially argues that in the history of modern capitalism the State has not on...

  13. Neoliberal Ideology and Public Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    While it is misleading to discuss the neoliberal university as a fundamentally new incarnation of higher education in the United States, meaningful changes have occurred over the past forty years that have aligned the university with neoliberal ideology resulting in important differences between the neoliberal university and its predecessors.…

  14. The myth of European term harmonisation: 27 public domains for the 27 Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, C.

    2012-01-01

    The term of protection of copyright and related rights is generally considered to be one of the best harmonised areas of European copyright law. However, close examination of the EU Term Directive's intricate provisions reveals a piecemeal and permissive approach to harmonisation which preserves

  15. Assessment of CEPH accredited institutions offering Public Health programs in the United States: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish eJoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Examine the distribution of the CEPH accredited institutions offering public health educational programs in the United States, and characterize their various attributes.Methods: A search was conducted during the period of June 2014, using the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health database (ASPPH, and individual university websites to obtain a complete list of CEPH accredited institutions offering programs in Public Health at the Certificate, Masters, and Doctoral levels in the United States. Detailed information were abstracted from the various programs offerings including: school/program information, school type, geographic location, admission cycle, education delivery format, public health concentration, number of credits, presence of a global component, joint programs and tuition. The data was analyzed in August 2014. Results: A total of 85 CEPH accredited institutions designated as either Schools of Public Health, or individual Programs of Public Health were present in the ASPPH database at the time of this data collection (2014. These institutions offer programs in public health at the Certificate (61%, n=52, Masters (100%, n=85 and Doctoral (44%, n=37 levels in the US. More than half of the programs offered were provided by schools of public health (58%, N=49, which were mostly public universities (75%, n=64, concentrated in the Northeast (22%, n=19 and mainly admitted students during the fall semester. Ninety three concentrations of Public Health currently exist, of which 25 concentrations are predominant. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which examines the distribution of existing CEPH accredited Public Health educational programs offered by US institutions. We suggest future areas of research to assess existing Public Health workforce demands, and map them to the curriculums and competencies provided by institutions offering Public Health educational programs in the United States

  16. The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard; Merkelsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how the role of public relations practice in public diplomacy is undergoing a transformation as a consequence of the influence from nation branding. A case study of the Danish government's response to the so-called Cartoon Crisis illustrates how the threat from international...... a domestic audience. In the public diplomacy efforts towards transnational publics the link to national security will completely disappear whereby the public relations of states is transformed to the marketing of states....... terrorism to national security initially served as a catalyst for new public diplomacy initiatives. But as the initiatives were implemented within a framework of nation branding the focus on risk reduction became subjected to a marketing logic and a new focus on economic objectives took over. The paper...

  17. The Sustanability of Public Finance in New Members States of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian INCEU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public finance sustainability is very important for all EU member states in the actual context after the economic crisis. This article makes an analysis of the sustainability of public finances for the new member states (which joined EU in 2004 and 2007. Firstly, we try to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on public finances sustainability. The sustainability of public finances can be reflected through the level of public debt and budget deficit for a country. For this reason the article presents the evolution of budget deficits for NMS 12 before and after the recent economic crisis. Based on the econometric regression the correlation between economic growth rate (indicator used for measuring the economic evolution and the budget deficit is revealed. Results for Romania and NMS 12 are quite similar; fact that tells us that the status of public finances is following the same trend in Romania as in the NMS 12.

  18. A Theoretical and Conceptual Approach to Public Policy , State Models and Brazilian Judiciary Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Abrahão Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the consolidation of Western democratic regimes, the issue of public policy takes greater prominence in the academic setting and was taken as an object of study by different branches of knowledge. In the present paper attempts to map the various concepts built for public policy, in order to try to answer three questions: what would be the public policy, which the theories that could be used to give them support and what historical context discussion would have appeared. In addition, it seeks to systematize the interaction between public policy and law from three aspects: their integration in the context of the Constitutional State, legalization of phenomenon of emergence of the policy and its relationship with the notions that inform the public governance. It is stated, finally, that the presented questioning aims to contribute to the start of construction of a proper legal analysis of the field of public policy.

  19. Use of media and public-domain Internet sources for detection and assessment of plant health threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hartley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Event-based biosurveillance is a recognized approach to early warning and situational awareness of emerging health threats. In this study, we build upon previous human and animal health work to develop a new approach to plant pest and pathogen surveillance. We show that monitoring public domain electronic media for indications and warning of epidemics and associated social disruption can provide information about the emergence and progression of plant pest infestation or disease outbreak. The approach is illustrated using a case study, which describes a plant pest and pathogen epidemic in China and Vietnam from February 2006 to December 2007, and the role of ducks in contributing to zoonotic virus spread in birds and humans. This approach could be used as a complementary method to traditional plant pest and pathogen surveillance to aid global and national plant protection officials and political leaders in early detection and timely response to significant biological threats to plant health, economic vitality, and social stability. This study documents the inter-relatedness of health in human, animal, and plant populations and emphasizes the importance of plant health surveillance.

  20. How Large Is the "Public Domain"? A Comparative Analysis of Ringer's 1961 Copyright Renewal Study and HathiTrust CRMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, John P.

    2017-01-01

    The 1961 Copyright Office study on renewals, authored by Barbara Ringer, has cast an outsized influence on discussions of the U.S. 1923-1963 public domain. As more concrete data emerge from initiatives such as the large-scale determination process in the Copyright Review Management System (CRMS) project, questions are raised about the reliability…

  1. Folding of a LysM domain: entropy-enthalpy compensation in the transition state of an ideal two-state folder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Adrian A; Stoll, Kate E; Clarke, Jane

    2008-07-11

    Protein-engineering methods (Phi-values) were used to investigate the folding transition state of a lysin motif (LysM) domain from Escherichia coli membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase D. This domain consists of just 48 structured residues in a symmetrical betaalphaalphabeta arrangement and is the smallest alphabeta protein yet investigated using these methods. An extensive mutational analysis revealed a highly robust folding pathway with no detectable transition state plasticity, indicating that LysM is an example of an ideal two-state folder. The pattern of Phi-values denotes a highly polarised transition state, with significant formation of the helices but no structure within the beta-sheet. Remarkably, this transition state remains polarised after circularisation of the domain, and exhibits an identical Phi-value pattern; however, the interactions within the transition state are uniformly weaker in the circular variant. This observation is supported by results from an Eyring analysis of the folding rates of the two proteins. We propose that the folding pathway of LysM is dominated by enthalpic rather than entropic considerations, and suggest that the lower entropy cost of formation of the circular transition state is balanced, to some extent, by the lower enthalpy of contacts within this structure.

  2. A Public Health Analysis of the Proposed Resolution of [the 1997 United States] Tobacco Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Brion J. J.D.; Lightwood, James M. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed tobacco settlement agreement, as negotiated by some state attorneys general and the tobacco industry that was made public on June 20, 1997 (Appendix F), raises a complex array of public health, public policy, legal and economic issues. It was intended to be a blueprint for national tobacco control legislation that would end the most important litigation current and potential against the tobacco industry. As with most complex legislation, the deal, after it was announced, underwen...

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Public Land Survey System of the United States 201011 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  4. 75 FR 16837 - Public Review of Draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... public on the FGDC Web site. DATES: Comments on the draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and... principles can be extended to all addresses. Dated: March 18, 2010. Ivan DeLoatch, FGDC Executive...

  5. United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This reports contains documentation of presentations given at the United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting held December 14--15, 1993 in Alexandria, Virginia.

  6. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

  7. Sites of Refuge: Refugees, Religiosity, and Public Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author examines public schools in the United States as sites where immigrants and refugees express their religious identities as part of their integration processes. In particular, the author examines the schools as "sites of refuge" for refugee students. Although public schools provide refugees with opportunity for…

  8. 75 FR 32920 - Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance... Vote Act (HAVA), Public Law 107-252, the U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) hereby causes to be...: Bryan Whitener, Telephone 202-566-3100 or 1-866-747-1471 (toll-free). Submit Comments: Any...

  9. 78 FR 77110 - Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance... Vote Act (HAVA), Public Law 107-252, as amended by Section 622 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act... implementation of the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act (MOVE Act). In accordance with HAVA Section...

  10. 76 FR 69734 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico AGENCY: Environmental... of New Mexico is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. New Mexico...

  11. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  12. Sites of Refuge: Refugees, Religiosity, and Public Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author examines public schools in the United States as sites where immigrants and refugees express their religious identities as part of their integration processes. In particular, the author examines the schools as "sites of refuge" for refugee students. Although public schools provide refugees with opportunity for study…

  13. Wagering on a large scale: Relationships between public gambling and game manipulations in two state lotteries

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Public wagering was examined in relation to game adjustments during the first 523 draws of Oregon's “Megabucks” lottery and the first 540 draws of Arizona's “The Pick” lottery. Oregon's lottery was modified five times during this period, and Arizona's lottery underwent four modifications. Public wagering was not related to decreases in the odds of winning in either state. Wagering increased in both states following the introduction of a minimum $1 million jackpot. Wagering also increased foll...

  14. Sexual psychopathy, public policy, and the liberal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Leonard V

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses several interrelated issues. It strives to situate a class of offenders within the liberal state. The disposition of this class allows an analysis of the tensions in liberal theory. It highlights the ways liberalism attributes individual responsibility for criminal behavior and captures the limits of those attributions. It also reveals liberalism's shift away from models of responsibility toward the social control of deviancy. The disposition of this class points toward the therapeutic mask involved in the social control model. Further, the disposition of this class may well serve as a model for isolating and demonizing other disfavored classes, including political dissenters.

  15. [Welfare State and public health: the role of occupational health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclós, Jordi; Serra, Consol

    2017-09-20

    In the context of the current crisis of the Welfare State, occupational health can contribute significantly to its sustainability by facilitating decent and healthy employment throughout the working life. To this end, occupational health must take on the challenge of promoting health, preventing and managing injuries, illnesses and disability, based on better coordination of prevention services, mutual insurance companies, and health services, as well as by empowering the leadership in prevention of companies and the active participation of those who work. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A Case Study of the Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery Activities in State Level Digital Depositories in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shiou Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the novel phenomenon of librarian-initiated publications discovery (LIPD in state-level digital depositories in the United States. LIPD is a series of actions taken by digital depository librarians to discover and inspect government Web sites and select Web content qualifying as government publications for inclusion in the state depositories. In a current popular model in which states employ OCLC Digital Archive™ for the depositories, the power of content selection has shifted from government agencies (content producers to digital depositories. This study systematically documented and compared the LIPD actions in four case states and developed a LIPD process model for descriptive and analytic purposes. It also discusses the impacts and challenges facing the changing practices in preserving government information as historical record. [Article content in Chinese

  17. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  18. 78 FR 60283 - Guidance for Temporary Reassignment of State and Local Personnel During a Public Health Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance for Temporary Reassignment of State and Local Personnel During a Public Health... (PAHPRA), Public Law 113-5, amends section 319 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act to provide the... personnel during a declared Federal public health emergency upon request by a state or tribal...

  19. Trustees "versus" Directors, Whom Do They Serve? Boards, For-Profits and the Public Good in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Garrity, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education in the United States is provided by public, not-for-profit and for-profit institutions. Public and not-for-profit institutions are expected to serve the public good due to state control or chartering requirements; for-profit institutions are not. Therefore, the decision to serve the public good is vested in the board. The…

  20. Public Health System Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States (2009-2015): Actionable Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Bernard, Dottie; Klein, Noah; James, Lyndon P; Guicciardi, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine released a letter report identifying 4 research priority areas for public health emergency preparedness in public health system research: (1) enhancing the usefulness of training, (2) improving timely emergency communications, (3) creating and maintaining sustainable response systems, and (4) generating effectiveness criteria and metrics. To (1) identify and characterize public health system research in public health emergency preparedness produced in the United States from 2009 to 2015, (2) synthesize research findings and assess the level of confidence in these findings, and (3) describe the evolution of knowledge production in public health emergency preparedness system research. Search Methods and Selection Criteria. We reviewed and included the titles and abstracts of 1584 articles derived from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and gray literature databases that focused on the organizational or financial aspects of public health emergency preparedness activities and were grounded on empirical studies. We included 156 articles. We appraised the quality of the studies according to the study design. We identified themes during article analysis and summarized overall findings by theme. We determined level of confidence in the findings with the GRADE-CERQual tool. Thirty-one studies provided evidence on how to enhance the usefulness of training. Results demonstrated the utility of drills and exercises to enhance decision-making capabilities and coordination across organizations, the benefit of cross-sector partnerships for successfully implementing training activities, and the value of integrating evaluation methods to support training improvement efforts. Thirty-six studies provided evidence on how to improve timely communications. Results supported the use of communication strategies that address differences in access to information, knowledge, attitudes, and practices across segments of the population as well as evidence on specific

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATE AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION THROUGH PROFESSIONAL ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery N. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to determine the influences of professional and public assessment of innovation in the general educational system for development of state and public management of education and the modeling of the implementation of such assessment.Methods. The methods involve analysis of strategic projects and innovative infrastructure of the Russian educational system; generalisation of the experience of the educational systems of the regions in the field of state and public management of education and management of innovation; modelling of professional and public expertise innovation activity.Results and scientific novelty. The impact of strategic projects of development of the Russian education on the development of state and public management of education is presented. The model of professional-public assessment of innovation in the regional general educational system is proposed; the basic procedures, subjects and standards are noted. The process approach was used while designing the model; the algorithm of professional-public assessment of innovation activity is described.Practical significance. The results of practical using of the model for professional-public assessment of innovation activity in the educational system ofSt. Petersburgare presented.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATE AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION THROUGH PROFESSIONAL ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery N. Volkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to determine the influences of professional and public assessment of innovation in the general educational system for development of state and public management of education and the modeling of the implementation of such assessment.Methods. The methods involve analysis of strategic projects and innovative infrastructure of the Russian educational system; generalisation of the experience of the educational systems of the regions in the field of state and public management of education and management of innovation; modelling of professional and public expertise innovation activity.Results and scientific novelty. The impact of strategic projects of development of the Russian education on the development of state and public management of education is presented. The model of professional-public assessment of innovation in the regional general educational system is proposed; the basic procedures, subjects and standards are noted. The process approach was used while designing the model; the algorithm of professional-public assessment of innovation activity is described.Practical significance. The results of practical using of the model for professional-public assessment of innovation activity in the educational system ofSt. Petersburgare presented.

  3. 18 CFR 292.602 - Exemption to qualifying facilities from the Public Utility Holding Company Act and certain State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities from the Public Utility Holding Company Act and certain State law and regulation. 292.602 Section... from the Public Utility Holding Company Act and certain State law and regulation. Link to an amendment... qualifying facilities from the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 and certain State laws and...

  4. Public-private Partnership in the Context of Realisation of the State Financial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Victoriia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the result of the study the article analyses modern tendencies of development of economy of Ukraine. It marks out problems connected with realisation of the state financial policy. It considers the essence of the state financial policy, its directions (such as budget-tax and monetary-credit, structural components and tasks. It emphasises the place of the public-private partnership as an instrument of realisation of the financial policy. It justifies tasks in the process of realisation of goals of the modern financial policy, which could be carried out with the help of the public-private partnership. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of practical recommendations on the use of the public-private partnership in the process of realisation of the state financial policy. Further improvement of the public-private partnership is connected with development of efficient mechanisms of its introduction and optimisation of its financial structure.

  5. Estimating and modelling bias of the hierarchical partitioning public-domain software: implications in environmental management and conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hierarchical partitioning (HP is an analytical method of multiple regression that identifies the most likely causal factors while alleviating multicollinearity problems. Its use is increasing in ecology and conservation by its usefulness for complementing multiple regression analysis. A public-domain software "hier.part package" has been developed for running HP in R software. Its authors highlight a "minor rounding error" for hierarchies constructed from >9 variables, however potential bias by using this module has not yet been examined. Knowing this bias is pivotal because, for example, the ranking obtained in HP is being used as a criterion for establishing priorities of conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using numerical simulations and two real examples, we assessed the robustness of this HP module in relation to the order the variables have in the analysis. Results indicated a considerable effect of the variable order on the amount of independent variance explained by predictors for models with >9 explanatory variables. For these models the nominal ranking of importance of the predictors changed with variable order, i.e. predictors declared important by its contribution in explaining the response variable frequently changed to be either most or less important with other variable orders. The probability of changing position of a variable was best explained by the difference in independent explanatory power between that variable and the previous one in the nominal ranking of importance. The lesser is this difference, the more likely is the change of position. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HP should be applied with caution when more than 9 explanatory variables are used to know ranking of covariate importance. The explained variance is not a useful parameter to use in models with more than 9 independent variables. The inconsistency in the results obtained by HP should be considered in future studies as well as in those

  6. Domains of quality of life: results of a three-stage Delphi consensus procedure among patients, family of patients, clinicians, scientists and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; de Vries, Marieke; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2014-06-01

    Our key objective is to identify the core domains of health-related quality of life (QoL). Health-related QoL utility scales are commonly used in economic evaluations to assess the effectiveness of health-care interventions. However, health-care interventions are likely to affect QoL in a broader sense than is quantifiable with traditional scales. Therefore, measures need to go beyond these scales. Unfortunately, there is no consensus in the scientific literature on the essential domains of QoL. We conducted a three-stage online Delphi consensus procedure to identify the key domains of health-related QoL. Five stakeholder groups (i.e., patients, family of patients, clinicians, scientists and general public) were asked, on three consecutive occasions, what they perceive as the most important domains of health-related QoL. An analysis of existing (health-related) QoL and well-being measurements formed the basis of the Delphi-procedure. In total, 42 domains of QoL were judged, covering physical, mental and social aspects. All participants rated 'self-acceptance', 'self-esteem' and 'good social contacts' as essential. Strikingly, mental and social domains are perceived as more essential than physical domains across stakeholders groups. In traditionally used health-related QoL utility measures, physical domains like 'mobility' are prominently present. The Delphi-procedure shows that health-related QoL (utility) scales need to put sufficient emphasis on mental and social domains to capture aspects of QoL that are essential to people.

  7. Comparison of montreal cognitive assessment and mini-mental state examination in evaluating cognitive domain deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kwok Chu Wong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH, and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients. METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2-4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score <-1.65 (below the fifth percentile. Cognitive impairment was defined as two or more cognitive domain deficits. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193. RESULTS: Both the MoCA and the MMSE were successful in differentiating between patients with and without cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment at both assessment periods. At 1 year post-ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009. INTERPRETATION: Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases.

  8. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Vivienne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  9. Corporal Punishment in Public Schools: Is the United States Out of Step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    2005-01-01

    Few topics evoke more emotion than how to discipline children in public schools. And not many people are neutral in their views toward corporal punishment. Surprisingly, the United States stands almost alone on its position regarding the legality of corporal punishment. Among thirty-five industrialized countries, only the United States and the…

  10. Public private cooperation fragile states: Report on field research mission to North Kivu and Ituri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, P.; Bolhuis, E.E.; Klaver, D.C.; Zawadi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This field study is part of the Schokland project to research among others the possibilities for Public Private Cooperation (PPC) in stimulating Economic Growth in Fragile States. Fragile states are relatively far behind in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and in order to reduce fra

  11. Economic Growth, Productivity, and Public Education Funding: Is South Carolina a Death Spiral State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Lisa G.; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Watson, Jim R.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the Great Recession of 2007-2009, most states experienced declines in employment, consumer spending, and economic productivity (Alm, Buschman, and Sjoquist 2011). In turn, these events led to historic declines in state tax revenues (Mikesell and Mullins 2010; Boyd and Dadayan 2009), resulting in major cuts in public spending. Local…

  12. An Assessment of the State of Maintenance of Public Hospital Buildings in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adenuga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the state of maintenance of public hospitalbuildings in Southwest Nigeria, and in the process identifi es thesignifi cant difference(s in the operational state of Federal andState-owned public hospitals within the study area. In achievingthe aim, the study adopts a survey technique with a total of552 questionnaires, comprising 206 sampled maintenancestaff and 346 users of public hospitals. The survey covers 46public hospitals representing 40% of the total number of publichospitals existing in Southwest Nigeria. The 46 public hospitalsconsist of all the 11 Federal-owned hospitals and 35 randomlyselected State-owned. Data collected are analysed using theKendall Coeffi cient of Concordance and Pearson Chisquare. Thefi ndings of the study reveal that the state of maintenance of publichospital buildings is good. While the structure/fabric and physicalconditions are rated highly, the services are poorly rated. Thisstudy, which hypothesises that there is no difference in the stateof maintenance, fi nds statistical difference in the performance ofthe services. It recommends that Federal and State governmentsaddress neglect in the services sector and plan their maintenanceprogrammes more effectively.

  13. Effects of state-level public spending on health on the mortality probability in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Subramanian, S V; Canning, David

    2010-11-01

    This study uses the second National Family Health Survey of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state's gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10% increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities.

  14. [On the issue of development of state-private partnership in public health of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The article considers possible directions of development of organizational technologies of state-private partnership in public health of Russia. Such directions are emphasized as management of operational activities of medical institutions, development of infrastructure of population medical care system, implementation of innovative technologies, organization of interaction with international clinical institutions, joint development of legal and low decisions in the area of interactions oa state and business relating to public health. The factors interfering with development of effective state-private partnership are demonstrated and possible ways of overcoming are proposed.

  15. FORMATION OF THE STATE POLICY IN PUBLIC HEALTHCARE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Baranov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the legal grounds for the state policy development in public healthcare in the Russian federation. The urgency of this program is well substantiated. The authors introduce the working definition of the governmental policy in public healthcare, which is viewed as a component of the internal policy of the state and which interacts with other trends of the state policy within the framework of its tasks. The adequate state regulation of the legal, social and economic and other relations within the society is necessary to achieve maximum full observance of the citizens' rights for the disease prevention, affordable highly qualified medical care and medical rehabilitation.Key words: public healthcare, medical care.

  16. State Public Policies and the Racial/Ethnic Stratification of College Access and Choice in the State of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.; Steele, Patricia; Woda, Susan; Hibbert, Taifa

    2005-01-01

    This study uses descriptive analyses of data from multiple sources to examine changes during the 1990s in the racial/ethnic stratification of college access and choice in Maryland and to explore state public policies that may have influenced changes in the demand for and supply of higher education for students of different racial/ethnic groups…

  17. Public Policy for Higher Education in the United States: A Brief History of State Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) is the national association of the chief executives of statewide governing, policy, and coordinating boards of postsecondary education. Founded in 1954, SHEEO serves its members as an advocate for state policy leadership, as a liaison between states and the federal government, as a vehicle for…

  18. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics: Recent Research and Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, B E; Kharrazi, H; Lehmann, H P

    2015-08-13

    To survey advances in public health and epidemiology informatics over the past three years. We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public health informatics (PHI), and published in MEDLINE between January 2012 and December 2014, where information and communication technology (ICT) was a primary subject, or a main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were synthesized using a thematic analysis using the Essential Services of Public Health as a typology. Based on themes that emerged, we organized the advances into a model where applications that support the Essential Services are, in turn, supported by a socio-technical infrastructure that relies on government policies and ethical principles. That infrastructure, in turn, depends upon education and training of the public health workforce, development that creates novel or adapts existing infrastructure, and research that evaluates the success of the infrastructure. Finally, the persistence and growth of infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Public health informatics is a field that is growing in breadth, depth, and complexity. Several Essential Services have benefited from informatics, notably, "Monitor Health," "Diagnose & Investigate," and "Evaluate." Yet many Essential Services still have not yet benefited from advances such as maturing electronic health record systems, interoperability amongst health information systems, analytics for population health management, use of social media among consumers, and educational certification in clinical informatics. There is much work to be done to further advance the science of PHI as well as its impact on public health practice.

  19. Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery: How Do Digital Depository Librarians Discover and Select Web-Based Government Publications for State Digital Depositories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Shiou; Eschenfelder, Kristin R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of librarian initiated publications discovery (LIPD) in U.S. state digital depository programs using the OCLC Digital Archive to preserve web-based government publications for permanent public access. This paper describes a model of LIPD processes based on empirical investigations of four OCLC DA-based digital…

  20. Climate change and local public health in the United States: preparedness, programs and perceptions of local public health department directors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    Full Text Available While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health departments view and are responding to climate change as a public health issue, we conducted a telephone survey with 133 randomly selected local health department directors, representing a 61% response rate. A majority of respondents perceived climate change to be a problem in their jurisdiction, a problem they viewed as likely to become more common or severe over the next 20 years. Only a small minority of respondents, however, had yet made climate change adaptation or prevention a top priority for their health department. This discrepancy between problem recognition and programmatic responses may be due, in part, to several factors: most respondents felt personnel in their health department--and other key stakeholders in their community--had a lack of knowledge about climate change; relatively few respondents felt their own health department, their state health department, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the necessary expertise to help them create an effective mitigation or adaptation plan for their jurisdiction; and most respondents felt that their health department needed additional funding, staff and staff training to respond effectively to climate change. These data make clear that climate change adaptation and prevention are not currently major activities at most health departments, and that most, if not all, local health departments will require assistance in making this transition. We conclude by making the case that, through their

  1. Climate change and local public health in the United States: preparedness, programs and perceptions of local public health department directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Chadwick, Amy; McBride, Dennis; Chuk, Michelle; Ebi, Kristie L; Balbus, John

    2008-07-30

    While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health departments view and are responding to climate change as a public health issue, we conducted a telephone survey with 133 randomly selected local health department directors, representing a 61% response rate. A majority of respondents perceived climate change to be a problem in their jurisdiction, a problem they viewed as likely to become more common or severe over the next 20 years. Only a small minority of respondents, however, had yet made climate change adaptation or prevention a top priority for their health department. This discrepancy between problem recognition and programmatic responses may be due, in part, to several factors: most respondents felt personnel in their health department--and other key stakeholders in their community--had a lack of knowledge about climate change; relatively few respondents felt their own health department, their state health department, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the necessary expertise to help them create an effective mitigation or adaptation plan for their jurisdiction; and most respondents felt that their health department needed additional funding, staff and staff training to respond effectively to climate change. These data make clear that climate change adaptation and prevention are not currently major activities at most health departments, and that most, if not all, local health departments will require assistance in making this transition. We conclude by making the case that, through their words and actions

  2. Efficient time-domain simulation of nonlinear, state-space, transmission-line models of the cochlea (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuokai; Elliott, Stephen J; Teal, Paul D; Lineton, Ben

    2015-06-01

    Nonlinear models of the cochlea are best implemented in the time domain, but their computational demands usually limit the duration of the simulations that can reasonably be performed. This letter presents a modified state space method and its application to an example nonlinear one-dimensional transmission-line cochlear model. The sparsity pattern of the individual matrices for this alternative formulation allows the use of significantly faster numerical algorithms. Combined with a more efficient implementation of the saturating nonlinearity, the computational speed of this modified state space method is more than 40 times faster than that of the original formulation.

  3. Budget Deficit And Public Debt - The Great Challenges For The Eu Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupu, Iulia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises had a strong impact on the public finance sectors from European countries. Even if in 2007 they started from relative good fiscal positions, the public debt and the budgetary deficits considerably deteriorated and registered historic values in European Union. With all measures taken to stimulate the economy, is a very favourable scenario to return at the taxes level from 2007. The aggregate numbers regarding the deficit and public debt incline to disguise the different evolutions of the European Union member states. The strong deterioration of fiscal indicators is caused by the automat effect of the economic productivity and also by measures taken by the governments of the member states. The past experiences can help to evaluate the fiscal measures that must be adopted in order to reduce the public debt and the deficit, without having an universal solution for all countries. Very important is the existing context for the implementation of adopted measures.

  4. Conformational selection in the molten globule state of the nuclear coactivator binding domain of CBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Teilum, Kaare; Poulsen, Flemming M

    2010-01-01

    Native molten globules are the most folded kind of intrinsically disordered proteins. Little is known about the mechanism by which native molten globules bind to their cognate ligands to form fully folded complexes. The nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) of CREB binding protein is particul...

  5. Enhancing State-of-the-art Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms by Applying Domain Specific Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    problems. Problems emerge when the algorithms can not converge fast enough, due to scalability issues introduced by using too generic operators. This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm CONTROLEUM-GA that uses domain specific variables and operators to solve a real dynamic greenhouse climate control...

  6. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  7. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  8. Legal issues of correlation between state and public control in the sphere of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yuryevich Aleksandrov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the ratio of different types of state and public control in the sphere of higher education and to propose an optimal model of their interaction. Methods systemicstructural approach to the analysis of the research object comparativelegal and logical methods. Results basing on the regulatory framework analysis licensing procedures state and public accreditation of basic educational programs in the field of higher education critical consideration of the main directions of state policy in the sphere of education the authors summarize the educational reform make proposals on improving the legal tools in the sphere of higher education control and supervision in the Russian Federation. Scientific novelty for the first time the different parameters of the state and public control in the sphere of higher education were comprehensively examined in the context of compliance with the principles of state management. Practical value basing on the study of the theoretical foundations and practical examples the authors make proposals to improve the existing legislation regulating relations in the sphere of state and public control of higher education. nbsp

  9. Understanding How the Public Perceives the Importance of University Research in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Most universities in the United States have little or no idea about how the public perceives the importance of research done at these institutions. Learning whether the public believes academic research is valuable, meaningful, and practical has implications for higher education, if the public believes that university research is of little worth. This project utilized naturalistic and qualitative methods to learn how alumni perceived the importance of research at a major public university with a heavy concentration in research (Texas A&M University. Long interviews using open-ended questions were conducted with 133 alumni at 33 locations in Texas. Interviews were transcribed, unitized, and coded using qualitative methods, and themes were identified. Findings provide insights into whether the public believes university research is important, how the public learns about research, whether public relations programs are effective, the importance of research and teaching, and the types of research the public wants universities to pursue. A framework is proposed to learn about how well the public understands science and to measure the effectiveness of media and education programs to raise both science awareness and understanding of science.

  10. Economic Growth and the Public Deficit in EU Member States in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of economic growth and the role of the public budget in European Union (EU) member states in Central and Eastern Europe, that joined the European Union in 2004, with a balanced data set from 1996 until 2012. A special focus is set on the relationship between growth and the public deficit and their behavior before and after the accession is studied. The outcome reveals a significant negative relationship between the deficit ratio and subsequent economic grow...

  11. The Politics of Global Public Health in Fragile States and Ungoverned Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M.

    2017-01-01

    The reasons for global health crises and how the world responds to them have dramatically changed over the last half century. Increasingly, natural disasters result in failure of public health and security systems leading to preventable conflict, unconventional war and unprecedented population migration. While scientific expertise exists to mitigate these failures in fragile states and ungoverned territories, inactions are mired by the lack of political will, international legal mandates, and capacity to strategically monitor multidisciplinary public health indicator failures. PMID:28228975

  12. Assessing public debt sustainability in EU member states:a guide

    OpenAIRE

    Carone, Giuseppe; Berti, Katia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the methodological approach used by the Commission services (DG ECFIN/C2) to carry out, in a systematic and harmonised way, public debt sustainability analysis (DSA) for EU Member States. Analysing recent and prospective public debt developments and risks to debt sustainability is crucial for EA countries and the EU as a whole to be able to formulate appropriate policy responses. To this aim, the Commission services (DG ECFIN) prepare on a regular bas...

  13. 77 FR 58132 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ...In accordance with the provisions of Section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, public notice is hereby given that the state of Colorado has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by adopting regulations for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule that correspond to the......

  14. 77 FR 58132 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ...In accordance with the provisions of Section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, public notice is hereby given that the state of Utah has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by adopting regulations for the Lead and Copper Short Term Revisions, Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment......

  15. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media.

  16. Estimated expenditures for essential public health services--selected states, fiscal year 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-21

    Essential public health services are activities that public health departments and other partners undertake to protect and ensure the health of the public. To characterize expenditures for those services and to distinguish within them expenditures for personal health-care services from community-based health services directed toward populations, the Public Health Service (PHS) and the Public Health Foundation surveyed senior health officials in eight states (Arizona, Iowa, Louisiana, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas and Washington [combined 1995 population: 57.8 million]). This report summarizes the results of that survey, which indicate that spending on community-based health services is a small proportion of spending on essential services and an even smaller proportion of total health-care expenditures.

  17. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-molecule FRET reveals the native-state dynamics of the IκBα ankyrin repeat domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboy, Jorge A; Kim, Hajin; Dembinski, Holly; Ha, Taekjip; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-24

    Previous single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) studies in which the second and sixth ankyrin repeats (ARs) of IκBα were labeled with FRET pairs showed slow fluctuations as if the IκBα AR domain was unfolding in its native state. To systematically probe where these slow dynamic fluctuations occur, we now present data from smFRET studies wherein FRET labels were placed at ARs 1 and 4 (mutant named AR 1-4), at ARs 2 and 5 (AR 2-5), and at ARs 3 and 6 (AR 3-6). The results presented here reveal that AR 6 most readily detaches/unfolds from the AR domain, undergoing substantial fluctuations at room temperature. AR 6 has fewer stabilizing consensus residues than the other IκBα ARs, probably contributing to the ease with which AR 6 "loses grip". AR 5 shows almost no fluctuations at room temperature, but a significant fraction of molecules shows fluctuations at 37 °C. Introduction of stabilizing mutations that are known to fold AR 6 dampen the fluctuations of AR 5, indicating that the AR 5 fluctuations are likely due to weakened inter-repeat stabilization from AR 6. AR 1 also fluctuates somewhat at room temperature, suggesting that fluctuations are a general behavior of ARs at ends of AR domains. Remarkably, AR 1 still fluctuates in the bound state, but mainly between 0.6 and 0.9 FRET efficiency, whereas in the free IκBα, the fluctuations extend to <0.5 FRET efficiency. Overall, our results provide a more complete picture of the energy landscape of the native state dynamics of an AR domain.

  19. Snakes and ladders: state interventions and the place of liberty in public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I outline and explore some problems in the way that the Nuffield Council of Bioethics' report Public Health: Ethical Issues (2007) presents its 'Intervention Ladder'. They see the metaphor of a ladder both as capturing key normative priorities and as making a real and important contribution to ethical policymaking in public health. In this paper I argue that the intervention ladder is not a useful model for thinking about policy decisions, that it is likely to produce poor decisions and that it is incompatible with the report's stated approach to relevant public health policy values.

  20. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  1. Job Satisfaction and Expected Turnover Among Federal, State, and Local Public Health Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elizabeth; Shon, Ji Won; Sellers, Katie; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To use data on the governmental public health workforce to examine demographics and elucidate drivers of job satisfaction and intent to leave one’s organization. Methods. Using microdata from the 2014 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey and 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, we drew comparisons between federal, state, and local public health staff. We fitted logistic regressions to examine correlates of both job satisfaction and intent to leave one’s organization within the coming year. Results. Correlates of job satisfaction included pay satisfaction, organizational support, and employee involvement. Approximately 40% of federal, state, and local staff said they were either considering leaving their organization in the next year or were planning to retire by 2020. Conclusions. Public health practitioners largely like their jobs, but many are dissatisfied with their pay and are considering working elsewhere. More should be done to understand the determinants of job satisfaction and how to successfully retain high-quality staff. Public Health Implications. Public health is at a crossroads. Significant turnover is expected in the coming years. Retention efforts should engage staff across all levels of public health. PMID:27552269

  2. The Role of Backbone Hydrogen Bonds in the Transition State for Protein Folding of a PDZ Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren W. Pedersen

    Full Text Available Backbone hydrogen bonds are important for the structure and stability of proteins. However, since conventional site-directed mutagenesis cannot be applied to perturb the backbone, the contribution of these hydrogen bonds in protein folding and stability has been assessed only for a very limited set of small proteins. We have here investigated effects of five amide-to-ester mutations in the backbone of a PDZ domain, a 90-residue globular protein domain, to probe the influence of hydrogen bonds in a β-sheet for folding and stability. The amide-to-ester mutation removes NH-mediated hydrogen bonds and destabilizes hydrogen bonds formed by the carbonyl oxygen. The overall stability of the PDZ domain generally decreased for all amide-to-ester mutants due to an increase in the unfolding rate constant. For this particular region of the PDZ domain, it is therefore clear that native hydrogen bonds are formed after crossing of the rate-limiting barrier for folding. Moreover, three of the five amide-to-ester mutants displayed an increase in the folding rate constant suggesting that the hydrogen bonds are involved in non-native interactions in the transition state for folding.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local Governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Coggeshall, C.

    2008-05-01

    State and local governments have grown increasingly aware of the economic, environmental, and societal benefits of taking a lead role in U.S. implementation of renewable energy, particularly distributed photovoltaic (PV) installations. Recently, solar energy's cost premium has declined as a result of technology improvements and an increase in the cost of traditional energy generation. At the same time, a nationwide public policy focus on carbon-free, renewable energy has created a wide range of financial incentives to lower the costs of deploying PV even further. These changes have led to exponential increases in the availability of capital for solar projects, and tremendous creativity in the development of third-party ownership structures. As significant users of electricity, state and local governments can be an excellent example for solar PV system deployment on a national scale. Many public entities are not only considering deployment on public building rooftops, but also large-scale applications on available public lands. The changing marketplace requires that state and local governments be financially sophisticated to capture as much of the economic potential of a PV system as possible. This report examines ways that state and local governments can optimize the financial structure of deploying solar PV for public uses.

  4. DEFINITION OF PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATION POTENTIAL IN THE NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HROMÁDKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with public service obligation, a form of state aid that applies to air services. The paper first provides general information on the European legislation applying to this form of state aid, and elaborates the legal framework and general principles. The second part is dedicated to a comparison of a similar subsidizing programme in the USA and Australia. An examination of current imposed public service obligation routes in Europe is provided in the following section. The coefficients defining the number of imposed PSO routes per various geo-economic variables have been defined.

  5. 34 CFR 675.22 - Employment provided by a Federal, State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public agency, or a private nonprofit organization. 675.22 Section 675.22 Education Regulations of the..., State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit organization. (a) If a student is employed by a Federal, State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit organization, the work that the...

  6. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND PUBLIC POLICY: AN ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE IN MATERNAL AND CHILDHOOD NETWORK IN MINAS GERAIS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Maciel de Faria Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined the effects of public spending on the delivery of public policy. For this, we selected health policy, in Minas Gerais. The programmatic action chosen was the Programa de Redução da Mortalidade Infantil e Materna em Minas Gerais, also called Programa Viva Vida, from the resources involved in implementing this policy. Methods: It was analyzed the initial and final years of 2002 and 2009. The methodology consists of two separate tools. The first tool is through the analysis of indicators. The second tool used was data envelopment analysis (DEA in the analysis of efficiency. Data on health care delivery were obtained from the Departamento de Informática do SUS (DATASUS. The data used were collected in October 2011. Results: The results suggest a specific increase access to maternal and child health activities in the municipalities of the state, but with the maintenance of inequalities between regions of the state. Conclusions: The resources invested, the study suggests, encouraged the expansion of access to a process that has not undergone change. The result is proportional to the maintenance of newborns with low birth weight and / or prematurity and maternal deaths.

  7. Introduction to the Paradigm Struggle in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botan, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Describes the ongoing state of change in the domain of public relations, with special attention to model shifts. Defines model struggles and discusses the emergence of international public relations along with other recent trends. (HB)

  8. Student Rating of Teaching Behaviour of Chemistry Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Ekiti State

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwatayo James Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated student-rating of teaching behaviour of Chemistry teachers in public secondary schools in EkitiState. Participants were 750 SS II Chemistry students (Male=375, Female=375) selected from 75 schools across the 16 local government areas of Ekiti State based on purposive and stratified random sampling techniques. Data were collected using a 30-item Teaching Behaviour Questionnaire (TBQ) clustered into seven categories (CATi=1,2,3,…) ranging from attendance and punctuality i...

  9. A taxonomy of state public health preparedness units: an empirical examination of organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and

  10. Public Education Finance Systems in the United States and Funding Policies for Populations with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates state finance policies for public education using survey methodology. The purpose is to update previous work and the existing knowledge base in the field as well as to provide a compendium of finance and policy options that are used across the states to finance public elementary and secondary schools. Chief state school…

  11. Development of Public School Finance in New York State. Occasional Paper #14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Arvid J.

    Since the establishment of school districts in 1812, a number of inequalities in public school finance have emerged in New York State. These inequalities result from decentralization within the system as a whole, and large-scale centralization of New York City schools. In a decentralized system, where districts have taxing power, rich districts…

  12. Does co-creation impact public service delivery? The importance of state and governance traditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorberg, Willem; Bekkers, Victor; Flemig, Sophie; Timeus, Krista; Tõnurist, Piret; Tummers, L.G.

    2017-01-01

    Co-creation in public service delivery requires partnerships between citizens and civil servants. The authors argue that whether or not these partnerships will be successful depends on state and governance traditions (for example a tradition of authority sharing or consultation). These traditions

  13. Performance Incentives and Public College Accountability in the United States: A Quarter Century Policy Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, E. Grady; Johnson, Betty Dandridge

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of funds to public colleges based on performance criteria rather than activity or enrolment criteria is often described as performance funding. In the United States, performance funding policies have become a frequently used instrument of higher education accountability. The history of such policies, however, is a complex one, with…

  14. State Challenges to "Plyler v. Doe": Undocumented Immigrant Students and Public School Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Lenford C.; Stewart, Tricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review and analysis of selected state laws and initiatives that have attempted to restrict public school access for undocumented immigrant children in the wake of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision of "Plyler v. Doe." Sutton and Stewart begin with an overview of the Court's ruling in "Plyler," then…

  15. Fraud Prevention and Employee Rationalization in New York State Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Prompted by frequent media reports of school fraud and a lack of relevant K-12 literature, this research study was designed to investigate current fraud prevention practices in public school districts in New York State. Using a "fraud triangle" model, an analysis of existing legislation and professional practice guidelines reveals that…

  16. ICBC to Go Public in 2006 amid State Banks Listing Rush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) Chair man Jiang Jianqing confirmed that the biggest state bank of China would sell shares to the public in 2006, following on the heels of the China Construction Bank and Bank of China in a market listing rush.……

  17. ICBC to Go Public in 2006 amid State Banks Listing Rush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) Chair man Jiang Jianqing confirmed that the biggest state bank of China would sell shares to the public in 2006, following on the heels of the China Construction Bank and Bank of China in a market listing rush.

  18. Reducing State Communication Anxiety for Public Speakers: An Energy Psychology Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, John, III; Schmuldt, Laura; Rudick, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-method pilot study investigates the efficacy of implementing primordial energy activation and transcendence to address public speaking anxiety. Speech anxiety was significantly reduced from pretest to posttest, as measured by the Communication Anxiety Inventory State. Suggestions for future research, limitations of the current study,…

  19. A Study of Traditional Circle Games Played in Public School Kindergartens across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothlein, Liz; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates traditional circle games played in 203 public school kindergartens in 35 states. Results indicate that music/movement and racing games were the major game categories; the most common frequency and duration was three times per week for 20 minutes; and the purposes of the games were to have fun, and to foster social, physical motor, and…

  20. Examining the Effect of Exposure Therapy on Public Speaking State Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Schrodt, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Increased public speaking confidence is often cited as a major benefit for undergraduates taking the basic communication course. Several scholars have reported that the state anxiety of novice speakers declines progressively during performance, a phenomenon called within-session habituation. However, the contributions of these short-term…

  1. Social Studies Teachers' Attitudes Concerning Controversial Public Issues Instruction and State Mandated Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Starlynn Raenae

    2012-01-01

    This transcendental phenomenological qualitative study examines attitudes toward Controversial Public Issue instruction by teachers who used mandated standards and state tests. After the interviews of 11 social studies teachers (high school, middle school and junior high) five distinct themes emerged in the study. Overall, participants execute…

  2. 78 FR 2993 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio Correction In notice document 2012-30953, appearing on pages 76034-76035 in the issue of Wednesday, December 26, 2012, make...

  3. 77 FR 36274 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...Notice is hereby given that the State of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the following rules: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, and Stage 2 Disinfection/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. EPA has determined that Alabama's rules are no less stringent than the......

  4. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balisi, Shadreck

    2014-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  5. Fraud Prevention and Employee Rationalization in New York State Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Prompted by frequent media reports of school fraud and a lack of relevant K-12 literature, this research study was designed to investigate current fraud prevention practices in public school districts in New York State. Using a "fraud triangle" model, an analysis of existing legislation and professional practice guidelines reveals that…

  6. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  7. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  8. Now Is the Moment: The State, Public Education, & Communities of Resistance in Oaxaca & Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hones, Donald

    2012-01-01

    This study draws from narrative research, wherein stories of individuals, groups, and communities are central to the interpretation. Through a process of interpretive interactionism, the author examined the groups and institutions involved in the ongoing conflict between the state and public education in Oaxaca, and then included comparisons and…

  9. Chimera states in a network-organized public goods game with destructive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Nikos E.; Requejo, Rubén J.; Hizanidis, Johanne; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2016-12-01

    We found that a network-organized metapopulation of cooperators, defectors, and destructive agents playing the public goods game with mutations can collectively reach global synchronization or chimera states. Global synchronization is accompanied by a collective periodic burst of cooperation, whereas chimera states reflect the tendency of the networked metapopulation to be fragmented in clusters of synchronous and incoherent bursts of cooperation. Numerical simulations have shown that the system's dynamics switches between these two steady states through a first order transition. Depending on the parameters determining the dynamical and topological properties, chimera states with different numbers of coherent and incoherent clusters are observed. Our results present the first systematic study of chimera states and their characterization in the context of evolutionary game theory. This provides a valuable insight into the details of their occurrence, extending the relevance of such states to natural and social systems.

  10. Genomics and Public Health Research: Can the State Allow Access to Genomic Databases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Stanton Jean

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Because many diseases are multifactorial disorders,the scientific progress in genomics and genetics should be taken into consideration in public health research. In this context, genomic databases will constitute an important source of information. Consequently, it is important to identify and characterize the State's role and authority on matters related to public health,in order to verify whether it has access to such databases while engaging in public health genomic research. We first consider the evolution of the concept of public health, as well as its core functions, using a comparative approach (e.g. WHO, PAHO, CDC and the Canadian province of Quebec. Following an analysis of relevant Quebec legislation, the precautionary principle is examined as a possible avenue to justify State access to and use of genomic databases for research purposes. Finally, we consider the Influenza pandemic plans developed by WHO, Canada, and Quebec,as examples of key tools framing public health decision-making process.We observed that State powers in public health, are not,in Quebec,well adapted to the expansion of genomics research.We propose that the scope of the concept of research in public health should be clear and include the following characteristics:a commitment to the health and well-being of the population and to their determinants; the inclusion of both applied research and basic research; and, an appropriate model of governance (authorization, follow-up,consent, etc..We also suggest that the strategic approach version of the precautionary principle could guide collective choices in these matters.

  11. Public Investment and Economic Growth in The European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public investments becamea very challenging subject for public decisionmakerssince it incorporates the question of stateperformance, the quality of public finance and theireffects on growth. The quality of public finance is amultidimensional concept. It may be regarded asrepresenting all the arrangements and operationsregarding the financial politics that sustain themacroeconomic objectives, particularly the longtermeconomic growth. Financial policies atEuropean level highlight the fact that a concentrationof the public expenses in areas that stimulate theeconomic growth and a more efficient use of thepublic resources are key methods for sustainingthe economic growth. The empirical proofs seem tosupport the assumption according to which certaintypes of public expenses can supply incentivesand other can negatively influence the economicgrowth. The paper tries to reveal the effects ofcapital spending on economic growth (GDP percapita for the European Union member states.The GDP per capita and the capital expenses(functional classification of public expenses -“COFOG” have been obtained by consideringthe Eurostat statistics, the measurement unit forboth variables is Euro, while the period of analysisis of 7 years (2000-2006.

  12. Thermal hysteresis and domain states in Ni-Zn ferrites synthesized by oxalate precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhari, N.D. [Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MS (India); Kambale, R.C., E-mail: rckambale@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MS (India); Bhosale, D.N. [Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MS (India); Suryavanshi, S.S., E-mail: sssuryavanshi@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Solapur University, Solapur 413255, MS (India); Sawant, S.R. [Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MS (India)

    2010-07-15

    Nickel zinc ferrites with generic formula, Ni{sub X}Zn{sub 1-X}Fe2O4 (with X=0.28-0.40) were synthesized by an oxalate precursor route starting with acetates to study their magnetic properties. The saturation magnetization versus temperature curves resemble those of R type ferrites. The system shows the presence of Yafet-Kittel type of spin. It is observed that magnetic moment (n{sub B}) values increase with the addition of Ni{sup 2+}. The remanance ratio R tends to increase with the addition of Ni{sup 2+}, which has been attributed to the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K1). The values of R compare well with the theoretical value (0.87). The coercive force (H{sub c}) tends to increase with the addition of Ni{sup 2+}, which has been related to the reverse domain formation. Studies on temperature variation of R and H{sub c} reveal that these parameters are thermally insensitive, which confirms the presence of multi domain grains in the material. These observations have been supported by a.c. susceptibility studies.

  13. Low-energy magnetoelectric control of domain states in exchange-coupled heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahdawi, Muftah; Pati, Satya Prakash; Shiokawa, Yohei; Ye, Shujun; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sahashi, Masashi

    2017-04-01

    The electric manipulation of antiferromagnets has become an area of great interest recently for zero-stray-field spintronic devices, and for their rich spin dynamics. Generally, the application of antiferromagnetic media for information memories and storage requires a heterostructure with a ferromagnetic layer for readout through the exchange-bias field. In magnetoelectric and multiferroic antiferromagnets, the exchange coupling exerts an additional impediment (energy barrier) to magnetization reversal by the applied magnetoelectric energy. We proposed and verified a method to overcome this barrier. We controlled the energy required for switching the magnetic domains in magnetoelectric Cr2O3 films by compensating the exchange-coupling energy from the ferromagnetic layer with the Zeeman energy of a small volumetric spontaneous magnetization found for the sputtered Cr2O3 films. Based on a simplified phenomenological model of the field-cooling process, the magnetic and electric fields required for switching could be tuned. As an example, the switching of antiferromagnetic domains around a zero-threshold electric field was demonstrated at a magnetic field of 2.6 kOe.

  14. Two-state conformational equilibrium in the Par-4 leucine zipper domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Martin; Dutta, Kaushik; Libich, David S; Venugopal, Hariprasad; Claridge, Jolyon K; Gell, David A; Mackay, Joel P; Edwards, Patrick J B; Pascal, Steven M

    2010-08-15

    Prostate apoptosis response factor-4 (Par-4) is a pro-apoptotic and tumor-suppressive protein. A highly conserved heptad repeat sequence at the Par-4 C-terminus suggests the presence of a leucine zipper (LZ). This C-terminal region is essential for Par-4 self-association and interaction with various effector proteins. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to fully assign the chemical shift resonances of a peptide comprising the LZ domain of Par-4 at neutral pH. Further, we have investigated the properties of the Par-4 LZ domain and two point mutants under a variety of conditions using NMR, circular dichroism (CD), light scattering, and bioinformatics. Results indicate an environment-dependent conformational equilibrium between a partially ordered monomer (POM) and a predominantly coiled coil dimer (CCD). The combination of techniques used allows the time scales of the equilibrium to be probed and also helps to identify features of the amino acid sequence that may influence the equilibrium.

  15. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2000. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-14

    The purpose of this Compendium is to provide rabies information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Immunization procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  16. Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2001. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-25

    The purpose of this compendium is to provide rabies information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Vaccination procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  17. Compendium of Animal Rabies Control, 1999. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-02

    The purpose of this Compendium is to provide information on rabies control to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Immunization procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  18. Nodal sets for ground-states of Schroedinger operators with zero magnetic field in non simply connected domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helffer, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Dept. de Mathematiques; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, M. [Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Wien, Strudthofgasse 4, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Hoffmann-Ostenhof, T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringerstrasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)]|[International Erwin Schroedinger Inst. for Mathematical Physics, Vienna (Austria); Owen, M.P. [International Erwin Schroedinger Inst. for Mathematical Physics, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-05-01

    We investigate nodal sets of magnetic Schroedinger operators with zero magnetic field, acting on a non-simply connected domain in R{sup 2}. For the case of circulation 1/2 of the magnetic vector potential around each hole in the region, we obtain a characterisation of the nodal set, and use this to obtain bounds on the multiplicity of the ground state. For the case of one hole and a fixed electric potential, we show that the first eigenvalue takes its highest value for circulation 1/2. (orig.) With 8 figs., 20 refs.

  19. Role of the State in Developing Countries: Public Choice versus Schumpeterian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbas,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : It is obvious that even though modern public choice theories, which were first developed for Western pluralistic societies (society-centred, might have highlighted many hidden subjects in developing countries such as rent-seeking, corruption, strong state tradition, undemocratic decision mechanisms, etc, however, they still cannot hold and explain all the dynamics of these countries since they need to adopt a state-centre approach. In that sense, we propose that the Schumpeterian approach can help us in understanding the dynamics of developing countries even better. Therefore, our main objective in this paper is to provide a synthesis of public choice approach and the Schumpeterian approach to understand the role of the state in developing countries. We know the fact that this study still remains incomplete and not enough to cover all the needs of the subject, but at least it highlights some hidden issues for developing countries and starts a new discussion on this path.

  20. Superferromagnetic domain state dynamics in discontinuous CoFe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petracic, O. E-mail: petracic@kleemann.uni-duisburg.de; Chen, X.; Sichelschmidt, O.; Binek, Ch.; Kleemann, W.; Glatz, A.; Nattermann, T.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P.P

    2004-05-01

    Magnetization hysteresis and AC susceptibility measurements were performed on the discontinuous metal-insulator multilayer [Co{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}(1.4 nm)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(3 nm)]{sub 10}. CoFe forms ferromagnetic single-domain particles being embedded in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix. Due to strong dipolar inter-particle interactions a 'superferromagnetic' correlation of particle moments was previously stated. The dynamical magnetic properties of the superferromagnet can be understood in the framework of domain wall motion in an impure ferromagnet. Kinetic simulations are employed, which are based on field and temperature-dependent domain wall velocities. The magnetization hysteresis as well as the AC susceptibility, {chi}'-i{chi}'', are calculated and compared to our experimental results and yield a good agreement. The analysis of the Cole-Cole plots, {chi}'' vs. {chi}', is particularly interesting. They are shown to serve as fingerprints for the different dynamic behavior as claimed previously.

  1. Public administration archives: state of the art of record management and classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Reale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at presenting the state of art related to the records management in the public sector and, more specifically, to the main tools required for managing current records according to the Direction general for Archives and its specific competencies which imply a role for defining and approving classification and preservation plans. The article analyses various projects developed for the public sectors in the last 25 years in connection with the innovation processes for the public administration and the crucial role recognised to the records management. The paper illustrates the work done by working groups for universities, municipalities, regions and provinces but also for health environment, chambers of trade, banks and educational institutions. With reference to the State institutions, a general picture is presented for ministries such as Ministry of Justice and Ministry for cultural heritage. In the last case, the classification system developed and adopted in 2004 in connection with the electronic registry system is discussed in detail. The paper presents also the project supported by the Agenzia dell’Italia digitale (AGID dedicated to the definition of a common classification plan for administrative functions in the public sector. Even if not complete the picture is able to provide elements to evaluate the tools and their critical aspects, to stress the need for cooperation, to update the present systems and study general methodologies. The contribution is also dedicated to the role of professionals with specific experience in the records management systems for the public sector.

  2. DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC PENSION EXPENDITURES WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION-15 MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOȘ MARIUS CRISTIAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent demographic dynamics within the European Union member states urge public decidents to find the right measures which could further on assure the sustainability of social public expenditures. Most of the specialised literature mainly highlights the macroeconomic variables which may affect the size of public pension expenditures. Nevertheless demographic effects, like fertility rate, old-age dependency ratio, effective retirement age or life expectancy are also important factors of the sustainability of social security expenditures, this also due to the latest economic approaches. Our econometric testing confirms the high relevance of all these variables upon public pension expenditures within EU-15 member states. Consequently, there should be some special measures which governments may consider in future public policies. We suggest that retirement should come later in citizens lives, but in order to enforce this new approach there is an urgent need of appropriate jobs which could be available for older generations. In fact the solution towards an increasing proportion of older people in nowadays society should be “active ageing”: encouraging older people to stay active and retire later. Also extremly important are the outcomes of targetting healthy and autonomous lives.

  3. 2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain Scores for Forecasting Well-Being from Service-Based Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain scores used to support the approach for forecasting EPA's Human Well-Being Index. A modeling approach was developed...

  4. Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, O.; Martínez, E.

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls (DDW) in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, for different values of both perpendicular field and longitudinal current excitation associated to the Spin-Hall effect, has been studied, taking into account different values of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). This study has been carried out with the help of the q-Φ one-dimensional model and micromagnetic simulations. We have found that Walker breakdown may be avoided by applying a certain threshold current, even though the inverse effect is also possible. We have also found that, for particular values of field and current, the magnetization within the DDW experiences an abrupt change of orientation, which provokes a change on the contribution of current to the terminal DDW velocity. This effect disappears for sufficiently strong DMI, as it is expected from the model.

  5. The frequency domain causality analysis between energy consumption and income in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar Tiwari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Granger-causality in the frequency domain between primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and GDP for the US by employing approach of Lemmens et al. (2008 and covering the period of January, 1973 to December, 2008. We found that causal and reverse causal relations between primary energy consumption and GDP and electricity consumption and GDP vary across frequencies. Our unique contribution in the existing literature lies in decomposing the causality on the basis of time horizons and demonstrating bidirectional the short-run, the medium-run and the long-run causality between GDP and primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and thus providing evidence for the feedback hypothesis. These results have important implications for the US for planning of the short, the medium and the long run energy and economic growth related policies.

  6. Potent single-domain antibodies that arrest respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein in its prefusion state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossey, Iebe; Gilman, Morgan S. A.; Kabeche, Stephanie C.; Sedeyn, Koen; Wrapp, Daniel; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Chen, Man; Mas, Vicente; Spitaels, Jan; Melero, José A.; Graham, Barney S.; Schepens, Bert; McLellan, Jason S.; Saelens, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. The RSV fusion protein (F) is highly conserved and is the only viral membrane protein that is essential for infection. The prefusion conformation of RSV F is considered the most relevant target for antiviral strategies because it is the fusion-competent form of the protein and the primary target of neutralizing activity present in human serum. Here, we describe two llama-derived single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that have potent RSV-neutralizing activity and bind selectively to prefusion RSV F with picomolar affinity. Crystal structures of these VHHs in complex with prefusion F show that they recognize a conserved cavity formed by two F protomers. In addition, the VHHs prevent RSV replication and lung infiltration of inflammatory monocytes and T cells in RSV-challenged mice. These prefusion F-specific VHHs represent promising antiviral agents against RSV. PMID:28194013

  7. Variation in exemptions to school immunization requirements among New York State private and public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Kuang; Nadeau, Jessica; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Shaw, Jana

    2014-12-12

    School immunization requirements have ensured high vaccination rates and have helped to control vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccine exemptions have increased in the last decade. This study compared New York State private versus public schools with respect to medical and religious exemption rates. This retrospective study utilizes New York State Department of Health Immunization Survey data from the 2003 through 2012 academic years. Schools were categorized as private or public, the former further categorized by religious affiliation. Rates of medical and religious vaccine exemptions were compared by school category. From 2003 to 2012, religious exemptions increased in private and public schools from 0.63% to 1.35% and 0.17% to 0.29% (Spearman's R: 0.89 and 0.81), respectively. Among private schools, increases in religious exemption rates during the study period were observed in Catholic/Eastern Orthodox, Protestant/Other Christian, Jewish, and secular schools (Spearman's R=0.66, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.93), respectively. Exemption rate ratios in private schools compared to public schools were 1.39 (95% CI 1.15-1.68) for medical and 3.94 (95% CI: 3.20-4.86) for religious exemptions. Among private school students, all school types except for Catholic/Eastern Orthodox and Episcopal affiliates were more likely to report religious exemptions compared to children in public schools. Medical and religious exemption rates increased over time and higher rates were observed among New York State private schools compared to public schools. Low exemption rates are critical to minimize disease outbreaks in the schools and their community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Public health and agenda setting: determinants of state attention to tobacco and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Julianna; Boushey, Graeme

    2014-06-01

    What determines government attention to emerging health issues? We draw on research in agenda setting and policy diffusion to explore the determinants of public health attention in the fifty American states. We find that intergovernmental influence has a strong and consistent influence over state attention to tobacco and vaccines from 1990 to 2010. While national attention to tobacco or vaccines also sparks attention in the states, this effect is smaller than the internal impact of gubernatorial attention and the horizontal influence of neighboring state attention. We find some support that problem severity matters; however, these results are highly dependent on the measures used. Finally, we find no evidence that interest groups influence the attention that states pay to tobacco or vaccines. Our results suggest that institutions play a critical role in explaining government attention to health policy.

  9. State-owned Enterprises as Institutional Market Actors in the Marketization of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    This doctoral thesis (PhD) explores from a public governance perspective the role of stateowned enterprises (SOEs) in an era of marketization of public service provision and thus contributes to the renewed academic interest in contemporary SOEs. It builds on an explorative comparative case study...... of DSB SOV and SJ AB in the marketization of passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden respectively from the 1990s to 2015. In the period both cases kept full state ownership and Sweden gradually exposed all services to competition whereas in Denmark with time competition was put on hold. The case study...... as an institutional market actor (IMA)....

  10. Economic Growth and the Public Deficit in EU Member States in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bökemeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of economic growth and the role of the public budget in European Union (EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, that joined the European Union in 2004, with a balanced data set from 1996 until 2012. A special focus is set on the relationship between growth and the public deficit and their behavior before and after the accession is studied. The outcome reveals a significant negative relationship between the deficit ratio and subsequent economic growth for the group of the eight selected countries. This effect indicates to be stronger after EU accession than before.

  11. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Transient and steady-state velocity of domain walls for a complete range of drive fields. [in magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Bartran, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    Approximate analytic solutions for transient and steady-state 180 deg domain-wall motion in bulk magnetic material are obtained from the dynamic torque equations with a Gilbert damping term. The results for the Walker region in which the transient solution approaches the familiar Walker steady-state solution are presented in a slightly new form for completeness. An analytic solution corresponding to larger drive fields predicts an oscillatory motion with an average value of the velocity which decreases with drive field for reasonable values of the damping parameter. These results agree with those obtained by others from a computer solution of the torque equation and those obtained by others with the assumption of a very large anisotropy field.

  13. Health domains and race in generic preference-based health-related quality of life instruments in the United States literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina de Aguiar Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Race differences in health have been extensively analyzed and documented in the literature, especially between African Americans or blacks and whites in the United States. Despite the vast literature in the area, the majority of studies that explore the relationship between race and health use outcomes such as self-rated health, mortality or morbidity, and disability, but very few use Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL measures and their domains or dimensions. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of the relationship between race and health domains that are commonly used in preference-based HRQoL measures. We investigated the literature on race, physical health, mental health, pain and discomfort, cognition, neurologic spectrum domains, dexterity, ambulation, vitality and social functioning domains. We conducted a literature search and review using the key words race and the health domain of interest, using medical and social sciences databases, such as MEDLINE/Pubmed, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal.The majority of the studies identified in the literature show that African Americans or blacks in the United States tend to have lower scores than whites throughout a variety of health domains found in preference-based HRQoL measures. This review also emphasizes the scarcity of studies that investigate some health domains, such as social functioning, dexterity, vitality and neurologic spectrum domains, and therefore we identify the need for more studies focusing on race and measures that address such domains.

  14. The strategic defense of physician autonomy: State public health agencies as countervailing powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senier, Laura; Lee, Rachael; Nicoll, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    Advances in genetic testing and the aggressive marketing of genetic tests by commercial diagnostic laboratories have driven both consumer demand and the need for unbiased information about how tests should guide healthcare delivery. This paper uses the countervailing powers framework to explore the role of state public health agencies as arbiters of quality and safety, specifically through their efforts to encourage physicians to follow evidence-based recommendations for screening for hereditary cancers. Social scientists have often viewed actions by the state to regulate cost, quality, or safety as a threat to physician autonomy. This paper draws on case studies from two US states-Michigan and Connecticut-to better understand the specific role of state public health agencies, and especially whether their activities to encourage adherence to evidence-based recommendations bolster or subvert the interests of other parties in the healthcare arena. We find that lacking authority to compel provider to follow evidence-based recommendations, they improvised ways to foster compliance voluntarily, for example, by emphasizing the role of the physician as gatekeeper, thus affirming the importance of physician autonomy and clinical judgment. Both states also used public health surveillance data to make rare diseases visible and illustrate gaps between recommendations and practice. Finally, they both showed that following evidence-based recommendations could align the professional and market interests of healthcare stakeholders. Both states employed similar strategies with similar effects, despite substantial differences in the regulatory climate and organizational capacity. Taken as a whole, their activities orchestrated a countervailing response that checked the profit-seeking motives of commercial laboratories. Our findings demonstrate that rather than eroding physician autonomy, state action to monitor healthcare quality and encourage adherence to evidence

  15. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  16. Tracking the Reliability of the U.S. Electric Power System: An Assessment of Publicly Available Information Reported to State Public Utility Commissions

    OpenAIRE

    LaCommare, Kristina H.

    2008-01-01

    Large blackouts, such as the August 14-15, 2003 blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada, focus attention on the importance of reliable electric service. As public and private efforts are undertaken to improve reliability and prevent power interruptions, it is appropriate to assess their effectiveness. Measures of reliability, such as the frequency and duration of power interruptions, have been reported by electric utilities to state public utility commissions for many years. ...

  17. Silicon as a model ion trap: Time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinh, N. Q.; Greenland, P. T.; Litvinenko, K.; Redlich, B.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Lynch, S. A.; Warner, M.; Stoneham, A. M.; Aeppli, G.; Paul, D. J.; Pidgeon, C. R.; Murdin, B. N.

    2008-01-01

    One of the great successes of quantum physics is the description of the long-lived Rydberg states of atoms and ions. The Bohr model is equally applicable to donor impurity atoms in semiconductor physics, where the conduction band corresponds to the vacuum, and the loosely bound electron orbiting a s

  18. State procurement law: facilitating the collaboration between health department and school of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George A; Barron, Gerald M; Duchak, Linda S; Raniowski, Martin; Alsahlani, Hazem S; Potter, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    The mark of an "academic health department" includes shared activity by academic and practice partners sustained over time. Despite a long history of productive interactivity, the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health often faced administrative hurdles in contracting for projects of mutual interest. Seeking to overcome these hurdles, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health negotiated a Master Agreement on the basis of statutes designating both as "public procurement units." This provided a template for project specifications, standard financial terms, and a contracting process. Since taking effect, the Master Agreement has supported projects in policy development, capacity building, workforce development, program evaluation, data analysis, and program planning. This experience suggests an approach potentially useful for other states and localities seeking to solidify academic health department partnerships either envisioned for the future or already in place.

  19. Integrational Models and Forms of Inter-State Public-Private Partnership: Aspects of Financial Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA KULAI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article we examined the main models and forms of public-private partnership, their role in the socio-economic development and deepening of financial convergence of countries-participants of the partnership. The attention was paid to decentralization of inter-state forms of public-private partnership as the basis of cross-border and transnational partnership. The scientific research, described in this publication, have found their practical application in the realization of the project within Euro-region “Bug”. This project has founded a joined Ukrainian – Polish institution of labor migration administration and also of granting necessary permissions for realization activities within Ukraine.

  20. Public policies from economic and social crisis in the framework of emerging States and territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahír Alexánder Gutiérrez Ossa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article approaches two aspects of public policy. On the one hand, we have social emergence, the institutional and economic crisis in some Latin American countries, as well as its complex and systematic structure. On the other, it looks at the formulation and implementation of public policies, considered within the framework of the international crises of the states of emergency. Through a multi-criteria analysis, arguments related to the management capacity, and the results or work in different sectors are established. Then, using a process of design, the problem will be explained through a review of the economic, legal, political, and social arenas. Finally, the virtues of the public policies in transcendental or difficult situations that require their appearance or full presence will be evaluated.

  1. State health managers' perceptions of the Public Health Action Organizational Contract in the State of Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goya, Neusa; Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro de; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Tajra, Fábio Solon; Barreto, Ivana Cristina de Holanda Cunha

    2017-04-01

    The Public Health Action Organizational Contract (COAP) / Decree 7.508/2011 aimed to seal health agreements made between federated entities to promote the cooperative governance and management of Health Regions. A qualitative study was carried out adopting a hermeneutic approach to understand state health managers' perceptions of the elaboration and effects of the COAP in the State of Ceará. Open-ended interviewees and documental analysis were conducted. It was observed that the COAP led to the strengthening of regionalization in the government sphere; institutional gains through the implementation of ombudsmen and the National System of Pharmaceutical Care Management; increased information about the state health system's workforce; and health budget transparency. The following problems were (re)visited: institutional weakness in the operation of the network; limited state capacity for regulation of care; and underfunding. Regional governance was restricted to the government sphere, coordinated by the state, and was characterized by a predominantly bureaucratic and hierarchical governance structure. The COAP inaugurated a contractual interfederative model of regionalization, but revealed the institutional weaknesses of the SUS and its lacks of capacity to fulfill its principles as the structural problems of the three-tiered model go unaddressed.

  2. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  3. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  4. SANTA vs. public tuberculosis hospitals: the patient experience in the Free State, 2001/2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C Heunis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the appropriateness of the decision to close down a nongovernmental organisation (NGO, state-aided tuberculosis (TB hospital in the Free State in 2003. Henceforth hospitalisation of TB patients would take place at public district hospitals. A survey conducted late-2001/'early-2002 revealed a more positive patient experience of hospitalisation forTB in public hospitals than in the NGO hospital. Consideration of the patient experience serves to inform the debate concerning continued outsourcing of TB hospital care to NGOs in South Africa. This study discusses comparative findings in respect of patients’ biographic and socio-economic characteristics, health beliefs, satisfaction with hospitalisation, experience of stigmatisation, adherence to treatment and absconding from hospital.

  5. Integrative Spatial Data Analytics for Public Health Studies of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Fusheng

    2016-01-01

    Increased accessibility of health data made available by the government provides unique opportunity for spatial analytics with much higher resolution to discover patterns of diseases, and their correlation with spatial impact indicators. This paper demonstrated our vision of integrative spatial analytics for public health by linking the New York Cancer Mapping Dataset with datasets containing potential spatial impact indicators. We performed spatial based discovery of disease patterns and variations across New York State, and identify potential correlations between diseases and demographic, socio-economic and environmental indicators. Our methods were validated by three correlation studies: the correlation between stomach cancer and Asian race, the correlation between breast cancer and high education population, and the correlation between lung cancer and air toxics. Our work will allow public health researchers, government officials or other practitioners to adequately identify, analyze, and monitor health problems at the community or neighborhood level for New York State.

  6. Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blette, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency implements a national drinking-water program under the authority of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Amendments to the Act in 1996 added new provisions to enhance consumer understanding of drinking-water issues. Notification requirements associated with annual consumer confidence reports, source water assessments and state compliance reports are intended to enhance the public's knowledge of the quality of their drinking water. Water utilities are also subject to public notification requirements to provide more timely information to consumers in response to violations of health standards. These right-to-know requirements are intended to build the public's confidence, but communicating with consumers can be challenging for both utility managers and government leaders. This paper discusses the need for timely communication, the challenge of providing information when there is uncertainty in the science and the importance of preparing to respond to critical incidents. Because surveys have shown that other members of the community may have better access to consumers or are more trusted, it is important for water utilities to establish relationships with the media and the local public health community.

  7. Advances in the Study of Post-Communist States and Public Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    I introduce a 5-article special section that discusses recent advances in the study of postcommunist states and public administrations based around Anna Gzymala-Busse's Rebuilding Leviathan and Conor O'Dwyer's Runaway State Building. In addition to contributions by these two authors, it contains...... an editorial introduction by Pieter Vanhuysse, who argues that these books combine rigorous theory building with innovative empirical analysis of the size and effectiveness of CEE administrative bureaucracy, and make inroads by pointing to the nature of party competition as an important factor driving CEE...

  8. Exploring and contextualizing public opposition to renewable electricity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2009-01-01

    This article explores public opposition to renewable power technologies in the United States. It begins by discussing the genesis of environmental ethics, or how some Americans have come to place importance on the protection of the environment and preservation of species, ecosystems, and the biosphere. As result, renewable power systems have become challenged on ethical and environmental grounds and are occasionally opposed by local communities and environmentalists. The article finds that, h...

  9. Observers, Publications, and Surveys: Astronomy in the United States in 1849

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    1999-01-01

    By the mid-19th century, astronomy in the United States was productive and growing. Information gathered by and at the behest of the Smithsonian Institution shows that the community consisted of approximately 50 individuals, including a significant number of military officers, and a dozen observatories. Americans were deeply involved in astronomical research, and the discipline was entrenched in the college curriculum. What the discipline lacked was an adequate publication vehicle to ensure refereed, rapid dissemination of observations.

  10. Nationalism: the media, state, and public in the Senkaku/Diaoyu dispute

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since diplomatic normalization in 1972, Sino-Japan relations have hit a new low due to escalating military and diplomatic confrontation around the islands in the East China Sea, known as the Senkaku in Japan and the Diaoyu in China. Through a comparative media analysis of the dispute, this thesis considers the extent to which China and Japan are instrumentally influencing nationalist rhetoric in the media in order to advance state inte...

  11. Classroom management programs for deaf children in state residential and large public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenkus, M; Rittenhouse, B; Dancer, J

    1999-12-01

    Personnel in 4 randomly selected state residential schools for the deaf and 3 randomly selected large public schools with programs for the deaf were surveyed to assess the types of management or disciplinary programs and strategies currently in use with deaf students and the rated effectiveness of such programs. Several behavioral management programs were identified by respondents, with Assertive Discipline most often listed. Ratings of program effectiveness were generally above average on a number of qualitative criteria.

  12. 78 FR 47697 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ...Notice is hereby given that the State of Louisiana is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Louisiana has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: 1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), 2) the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBP2), and 3) the Lead and Copper Rule Short-Term Revisions and Clarifications (LCR). EPA......

  13. Nationalism: The Media, State, and Public in the Senkaku/Diaoyu Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    78 VI. CONCLUSION In J.K. Rowling’s popular Harry Potter series of novels, Lord Voldemort, also known as He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named, cannot be...killed unless Harry Potter destroys the seven horcruxes that contain Lord Voldemort’s soul. After Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s visit to the Yasukuni...MEDIA, PUBLIC, AND STATE: THE MEDIA IN A LIBERAL DEMOCRACY Matthew A. Baum and Philip B. Potter suggest that the causal relationships between the

  14. The Public Benefit of Energy Efficiency to the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Washington State Office of Trade and Economic Development NCLC National Consumer Law Center NERC North American Electric Reliability Council NOX Nitrogen...Analysis of low-income benefits in determining cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency programs. Washington, D.C. National Consumer Law Center. Jorgenson...A.H. 1990. How Does Public Infrastructure Affect Regional Economic Performance? New England Economic Review 0(0): 11-32. National Consumer Law Center

  15. State Psychological Reactance to Depression Public Service Announcements Among People With Varying Levels of Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Brianna A; Siegel, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Campaigns seeking to help people with depression can be effective, but they can also backfire. Psychological reactance is proposed as a partial explanation. Two experimental studies examined the effect of two depression messages (i.e., autonomy-supportive language, controlling language) for participants (n = 2027, n = 777) with varying levels of depressive symptomatology. For Study 1, two versions of a print public service announcement about seeking help for depression served as the experimental stimulus. Study 2 used an existing video public service announcement about seeking help for depression, but the text was altered to create the two conditions. In both studies, increased depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced help-seeking attitudes and intentions, as well as greater state reactance to a public service announcement about depression. Increased state reactance mediated the relationship between increased depressive symptomology and unfavorable help-seeking outcomes. Further, across the two studies, participants with high levels of depressive symptomatology who were exposed to the autonomy-supportive language ad reported either as much, or more, state reactance than participants with high levels of depressive symptomatology who were in the control condition. These results warn that language perceived as autonomy-supportive by people without depression might be perceived as controlling among people with depression.

  16. A new approach to teaching veterinary public health at the Ohio State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoet, Armando E; Caswell, Robert J; DeGraves, Fred J; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Saville, William J A; Wittum, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Public-health practitioners with expertise in the area of veterinary public health are expected to understand the prevention and control of zoonotic infectious diseases in both human and animal populations. This focus on multiple species is what makes the veterinary public health (VPH) official unique. The development of a new VPH specialization within the existing Master of Public Health (MPH) degree program at the Ohio State University represents a significant new collaboration between the College of Veterinary Medicine and the College of Public Health. The main objective of the VPH specialization is to educate and train professionals to provide them with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to protect and improve human health using a One Medicine approach. The program targets a population of students who will likely enter the professional veterinary medicine curriculum but have one year available to enhance their preparatory training in health sciences before beginning the program. A core series of VPH courses was initiated to complement the existing MPH course requirements. The program has been successful in attracting students from the primary target population, but it has also attracted students wanting the MPH as a terminal degree and veterinarians returning to school to expand their career options.

  17. 报刊公共领域与邹韬奋%The public domain of newspaper and journal and Zou Taofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亚秋

    2012-01-01

      众所周知,邹韬奋是我国卓越的新闻记者、出版家,更是一名进步爱国的政论家。他主编的《生活》周刊、《大众生活》和《全民抗战》刊物,由于其客观的立场、报刊的公共性和其注重与读者平等的讨论,构成了报刊公共领域。作为这一公共领域中的发言人角色,邹韬奋积极发表新闻评论,设立读者信箱和小言论等精品栏目,与读者和同仁进行交流。这些编辑出版活动充分展现了邹韬奋在报刊公共空间中的舆论引导作用。%  As we all know, Zou Tao-fen is an excellent journalist, publishing house, was a progressive patriotic political commentators. He published in life magazine, the public and the National Journal of the war, due to its objective of publicity and its focus on position, press and reader discussions on an equal footing, forming the newspaper of the public domain. Role as spokesman in this public area, Zou Tao-fen news positive comments, set up reader mail and small boutique, such as columns, communicate with colleagues and readers. These activities have fully demonstrated Zou taofen's editing and publishing in the newspaper public opinion to guide the role of the public space.

  18. From Vitality to Vital Exhaustion and Other States of "Tense Tiredness": A New Biopsychosocial Risk Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan; Cohen, Randy

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is a common prodromal symptom for various medical conditions, including acute myocardial infarction. Fatigue is also the core component of vital exhaustion, which consists of a specific triad: excessive fatigue, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Frestad and Prescott present a meta-analysis of 16 studies, involving 53,337 participants, which found vital exhaustion to be associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and recurrent cardiac events among individuals with established CHD. After discussing methodological limitations of the studies included in this meta-analysis, we describe these findings in terms of a larger genre of risk that is biopsychosocial in origin and tied to two types of tiredness: "calm tiredness" and "tense tiredness." The former is regenerative, while the latter enhances disease risk. We propose that besides vital exhaustion, other symptoms of negative affect may combine with tiredness to produce increased clinical risk, such as the presence of depressed mood, an inability to relax or recover after work, and symptoms of burnout. We further propose that vital exhaustion can be considered as part of a larger paradigm, ranging from a positive state of vitality to a negative state of exhaustion of vitality. We conclude this editorial by emphasizing the importance of improving vitality and the need to clarify biobehavioral mechanisms that play a role in the association between vital exhaustion and adverse CHD outcomes. New interventions are needed that target reducing exhaustion and improving vitality for individuals at high risk of CHD.

  19. Temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics gives insights into globular conformations sampled in the free state of the AC catalytic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwa, Edithe; Huynh, Tru; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Maragliano, Luca; Malliavin, Thérèse E

    2014-10-01

    The catalytic domain of the adenyl cyclase (AC) toxin from Bordetella pertussis is activated by interaction with calmodulin (CaM), resulting in cAMP overproduction in the infected cell. In the X-ray crystallographic structure of the complex between AC and the C terminal lobe of CaM, the toxin displays a markedly elongated shape. As for the structure of the isolated protein, experimental results support the hypothesis that more globular conformations are sampled, but information at atomic resolution is still lacking. Here, we use temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD) simulations to generate putative all-atom models of globular conformations sampled by CaM-free AC. As collective variables, we use centers of mass coordinates of groups of residues selected from the analysis of standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Results show that TAMD allows extended conformational sampling and generates AC conformations that are more globular than in the complexed state. These structures are then refined via energy minimization and further unrestrained MD simulations to optimize inter-domain packing interactions, thus resulting in the identification of a set of hydrogen bonds present in the globular conformations.

  20. Temporal redistribution of inhibition over neuronal subcellular domains underlies state-dependent rhythmic change of excitability in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Peter; Katona, Linda; Klausberger, Thomas; Lasztóczi, Bálint; Viney, Tim J

    2014-02-05

    The behaviour-contingent rhythmic synchronization of neuronal activity is reported by local field potential oscillations in the theta, gamma and sharp wave-related ripple (SWR) frequency ranges. In the hippocampus, pyramidal cell assemblies representing temporal sequences are coordinated by GABAergic interneurons selectively innervating specific postsynaptic domains, and discharging phase locked to network oscillations. We compare the cellular network dynamics in the CA1 and CA3 areas recorded with or without anaesthesia. All parts of pyramidal cells, except the axon initial segment, receive GABA from multiple interneuron types, each with distinct firing dynamics. The axon initial segment is exclusively innervated by axo-axonic cells, preferentially firing after the peak of the pyramidal layer theta cycle, when pyramidal cells are least active. Axo-axonic cells are inhibited during SWRs, when many pyramidal cells fire synchronously. This dual inverse correlation demonstrates the key inhibitory role of axo-axonic cells. Parvalbumin-expressing basket cells fire phase locked to field gamma activity in both CA1 and CA3, and also strongly increase firing during SWRs, together with dendrite-innervating bistratified cells, phasing pyramidal cell discharge. Subcellular domain-specific GABAergic innervation probably developed for the coordination of multiple glutamatergic inputs on different parts of pyramidal cells through the temporally distinct activity of GABAergic interneurons, which differentially change their firing during different network states.

  1. Importance of public health informatics: a survey of public health schools and graduate programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Janise

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of data, information, and informatics to public health practice. Forty public health academicians from 40 schools and graduate programs of public health were interviewed. All agreed that informatics was important to public health practice. A qualitative analysis of their comments revealed their beliefs on the importance of informatics skills and knowledge to the practice of public health. The resulting comment groups varied from "some skills are more important than others" to "need all the skills." Eight "importance" comment groups were formed: 1) skills for all professionals; 2) some skills more than others; 3) yes, they need all the skills; 4) skills to become better practitioners; 5) usefulness to practitioners; 6) communication with public; 7) they're [the public] are depending on us; and 8) the future.

  2. One Health approach: A platform for intervention in emerging public health challenges of Kerala state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sukumaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors, key functionaries in the Kerala state public health system, review the communicable disease scenario of the state for the past 4 years, and in the background of the One Health concept, opines that the re-emerged discipline is perfectly in tune with the current challenges of the state. The unique model of Kerala state is witnessing newer challenges in its public health arena: The rapidly increasing migrant workforce from relatively poorer states of India, rapid urbanization and its consequent stress on public health, unsolved issues of urban waste disposal, reemergence of many communicable diseases like malaria, more so, the falciparum type, emergence of many zoonotic diseases like Lyme disease, scrub typhus, and Kyasanur forest disease etc. Conventional zoonotic infections such as anthrax and brucellosis remain potential threat for human health as well. Rabies continued to cause major concern from mortality point of view, as well as major drainer of state’s budget every year. Leptospirosis has remained major burden among the communicable disease for the past 10 years, and the annual incidence ranged from 2 to 7 per 100,000 population. Having a large section of its people working in various agriculture and animal rearing occupations, the state has all risk factors for propagation of Leptospirosis, but lacks interdisciplinary collaboration in its control and prevention area, the author highlights major avenues for collaboration. Japanese encephalitis appeared as an epidemic in 2011 in two of the southern districts in Kerala, one of the districts being famous tourist spot for both humans, as well as migrant birds. There is ample scope for collaborative research on the source of the virus, and in the subsequent years, the disease had been detected in more districts. Lyme disease was reported for the first time in India, from one of the districts in Kerala, promptly investigated by a joint team from Human Public Health and Veterinary

  3. Behaviour of ribosomal genes and nucleolar domains during activation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. root primordia: from the unsoaked quiescent state to the steady state of proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Acevedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the organisation of ribosomal genes and nucleolar protein components were analysed in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cv Cristalina from the time the quiescent primordia of the radical bands of nodes were stimulated to proliferate by water imbibition, until the meristematic population reached the steady state of proliferation in the growing roots. The kinetics of proliferation was evaluated by flow cytometry, and by the mitotic indexes, in roots of different lengths. All the quiescent cells were in a pre-replicative state (G0, with a 2C DNA content. During their activation process, they progressively reached the steady state of proliferation (mitotic index 7%, with rather fixed frequencies for cells with 2C (G1, 4C (G2, and values between them corresponding to cells replicating their DNA. Decondensation of the ribosomal genes was followed by FISH with probes for the major 25S and 18S rRNAs, and variations in the numbers of nucleoli were recorded in squashed cells after silver staining. The ultrastructure of nucleoli was analysed by electron microscopy, using the EDTA regressive staining for ribonucleoproteins. Quiescent nucleoli showed a clear segregation of their main components: Fibrillar Centre, Dense Fibrillar Component and Cajal´s bodies while lacked any Granular Component. However the proliferating ones showed them highly intermingled, except for the Cajal´s bodies. Our results revealed a high plasticity of the nucleolar domains in response to cell activation, and allowed to establish a correlation between dispersion of NORs with formation of small fibrillar centers and a nucleolus with all its domains intermingled, and the activation of cell proliferation during root sprouting.

  4. Blood flowing state analysis in outflow tract of chick embryonic heart based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuqian; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) and periodic stress (WPS) are the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. The vessel wall will be deformed by the blood pressure and produce natural elastic force acting on the blood. Because blood flowing in different flow state and show different characteristics of fluid, which influence the calculation of WSS and WPS directly, it is necessary to study the blood flow state. In this paper, we introduce a method to quantify the blood flowing state of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT).4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. By processing the structural image, the geometric parameters were obtained. Blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT were calculated by Doppler OCT method. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained at different times during the cardiac cycle used biofluid mechanics theory, such as Reynolds number and Womersley number.

  5. Public Parks and Wellbeing in Urban Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lincoln R; Jennings, Viniece; Cloutier, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managing factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that public parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits to urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensive measures of subjective wellbeing at the city level. Using 2014 data from 44 U.S. cities, we evaluated the relationship between urban park quantity, quality, and accessibility and aggregate self-reported scores on the Gallup-Healthways Wellbeing Index (WBI), which considers five different domains of wellbeing (e.g., physical, community, social, financial, and purpose). In addition to park-related variables, our best-fitting OLS regression models selected using an information theory approach controlled for a variety of other typical geographic and socio-demographic correlates of wellbeing. Park quantity (measured as the percentage of city area covered by public parks) was among the strongest predictors of overall wellbeing, and the strength of this relationship appeared to be driven by parks' contributions to physical and community wellbeing. Park quality (measured as per capita spending on parks) and accessibility (measured as the overall percentage of a city's population within ½ mile of parks) were also positively associated with wellbeing, though these relationships were not significant. Results suggest that expansive park networks are linked to multiple aspects of health and wellbeing in cities and positively impact urban quality of life.

  6. Public health responses to the risks of climate variability and change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L

    2009-01-01

    Discuss issues related to the capacity of the United States to effectively adapt to current and future climate change. Review literature on public health adaptation measures to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive health outcomes. Most health risks of concern with climate change already exist in the United States. Current interventions may need to be augmented or deployed in new regions to prevent additional climate change-related morbidity and mortality. Monitoring and surveillance systems will need to be modified to ensure programs remain effective under a changing climate. Explicit consideration of climate change is needed in the many programs and research activities within federal, state, and local agencies that are relevant to adaptation to ensure that they have maximum effectiveness in reducing future vulnerability to the projected health impacts of climate change.

  7. Emotional affective states (depression, anxiety and stress of nursing in a mexican public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca García-Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive correlational cross-sectional approach with a non-experimental design about emotional affective states related dissorders in Mexican public health workers. It´s goal was to identify the existence of significant differences between gender and emotional affective state (depression, anxiety and stress for workers in a hospital located in Ensenada, Baja California in north-western Mexico. The work covers a sample of 130 employees. To collection of data used a DASS-21 scale. The results identified an emotional affective state within a normal range. No statistically differences in gender were identified. Positive and significant correlations between subscales of the DASS-21 were found.

  8. Report on residual radioactive materials on public or acquired lands of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    This report identifies sites located on public or acquired lands of the United States containing residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste (excluding waste resulting from the production of electric energy) and was developed in accordance with the provisions of Section 114(b) of Public Law 95-604, "Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978," enacted on November 8, 1978. Additionally, the report specifies which Federal agency has jurisdiction over such sites and, where appropriate data were available, provides a description of the radiological status of each of the sites reported. For purpose of providing a timely report t o t h e Congress, a termination date of May 31, 1979 was established for the receipt, correlation, and analysis of the input data. As of this date, residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste have been identified by six Federal agencies at 48 sites throughout the United States. Table 1 on page vi provides a summary listing of the number of sites under the jurisdiction of each of these reporting agencies. A cross listing in tabular form by affected state is presented in Table 2 on page viii. Of the 48 sites reported, 36 are located i n three western states - Colorado (27 sites), Wyoming (5 sites), and Utah (4 sites). Based upon t h e data submitted, the sites were categorized into three broad radiological status categories -- controlled, unstabilized, and risk to the public. At controlled sites, the residue is stabilized, access t o t h e site is controlled, the s i t e is well monitored, and does not currently constitute a risk to the public. At sites in the unstabilized category, a probability exists for the spread of contamination. Sites in the risk category contain residue which represents a long-term risk to the public under present conditions. Of the 48 reported sites,. 9 (approximately 19%) could be classified in the controlled category; 38 (approximately 79%) were in the unstabilized category and

  9. Should Public Buildings Be Exclusive? A Study of Selected Institutional Buildings in Minna, Niger State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetola, S.A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals are born with a deformity also known as disability whereas others may become permanently or temporarily disabled over the course of their lives. Buildings should not be made to judge who comes in and goes out of its spaces. A good design must be accessible to all individuals, especially when discussing public buildings. An educational building is a public building and “education for all” is a common dictum that refers to all individuals irrespective of current status. Disabled individuals especially those in wheelchairs have special needs and requirements however, most Institutional buildings do not portray this equality with regards to their design; instead these designs ostracize individuals with disabilities. A survey was carried out on the existing special educational facility and forty four (44 randomly selected institutions of learning located in Minna, the capital of Niger State. They were further categorised based on funding; Federal, state or privately funded institutions. The survey showed that individuals with physical disabilities in Minna were not attending the special educational school and even if they were, facilities were not put in place to accommodate them also, despite the support by the Nigerian government on the equalisation of opportunities for people with disabilities, the public educational system have yet to factor in or retrofit designs to suit disabled individuals in their designs. This paper further highlighted these abnormalities in design and probable causes and concluded by recommending possible solutions.

  10. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  11. Public Health Practice of Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Cara T; Kirby, Russell S; Correa, Adolfo; Rosenberg, Deborah; Petros, Michael; Fagen, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Birth defects remain a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States and contribute substantially to health care costs and lifelong disabilities. State population-based surveillance systems have been established to monitor birth defects, yet no recent systematic examination of their efforts in the United States has been conducted. To understand the current population-based birth defects surveillance practices in the United States. The National Birth Defects Prevention Network conducted a survey of US population-based birth defects activities that included questions about operational status, case ascertainment methodology, program infrastructure, data collection and utilization, as well as priorities and challenges for surveillance programs. Birth defects contacts in the United States, including District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, received the survey via e-mail; follow-up reminders via e-mails and telephone were used to ensure a 100% response rate. Forty-three states perform population-based surveillance for birth defects, covering approximately 80% of the live births in the United States. Seventeen primarily use an active case-finding approach and 26 use a passive case-finding approach. These programs all monitor major structural malformations; however, passive case-finding programs more often monitor a broader list of conditions, including developmental conditions and newborn screening conditions. Active case-finding programs more often use clinical reviewers, cover broader pregnancy outcomes, and collect more extensive information, such as family history. More than half of the programs (24 of 43) reported an ability to conduct follow-up studies of children with birth defects. The breadth and depth of information collected at a population level by birth defects surveillance programs in the United States serve as an important data source to guide public health action. Collaborative efforts at the state and national levels can help harmonize data

  12. The sailor, the turtle and the jungle man - striking the balance between protection and public domain in fictional character merchandising

    OpenAIRE

    Preiss LL.M., Sven

    2013-01-01

    What is it that ‘Popeye the Sailor’, the ‘Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles’ and ‘Tarzan’ have in common? Besides being well-known fictitious characters, each of them is overwhelmingly successful in terms of entertainment (for the public) and revenue (for the industry behind it). They exemplify the possibility of the fictional characters’ owners not only using them for their basic purpose, i.e. in books, comics, movies, broadcasts, etc., but also of secondary exploitation of the characters’ gained ...

  13. Analysis of wide-domain transcriptional regulation in solid-state cultures of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Shauna M; Murphy, Richard A

    2010-05-01

    Many filamentous fungi secrete considerable quantities of enzymes including protease, cellulase and xylanase, which are of major industrial importance. Over the past few decades, many of these fungal enzymes have been isolated and their relevant genes characterised. Solid-state fermentation (SSF), an ancient technique described as a fermentation process performed on non-soluble material whereby the material acts as a physical support and as a source of nutrients, is widely employed in the production of industrially important enzymes. Control mechanisms governing gene expression in SSF however, have been rarely studied. The influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production and transcriptional regulation of hydrolase enzymes secreted by an Aspergillus strain was investigated with the hope of expanding on the relatively small amount of knowledge regarding cellular control of gene expression. This study involved screening a collection of fungal strains for protease, cellulase and xylanase production under SSF conditions. From this, one fungal strain was then chosen for further analysis. Factors affecting the secretion of the hydrolase enzymes were optimised, and following this, the influence of nutritional supplementation on the production and transcriptional regulation of the enzymes was investigated. Real-time PCR techniques were used to assess the relative expression levels of genes encoding hydrolase activities and of the genes encoding regulatory elements such as AreA, PacC and CreA in an effort to identify possible transcriptional regulation mechanisms. The complexity of gene regulation under SSF conditions became apparent during the study, as other factors such as post-transcriptional regulation appeared to play a far greater role than previously imagined.

  14. Network Hatred:Obstruction and Decomposition of Order Construction in Virtual Public Domain%网络怨恨:虚拟公共领域秩序建构的梗阻与消解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    网络怨恨既是一种情感体验,也是一种生存状态。越来越多的虚拟社会现象表明,网络怨恨已经出现了一定程度上的弥散,虚拟公共领域秩序建构因而面临着无法回避的现实梗阻。网络怨恨导致无直接利益冲突的网络暴力频现,基于网络民粹主义的阶层对抗遭遇激化,同时网络空间出现颠覆性的价值位移。究其根源,网络怨恨与网络世界的平等理念、现代社会的竞争意识和难以克服的现实困境密切相关。需要通过提升虚拟公共领域的公共理性,适度满足网络怨恨的宣泄需求,构建包容性发展的网络监督体系,纠正虚拟公共领域中的价值位移等途径,才能真正消解网络怨恨,实现虚拟公共领域的秩序化运行。%Network hatred is not only an emotional experience , but also a living state.It is suggested by more and more virtual social phenomenon that network hatred has been dispersing in the new public domain and has become virtual social emotions in the keynote.Thus, order construction in the virtual public domain has been ex-posed to practical obstructions which cannot be evaded.As a result of network hatred , network violence , which has no direct conflict of interests , frequently shows up , and network populism-based hierarchical confrontation is triggered , and concurrently , subversive value displacement shows up in network space.Tracing to the source , network hatred is closely related to the equality philosophy of network world , the sense of competition in the modern society and the insurmountable practical difficulties.Only by such channels as improving public reason of the virtual public domain , moderately satisfying the needs for unbosoming network hatred , constructing net-work supervision system under inclusive development and correcting value displacement in the virtual public do -main, can network hatred be truly decomposed and regularized operation of the

  15. Public Health Applications of Remotely-sensed Environmental Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Marice Jr; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina

    2013-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision-making using NASA remotely-sensed data and products. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Incoming Solar Radiation (Insolation) and heat-related products using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and the results of the public health linkage analyses will be disseminated to end-users for decision-making through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer-reviewed publications respectively. The linkage of these data with the CDC WONDER system substantially expands public access to NASA data, making their use by a wide range of decision makers feasible. By successful

  16. State-owned Enterprises as Institutional Market Actors in the Marketization of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    of DSB SOV and SJ AB in the marketization of passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden respectively from the 1990s to 2015. In the period both cases kept full state ownership and Sweden gradually exposed all services to competition whereas in Denmark with time competition was put on hold. The case study......This doctoral thesis (PhD) explores from a public governance perspective the role of stateowned enterprises (SOEs) in an era of marketization of public service provision and thus contributes to the renewed academic interest in contemporary SOEs. It builds on an explorative comparative case study...... consists of document study and +50 interviews and is based on a historical institutionalist perspective on gradual change that emphasizes interpretation in the implementation between rule makers and rule takers as a driver of institutional change. It leads to the conceptualization of the SOE...

  17. Validation of the state version of the Self-Statement during Public Speaking Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Flávia L; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2013-03-01

    To adapt the trait version of the Self Statements during Public Speaking (SSPS) scale to a state version (SSPS-S) and to assess its discriminative validity for use in the Simulated Public Speaking Test (SPST). Subjects with and without social anxiety disorder (n = 45) were assessed while performing the SPST, a clinical-experimental model of anxiety with seven different phases. Alterations in negative self-assessment occurred with significant changes throughout the different phases of the procedure (p = .05). Non-cases presented significantly higher mean values of the SSPS-S in all phases of the procedure than cases (p < .01). Cases assessed themselves in a less positive and more negative manner during the SPST than did non-cases. SSPS-S is adequate for this assessment, especially its negative subscale, and shows good psychometric qualities.

  18. Validation of the state version of the Self-Statement during Public Speaking Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia L. Osório

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To adapt the trait version of the Self Statements during Public Speaking (SSPS scale to a state version (SSPS-S and to assess its discriminative validity for use in the Simulated Public Speaking Test (SPST. METHOD: Subjects with and without social anxiety disorder (n = 45 were assessed while performing the SPST, a clinical-experimental model of anxiety with seven different phases. RESULTS: Alterations in negative self-assessment occurred with significant changes throughout the different phases of the procedure (p = .05. Non-cases presented significantly higher mean values of the SSPS-S in all phases of the procedure than cases (p < .01. CONCLUSION: Cases assessed themselves in a less positive and more negative manner during the SPST than did non-cases. SSPS-S is adequate for this assessment, especially its negative subscale, and shows good psychometric qualities.

  19. Lactation and the labor market: breastfeeding, labor market changes, and public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, J

    1997-01-01

    Public health authorities in the United States actively promote breast-feeding, with target goals for increased beast-feeding rates by the year 2000. In recent decades, however, there has been an increase in the number of American mothers with infants who are in the labor market. Drawing together research examining the intersection of breast-feeding and women's involvement in paid employment, as well as various labor market analyses, this study explores how national recommendations advocating increased breast-feeding among new mothers in paid work are reconciled with economic pressures to return to the labor force in the early postpartum period. This analysis highlights those employment-related factors that constrain the practice of breast-feeding, thereby impeding "choice" over infant feeding method for many mothers. Finally, there is an attempt to explore various employer and public policies and strategies potentially supportive of breast-feeding among mothers in paid employment.

  20. Expression, purification, characterization and crystallization of non- and phosphorylated states of JAK2 and JAK3 kinase domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Troii; Emmons, Thomas L.; Chrencik, Jill E.; Gormley, Jennifer A.; Weinberg, Robin A.; Leone, Joseph W.; Hirsch, Jeffrey L.; Saabye, Matthew J.; Schindler, John F.; Day, Jacqueline E.; Williams, Jennifer M.; Kiefer, James R.; Lightle, Sandra A.; Harris, Melissa S.; Guru, Siradanahalli; Fischer, H. David; Tomasselli, Alfredo G. (Pfizer)

    2012-05-29

    Janus-associated kinases (JAKs) play critical roles in cytokine signaling, and have emerged as viable therapeutic targets in inflammation and oncology related diseases. To date, targeting JAK proteins with highly selective inhibitor compounds have remained elusive. We have expressed the active kinase domains for both JAK2 and JAK3 and devised purification protocols to resolve the non-, mono- (Y1007) and diphosphorylated (Y1007 and Y1008) states of JAK2 and non- and monophosphorylated states of JAK3 (Y980). An optimal purified protein yield of 20, 29 and 69 mg per 20 L cell culture was obtained for the three JAK2 forms, respectively, and 12.2 and 2.3 mg per 10 L fermentation for the two JAK3 forms allowing detailed biochemical and biophysical studies. To monitor the purification process we developed a novel HPLC activity assay where a sequential order of phosphorylation was observed whereby the first tyrosine residue was completely phosphorylated prior to phosphorylation of the tandem tyrosine residue. A Caliper-based microfluidics assay was used to determine the kinetic parameters (K{sub m} and k{sub cat}) for each phosphorylated state, showing that monophosphorylated (Y1007) JAK2 enzyme activity increased 9-fold over that of the nonphosphorylated species, and increased an additional 6-fold for the diphosphorylated (Y1007/Y1008) species, while phosphorylation of JAK3 resulted in a negligible increase in activity. Moreover, crystal structures have been generated for each isolated state of JAK2 and JAK3 with resolutions better than 2.4 {angstrom}. The generation of these reagents has enabled kinetic and structural characterization to inform the design of potent and selective inhibitors of the JAK family.

  1. The role of state public health agencies in national efforts to track workplace hazards and the relevance of state experiences to nanomaterial worker surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Rachel; Materna, Barbara; Beckman, Stella; Katz, Elizabeth; Shusterman, Dennis; Harrison, Robert

    2011-06-01

    This essay examines the role state public health agencies could play in the surveillance of emerging workplace hazards including nanotechnology. This essay describes existing state occupational health surveillance programs in order to demonstrate their potential applicability, and limitations, in regards to nanomaterial worker surveillance. State public health agencies have access to information and an ability to put surveillance information to use in ways that complement those of industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and federal partners. Some state public health agencies have significant experience with occupational health surveillance and are therefore valuable partners in the development and implementation of nanotechnology worker surveillance programs. Including states in emerging hazard surveillance enhances surveillance activities and builds state capacity to help workers.

  2. Valuation of scleroderma and psoriatic arthritis health states by the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hays Ron D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Psoriatic arthritis (PsA and scleroderma (SSc are chronic rheumatic disorders with detrimental effects on health-related quality of life. Our objective was to assess health values (utilities from the general public for health states common to people with PsA and SSc for economic evaluations. Methods Adult subjects from the general population in a Midwestern city (N = 218 completed the SF-12 Health Survey and computer-assisted 0-100 rating scale (RS, time trade-off (TTO, range: 0.0-1.0 and standard gamble (SG, range: 0.0-1.0 utility assessments for several hypothetical PsA and SSc health states. Results Subjects included 135 (62% females, 143 (66% Caucasians, and 62 (28% African-Americans. The mean (SD scores for the SF-12 Physical Component Summary scale were 52.9 (8.3 and for the SF-12 Mental Component Summary scale were 49.0 (9.1, close to population norms. The mean RS, TTO, and SG scores for PsA health states varied with severity, ranging from 20.2 to 63.7 (14.4-20.3 for the RS 0.29 to 0.78 (0.24-0.31 for the TTO, and 0.48 to 0.82 (0.24-0.34 for the SG. The mean RS, TTO, and SG scores for SSc health states were 25.3-69.7 (15.2-16.3 for the RS, 0.36-0.80 (0.25-0.31 for the TTO, and 0.50-0.81 (0.26-0.32 for the SG, depending on disease severity. Conclusion Health utilities for PsA and SSc health states as assessed from the general public reflect the severity of the diseases. These descriptive findings could have implications regarding comparative effectiveness research for tests and treatments for PsA and SSc.

  3. 77 FR 75696 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a...

  4. 76 FR 9072 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would...

  5. 78 FR 36816 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a...

  6. 78 FR 33437 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final... Macmillan in United States v. Apple, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 12-CV-2826 (DLC), which was filed in the... for the Southern District of New York UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff, v. APPLE, INC., et...

  7. Differential trafficking of Src, Lyn, Yes and Fyn is specified by the state of palmitoylation in the SH4 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Izumi; Obata, Yuuki; Kasahara, Kousuke; Nakayama, Yuji; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamasaki, Takahito; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Saito, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2009-04-01

    Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs), which participate in a variety of signal transduction events, are known to localize to the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane through lipid modification. Recently, we showed that Lyn, an SFK member, is exocytosed to the plasma membrane via the Golgi region along the secretory pathway. We show here that SFK trafficking is specified by the palmitoylation state. Yes is also a monopalmitoylated SFK and is biosynthetically transported from the Golgi pool of caveolin to the plasma membrane. This pathway can be inhibited in the trans-Golgi network (TGN)-to-cell surface delivery by temperature block at 19 degrees C or dominant-negative Rab11 GTPase. A large fraction of Fyn, a dually palmitoylated SFK, is directly targeted to the plasma membrane irrespective of temperature block of TGN exit. Fyn(C6S), which lacks the second palmitoylation site, is able to traffic in the same way as Lyn and Yes. Moreover, construction of Yes(S6C) and chimeric Lyn or Yes with the Fyn N-terminus further substantiates the importance of the dual palmitoylation site for plasma membrane targeting. Taken together with our recent finding that Src, a nonpalmitoylated SFK, is rapidly exchanged between the plasma membrane and late endosomes/lysosomes, these results suggest that SFK trafficking is specified by the palmitoylation state in the SH4 domain.

  8. An assessment of mercury in estuarine sediment and tissue in Southern New Jersey using public domain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kara; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.; Barringer, Julia; Smalling, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered a contaminant of global concern for coastal environments due to its toxicity, widespread occurrence in sediment, and bioaccumulation in tissue. Coastal New Jersey, USA, is characterized by shallow bays and wetlands that provide critical habitat for wildlife but share space with expanding urban landscapes. This study was designed as an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Hg in coastal New Jersey sediments and critical species using publicly available data to highlight potential data gaps. Mercury concentrations in estuary sediments can exceed 2 μg/g and correlate with concentrations of other metals. Based on existing data, the concentrations of Hg in mussels in southern New Jersey are comparable to those observed in other urbanized Atlantic Coast estuaries. Lack of methylmercury data for sediments, other media, and tissues are data gaps needing to be filled for a clearer understanding of the impacts of Hg inputs to the ecosystem.

  9. Public water supplies of the 100 largest cities of the United States, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.; Becker, Edith

    1964-01-01

    The public water supplies of the 100 largest cities in the United States (1960 U.S. Census) serve 9,650 million gallons of water per day (mgd) to 60 million people, which is 34 percent of the Nation's total population and 48 percent of the Nation's urban population. The amount of water used to satisfy the domestic needs as well as the needs of commerce and industry ranges from 13 mgd, which serves a population of 124,000, to 1,200 mgd, which serves a city of 8 million people.

  10. THE CONTROL FUNCTION OF THE STATE TREASURY, AN EFFICIENT TOOL OF PUBLIC RESOURCE UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRU POPOVICI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows a summarized form of the control function of the State Treasury with respect to the budget execution of administrative divisions. It insists on the role of the operational Treasury within the administrative fiscal bodies. The Treasury has a preventive control in that it intervenes (exercises before the economic and financial transaction, assumed and ordered by the credit officer, takes place .The control of the Treasury on the execution is done by the service / office - Control and Public Reimbursement.

  11. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS OF THE DYNAMICS OF PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AT A STATE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MĂCRIŞ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our interest in developing this scientific approach has started from the impact that Higher Education has on the social and economic growth which positively affects employability and labour market mobility. In this respect, from the analysis carried out on the dynamics of public expenditure at a State university, we have concluded that it coincides with the evolution at national level, therefore it is necessary that the current economic conditions pay attention to increasing the efficiency of costs on education, Romanian Higher Education is expected and it should play a fundamental role in asserting a national society of knowledge and learning.

  12. European Values and Practices in Post-Communist Public Administration: The Baltic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin Hilmer; Johannsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    European countries were necessary in order to ‘return to Europe’. The reconstructions in the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) have been remarkable successes. They have become members of EU and NATO and, with determination, have fought off several deep economic recessions without endangering...... democracy. Public administrations have undergone complete changes in their legal environment and deep structural reorganisation, combined with a high degree of turnover among staff. This has turned previous Soviet administrations into capable modern administrations. The question highlighted in this chapter...

  13. Organizational models of public administration: a study of some aspects of the reality derived from Ceara State reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucineide Serpa Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new public management is a much-debated issue in Brazil and in many other countries worldwide. Its origin is historically dated in the 80´s, attributed to State economic and fiscal crises that had reached many countries in that decade and was also a response to State Welfare deterioration. The answer given prescribed a set of policies that proclaimed the application of market principles and private sector logic to the Public Administration. The study has as the objective to analyze the relation between the new public model practices and the modernization and efficiency of the State administration. The specific objectives are concentrated on presenting the models of Public Administration; on identifying reforms carried through in Brazilian Public Administration until the current days; on analyzing managerial practices of the new model applied to state administration. This is an exploratory, qualitative and documentary research. Interviews had been carried out, and then, the study made use of the technique of content analysis. To choose the respondents in the field research, the study considered the criterion of linking the interviewee to the process of modernization of the Public Administration. Thus, managers, former-managers of the main state secretariats involved with modernization of public administration, and researchers who had previously taken part in this process were selected. The contribution of this work results in a better evaluation of the modernization of the state Administration and also of its consequences.

  14. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  15. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    The domain concept, originally suggested by Schmidt-Rohr in the 1930’s (as credited in Fishman’s writings in the 1970s), was an attempt to sort out different areas of language use in multilingual societies, which are relevant for language choice. In Fishman’s version, domains were considered...... not described in terms of domains, and recent research e.g. about the multilingual communities in the Danish-German border area seems to confirm this....

  16. General Public Perceptions towards Medicines in the State of Penang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sa'di Al-Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to evaluate patients' knowledge,sources of knowledge, and perceptions towards medicines inthe state of Penang, Malaysia.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study design usingconvenience sampling technique was adopted in this study. Apre-validated questionnaire was developed and distributed to800 participants in the state of Penang, Malaysia. All data wasanalysed using SPSS version 16. A p-value of less than 0.05 wasconsidered significant.Results: 700 respondents successfully responded to thesurvey. One third of the respondents were aware ofconventional/modern medicines. Whereas only 3.3% knewwhat is meant by generic medicines. High proportion ofrespondents wrongly perceived the quality of medicines to berelated to the familiarity with the medicine, frequency ofadvertisements, price, packaging and country of themanufacturer. In addition, friends, family members, financialstatus, and previous history, found to play an important role inpatients decisions when selecting medicines.Conclusion: Results of this study urge for a nationalawareness program to the public regarding medicines.Decision makers have to consider these findings since highproportion of the public perceive and consume medicinesirrationally

  17. Cannabis, pesticides and conflicting laws: the dilemma for legalized States and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Dave

    2014-08-01

    State laws on the legalization of medical and recreational cannabis are rapidly evolving. Similar to other crops, cannabis is susceptible to multiple pests during cultivation. Growers have an economic incentive to produce large yields and high quality plants, and may resort to pesticides to achieve these outcomes. Currently, there are no pesticides registered for cannabis in the United States, given its illegal status by the federal government. This discrepancy creates a regulatory vacuum and dilemma for States with legal medical and recreational cannabis that seek to balance lawful compliance with pesticides and worker or public health. Pesticide use presents occupational safety issues that can be mitigated through established worker protection measures. The absence of approved products for cannabis may result in consumer exposures to otherwise more hazardous pesticides or higher residue levels. While many legal and scientific hurdles exist to register conventional pesticides for use on cannabis, legalized States have explored other opportunities to leverage the present regulatory infrastructure. Stakeholder engagement and outreach to the cannabis industry from credible sources could mitigate pesticide misuse and harm.

  18. URGENT DESTABILIZERS OF PUBLIC AND STATE SECURITY, TACTICS OF COUNTERACTION TO IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Marinkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At creation of civil society in any constitutional state there is a crime counteraction problem. In the modern Russian Federation safety problems from the negative social phenomena and processes force scientists, public agents and ordinary citizens to investigate constantly such determinants and the reasons (destabilizers of safety of society and the constitutional state, to eliminate their consequences. Such problems as are urgent now: increase in information on ways and consequences of violence in the mass media (MM, the Internet, computer games, traditional physical abuse. The number of questions and assessment by citizens of consequences of the conducted terrorist attacks and infringement of life of citizens causes. The accounting of the specified problems and versions of decisions in law-enforcement practice, will allow to promote as a result efficiency of prevention of offenses and crimes and will bring closer modern Russia to ideal model of the constitutional state with real civil society. In article the author designates a number of the legal and social destabilizers of safety existing now in the Russian society and the state, proposes the solution of their negative impact on society within tactics of crime control.

  19. Public and Private Regulation of the Forestry Sector: The Cases of The United States and Canada : Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, H.Z.A.; Alimov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and compares public and private forestry regulation practices in Canada and the United States. The analyses focuses on industry layout, sustainability policies and new and alternative forms of environmental governance. It concludes with an eye towards Russia, its public forestry

  20. Public and Private Regulation of the Forestry Sector: The Cases of The United States and Canada : Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, H.Z.A.; Alimov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and compares public and private forestry regulation practices in Canada and the United States. The analyses focuses on industry layout, sustainability policies and new and alternative forms of environmental governance. It concludes with an eye towards Russia, its public forestry

  1. 78 FR 52601 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Arbitration... Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) Public Meeting on Arbitration, to take place on... Legal Adviser, Private International Law, Officer of the Legal Adviser. BILLING CODE 4710-08-P ...

  2. 77 FR 69434 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... smcgibbon@acus.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Administrative Conference of the United States makes... ( www.acus.gov ). Public Participation: The Conference welcomes the attendance of the public at the... ( comments@acus.gov ), no later than two business days before the meeting, in order to facilitate...

  3. Altering Public University Admission Standards to Preserve White Group Position in the United States: Results from a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies a theoretical mechanism that could potentially affect public university admissions standards in a context of demographic change. I explore how demographic changes at a prestigious public university in the United States affect individuals' evaluations of college applications. Responding to a line graph that randomly displays a…

  4. Suspension and Expulsion of Public School Students. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phay, Robert E.

    This monograph reviews and analyzes decisions dealing with suspension or expulsion of students by public school authorities. The report focuses on recent court cases that reaffirm, amplify, or extend entrenched constitutional and common law principles undergirding the public educational system in the United States. The author considers the…

  5. 47 CFR 64.1330 - State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and public interest payphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations and public interest payphones. 64.1330 Section 64.1330 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... its rules and policies to determine whether it has provided for public interest payphones consistent... Provision of Payphone Service § 64.1330 State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and...

  6. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  7. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson V. Guilherme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0% has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167 tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7, increased serum IgE levels (6/7 and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7. The presence of pets (dogs or cats at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  8. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Edson V; Marchioro, Ariella A; Araujo, Silvana M; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Adami, Carolina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Gustavo; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0%) has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP) from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167) tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7), increased serum IgE levels (6/7) and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7). The presence of pets (dogs or cats) at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  9. A pilot study exploring awareness among general public toward issues related to medication safety in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali; Shafie, Asrul A.; Fahad Saleem; Harith Al-Qazaz; Imran Masood; Muhammad Atif; Hisham Aljadhey

    2012-01-01

    Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistic...

  10. JPART Virtual Issue on Citizen-State Interactions in Public Administration Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; James, Oliver; Moynihan, Donald P.;

    2016-01-01

    of these articles in particular. These eight articles are excellent examples of the potential added value of psychological insights to key public administration questions. We hope that this Virtual Issue inspires scholars and practitioners to deepen the dialogue between public administration and psychology.......For public administration scholars, psychological theories and methods can be extremely helpful, especially when studying attitudes or behaviors of (groups of) citizens, public professionals, or public managers. Behavioral public administration explicitly connects public administration...

  11. A Directory of Public Employment Relations Boards and Agencies. A Guide to the Administrative Machinery for the Conduct of Public Employee-Management Relations Within the States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor-Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Given the diversity of existing patterns of regulations and agencies, this directory is intended to be a guide to the administrative structure and functional responsibilities of the agencies within the various states for the conduct of public sector labor relations. It is not meant to be a statutory analysis nor does it deal with the extent of…

  12. Religious beliefs and public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.; Shih, Tsung-Jen; Dalrymple, Kajsa E.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2009-02-01

    How do citizens make sense of nanotechnology as more applications reach the market and the mainstream media start to debate the potential risks and benefits of technology? As with many other political and scientific issues, citizens rely on cognitive shortcuts or heuristics to make sense of issues for which they have low levels of knowledge. These heuristics can include predispositional factors, such as ideological beliefs or value systems, and also short-term frames of reference provided by the media or other sources of information. Recent research suggests that `religious filters' are an important heuristic for scientific issues in general, and nanotechnology in particular. A religious filter is more than a simple correlation between religiosity and attitudes toward science: it refers to a link between benefit perceptions and attitudes that varies depending on respondents' levels of religiosity. In surveys, seeing the benefits of nanotechnology is consistently linked to more positive attitudes about nanotechnology among less religious respondents, with this effect being significantly weaker for more religious respondents. For this study, we have combined public opinion surveys in the United States with Eurobarometer surveys about public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe to compare the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes towards nanotechnology in the United States and Europe. Our results show that respondents in the United States were significantly less likely to agree that nanotechnology is morally acceptable than respondents in many European countries. These moral views correlated directly with aggregate levels of religiosity in each country, even after controlling for national research productivity and measures of science performance for high-school students.

  13. Current limitations of SNP data from the public domain for studies of complex disorders: a test for ten candidate genes for obesity and osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Peng

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public SNP databases are frequently used to choose SNPs for candidate genes in the association and linkage studies of complex disorders. However, their utility for such studies of diseases with ethnic-dependent background has never been evaluated. Results To estimate the accuracy and completeness of SNP public databases, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 41 SNPs in 10 candidate genes for obesity and/or osteoporosis in a large American-Caucasian sample (1,873 individuals from 405 nuclear families by PCR-invader assay. We compared our results with those from the databases and other published studies. Of the 41 SNPs, 8 were monomorphic in our sample. Twelve were reported for the first time for Caucasians and the other 29 SNPs in our sample essentially confirmed the respective allele frequencies for Caucasians in the databases and previous studies. The comparison of our data with other ethnic groups showed significant differentiation between the three major world ethnic groups at some SNPs (Caucasians and Africans differed at 3 of the 18 shared SNPs, and Caucasians and Asians differed at 13 of the 22 shared SNPs. This genetic differentiation may have an important implication for studying the well-known ethnic differences in the prevalence of obesity and osteoporosis, and complex disorders in general. Conclusion A comparative analysis of the SNP data of the candidate genes obtained in the present study, as well as those retrieved from the public domain, suggests that the databases may currently have serious limitations for studying complex disorders with an ethnic-dependent background due to the incomplete and uneven representation of the candidate SNPs in the databases for the major ethnic groups. This conclusion attests to the imperative necessity of large-scale and accurate characterization of these SNPs in different ethnic groups.

  14. Public reporting of hospital infection rates: ranking the states on credibility and user friendliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ava; Birnbaum, David W; Black, Bernard; Hyman, David A

    2013-01-01

    Health-care associated infections ("HAIs") kill about 100,000 people annually; most are preventable, but many hospitals have not aggressively addressed the problem. In response, twenty-five states and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services require public reporting of hospital infection rates for at least some types of infections, and other states and private entities are implementing such reporting. The websites and related reports vary widely in ease of access, ease of use, usefulness of information, timeliness of updates, and credibility. We report on work in progress, in which we assess the quality and suitability of different state websites and reports for different target audiences (ordinary consumers; physicians, and infection control professionals) and the extent to which they meet best practices for online communication, including Stanford's "Fogg" Guidelines for Web Credibility and user-friendliness metrics developed by other researchers. We find wide variation in quality, and substantial correlation between measures of website credibility and user-friendliness. We identify ways to improve usability, usefulness, and tailoring for information to different target audiences. Our analysis suggests that the "one website (and report format) fits all users" model may not work well in delivering complex, technical information to users with widely varying needs and sophistication.

  15. Validation of Bacteroidales quantitative PCR assays targeting human and animal fecal contamination in the public and domestic domains in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagiri, Mitsunori; Schriewer, Alexander; Hanley, Kaitlyn; Wuertz, Stefan; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-01-01

    We compared host-associated Bacteroidales qPCR assays developed in the continental United States and Europe for the purpose of measuring the effect of improved sanitation on human fecal exposure in rural Indian communities where both human and animal fecal loading are high. Ten candidate Bacteroidales qPCR assays were tested against fecal samples (human, sewage, cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, dog and chicken) from a test set of 30 individual human, 5 sewage, and 60 pooled animal samples collected in coastal Odisha, India. The two universal/general Bacteroidales assays tested (BacUni, GenBac3) performed equally well, achieving 100% sensitivity on the test set. Across the five human-associated assays tested (HF183 Taqman, BacHum, HumM2, BacH, HF183 SYBR), we found low sensitivity (17 to 49%) except for HF183 SYBR (89%), and moderate to high cross-reactivity with dog (20 to 80%) and chicken fecal samples (60 to 100%). BacHum had the highest accuracy (67%), amplified all sewage samples within the range of quantification (ROQ), and did not cross-react with any fecal samples from cows, the most populous livestock animal in India. Of the ruminant- and cattle-associated assays tested (BacCow, CowM2), BacCow was more sensitive in detecting the full range of common Indian livestock animal fecal sources, while CowM2 only detected cow sources with 50% sensitivity. Neither assay cross-reacted with human sources. BacCan, the dog-associated assay tested, showed no cross-reactivity with human sources, and high sensitivity (90%) for dog fecal samples. Overall, our results indicate BacUni, BacHum, HumM2, BacCan and BacCow would be the most suitable MST assays to distinguish and quantify relative amounts of human-associated and livestock/domestic animal-associated contributions to fecal contamination in Odisha, India.

  16. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditures accounts: the United States experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Arthur L

    2007-01-01

    Providing for the delivery of public health services and understanding the funding mechanisms for these services are topics of great currency in the United States. In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was created and the responsibility for providing public health services was realigned among federal agencies. State and local public health agencies are under increased financial pressures even as they shoulder more responsibilities as the vital first link in the provision of public health services. Recent events, such as hurricanes Katrina and Rita, served to highlight the need to accurately access the public health delivery system at all levels of government. The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), prepared by the National Health Statistics Group, measure expenditures on healthcare goods and services in the United States. Government public health activity constitutes an important service category in the NHEA. In the most recent set of estimates, Government Public Health Activity expenditures totaled $56.1 billion in 2004, or 3.0 percent of total US health spending. Accurately measuring expenditures for public health services in the United States presents many challenges. Among these challenges is the difficult task of defining what types of government activity constitute public health services. There is no clear-cut, universally accepted definition of government public health care services, and the definitions in the proposed International Classification for Health Accounts are difficult to apply to an individual country's unique delivery systems. Other challenges include the definitional issues associated with the boundaries of healthcare as well as the requirement that census and survey data collected from government(s) be compliant with the Classification of Functions of Government (COFOG), an internationally recognized classification system developed by the United Nations.

  17. 75 FR 55846 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the Work of the UNCITRAL Working Group on Procurement The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law...

  18. 78 FR 50480 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Arbitration The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, gives... arbitration that will be considered by the Secretariat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade...

  19. 78 FR 17652 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public Service Company of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public Service... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 and 18 CFR 385.212, Tri-State Generation and...

  20. 76 FR 77584 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... (international electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) met.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would...

  1. Interpersonal influence among public health leaders in the United States Department of Health and Human Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine K. Harris

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In public health, interpersonal influence has been identified as an important factor in the spread of health information, and in understanding and changing health behaviors. However, little is known about influence in public health leadership. Influence is important in leadership settings, where public health professionals contribute to national policy and practice agendas. Drawing on social theory and recent advances in statistical network modeling, we examined influence in a network of tobacco control leaders at the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS. Design and Methods. Fifty-four tobacco control leaders across all 11 agencies in the DHHS were identified; 49 (91% responded to a web-based survey. Participants were asked about communication with other tobacco control leaders, who influenced their work, and general job characteristics. Exponential random graph modeling was used to develop a network model of influence accounting for characteristics of individuals, their relationships, and global network structures. Results. Higher job ranks, more experience in tobacco control, and more time devoted to tobacco control each week increased the likelihood of influence nomination, as did more frequent communication between network members. Being in the same agency and working the same number of hours per week were positively associated with mutual influence nominations. Controlling for these characteristics, the network also exhibited patterns associated with influential clusters of network members. Conclusions. Findings from this unique study provide a perspective on influence within a government agency that both helps to understand decision-making and also can serve to inform organizational efforts that allow for more effective structuring of leadership.

  2. Hurricane Public Health Research Center at Louisiana State University a Case of Academia Being Prepared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, I. L.

    2006-12-01

    Recent floods along the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards and elsewhere in the world before Katrina had demonstrated the complexity of public health impacts including trauma; fires; chemical, sewerage, and corpse contamination of air and water; and diseases. We realized that Louisiana's vulnerability was exacerbated because forty percent of the state is coastal zone in which 70% of the population resides. Ninety percent of this zone is near or below sea level and protected by man-made hurricane-protection levees. New Orleans ranked among the highest in the nation with respect to potential societal, mortality, and economic impacts. Recognizing that emergency responders had in the past been unprepared for the extent of the public health impacts of these complex flooding disasters, we created a multi-disciplinary, multi-campus research center to address these issues for New Orleans. The Louisiana Board of Regents, through its millennium Health Excellence Fund, awarded a 5-year contract to the Center in 2001. The research team combined the resources of natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, and the mental health and medical communities. We met annually with a Board of Advisors, made up of federal, state, local government, and non-governmental agency officials, first responders and emergency managers. Their advice was invaluable in acquiring various datasets and directing aspects of the various research efforts. Our center developed detailed models for assessment and amelioration of public health impacts due to hurricanes and major floods. Initial research had showed that a Category 3 storm would cause levee overtopping, and that most levee systems were unprotected from the impacts of storm-induced wave erosion. Sections of levees with distinct sags suggested the beginnings of foundation and subsidence problems. We recognized that a slow moving Cat 3 could flood up to the eaves of houses and would have residence times of weeks. The resultant mix of sewage, corpses

  3. Exploring and Contextualizing Public Opposition to Renewable Electricity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K. Sovacool

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores public opposition to renewable power technologies in the United States. It begins by discussing the genesis of environmental ethics, or how some Americans have come to place importance on the protection of the environment and preservation of species, ecosystems, and the biosphere. As result, renewable power systems have become challenged on ethical and environmental grounds and are occasionally opposed by local communities and environmentalists. The article finds that, however, such concern may be misplaced. Renewable electricity resources have many environmental benefits compared to power stations fueled by coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium. Opposition towards renewable resources can at times obscure the true costs and risks associated with electricity use and entrench potential racial and class-based inequalities within the current energy system.

  4. Behead, Burn, Crucify, Crush: Theorizing the Islamic State's Public Display of Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Simone Molin

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 2014, the militant group known as the Islamic State (IS) emerged as a central security concern on the international agenda. An important element in IS’s rapid rise to infamy was the group’s ability to exploit the contemporary media environment to render its retributive justice...... and public display of transgressive violence. By placing the phenomenon in a broader historical-political context and interpretative field that reaches beyond the immediate sense of horror and outrage, the paper seeks to surpass the sensationalism in order to explicate the logic, dynamics and effects...... embedded in the political technique of displaying cruelty against individual human bodies. Subsequently, the paper reflects on what the case of IS’s videos can teach us about the transformation of staged violence in the 21st century....

  5. Gaps in the Public's Knowledge About Chronic Pain: Representative Sample of Hispanic Residents From 5 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Liang, Yuanyuan; Rodriguez, Natalia; Valerio, Melissa A; Rochat, Andrea; Potter, Jennifer S; Winkler, Paula

    2017-01-12

    Educating the general public about chronic pain and its care is a national health priority. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) of a 5-state, population-based sample of Hispanic individuals aged 35 to 75 years without chronic pain, representing more than 8.8 million persons. A Web-based survey assessed KAB using an adapted version of the Survey of Pain Attitudes-Brief and self-reported knowledge about chronic pain (nothing, a little, a lot). In unweighted analyses of participants (N = 349), the mean age was 52.0 (±10.6) years, 54% were women, 53% preferred Spanish, and 39% did not graduate from high school. More participants reported knowing nothing about chronic pain (24%) than a lot (12%). In weighted logistic models with knowing nothing as the reference, knowing a lot was associated with greater KAB for chronic pain-related emotions, functioning, and cure (all P chronic pain care, these data underscore the need for effective public educational campaigns about chronic pain.

  6. Alcohol misuse, firearm violence perpetration, and public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2015-10-01

    Firearm violence is a significant public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is frequently involved. This article reviews existing research on the relationships between alcohol misuse; ownership, access to, and use of firearms; and the commission of firearm violence, and discusses the policy implications of these findings. Narrative review augmented by new tabulations of publicly-available data. Acute and chronic alcohol misuse is positively associated with firearm ownership, risk behaviors involving firearms, and risk for perpetrating both interpersonal and self-directed firearm violence. In an average month, an estimated 8.9 to 11.7 million firearm owners binge drink. For men, deaths from alcohol-related firearm violence equal those from alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Enforceable policies restricting access to firearms for persons who misuse alcohol are uncommon. Policies that restrict access on the basis of other risk factors have been shown to reduce risk for subsequent violence. The evidence suggests that restricting access to firearms for persons with a documented history of alcohol misuse would be an effective violence prevention measure. Restrictions should rely on unambiguous definitions of alcohol misuse to facilitate enforcement and should be rigorously evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Value predispositions as perceptual filters: Comparing of public attitudes toward nanotechnology in the United States and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuan; Ho, Shirley S; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Anderson, Ashley A; Hao, Xiaoming; He, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    This study compares public attitudes toward nanotechnology in the United States and Singapore, using large-scale survey data in both countries. Results indicate that Singaporeans tend to be more knowledgeable about and familiar with nanotechnology than the U.S. public. Singaporeans tend to perceive greater benefits and fewer potential risks of nanotechnology, and to indicate greater support for government funding for nanotechnology than the U.S. public. Between the two countries, perceived familiarity with nanotechnology and the benefits and risks of the emerging technology tend to be interpreted differently through the lens of value predispositions (religiosity and deference to scientific authority) and therefore they indirectly affect public support. Specifically, the U.S. public tends to use religiosity to interpret benefits and Singaporeans are inclined to use religiosity to think about risks. Deference to scientific authority also moderates the impact of perceived familiarity with nanotechnology on funding support for the technology among the U.S. public.

  8. Education and Public Outreach Programs at Columbus State University's Mead Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S.; Rutland, C.; Carr, D.; Seckinger, M.

    2003-12-01

    Columbus State University (CSU) has made a substantial commitment to community education in astronomy and space science. Through the programs of the Mead Observatory at CSU's Coca-Cola Space Science Center, students, staff and faculty have been providing public outreach programs in astronomy for more than seven years. Recently, a generous grant from a private foundation has facilitated an astounding growth in the observatory's astronomy outreach activities. The grant made possible the purchase of a van, a portable planetarium, and additional telescope and computer equipment. It also funded a two-year scholarship that has supported a pair of CSU's science education majors who have staffed the program and made it a success. NASA, through the Georgia Space Grant Consortium, has provided additional funding for scholarships for 2003-2004. Prior to receiving these funds, the observatory program consisted of monthly open houses, occasional public observing nights at remote locations and approximately 6 to 8 school visits per year. Annually, these programs served approximately 3500 people. Since beginning the new phase of this program in October of 2001, the number of people served has soared to more than 23,000 in only 24 months. Over 60 schools have been visited, increasing our previous annual rate by nearly five times. Additional groups served include boys and girls scouting groups, state parks and other community organizations. School presentations have been designed to assist K-12 teachers in meeting science education standards. More than 200 teachers were asked to assess the program, and their responses were quite positive. More information about the program is available at our website (http://www.ccssc.org).

  9. The occurrence of radioactivity in public water supplies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, C T; Michel, J; Horton, T R; Prichard, H M; Coniglio, W A

    1985-05-01

    Examination of the collected data for radionuclide concentration measurements in public water supplies in the United States show more than 51,000 measurements for gross alpha-particle activity and/or Ra, 89,900 measurements for U, and 9,000 measurements for Rn. These measurements were made as part of national and state surveys of radionuclide concentrations in utility water supplies for Ra and Rn; and the National Uranium Resource Evolution (NURE) survey for U which included non-utility water supplies. Surface water has low values for Ra and Rn but levels comparable to ground water for U. Separate isotope measurements were not taken for much of the Ra and U data. Because 226Ra to 228Ra ratios and 238U to 234U ratios are not fixed in water, further measurements are needed to establish the specific isotopic concentrations by region. Analysis of the state average values in geological provinces shows the highest provincial areas for Ra are the Upper Coastal Plain, the glaciated Central Platform, and the Colorado plateau. For U, the highest areas are the Colorado plateau, the West Central Platform, and the Rocky Mountains. For Rn, the highest provinces are New England and the Appalachian Highlands-Piedmont. Regional hydrogeological and geochemical models are suggested for guiding the formulation of regional standards and monitoring strategies. Utility supplies serving small populations have the highest concentration for each radionuclide and have the lowest fraction of samples measured, which shows a need for further measurements of these small population water supplies. Risk estimates for the average concentration of Ra in utility ground water give about 941 fatal cancers per 70.7-yr lifetime in the United States. Risk estimates for the average concentration of U in utility surface and ground water give about 105 fatal cancers per 70.7-yr lifetime in the United States. Using 1 pCi/liter in air for 10,000 pCi/l in water, the Rn in utility water risk estimate is for 4

  10. Do State Fiscal Constraints Affect Implementation of Highway Public-Private Partnerships? A Panel Fixed Logit Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhenhua; Daito, Nobuhiko; Gifford, Jonathon L.

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure public-private partnerships (“P3s”) have gained considerable recognition as useful policy tools for state and local governments to deliver critically needed infrastructure projects. The objective of this study is to empirically test one of the claims often made regarding states’ motivations for employing this procurement mechanism: P3s can help overcome fiscal constraints on state infrastructure investment. In addition, this study empirically analyzes how state P3 enabling legi...

  11. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Henrik; Plummer, Alice; Wells, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    "Biased self-perception," the tendency to perceive one's social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48) versus a low (n = 48) social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  12. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nordahl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Biased self-perception,” the tendency to perceive one’s social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48 versus a low (n = 48 social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  13. Student Rating of Teaching Behaviour of Chemistry Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Ekiti State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatayo James Ayodele

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated student-rating of teaching behaviour of Chemistry teachers in public secondary schools in EkitiState. Participants were 750 SS II Chemistry students (Male=375, Female=375 selected from 75 schools across the 16 local government areas of Ekiti State based on purposive and stratified random sampling techniques. Data were collected using a 30-item Teaching Behaviour Questionnaire (TBQ clustered into seven categories (CATi=1,2,3,… ranging from attendance and punctuality in class to evaluation of students’ work. Each item was rated on a five-point scale namely: excellent=5; very good=4; good=3; fair=2 and poor=1, with reliability coefficient=0.713 using Cronbach-α and analysed using means, standard deviations, item-total correlations and t-test tested at 0.05 level of significance. Results showed that the teaching behaviour of Chemistry teachers was good; the rating was statistically reliable and devoid of gender bias. It was recommended that teachers should justify the rating ascribed to their teaching behaviour by improving on their pedagogical skills to enhance better learning and performance of students in Chemistry.

  14. Heat Stress Illness Emergency Department Visits in National Environmental Public Health Tracking States, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter-Leggett, Ethan D; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Choudhary, Ekta

    2016-02-01

    Variability of heat stress illness (HSI) by urbanicity and climate region has rarely been considered in previous HSI studies. We investigated temporal and geographic trends in HSI emergency department (ED) visits in CDC Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking) states for 2005-2010. We obtained county-level HSI ED visit data for 14 Tracking states. We used the National Center for Health Statistics Urban-Rural Classification Scheme to categorize counties by urbanicity as (1) large central metropolitan (LCM), (2) large fringe metropolitan, (3) small-medium metropolitan, or (4) nonmetropolitan (NM). We also assigned counties to one of six US climate regions. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in HSI ED visits over time across all counties and by urbanicity for each climate region, adjusting for pertinent variables. During 2005-2010, there were 98,462 HSI ED visits in the 14 states. ED visits for HSI decreased 3.0% (p < 0.01) per year. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HSI ED visits increased from most urban to most rural. Overall, ED visits were significantly higher for NM areas (IRR = 1.41, p < 0.01) than for LCM areas. The same pattern was observed in all six climate regions; compared with LCM, NM areas had from 14 to 90% more ED visits for HSI. These findings of significantly increased HSI ED visit rates in more rural settings suggest a need to consider HSI ED visit variability by county urbanicity and climate region when designing and implementing local HSI preventive measures and interventions.

  15. Heat Stress Illness Emergency Department Visits in National Environmental Public Health Tracking States, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter-Leggett, Ethan D.; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Choudhary, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Variability of heat stress illness (HSI) by urbanicity and climate region has rarely been considered in previous HSI studies. We investigated temporal and geographic trends in HSI emergency department (ED) visits in CDC Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking) states for 2005–2010. We obtained county-level HSI ED visit data for 14 Tracking states. We used the National Center for Health Statistics Urban-Rural Classification Scheme to categorize counties by urbanicity as 1) large central metropolitan (LCM), 2) large fringe metropolitan (LFM), 3) small–medium metropolitan (SMM), or 4) nonmetropolitan (NM). We also assigned counties to one of six US climate regions. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in HSI ED visits over time across all counties and by urbanicity for each climate region, adjusting for pertinent variables. During 2005–2010, there were 98,462 HSI ED visits in the 14 states. ED visits for HSI decreased 3.0 % (p < 0.01) per year. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HSI ED visits increased from most urban to most rural. Overall, ED visits were significantly higher for NM areas (IRR = 1.41, p < 0.01) than for LCM areas. The same pattern was observed in all six climate regions; compared with LCM, NM areas had from 14 % to 90 % more ED visits for HSI. These findings of significantly increased HSI ED visit rates in more rural settings suggest a need to consider HSI ED visit variability by county urbanicity and climate region when designing and implementing local HSI preventive measures and interventions. PMID:26205070

  16. The structure and organization of local and state public health agencies in the U.S.: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Justeen K; Shortell, Stephen M

    2012-05-01

    This systematic review provides a synthesis of the growing field of public health systems research related to the structure and organization of state and local governmental public health agencies. It includes an overview of research examining the influence of organizational characteristics on public health performance and health status and a summary of the strengths and gaps of the literature to date. Data were retrieved through an iterative process, beginning with key word searches in three publication databases (PubMed, JSTOR, Web of Science). Gray literature was searched through the use of Google Scholar™. Targeted searches on websites and key authors were also performed. Documents underwent an initial and secondary screening; they were retained if they contained information about local or state public health structure, organization, governance, and financing. 77 articles met the study criteria. Public health services are delivered by a mix of local, state, and tribal governmental and nongovernmental agencies and delivered through centralized (28%); decentralized (37%); or combined authority (35%). The majority of studies focused on organizational characteristics that are associated with public health performance based on the 10 Essential Public Health Services framework. Population size of jurisdiction served (>50,000); structure of authority (decentralized and mixed); per capita spending at the local level; some partnerships (academic, health services); and leadership of agency directors have been found to be related to public health performance. Fewer studies examined the relationship between organizational characteristics and health outcomes. Improvements in health outcomes are associated with an increase in local health department expenditures, FTEs per capita, and location of health department within local networks. Public health systems in the U.S. face a number of critical challenges, including limited organizational capacity and financial resources

  17. Polyglutamine Amyloid Core Boundaries and Flanking Domain Dynamics in Huntingtin Fragment Fibrils Determined by Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Hoop, Cody L.; Lin, Hsiang-Kai; Kar, Karunakar; Hou, Zhipeng; Poirier, Michelle A.; Wetzel, Ronald; van der Wel, Patrick C.A.

    2014-01-01

    In Huntington’s disease, expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) domain in the huntingtin (htt) protein leads to misfolding and aggregation. There is much interest in the molecular features that distinguish monomeric, oligomeric, and fibrillar species that populate the aggregation pathway and likely differ in cytotoxicity. The mechanism and rate of aggregation are greatly affected by the domains flanking the polyQ segment within exon 1 of htt. A “protective” C-terminal proline-rich flanking doma...

  18. The state and autonomous communities in spain: A Relationship that Complicates the Task of Reducing Public Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The needs imposed by the economic, ideological and institutional crisis have brought along new functions for the public sector. Nevertheless, within this new scene, the intense decentralisation of financial issues, which is characteristic of the Spanish State, makes it bad-suited for prompt and efficient compliance with decisions taken by the organisations that compose the embryonic global financial governance system and hinders tasks such as the unavoidable reduction of public deficit diffic...

  19. Environmental Sustainability: Study an Institution of Higher Education Public of the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kalynka Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the general objective of analyzing the environmental sustainability of an Institution of Higher Education (IHE Public of the State of Santa Catarina. To meet this objective has to reach the specific objectives: to check the number of IHEs in Brazil and Santa Catarina; to identify the number of public and private institutions and to propose a management model 5W2H to deficit sustainability criteria. The methodology and the objectives considered descriptive, with the technical procedures has the case study and the approach problem qualitative. The methodology is divided into three phases: the first phase it is the theoretical basis, it approaches social and environmental responsibility; environmental management and environmental management system. In the second phase it is the analysis of the results where first there was the amount of IHE and distribution in administrative categories. In the third phase, it has been the purpose of responding to a checklist of 154 questions developed by Pieri et al (2011 and Environmental Management Plan Summary (5W2H. In the end it is concluded that the institution submitted a global sustainability index of 32 %, being regarded as weak, proposing with the 5W2H tool, an action for each criterion, as the inclusion of recyclable products in acquisitions; recycling of waste; accessibility to the handicapped; and creating actions that approximates the IHE to the society. It is hoped that the proposed actions that the institution to put them into practice, increase the environmental sustainability index, benefiting society and the environment.

  20. Public health against a centralized state: institutions and welfare services in the province of Mendoza during the first Peronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Hirschegger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the state action in public health during the first Peronism and engages on some factors that determined the success or failure of policies at provincial level. The work also refers , through concrete examples , to smaller territorial units such as municipalities , while application areas of public policy or executors of them. Some of the questions that were attempted to answer what extent the new changes in the state structure were accompanied by concrete actions that have a bearing on the living conditions of the population? What obstacles limited government action? the realization of public works will be included in this analysis by the state , staff in charge , as well as investments in other resources necessary for adequate medical care.

  1. Public Reporting of Nursing Home Quality of Care: Lessons from the United States Experience for Canadian Policy Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Alison M.; Draper, Kellie; Sales, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    While the demand for continuing care services in Canada grows, the quality of such services has come under increasing scrutiny. Consideration has been given to the use of public reporting of quality data as a mechanism to stimulate quality improvement and promote public accountability for and transparency in service quality. The recent adoption of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) throughout a number of Canadian jurisdictions means that standardized quality data are available for comparisons among facilities across regions, provinces and nationally. In this paper, we explore current knowledge on public reporting in nursing homes in the United States to identify what lessons may inform policy discussion regarding potential use of public reporting in Canada. Based on these findings, we make recommendations regarding how public reporting should be progressed and managed if Canadian jurisdictions were to implement this strategy. PMID:21037828

  2. Shrinking the Administrative State: New Public Management Before and After 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. Henderson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The New Public Management (NPM is a worldwide administrative phenomenon that is well-exemplified in the United States experience. Nurtured in the Reagan years with "get government off our backs" rhetoric, it matured under President Clinton's National Performance Review and the subsequent Republican approach under President Bush. Both the Democratic and Republican leadership provided a vision of business-like government that is less intrusive yet responsive to citizens. The rate of growth of government programs was to be curtailed. However, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon gave rise to a "War on Terror" that changed priorities. Traditional public administration values of centralized control, coordination, and inter-governmental cooperation were emphasized. Shrinking of the administrative state was limited to non-Defense, non-Homeland Security arenas.Resumen La Nueva Administración Pública (NPM es un fenómeno mundial que nace de la experiencia norteamericana. Alimentada en los años de la administración Reagan con la retórica de "quitarse al gobierno de las espaldas", éste maduró bajo la crítica nacional a la actuación del Presidente Clinton y el posterior acercamiento republicano bajo el mandato del Presidente Bush. Tanto los líderes demócratas como republicanos proporcionaron una visión de gobierno empresarial, menos intruso pero más responsable a los ciudadanos. El índice de crecimiento de los programas de gobierno iba a ser limitado. Sin embargo, el ataque terrorista del 11 de septiembre del 2001 sobre el World Trade Center y el Pentágono dio pie a la "guerra contra el terrorismo" cambiando las prioridades. Fueron enfatizados los valores tradicionales de la administración pública, el control y la coordinación centralizada y la cooperación intra-gubernamental. La disminución del estado administrativo fue limitado a las áreas que no implican temáticas de defensa y

  3. Two novel cyclodextrin-degrading enzymes isolated from thermophilic bacteria have similar domain structures but differ in oligomeric state and activity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Pernilla; Labes, Antje; Fridjonsson, Olafur H; Hreggvidson, Gudmundur O; Schönheit, Peter; Kristjansson, Jakob K; Holst, Olle; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we present the expression and characterization of two novel enzymes from the alpha-amylase family exhibiting cyclomaltodextrinase specificity. The nucleotide sequences encoding the enzymes were isolated from the genomic DNA of two thermophilic bacterial strains originating from Icelandic hot springs and belonging to the genera Anoxybacillus (AfCda13) and Laceyella (LsCda13). The genes were amplified using a consensus primer strategy utilizing two of the four conserved regions present in glycoside hydrolase family 13. No identifiable signal peptides were present in open reading frames encoding the enzymes, indicating an intracellular location of both enzymes, and their physiological function to be intracellular cyclodextrin degradation. The domain structures of both enzymes were also similar, including an N-terminal domain, the catalytic module composed of the A- and B-domains, and a C-terminal domain. Despite the similarity in domain composition, the two enzymes displayed differences in the oligomeric state with AfCda13 being a dimeric protein, whereas LsCda13 was monomeric. The two enzymes also displayed significantly different activity profiles, despite being active on the same range of substrates. It was shown that the enzyme displaying the highest activity on cyclodextrin was dimeric (AfCda13). Moreover, a fraction of the dimeric enzyme could be converted to a monomeric state in the presence of KCl and this fraction retained only 23% of its activity on alpha-cyclodextrin while its activity on starch was not significantly affected, indicating that the oligomeric state is an important factor for a high activity on cyclodextrin substrates.

  4. General public perceptions towards medicines in the state of penang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sa′di Al-Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study urge for a national awareness program to the public regarding medicines. Decision makers have to consider these findings since high proportion of the public perceive and consume medicines irrationally.

  5. 76 FR 6311 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...) ``best sellers'' until public demand for print editions began to decline in favor of more current... Register since August 4, 1949 and continued to be one of the GPO's ``best sellers'' until public demand for...

  6. 网络微博中公共领域与私人领域的融合%The Fusion of the Public Domain and Private Sphere in Network Micro Blog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石良

    2012-01-01

    It is clarified that based on the public domain and the private sphere,the paper chooses the micro blog as a starting point,takes examples from sociological theory such as discursive power,social role,and opinion leaders,the fusion tendency of the public domain-private sector in the network——the public domain personal and private sector public is clarified.And it is analyzed that based on reality,the effect is brought to the society by fusion of the public or private field.%把微博作为切入点,借鉴话语权、社会角色、意见领袖等社会学理论阐释了网络中公共领域和私人领域融合的趋势——公共领域私人化与私人领域公共化。并且立足现实,分析了公私领域融合给社会带来的现实影响。

  7. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Melki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that resonate with cultural values and help it ultimately recruit supporters and deter foes.

  8. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Melki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that resonate with cultural values and help it ultimately recruit supporters and deter foes.

  9. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2006: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-14

    Rabies is a fatal viral zoonosis and a serious public health problem. The recommendations in this compendium serve as a basis for animal rabies prevention and control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. These recommendations do not supersede state and local laws or requirements. Principles of rabies prevention and control are detailed in Part I; Part II contains recommendations for parenteral vaccination procedures; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part III.

  10. The state of client-centered public service delivery in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; van der Geest, Thea; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Arendsen, R.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Hans J.; Janssen, Marijn; Traunmüller, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Businesses and citizens demand a better and more client-centered way of service delivery from public organizations. As society becomes more complex, dynamic and diverse, public organizations need to adapt to this demand. Conversely, our perception is that public organizations might still treat their

  11. The state of client-centered public service delivery in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jurjen; Vries, de Sjoerd; Geest, van der Thea; Dijk, van Jan; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Hans J.; Janssen, Marijn; Traunmüller, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Businesses and citizens demand a better and more client-centered way of service delivery from public organizations. As society becomes more complex, dynamic and diverse, public organizations need to adapt to this demand. Conversely, our perception is that public organizations might still treat their

  12. Public Relations State-of-the-Art 2000: A Shift in Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maureen E.

    This paper begins by examining various definitions of public relations and reviewing the history of the profession. The paper then identifies critical concerns, issues, and trends that both the public relations practitioner and the public will face in the future. These issues include ethics, community relations, communication theory and research,…

  13. Genetically modified organisms in the United States: implementation, concerns, and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeschger, Max P; Silva, Catherine E

    2007-01-01

    We examine the state of biotechnology with respect to genetically modified (GM) organisms in agriculture. Our focus is on the USA, where there has been significant progress and implementation but where, to date, the matter has drawn little attention. GM organisms are the result of lateral gene transfers, the transfer of genes from one species to another, or sometimes, from one kingdom to another. The introduction of foreign genes makes some people very uncomfortable, and a small group of activists have grave concerns about the technology. Attempts by activists to build concern in the general public have garnered little attention; however, the producers of GM organisms have responded to their concerns and established extensive testing programs to be applied to each candidate organism that is produced. In the meantime, GM varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and rapeseed have been put into agricultural production and are now extensively planted. These crops, and the other, newer GM crops, have produced no problems and have pioneered a silent agricultural revolution in the USA.

  14. Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2013-09-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.

  15. A National Blessing: Debt and Public Credit in the Atlantic Foundation of the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Battistini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the premises, the author analyses how the different historiographical trends concerning the Atlantic world have reduced the centrality of the State, and recent researches which focused on the processes of State-building and on the financial revolutions between the Seventeenth and the Nineteenth centuries. Within this frame, the essay outlines an Atlantic history of the foundation of the U.S. through a reading of the Report on Public Credit (1782 of Robert Morris, Superintendent of Finances, and some writings of Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury. The author argues that the institution of public debt and the foundation of the national bank constituted an adequate response not only to the need of State which characterized European history, but also to the capitalistic practices which marked European economies. The author underlines the continuity between the processes of State-building and the transition to capitalism in Europe and America in the age of the democratic revolutions.

  16. The auto-inhibitory state of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5/TIM can be relieved by targeting its SH3 domain with rationally designed peptide aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Tan, De-Li; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lv, Feng-Lin; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The short isoform of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 is known as TIM, which plays diverse roles in, for example, tumorigenesis, neuronal development and Src-induced podosome formation through the activation of its substrates, the Rho family of GTPases. The activation is auto-inhibited by a putative helix N-terminal to the DH domain of TIM, which is stabilized by the intramolecular interaction of C-terminal SH3 domain with a poly-proline sequence between the putative helix and the DH domain. In this study, we systematically investigated the structural basis, energetic landscape and biological implication underlying TIM auto-inhibition by using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis. The computational study revealed that the binding of SH3 domain to poly-proline sequence is the prerequisite for the stabilization of TIM auto-inhibition. Thus, it is suggested that targeting SH3 domain with competitors of the poly-proline sequence would be a promising strategy to relieve the auto-inhibitory state of TIM. In this consideration, we rationally designed a number of peptide aptamers for competitively inhibiting the SH3 domain based on modeled TIM structure and computationally generated data. Peptide binding test and guanine nucleotide exchange analysis solidified that these designed peptides can both bind to the SH3 domain potently and activate TIM-catalyzed RhoA exchange reaction effectively. Interestingly, a positive correlation between the peptide affinity and induced exchange activity was observed. In addition, separate mutation of three conserved residues Pro49, Pro52 and Lys54 - they are required for peptide recognition by SH3 domain -- in a designed peptide to Ala would completely abolish the capability of this peptide activating TIM. All these come together to suggest an intrinsic relationship between peptide binding to SH3 domain and the activation of TIM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de

  17. Replacing the wild type loxP site in BACs from the public domain with lox66 using a lox66 transposon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stennett Naima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin adjoining the site of integration of a transgene affects expression and renders comparisons of closely related transgenes, such as those derived from a BAC deletion series retrofitted with enhancer-traps, unreliable. Gene targeting to a pre-determined site on the chromosome is likely to alleviate the problem. Findings A general procedure to replace the loxP site located at one end of genomic DNA inserts in BACs with lox66 is described. Truncating insert DNA from the loxP end with a Tn10 transposon carrying a lox66 site simultaneously substitutes the loxP with a lox66 sequence. The replacement occurs with high stringency, and the procedure should be applicable to all BACs in the public domain. Cre recombination of loxP with lox66 or lox71 was found to be as efficient as another loxP site during phage P1 transduction of small plasmids containing those sites. However the end-deletion of insert DNA in BACs using a lox66 transposon occurred at no more than 20% the efficiency observed with a loxP transposon. Differences in the ability of Cre protein available at different stages of the P1 life cycle to recombine identical versus non-identical lox-sites is likely responsible for this discrepancy. A possible mechanism to explain these findings is discussed. Conclusions The loxP/lox66 replacement procedure should allow targeting BACs to a pre-positioned lox71 site in zebrafish chromosomes; a system where homologous recombination-mediated "knock-in" technology is unavailable.

  18. U.S. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND SECURITY OF AN INDEPENDENT STATE (“ROSE REVOLUTION” IN GEORGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina P. TELENGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The programs of information, culture and education, used as part of foreign policy, which are known as public diplomacy, experience a new stage of development. First of all, this situation is explained by the states’ understanding the importance of using of public diplomacy elements to achieve foreign policy objectives, consistent with the national interests of states. Due to the rapid development of information technology has developed new methods of influence on society. In the first place, with Internet blogs and social networks. The United States of America uses the most active public diplomacy to achieve foreign policy goals. Over the past few decades due to the fact that the changed political reality in the world of public diplomacy has become a tool of democracy promotion. The most successful public diplomacy projects recently have been those that act on the territory of the former Soviet Union countries. Through training of representatives of government and parliament, the formation of political parties and participate in elections held by the United States, there were the color revolutions that led to the change of the power elite

  19. LLRW disposal site selection process. Southeast Compact -- State of North Carolina: A combined technical and public information approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, F.G.; Amick, D.C.; Khoury, S.G. [Ebasco Services Incorporated, Greensboro, NC (United States); Stowe, C.H.; Guichard, P. [NC Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The State of North Carolina has been designated to host the second commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facility for the Southeast Compact. The North Carolina facility is to be operational on January 1, 1993, concurrent with the closing of the present facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The NC Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority and its contractor, Ebasco Services Incorporated, initiated the site selection process in July of 1988. The present schedule calls for the identification of two or more sites for detailed characterization in the latter half of 1989. The site selection process is following two concurrent and parallel paths. The first is the technical site screening process, which is focusing the search for a suitable site by the systematic application of state and federal laws and regulations regarding exclusion and suitability factors. In a parallel effort, the NCLL Radioactive Waste Management Authority has embarked on an extensive public information program. In addition to newsletters, fact sheets, brochures, video tapes, and news releases, a total of six regional meetings and 26 public forums have been held across the state. A total of 4,764 people attended the forums, 1,241 questions were asked, and 243 public statements were made. The combination of a systematic, defensible technical siting process and the concurrent release of information and numerous statewide public meetings and forums is proving to be an effective strategy for the eventual identification of sites that are both technically suitable and publicly acceptable.

  20. Crystal structures of wild-type Trichoderma reesei Cel7A catalytic domain in open and closed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenheimer, Annette M. [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA; Meilleur, Flora [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA

    2016-11-07

    Trichoderma reesei Cel7A efficiently hydrolyses cellulose. We report here the crystallographic structures of the wild-type TrCel7A catalytic domain (CD) in an open state and, for the first time, in a closed state. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that the loops along the CD tunnel move in concerted motions. Together, the crystallographic and MD data suggest that the CD cycles between the tense and relaxed forms that are characteristic of work producing enzymes. Analysis of the interactions formed by R251 provides a structural rationale for the concurrent decrease in product inhibition and catalytic efficiency measured for product-binding site mutants.

  1. Keeping strategic thinking in strategic planning: macro-environmental analysis in a state department of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, P M; Duncan, W J; Capper, S A

    1992-07-01

    This paper examined the tendency of strategic decision makers in public health to allow their strategic planning process to degenerate into short-term, operational management. The temptation is great in light of pressing current problems. However, the danger of not thinking strategically about the future and of failing to attempt to position the organization in such a way as to take advantage of its strengths and minimize the adverse consequences of its weaknesses can be catastrophic. An attempt is made to illustrate how one state department of public health attempted to ensure that strategic thinking remained a part of its strategic planning process. The process was built around the energizing of the expertise present in the department and the mobilization of resources under the direction of the State Health Officer. The process is ongoing and is constantly fine tuned. However, the procedure utilized can be adapted easily to the unique circumstances facing most public health organizations.

  2. Promoting supervisory practice change in public child welfare: lessons from university/agency collaborative research in four states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice, organizational, and client outcomes. Themes from 15 focus groups with frontline supervisors participating in the projects are provided; they focused on the challenges experienced while participating and working to use clinical supervision techniques, recommendations regarding implementing such projects in the public child welfare environment, and those aspects of the implementation that were most effective in supporting their work. These themes provide direction for states and localities wishing to shift frontline supervision to a more clinical model within the public child welfare setting.

  3. Political Incongruity between Students' Ideological Identity and Stance on Specific Public Policies in a Predominantly White Southeastern State Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…

  4. 78 FR 19062 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... commerce), the UNCITRAL Secretariat has prepared draft provisions on electronic transferable records, which.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of...

  5. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  6. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  7. Public access to New Hampshire state waters: a comparison of three cohorts of residents across three distinct geographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Pawlawski; Robert A. Robertson; Laura Pfister

    2003-01-01

    This study was intended to provide New Hampshire agencies with a better understanding of public access-related demand information. Through an analysis of three groups of New Hampshire residents based upon geographic location and length of residency, important issues and attitudes were identified from all over the State. The results of this study will assist in policy-...

  8. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Students' Academic Performance in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Rivers State-Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagbor, Levi Doe

    2016-01-01

    The study examined factors that positively influence students' academic performance in public and private secondary schools in Rivers State-Nigeria. One research question addressed the objectives and problem of the study. The instrument used for the collection of data was the "Students' Academic Performance Questionnaire" (SAPQ),…

  9. An Organizational Culture Study of Missouri State University Faculty/Staff in Relation to the University's Public Affair Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Marissa LeClaire

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to address a problem of practice of the public affairs mission through the perceptions of faculty and staff members at Missouri State University of the University's organizational culture. The design included a phenomenological study with a set of organizational culture procedural questions related to the perceptions…

  10. Political Incongruity between Students' Ideological Identity and Stance on Specific Public Policies in a Predominantly White Southeastern State Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…

  11. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  12. 78 FR 41057 - Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Public Meetings Soliciting Comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the...

  13. Collateral visibility : A socio-legal study of police body camera adoption, privacy, and public disclosure in Washington State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce

    2017-01-01

    Law enforcement use of body-worn cameras has recently become a subject of significant public and scholarly debate. This article presents findings from a socio-legal examination of the legal and social implications of body-worn camera adoption by two police departments in Washington State. In particu

  14. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Their Relation to Academic Results Indicators in State Public Universities in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-Vega, José L.; Ramiro Marentes, Fabiola; Algravez Uranga, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis regarding Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and their relation with indicators of academic results in bachelor's degree programs offered in state public universities in Mexico. This work is non experimental, cross-sectional, and correlational. The goal is to determine significant relations between variables:…

  15. Economic Impact of the Hawaii State Public Library System (HSPLS) on the Business and Tourism Industries Study: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joe; McClure, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Ryan Information Management conducted a return on investment (ROI) study of the economic value of the Hawaii State Public Library System (HSPLS) and identified potential additional sources of operating revenue. HSPLS economic value was examined from four viewpoints, HSPLS: direct economic impact, market value, peer comparison and value to library…

  16. A Test of Attention Control Theory in Public Speaking: Cognitive Load Influences the Relationship between State Anxiety and Verbal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E.; Finn, Amber N.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between public-speaking state anxiety (PSA) and verbal communication performance when delivering a speech. In Study 1, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute classroom speech behind a lectern, and in Study 2, to increase cognitive load, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute…

  17. University Restructuring and the Reconfiguration of Faculty Members' Work Context in a Public State University in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John S.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the effects of neo-liberal restructuring for universities upon the reconfiguration of academics' work context in a public state university in Mexico. Findings show that implementation of the federal program titled Faculty Enhancement Program during the late 1990s created a separation between traditional and new academic…

  18. Geothermal direct heat program: roundup technical conference proceedings. Volume II. Bibliography of publications. State-coupled geothermal resource assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscetta, C.A. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    Lists of publications are presented for the Geothermal Resource Assessment Program for the Utah Earth Science Laboratory and the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  19. Perception of Business Studies Teachers on the Infuence of Large Class Size in Public Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamman, Jummai; Chadi, Aishatu Mohammad; Jirgi, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey study conducted to determine the perception of business studies teacher's on the influence of large class size in Yobe state public secondary school. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. The population comprised of one hundred and twenty (120) business studies teachers from one hundred and five (105) Secondary…

  20. Impact of Cloud Services on Students' Attitude towards Mathematics Education in Public Universities in Benue State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of cloud services on students' attitude towards mathematics education in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study is the researcher-developed Cloud Service Impact Questionnaire--CSIQ (Cronbach Alpha Coefficient = 0.92). The…

  1. 77 FR 12874 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona Associated With the Proposed Mohave...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Wind Energy North America's Mohave County Wind Farm Project (Proposed Project). This segregation covers... in the State of Arizona from appropriation under the public land laws, including the mining law, but...: Eddie Arreola, Supervisory Project Manager; Telephone: 602-417-9505; Address: One North Central...

  2. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  3. 76 FR 56865 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). Working Group IV... and, in so doing, may address related aspects of electronic commerce. The report of the Forty-fourth.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on...

  4. 78 FR 69172 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... response to a request from UNCITRAL's Working Group IV (electronic commerce), the UNCITRAL Secretariat has.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of...

  5. Shrouded costs of government: The political economy of state and local public pensions

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Giacomo A.M. Ponzetto

    2012-01-01

    Why are public-sector workers so heavily compensated with pensions and other non-pecuniary benefits? In this paper, we present a political economy model of shrouded compensation in which politicians compete for taxpayers' and public employees' votes by promising compensation packages, but some voters cannot evaluate every aspect of compensation. If pension packages are "shrouded," meaning that public-sector workers better understand their value than ordinary taxpayers, then compensation will ...

  6. A matrix-exponential decomposition based time-domain method for calculating the defect states of scalar waves in two-dimensional periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-05-01

    A time-domain method for calculating the defect states of scalar waves in two-dimensional (2D) periodic structures is proposed. In the time-stepping process of the proposed method, the column vector containing the spatially sampled field values is updated by multiplying it with an iteration matrix, which is written in a matrix-exponential form. The matrix-exponential is first computed by using the Suzuki's decomposition based technique of the fourth order, in which the Floquet-Bloch boundary conditions are incorporated. The obtained iteration matrix is then squared to enlarge the time-step that can be used in the time-stepping process (namely, the squaring technique), and the small nonzero elements in the iteration matrix is finally pruned to improve the sparse structure of the matrix (namely, the pruning technique). The numerical examples of the super-cell calculations for 2D defect-containing phononic crystal structures show that, the fourth order decomposition based technique for the matrix-exponential computation is much more efficient than the frequently used precise integration technique (PIT) if the PIT is of an order greater than 2. Although it is not unconditionally stable, the proposed time-domain method is particularly efficient for the super-cell calculations of the defect states in a 2D periodic structure containing a defect with a wave speed much higher than those of the background materials. For this kind of defect-containing structures, the time-stepping process can run stably for a sufficiently large number of the time-steps with a time-step much larger than the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) upper limit, and consequently the overall efficiency of the proposed time-domain method can be significantly higher than that of the conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Some physical interpretations on the properties of the band structures and the defect states of the calculated periodic structures are also presented.

  7. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  8. Journal publications by pharmacy practice faculty evaluated by institution and region of the United States (2001-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman CI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the quantity of manuscripts published in journals by departments of pharmacy practice at schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States for the years 2001-2003.Methods: We utilized the Web of Science bibliographic database to identify publication citations for the years 2001 to 2003 which were then evaluated in a number of different ways. Faculty were identified via American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy rosters for 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003 academic years. Results: Rankings were done based on the number of publications per institution and average number of publications per faculty member at an institution. Upon linear regression analysis, a relationship exists between an institution’s faculty size and the total number of publications but not for tenure/nontenure-track faculty ratio. Rating highest in overall publication number did not guarantee high rankings in the average number of publications per faculty member at an institution assessment. Midwestern schools were responsible for more publications per institution than other regions. Many schools only generated minimal scholarship over this evaluative period.Conclusion: While many schools have pharmacy practice faculty that strongly contributed to the biomedical literature, other schools have not. Pharmacy practice faculty in the Midwest publish more journal manuscripts than faculty in other regions of the country. More pharmacy schools need to engage their faculty in scholarly endeavors by providing support and incentives.

  9. Two forms of the membrane-bound state of the first C2 domain (C2A) of synaptotagminⅠand calcium-triggered membrane insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yuhong; LI Xianghui; WANG Fu; XUE Yi; SUI Senfang

    2003-01-01

    The synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagminⅠ (sytⅠ) is a vesicle trans membrane protein present in synaptic vesicles, which has been proposed as the Ca 2+ sensor that regulates secretion. The C2A domain is the membrane proximal part of its cytoplasmic domain. The interaction between C2A and lipid bilayer has be en considered to be essential for triggering neurotransmitter release. In the pr esent work, the measurements of membrane surface tension and surface concentrati on showed that the C2A domain of sytⅠexhibited two membrane-bound states: the s urface adsorption state and the membrane insertion state. The surface absorption state formed in a Ca2+-independent manner with lower affinity, while the membra ne insertion state formed with high affinity was only found in the presence of C a2+. Both the Ca2+-independent and Ca2+-dependent sytⅠ- membrane interactions r equired anionic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine (PS). When expressed i nto rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells , as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining and subcellular fractionation, most of the C2A was found at the plasma membrane, even when the cells were deple ted of Ca2+ by incubation with EGTA. These results suggested a new molecular mec hanism of sytⅠas a Ca2+ sensor in membrane fusion. Ca2+-independent surface ads orption might attach sytⅠto the release site during the docking or priming step . When intracellular Ca2+ increased, sytⅠtriggered the neurotransmitter release following the Ca2+-dependent penetration into the target membrane.

  10. The public health benefits of insulation retrofits in existing housing in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishioka Yurika

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methodological limitations make it difficult to quantify the public health benefits of energy efficiency programs. To address this issue, we developed a risk-based model to estimate the health benefits associated with marginal energy usage reductions and applied the model to a hypothetical case study of insulation retrofits in single-family homes in the United States. Methods We modeled energy savings with a regression model that extrapolated findings from an energy simulation program. Reductions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 emissions and particle precursors (SO2 and NOx were quantified using fuel-specific emission factors and marginal electricity analyses. Estimates of population exposure per unit emissions, varying by location and source type, were extrapolated from past dispersion model runs. Concentration-response functions for morbidity and mortality from PM2.5 were derived from the epidemiological literature, and economic values were assigned to health outcomes based on willingness to pay studies. Results In total, the insulation retrofits would save 800 TBTU (8 × 1014 British Thermal Units per year across 46 million homes, resulting in 3,100 fewer tons of PM2.5, 100,000 fewer tons of NOx, and 190,000 fewer tons of SO2 per year. These emission reductions are associated with outcomes including 240 fewer deaths, 6,500 fewer asthma attacks, and 110,000 fewer restricted activity days per year. At a state level, the health benefits per unit energy savings vary by an order of magnitude, illustrating that multiple factors (including population patterns and energy sources influence health benefit estimates. The health benefits correspond to $1.3 billion per year in externalities averted, compared with $5.9 billion per year in economic savings. Conclusion In spite of significant uncertainties related to the interpretation of PM2.5 health effects and other dimensions of the model, our analysis demonstrates that a risk

  11. State's moral crusade against bedroom: Misdemeanour of prostitution in new Public Order and Peace Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristivojević Branislav R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author investigates the new Public Order and Peace Act (Ser. ZoJRM and the provisions on so-called morale offences contained therein. Of these provisions, the one he recognizes as the most revolutionary is that of a new instance of perpetration under the old offence of prostitution. With this novelty, the Act extends liability for the offence not only to the prostitute, but also to the user of her services. The author first puts forward a general criticism to the criminal and misdemeanour laws when these attempt to turn morality into the object of protection, which already has a general place in science. Then he investigates what perception of morality is protected by this offence, concluding that it crosses over into the sphere in which the freedom of citizens must in no way be interfered with - the sphere of voluntary sexual intercourse of two persons. For this reason, the author, in somewhat humorous fashion, warns, through the paper's title, that the state will have to undertake a moral crusade against bedroom if it wants to consistently enforce these provisions. Moreover, the author sheds light on the origin of this moral stance, finding its roots in the societies with dominant protestant religious ethics as the moral foundation, as well as on its genesis, seeing it in the rise in sexual morality standards that occurred in the developing industrial societies in the second half of the nineteenth century. The author concludes that to our society and our natural moral stance such foreign moral implants are unnecessary, particularly if one considers that it is precisely in the country of their origin, the US, that they have long been rejected and marked as symbols of repression and non-liberty.

  12. The Impact of State Preemption of Local Smoking Restrictions on Public Health Protections and Changes in Social Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Mowery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Preemption is a legislative or judicial arrangement in which a higher level of government precludes lower levels of government from exercising authority over a topic. In the area of smoke-free policy, preemption typically takes the form of a state law that prevents communities from adopting local smoking restrictions. Background. A broad consensus exists among tobacco control practitioners that preemption adversely impacts tobacco control efforts. This paper examines the effect of state provisions preempting local smoking restrictions in enclosed public places and workplaces. Methods. Multiple data sources were used to assess the impact of state preemptive laws on the proportion of indoor workers covered by smoke-free workplace policies and public support for smoke-free policies. We controlled for potential confounding variables. Results. State preemptive laws were associated with fewer local ordinances restricting smoking, a reduced level of worker protection from secondhand smoke, and reduced support for smoke-free policies among current smokers. Discussion. State preemptive laws have several effects that could impede progress in secondhand smoke protections and broader tobacco control efforts. Conclusion. Practitioners and advocates working on other public health issues should familiarize themselves with the benefits of local policy making and the potential impact of preemption.

  13. Informing the gestalt: an ethical framework for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources to states during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Ann R; Sharpe, Virginia A; Danis, Marion; Toomey, Lauren M; Knickerbocker, Deborah K

    2014-02-01

    During catastrophic disasters, government leaders must decide how to efficiently and effectively allocate scarce public health and medical resources. The literature about triage decision making at the individual patient level is substantial, and the National Response Framework provides guidance about the distribution of responsibilities between federal and state governments. However, little has been written about the decision-making process of federal leaders in disaster situations when resources are not sufficient to meet the needs of several states simultaneously. We offer an ethical framework and logic model for decision making in such circumstances. We adapted medical triage and the federalism principle to the decision-making process for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources. We believe that the logic model provides a values-based framework that can inform the gestalt during the iterative decision process used by federal leaders as they allocate scarce resources to states during catastrophic disasters.

  14. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2004: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-25

    Rabies is a fatal viral zoonosis and a serious public health problem. The purpose of this compendium is to provide information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Parenteral vaccination procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; Part II details the principles of rabies control; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part III.

  15. The First Steps Towards Harmonizing Public Sector Accounting for European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the process that led the European Commission to the decision to develop European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) for harmonizing public sector accounting practices within the European Union. The paper finds that there was limited scope in terms of stakeholder partic...

  16. Returns to scientific publications for pharmaceutical products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slejko, Julia F; Basu, Anirban; Sullivan, Sean D

    2017-07-10

    Drug-specific clinical and health economic and outcomes research (HEOR) publications have amassed, but their effect on drug sales is largely unknown. We estimated the impact of publications on pharmaceutical sales in 3 markets (statins, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma drugs) with varying generic competition. An event-study approach with fixed effects and difference-in-fixed-effects modeling was used to estimate the causal effects of drug-specific publications on subsequent quarter's drug-specific sales and volume. High-impact clinical and HEOR publications have significant positive effects on sales (mediated through price) and volume in the statin market (high generic competition). High-impact clinical publications have a significant positive effect on sales (mediated through volume) in low-generic competition market (asthma). The effects of publications in the rheumatoid arthritis market (no generic competition) on sales were null. Manufacturers' investment in clinical and HEOR publications needs to be strategic and should be anticipated and complemented by public investments in such studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 75 FR 69662 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 219 (Monday, November 15, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 69662] [FR Doc No: 2010-28497] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9225-3] Public Water System Supervision... Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program by adopting Federal regulations for the Lead...

  18. Transformational Dialogue for Public Education: Moving from Tweaking to Transforming at the State Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of public education has never been greater as we enter the dawn of a new millennium. Innumerable efforts have been focused on improving public education, but the unfortunate result has been an array of fractured, piecemeal efforts. What is needed is a systemic approach to go from "tweaking" to "transforming"…

  19. Bringing the State Back in: Promoting and Sustaining Innovation in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastedo, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    Since the well-known failures of many experimental colleges and programs in the 1960s and 1970s, policymakers and scholars are often cynical about the possibilities for organisational innovation, particularly within public universities. Public university innovation is possible, however, when organisational actors seek to institutionalise reform…

  20. Temporal redistribution of inhibition over neuronal subcellular domains underlies state-dependent rhythmic change of excitability in the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Somogyi, P.; Katona, L.; Klausberger, T.; Lasztoczi, B.; Viney, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour-contingent rhythmic synchronization of neuronal activity is reported by local field potential oscillations in the theta, gamma and sharp wave-related ripple (SWR) frequency ranges. In the hippocampus, pyramidal cell assemblies representing temporal sequences are coordinated by GABAergic interneurons selectively innervating specific postsynaptic domains, and discharging phase locked to network oscillations. We compare the cellular network dynamics in the CA1 and CA3 areas recorde...